AFRICA


July  2001
Compiled by Joan T. Phillips, Bibliographer
Air University Library
Maxwell AFB, AL


Sierra Leone 
Somalia 


Sierra Leone 


Internet Resources

Inclusion of a link to a web site does not imply endorsement by the Air University Library or the United States Air Force.  All sites last accessed 25 November 2001.

Sierra Leone Web.
Available online at: http://www.sierra-leone.org
Includes daily updates of news in Sierra Leone, documents and speeches, government, culture, and NGOs in Sierra Leone.


 Books

Please note: A call number beginning with "R" denotes a reference book.

Africa 2001, edited by Charles H. Cutter. 36th ed. Harpers Ferry, WV, Stryker-Post Publications, 2001. 273 p.
General information about each country including history.
Book call no.: R 916 D724a 36th ed 2001

Africa Contemporary Record, edited by Colin Legum. New York, Africana Publishing, 2000. 1 vol.
Review of the affairs in each country. See table of contents for pages.
Book call no.: 960 A2584 v.24 1992/94

Africa South of the Sahara 2001. 30th ed. London, Europa Publications, 2001. 1279 p.
For most countries includes: physical and social geography, history, economy, statistical survey, directory and bibliography.
Book call no.: R 916.7 A258 30th ed 2001

Anderson, Ewan W. Global Geopoltical Flashpoints: An Atlas of Conflict. London, Stationery Office, 2000. 391 p.
Sierra Leone, pp 294-296.
Book call no.: 327.101 A546g

Attacks on the Press in 1999. New York, Committee to Protect Journalists, 2000. 431 p.
Special Report: Sierra Leone, pp 147-160.
Book call no.: 323.445 A883 1999

Civil Society and the Political Imagination in Africa: Critical Perspectives, edited by John L. Comafoff and Jean Comaroff. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1999. 318 p.
Staging Politisi: The Dialogics of Publicity and Secrecy in Sierra Leone by Mariane Ferme, pp 160-191.
Book call no.: 320.96 C582

Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations Fiscal Year 2001. Washington, United States. Secretary of State, 2000. 725 p.
For each country lists amount of various types of aid given plus the U.S. interest in that country, and objectives and justification.
Book call no.: R 355.0320973 C749 Fy2002

Corruption and the Crisis of Institutional Reforms in Africa, edited by John Mukum Mbaku. Lewiston, NY, Edwin Mellen Press,1998. 325 p. (African Studies, vol. 47)
Limiting Administrative Corruption in Sierra Leone by Sahr John Kpundeh, pp 113-136.
Book call no.: 364.132096 C825

The Military Balance 2000-2001. London, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2000. 320 p.
Sierra Leone, p 281.
Book call no.: R 355 L847m 2000/2001

The Statesman's Yearbook: the Politics, Cultures, and Economies of the World 2001, edited by Barry Turner. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000. 1985 p.
For each country gives information such as history, territory and population, social statistics, constitution and government, recent elections, current administration, defense, international relations, economy, energy and natural resources, trade, communications, social institutions, culture, and diplomatic representatives.
Book call no.: R310 St2 137th ed 2001

Strategic Survey 2000/2001. London, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2000. 1 vol.
Sierra Leone: The Collapse of Regional Stability, pp 235-245.
Book call no.: R 327 L8471s 2000/2001

UN Peacekeeping: A Documentary Introduction, edited by Michael Bothe and Thomas Dorschel. Boston, Kluwer Law International, 1999. 319 p.
UNOMSIL United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone, pp 245-248.
Book call no.: 327.117 U54

United States. Dept. of State. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers 1998. Washington, GPO, 2000. 208 p.
Book call no.: R 355 A734w 1998

Periodicals

Abraham, Arthur. Dancing with the Chameleon: Sierra Leone and Elusive Quest for Peace. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 19:205-228 July 2001.

Adeyemi, Segun. Suspicions and Rivalries Threaten Sierra Leone Peace. Jane's Intelligence Review 13:44-45 January 2001.
"The Sierra Leone government and people may be anxious to see UK troops deployed in the country, but Nigeria and the rebel groups are far more suspicious."

Akpata-Ohohe, Bunmi. Guinea/Liberia/Sierra Leone: Border Tensions. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:6 November 2000.

Akpata-Ohohe, Bunmi. Guinea: Refugees Attacked. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:6 October 2000.
"The Guinea government stands accused of inciting armed attacks against Sierra Leonean and the Liberian refugees who have fled ongoing civil conflicts in their respective countries."

Akpata-Ohohe, Bunmi. Peace Keeping or Peace Making? Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:8 October 2000.
"The continuing insecurity in Sierra Leone highlights the ineffectiveness of the UN's peacekeeping efforts."

Akpata-Ohohe, Bunmi. Sierra Leone: New Army. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:6-7 August 2000.
Britain has completed training 1000 new Sierra Leonean soldiers.

Asante, Ben. Small Steps Towards Peace. West Africa No.4276:10-11 May 21, 2001.
Reports on steps taken to restore peace in Sierra Leone.

Asante, Ben. A Three-Cornered Trouble Spot. West Africa No.4273:10 April 30, 2001.
ECOWAS leaders met to discuss problems in the Manou river union.

Bangura, Yusuf. Strategic Policy Failure and Governance in Sierra Leone. Journal of Modern African Studies 38:551-577 December 2000.

Bankole, John. No Easy Walk. West Africa No.4268:12-13 March 26, 2001.
The author "reflects on his experiences in South Africa and the lessons the South African miracle holds for his country, Sierra Leone."

Beaver, Paul. UN 'Lacks Troops' for Sierra Leone Mission. Jane's Defence Weekly 35:16 February 14, 2001.

British Firms Pulling Strings. New African No.390:15 November 2000.

Bush, George W. Executive Order 13213-Additional Measures with Respect to Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds from Sierra Leone. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 37:794-795 May 28, 2001.

Canadians Fly in. New African No.392:37 January 2001.
"Canadian military trainers have arrived in Sierra Leone to support the British military efforts in that country."

Children at War. U.S. News & World Report 130:10 June 25, 2001.
Table shows number of children after war in Burundi, Uganda, Angola, and Congo.

Clinton, William J. Executive Order 13194-Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds from Sierra Leone. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 37:191-192 January 22, 2001.

Clinton, William J. Letter to Congressional Leaders on the Prohibition of Importation of Rough Diamonds from Sierra Leone. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 37:202-204 January 22, 2001.

Connaughton, Richard. Operation 'Barrass'. Small Wars & Insurgencies 12:110-119 Summer 2001.
British Operation in Sierra Leone, Palliser May-June 2000.

Davies, Desmond. Rebels Still Waiting. West Africa No.4262:13-14 February 12, 2001.
RUF seems to want the fighting to end.

Davies, Desmond. UN Gravy Train Rolls on. West Africa No.4262:12 February 12, 2001.
Reports that UN staffers are making a lot of money by remaining in Sierra Leone.

Davies, Desmond. When Will It End? West Africa No.4262:9-11 February 12, 2001.
Elections have been postponed in Sierra Leone because tensions remain.

Deen, Thalif. Former Child Soldier's Plea. West Africa No.4281:19-20 June 25, 2001.
A plea for world leaders to help children involved in the war in Sierra Leone.

Derrick, Jonathan. Compaore, Taylor and Sankoh. West Africa No.4278:13-15 June 4, 2001.
Looks at the links between the RUF, Liberia, and Burkina Faso.

Diamonds Are a War's Best Friend. Economist 359:51-52 May 12, 2001.
To stem the flow of diamonds from Sierra Leone, UN sanctions have been placed on Liberia.

Dokubo, Charles. 'An Army for Rent', Private Military Corporations and Civil Conflicts in Africa: The Case of Sierra Leone. Civil Wars 3:51-64 Summer 2000.

Ero, Comfort. The Manou River Conflict and the World. West Africa No.4273:11-13 April 30, 2001.

The Evil That Men Do... New African No.391:12-13 December 2000.
Captain Strasser has no where to go.

Fanthorpe, Richard. Neither Citizen nor Subject? 'Lumpen' Agency and the Legacy of Native Administration in Sierra Leone. African Affairs 100:363-386 July 2001.

Fofanah, Foday B. Kabbah Stays on. World Press Review 48:26 May 2001.
"On Feb. 13, the Sierra Leone parliament extended president Ahmed Tejan Kabbah's term of office for six months."

Fofanah, Foday B. Sierra Leone: A Small-Arms Depot. World Press Review 48:8-9 July 2001.
Looks at the results of small arms in Sierra Leone. 

Fuelling Africa's Wars. Economist 358:44-45 January 13, 2001.
Examines fighting in Sierra Leone and Guinea.

Going East. Economist 356:55-56 September 16, 2000.
UN forces take the lead in Sierra Leone.

Gordon, Stuart. Briefing: UN Mission in Sierra Leone. Jane's Defence Weekly 34:26-27+ September 27, 2000.

Guinea: Refugees in Disarray. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 7:6 February 2001.

Gylden, Axel. The Forgotten War. World Press Review 48:16-17 May 2001.
"Sliding into chaos: Sierra Leone, Liberia, now Guinea."

Hakata, Michelle. Governments under Pressure. New African No.395:17 April 2001.
"Humanitarian organisations in Guinea and Sierra Leone were struggling to reach thousands of refugees stranded in the crossfire caused by renewed clashes between rebels and government forces."

Harris, Robin. Blair's "Ethical" Policy. National Interest 63:25-36 Spring 2001.
Includes Prime Minister Blair's problems in Sierra Leone.

Howe, Darcus. Britain Is Fighting a Losing Battle in Africa. New Statesman 129:38 September 18, 2000.
Opinion that the British support of Sierra Leone is doomed to failure.

Hule, Jerome. Special Court for Sierra Leone. World Press Review 48:9 January 2001.
The U.N. plans to set up a special trial for war crimes in Sierra Leone.

International Community Takes a Close Look at Conflict Diamonds. UN Chronicle 37,no.3:64 2000.

Jia Kangbai: Reporting from Death Row. UNESCO Courier, p 46, March 2001.
The dangers of being a journalist in Sierra Leone.

Kamara, Jean. Sierra Leone: 10 Years of War. West Africa No.4268:10-11 March 26, 2001.

Kamara, Simon B. Sierra Leone: Who Is Afraid of War Crimes Tribunal? New African No.389:28-29 October 2000.

Kwesi, Emmanuel. The Dynamics of MRU Conflict. West Africa No.4273:16-19 April 30, 2001.
Conflict in the Manou River basin.

Lassey, Allan. Towards a Just Mining System in Sierra Leone. African Agenda 4,no.1&2:27 2001.

Lewis, Kelvin. Twice-Turncoat Officer Arrested. West Africa No.4282:22 July 2, 2001.
Col. Gabriel Mani was involved in a junta in May and now is charged with having weapons without authorization.

Liberia Shuts Border and Expels Ambassadors. West Africa No.4268:26 March 26, 2001.
Liberia closes its border with Sierra Leone and expels ambassadors from Sierra Leone and Guinea.

Liberia: U-Turn. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 7:6 February 2001.
The international community is not impressed with Liberia's assertions that it will not support RUF in Sierra Leone.

Mac-Johnson, Rod. No Safe Haven. World Press Review 48:18-19 May 2001.
Refugees in West Africa.

The Manou River (Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone). African Agenda 4,no.3:18-20 2001.
Examines the countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Mbogo, Stephen. Dogs of War? No, Security Consultants. West Africa No.4276:15 May 21, 2001.
Wonders about the use of mercenaries in present-day Sierra Leone.

Mbogo, Stephen. How Mercenaries Beat the RUF before. West Africa No.4276:15 May 21, 2001.
Executive Outcomes defeated the RUF in 1995.

Mbogo, Stephen. UNAMSIL in Makeni. West Africa No.4276:16 May 21, 2001.
The UN mission in Sierra Leone.

Mbogo, Stephen. Who Gets the Diamond Wealth? West Africa No.4276:16-17 May 21, 2001.
Wonders where the diamonds of Sierra Leone are going.

New Cease Fire Agreement.  West Africa No.4276:12-13 May 21, 2001.
Text of an agreement between Sierra Leone and the RUF for a ceasefire.

Nkrumah, Gamal. Anguish In Parrot's Beak. World Press Review 48:17-18 May 2001.
Discusses the plight of Sierra Leonean refugees.

Olajire, Ademola. War Weary. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 7:32-34 June 2001.
Wonders if UN forces are helping in the strife in Sierra Leone.

One Step Forward... Economist 356:40 September 2, 2000.
Worries about British soldiers being pulled out of Sierra Leone.

Onuorah, Chris. No Peace among Peacekeepers. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:22-23 November 2000.
"The UN peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone has been damaged by allegations by the force's Indian commander about corruption among some of its Nigerian officers."

Peace-Building or Appeasement? Economist 359:43 May 19, 2001.
Reports on the Civil War in Sierra Leone.

Rawlings: 'Foday Sankoh's Place Is in a Zoo.' New African No.388:12 September 2000.
President Rawlings will not allow Foday Sankoh to be tried in Ghana.

Remaining Indian Troops Pull out. West Africa No.4264:28 February 26, 2001.

Reno, William. The Failure of Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone. Current History 100:219-225 May 2001.

RUF Says It Wants Peace. West Africa No.4276:13-14 May 21, 2001.
A RUF spokesman is interviewed about peace.

Scott, Richard. Briefing: Joint Air Operations in Sierra Leone. Jane's Defence Weekly 34:24-28 August 9, 2000.
"Operation 'Palliser', the UK's recent intervention in Sierra Leone, has been the first major test for a new and inherently joint maritime aviation capability."

Shaw, Ibrahim S. 'We Need a National Conference.' New African No.392:36-37 January 2001.
Interviews Dr. Bundu leader of an opposition party.

Sieff, Michelle. War Criminals: Watch out. World Today 57:18-20 February 2001.
U.N. attempts to set up war crime trials for Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone. Military Technology 25:283-284 World Defence Almanac 2000-2001.
Force structure.

Sierra Leone: Bringing Back the British. Africa Confidential 41:1-3 December 8, 2000.
"Critically dependent on UN and British military support, President Kabbah's government is facing growing civilian opposition."

Sierra Leone: Election Doubts. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 7:7 February 2001.
"Sierra Leone's presidential election, due in February, looks in serious doubt."

Sierra Leone: Precarious Call. Africa Confidential 42:1-4 June 29, 2001.
"The fighters are disarming and demobilising fast but the much tougher job of building the peace remains to be done."

Sierra Leone "President" Moves to Stay in Power. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 29,no.6:16 2001.

Sierra Leone's President Kabbah Continues Moving to Re-Arm, While Isolating Sankoh and Koroma. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 28,no4:20 2000.

Sierra Leone: The Cost of Kabbah. Africa Confidential 42:6-7 March 9, 2001.
"Putting off elections for six months is delaying the evil day."

Sierra Leone: War Crimes Court. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:6-7 September 2000.
The UN will look at war crimes in Sierra Leone.

Simpson, Chris. Guns and Good Intentions. West Africa No.4285:21-22 July 23, 2001.
"Gives a visitor's impressions of the state of affairs in Sierra Leone."

Spot the Difference. New African No.397:33 June 2001.
Lists some of the major findings of a UN Panel of Experts on Sierra Leone.

Spreading. Economist 357:56-57 November 18, 2000.
Anticipates the situation in Sierra Leone improving with the aid of armed British troops.

The Spreading Battleground. Economist 358:48 April 7, 2001.
"A chunk of West Africa is in danger of being engulfed in Sierra Leone's war.

Tam-Baryoh, David. A Time of Uncertainty. West Africa No.4266:20-21 March 12, 2001.
Examines the effectiveness of Kabbah's government.

Tucker, Peter L. The SLPP at 50. West Africa No.4274:15-18 May 7, 2001.
Examines the Sierra Leone People's Party after half a century of existence.

UN Approves Sierra Leone Tribunal. West Africa No.4286:28 July 30, 2001.

The UN's Frontier Force. Economist 357:50-51 November 4, 2000.
Discusses UN intervention in Sierra Leone.

Venter, Al J. Taking Control in Sierra Leone: The Rules of the Limited Operation Have Been Imposed on the War. Jane's International Defense Review 33:60-62 September 2000.

The War That Spread. Economist 359:15-16 May 19, 2001.
"The UN is abreast of West Africa is complex war, but it does not have the resources to help end it."

Whitelaw, Kevin. When Kids Go to War: Victimizers or Victims? U.S. News & World Report 130:28 January 8, 2001.
Children used his soldiers in Sierra Leone.


Somalia 


 Internet Resources

Inclusion of a link to a web site does not imply endorsement by the Air University Library or the United States Air Force.  All sites last accessed 25 November  2001.

Arab Net.
Available online at: http://www.arab.net/somalia/index.html
General information about the countries of Algeria, Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, and Tunisia.

Somalia News.
Available online at: http://www.somalianews.com
Daily updates of Somali news.

Somaliawatch.
Available online at: http://www.somaliawatch.org
Stated objective of site is to increase the understanding of Somali issues. Includes news and many reports (not all in English).


Books

Please note: A call number beginning with "R" denotes a reference book.

Africa 2001, edited by Charles H. Cutter. 36th ed. Harpers Ferry, WV, Stryker-Post Publications, 2001. 273 p.
General information about each country including history.
Book call no.: R 916 D724a 36th ed 2001

Africa Contemporary Record, edited by Colin Legum. New York, Africana Publishing, 2000. 1 vol.
Addis Ababa Agreement concluded at the first session of the Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia, 27 March 1993, pp C1-C4.
Book call no.: 960 A2584 v.24 1992/94

Africa South of the Sahara 2001. 30th ed. London, Europa Publications, 2001. 1279 p.
For most countries includes: physical and social geography, history, economy, statistical survey, directory and bibliography.
Book call no.: R 916.7 A258 30th ed 2001

Anderson, Ewan W. Global Geopoltical Flashpoints: An Atlas of Conflict. London, Stationery Office, 2000. 391 p.
The Ogaden, pp 251-253. 
Somalia, pp 301-303.
Book call no.: 327.101 A546g

Bridges, Peter. Safirka: An American Envoy. Kent, OH, Kent State University Press, 2000. 241 p.
"This book recounts my experiences as a career officer of the American Foreign Service, as ambassador to Somalia in 1984-86 and during the years before I went to Africa."
Book call no.: 92 B8511s

Brune, Lester H. The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions: Bush and Clinton in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia, 1992-1998. Claremont, CA, Regina Books, 1998. 177 p. (Guides to Contemporary Issues, no.11)
The Somalia Intervention, pp 12-36.
Book call no.: 327.73 B894u

Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations Fiscal Year 2001. Washington, United States. Secretary of State, 2000. 725 p.
For each country lists amount of various types of aid given plus the U.S. interest in that country, and objectives and justification.
Book call no.: R 355.0320973 C749 Fy2002

Ethnicity Kills? The Politics of War, Peace and Ethnicity in SubSaharan Africa, edited by Einar Braathen and others. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000. 223 p. (International Political Economy)
See table of contents for sections about Somalia.
Book call no.: 967.04 E84

Jane's Sentinel: Security Assessment: North Africa 2000. Alexandria, VA, Jane's Information Group, 2000. 679 p.
Has general information about each country and detailed information about each country's defense.
Book call no.: R 961 J33 2000 Aug-2001 Jan

Kelly, Saul. Cold War in the Desert: Britain, the United States and the Italian Colonies, 1945-52. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000. 207 p. (Cold War)
Book call no.: 909.824 K24c

The Military Balance 2000-2001. London, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2000. 320 p.
Somali Republic, pp 281-282.
Book call no.: R 355 L847m 2000/2001

Peacebuilding: A Field Guide, edited by Luc Reychler and Thania Paffenholz. Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 573 p.
See table of contents for sections on Somalia.
Book call no.: 303.69 P355

Peterson, Scott. Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda: A Journalist Reports from the Battlefields of Africa. New York, Routledge, 2000. 357 p.
Book call no.: 960.329 P485m

State Building and Democratization in Africa: Faith, Hope and Realities, edited by Kidane Mengisteab and Cyrill Daddieh. Westport, CT, Praeger, 1999. 292 p.
Somalia: Problems and Prospects for Democratization by Hussein M. Adam, pp 261-277.
Book call no.: 320.967 S747

The Statesman's Yearbook: the Politics, Cultures, and Economies of the World 2001, edited by Barry Turner. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000. 1985 p.
For each country gives information such as history, territory and population, social statistics, constitution and government, recent elections, current administration, defense, international relations, economy, energy and natural resources, trade, communications, social institutions, culture, and diplomatic representatives.
Book call no.: R310 St2 137th ed 2001

Strategic Survey 2000/2001. London, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2000. 1 vol.
Up and Down on the Horn, pp 254-263.
Book call no.: R 327 L8471s 2000/2001

United States. Dept. of State. World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers 1998. Washington, GPO, 2000. 208 p.
Book call no.: R 355 A734w 1998

United States Institute of Peace. Managing Communications: Lessons from Interventions in Africa. Washington, United States Institute of Peace, 1997.  63 p.
See table of contents for sections on Somalia, Rwanda, and Liberia.
Book call no.: 341.584096 U58m

Warlords in International Relations, edited by Paul B. Rich. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1999. 176 p.
Clan Conflict and Factionalism in Somalia by Samuel M. Makanda, pp 120-139.
Book call no.: 327.16 W277

 Periodicals

Akpata-Ohohe, Bunmi. Somalia: Reconstruction. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:6-7 November 2000.
Prime Minister, Ali Khalif Galayadh, trying to form a government.

Barise, Hassan. Money Rules in Mogadishu. UNESCO Courier, pp 21-23, February 2001.
Business still functions in this country without a government.

Dini, Omar. President at Last? New African No.389:15 October 2000.
Abdulqasim Salad Hassan made interim president of Somalia.

The Fear of Flying in Somali Airspace. Economist 358:42 April 14, 2001.
Problems of aviation in Somaliland

Fennell, Tom. It's CanLite Time-in Somalia. Maclean's 113:12 October 2, 2000.

Glasse, Jennifer. Calling the Shots: Fighting for Political Survival in Somalia. Jane's Intelligence Review 12:46-47 November 2000.
"Reports on the new government's chances of survival."

Maass, Peter. Ayn Rand Comes to Somalia.  Atlantic Monthly 287:30-31 May 2001.
"In the absence of government bureaucracy and foreign aid, business is starting to boom."

Mohamed Abdi: "A Unique Indigenous Process Is at Work." UNESCO Courier, p23, February 2001.
The lack of state and structure in Somalia.

The Nation Nobody Knows. Economist 358:42 April 14, 2001.
Examines Somaliland.

Not Yet Reborn. Economist 357:56 October 21, 2000.
After a reconciliation conference in Djibouti, the future of Somalia seems brighter.

Peace Watch 2000: The Year in Review. UN Chronicle 37,no.4:60-68 2000.

People of Somalia and Haiti Are 'Hungriest' in the World: Report. Jet 98:32 November 6, 2000.

Picking up the Pieces. West Africa No.4261:23-24 February 5, 2001.
Challenges facing the new government of Somalia.

Robinson, Simon. Birth of the Nation. Time 157:44-45 January 8, 2001.
"Demolished by a decade of civil war, Somalia is trying to creep back to normality."

Samatar, Abdi I. Somali Reconstruction and Local Initiative: Amoud University. World Development 29:641-656 April 2001.

Somalia. Military Technology 25:284 World Defence Almanac 2000-2001.
Force structure.

Somalia: Government at Last. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 6:6 September 2000.
Somalia has its first National Assembly in a decade.

Somalia: Independence Vote. Africa Confidential 42:8 May 18, 2001.
President Egal of Somaliland is determined to hold a referendum on independence.

Somalia: Possible President. Africa Confidential 41:8 September 1, 2000.
Abdulkassim Salat Hassan elected president of Somalia.

Somalia: Transition to Where? Africa Confidential 42:7 July 27, 2001.
The Transitional National Government is in control of only a small portion of Somalia.

When the Battle's Lost and Won. Economist 356:41-42 August 12, 2000.
Discusses peace talks in Djibouti.


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