Special Bibliography No. 159
Supplement No. 37

December 2004

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Air University Library       
Maxwell AFB, AL

Table of Contents

General Information | Economics Aspects| Foreign Relations | Foreign Relations - U.S. | Health | History | Military Aspects | Natural Resources | Politics and Government | Social Aspects | African Union |

Central Africa | Eastern Africa | Northern Africa | Southern Africa | Sub-Saharan Africa | Western Africa |

Algeria | Angola | Benin | Botswana | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameroon | Cape Verde Central African Republic | Chad | Comoros | Congo (Brazzaville) | Congo ( Kinshasa) | Cote D'lvoire | Djibouti | Equatorial Guinea | Eritrea | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Kenya | Lesotho | Liberia | Madagascar | Malawi | Mali | Mauritania | Mauritius | Morocco | Mozambique | Namibia | Niger | Nigeria | Rwanda | Sao Tome and Principe | Senegal | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Somalia | Somalia-Operation Restore Hope| South Africa  |  Sudan | Swaziland | Tanzania | Togo | Tunisia | Uganda | Zambia | Zimbabwe

Central Africa

Internet Resources

Space Agency Donates Satellites to Help Study Ebola. Lancet 363: January 10, 2004. 1 p.
Available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11902904
"European space agency will use satellites to help study Ebola outbreaks in Africa."

Walter, William. Blurry Borders: Violet Conflict Threatens Zambia. Harvard International Review 25: Winter 2004. 2 p.
Available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=11802210
"Looks at the violent conflict that threatens Zambia."


Armed Conflict in Africa, edited by Carolyn Pumphrey and Rye Schwartz-Barcott. Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 2003. 313 p.
Ethnicity As Myth: The View from Central Africa by Rene Lemarchard, pp 187-112.
Book call no.: 303.64096 A728

Chretien, Jean-Pierre. The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History. New York, Zone Books, 2003. 503 p.
Book call no.: 967.6 C553g


Boshoff, Henri and Ripiya, Martin. Delegates, Dialogue and Desperadoes. African Security Review 12:29-38 August 2003.
The Inter-Congolese Dialogue has failed to achieve peace in the Congo.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=12441096

Central Africa: No Warring but Warning. Africa Confidential 45:4-5 January 9, 2003.
Discusses possible peace in Central Africa.

Great Lakes: The Shape of Things to Come. New African No.427:28-29 March 2004.
"Previews the international conference on the Great Lakes Region to be held under UN and AU auspices in Tanzania in mid 2004 with the aim of finding lasting solutions to the multifaceted conflicts in the region."
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12599267

Konings, Piet. Organised Labour and Neo-Liberal Economic and Political Reforms in West and Central Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 21:447-471 September 2003.

Oloka-Onyango, J. "New-Breed" Leadership, Conflict, and Reconstruction in the Great Lakes Region of Africa: A Sociopolitical Biography of Uganda's Yoweri Kaguta Museveni. Africa Today 50:30-52 Spring 2004.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12900858

Wakabi, Wairagala. The Arms Smugglers. New Internationalist No.367:20-21 May 2004.
"Exposes the networks of arms dealers, smugglers, merchants, warlords and governments in the Great Lakes Region.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13108919

Wakabi, Wairagala. Niggling Problems. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:28-29 February 2004.
"Peace efforts between the DR Congo and its neighbours continue to gather pace but there are still some obstacles to overcome."

Eastern Africa


Chretien, Jean-Pierre. The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History. New York, Zone Books, 2003. 503 p.
Book call no.: 967.6 C553g

Terrorism in the Horn of Africa. Washington, United States Institute of Peace, 2004. 16 p. (Special Report, no.113)
Book call no.: 303.6250963 T328


Abbink Jon. Ethiopia-Eritrea: Proxy Wars and Prospects of Peace in the Horn of Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 21:407-425 September 2003.

Akpata-Ohohe, Bunmi. East Africa: Never Say Never. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:7 April 2004.
"The presidents of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania have signed what has been termed an historical agreement, yet again, towards re-establishing the East African Common Market."

Balche, Ed. Horn of Africa Peace Process Stalls. Jane's Intelligence Review 15:2 December 2003.
Tensions between Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Brinkley, C. Mark. What Went Wrong in the Skies over East Africa? Air Force Times 63:14-15 July 7, 2003.

Duhs, Tom. The War on Terrorism in the Horn of Africa. Marines 88:54-60 April 2004.
"Analysis of U.S. efforts to conduct counterterrorism operations in the Horn of Africa."

East Africa: Peace from above. Africa Confidential 45:6-7 January 9, 2003.

Heitman, Helmoed-Romer. Thirteen from East African Standby Brigade. Jane's Defence Weekly 41:15 March 3, 2004.
"Thirteen countries have grouped themselves to form the East African Standby Brigade."

Husby, Gorill. Islam Gains Ground in East Africa. Jane's Intelligence Review 15:30-31 May 2003.

Joining the Big League. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:37-38 July 2004.
"Long the dominant region in Africa for oil exploration and production, west Africa may soon face some competition from east Africa."

Mazzetti, Mark. Pax Americana. U.S. News & World Report 135:30-37 October 6, 2003.
United States armed forces being sent to distant points such as the Horn of Africa.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=10930924

Mulama, Joyce. Calmer Waters: Nile Basin Countries Co-Operate in A Water-Sharing Treaty. New Internationalist No.367:6 May 2004.
Ten African countries share the Nile Basin.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13108808

Njuriri, Blamuel. Nile Waters for Sale? New African No.421:27 August/September 2003.
"Three countries in the Nile Basin (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania)...want their fair share of the Nile waters."
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11481327

Nyuot Yoh, John G. Peace Processes and Conflict Resolution in the Horn of Africa. African Security Review 12:83-93 August 2003.
Conflicts include those in Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=12441118

Shinn, David H. Terrorism in East Africa and the Horn: An Overview. Journal of Conflict Studies 23:79-91 Fall 2003.
Overview of the conditions in Eastern Africa with relationship to terrorism and U.S. counter-terrorism policy in this area.

Stone, Wendy. Elders, of Age: The Masai Olngesher Ceremony. World & I 18:174-183 November 2003.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=11203059

Wakabi, Wairagala. Not yet a Done Deal. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:41 March 2004.
"There is still some opposition to East African Community's customs union protocol from those who fear it will bring uneven development."

Wakabi, Wairagala. Scramble for Nile Waters. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:33-34 May 2004.
"Old treaties signed by Britain and Egypt are being revisited by east African countries angling for a greater share of the waters of River Nile."

Northern Africa


Cordesman, Anthony H. The Military Balance in the Middle East. Westport, CT, Praeger, 2004. 560 p.
Published in cooperation with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington D.C.
Book call no.: 355.033056 C794m

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. Islamic Societies in Practice, 2nd ed. Gainesville, FL, University Press of Florida, 2004.
Book call no.: 297.0962 F646i 2004


Adams, Richard H., Jr. and Page, John. Poverty, Inequality and Growth in Selected Middle East and North African Countries, 1980-2000. World Development 31:2027-2048 December 2003.

Bellin, Eva. The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in Comparative Perspective. Comparative Politics 36:139-157 January 2004.
"Why have the Middle East and North Africa remained so singularly resistant to democratization?"

El-Khawas, Mohamed A. North Africa and the War on Terror. Mediterranean Quarterly 14:176-192 Fall 2003.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11874449

Ellis, Stephen. Briefing: The Pan-Sahel Initiative. African Affairs 103:459-464 July 2004.

For the Good of All. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:30-33 June 2004.
"Oil and gas producing countries in north Africa are experiencing a boom as they sink political differences to take advantage of the rewards of cooperation in the industry."

Ford, Neil. Hands across the Sahara. Middle East No.337:40-43 August/September 2003.
North African countries are looking to trading partners in the South.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=10572821

Jesus, Carols E. Radical Islam in the Maghreb. Orbis 48:351-364 Spring 2004.

North Africa: Fresh Start for Old Faces. Africa Confidential 45:5-6 January 9, 2003.

Singapore of the Med. Middle East No.343:38 March 2004.
Compares the economic performance of Tunisia with its neighbors including Algeria.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12599689

Spencer, Claire. North Africa: Battles for Democracy. World Today 59:8-11 October 2003.
"The painfully slow advance of democracy in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria may be more closely linked to the spread of terrorism than at first appears."

Thies, Cameron G. State Building, Interstate and Intrastate Rivalry: A Study of Post-Colonial Developing Country Extractive Efforts, 1975-2000. International Studies Quarterly 48:53-72 March 2004.
"This paper examines the effects of internal and external rivals on extractive capacity in the context of state development in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa."

Southern Africa


International Waters in Southern Africa, edited by Mikiyasu Nakayama. New York, United Nations University Press, 2003. 306 p. (Water Resources, Management and Policy)
Book call no.: 333.91 I61

Lee, Margaret C. The Political Economy of Regionalism in Southern Africa. Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 2003. 314 p.
Book call no.: 337.68 L479p

Multi-Party Elections in Africa, edited by Michael Cowen and Liisa Laakso. New York, Palgrave, 2002. 387 p.
The Politics of National Elections in Botswana, Lesotho & Swaziland: Towards a Comparative Analysis by Michael Neocosmos, pp 27-59.
Book call no.: 324.967 M961


Bunmi, Akpata-Ohohe. Southern Africa: Food Crisis Exaggerated. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:7 February 2004.

Heitman, Helmoed-Romer. Sold on Peace. Jane's Defence Weekly 40:23 December 17, 2003.
"South Africa bolsters its regional security role to foster the stability it views as the key to economic development."

Kaime, Thoko. SADC and Human Security: Fitting Human Rights into the Trade Matrix. African Security Review 13, no.1:109-117 2004.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=14860838

Nagara, Biko. Hunger Looms Large UN Says on World AIDS Day. UN Chronicle 40:62 December-February 2003.
Famine has increased because of the HIV/AIDS epidemic especially in southern Africa.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12349779

Ngoma, Naison. SADC's Mutual Defence Pact: A Final Move to a Security Community? Round Table 93:411-423 July 2004.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13929219

Ngoma, Naison. SADC: Towards a Security Community? African Security Review 12:17-28 August 2003.
Discusses SADC's efforts to form a collaborative security arrangement.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=12441091

Nyirabu, Mohabe. Appraising Regional Integration in Southern Africa. African Security Review 13, no.1:21-32 2004.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=14860904

SADC Mutual Defence Pact Creates New Defence Market in Case of Emergency: Hold "Talk Shop". African Armed Forces Journal, pp 16-17, October 2003.
Discusses the Southern African Development Community Mutual Defense Pact.

Southern Africa: Ten Years after. Africa Confidential 45:1-2 January 9, 2003.
"South Africans will celebrate a decade of democracy but ask tough questions about their government's HIV-AIDS policy and diplomacy in Africa."

Wet Lesotho Has Not a Drop to Drink. New Scientist 181:4 February 21, 2004.
Water stored in reservoirs cannot be used for the drought in Lesotho because it is to be sold to South Africa.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12376408

Zambia to Export Surplus Maize. Ecologist 34:12-13 February 2004.
Zambia will be exporting surplus maize to neighboring countries that suffer from food shortages.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12230202

Sub-Saharan Africa


African Economies in Transition, Volume 1: The Changing Role of the State edited by Jo Ann Paulson. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1999. 342 p. (Studies on the African Economies)
Privatisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results, Prospects and New Approaches by Elliot Berg, pp 229-289.
Book call no.: 338.96 A2584 v.1

Breytenbach, Willie. Democratisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Transitions, Elections and Prospects for Consolidation. 2d edition. Pretoria, South Africa, Africa Institute of South Africa, 1997. 105 p.
Book call no.: 967.032 B848d


Alence, Rod. Political Institutions and Developmental Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies 42:163-187 June 2004.

Baumgartner, Peter. Africa's Poor Connection. World Press Review 51:24-25 February 2004.
Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have poor telephone connections.

Bayliss, Kate. Utility Privatisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Water. Journal of Modern African Studies 41:507-531 December 2003.

Gibbon, Peter. The African Growth and Opportunity Act and the Global Commodity Change for Clothing. World Development 31:1809-1827 November 2003.
"Examines responses to the African Growth and Opportunity Act in Sub-Saharan Africa's clothing sector."

Gorman, Christine. Death by Mosquito. Time 164:50-52 July 26, 2004.
Growing morbidity from malaria especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13823595

How to Make Africa's Smile: A Survey of Sub-Saharan Africa. Economist 370:special section 1-16 January 17, 2004.
Many articles about the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Klingelbiel, Stephan and Ogbamichael, Huria. Poor Performers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exclusion or Integration? African Security Review 13, no.1:13-19 2004.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=14860902

Le Roux, Len. Defence Sector Transformations: Challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. African Security Review 12:5-15 August 2003.
The countries of Sub-Saharan Africa "face the challenge of defence sector transformation in order to align their post-conflict defence departments and military forces with the demand of democratic societies."
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=12441088

Nel, Philip. Income Inequality, Economic Growth, and Political Instability in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies 41:611-639 December 2003.

Njoh, Ambe J. and Rigos, Platon N. Female Participation in the Formal Sector and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Third World Studies 20:93-111 Fall 2003.

Reinart, Peter. Rigged. New Republic 230:6 June 21, 2004.
"Claims that U.S. President George W. Bush's campaign to build relations with sub-Sahara African nations has more to do with gaining access to oil reserves them with helping the poor."
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13400270

Sub-Saharan Africa: Making It Smile. Economist 370:10 January 17, 2004.
"Bad leadership has crippled Africa. But there are, at last, signs of recovery."
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=11986225

Thies, Cameron G. State Building, Interstate and Intrastate Rivalry: A Study of Post-Colonial Developing Country Extractive Efforts, 1975-2000. International Studies Quarterly 48:53-72 March 2004.
"This paper examines the effects of internal and external rivals on extractive capacity in the context of state development in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa."

Tiffen, Mary. Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Agriculture, Urbanization and Economic Growth. World Development 31:1343-1366 August 2003.

Western Africa


Correll, John T. European Command Looks South and East. Air Force Magazine 86:60-64 December 2003.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Energy Security: West Africa and Latin America, Hearing. 109th Congress, 1st session October 21 2003. Washington, GPO, 2004.    77 p.
Book call no.: 337.73066 U58u

West Africa's Security Challenges: Building Peace in a Troubled Region, edited by Adekeye Adebajo and Ismail Rashid. Boulder, CO, Lynn Reinner Publishers, 2004. 449 p.
Book call no.: 966.033 W516

Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Valentin, Dotonou Z. The Origins of ACRI and Its Relevance to West African Security Issues Today. Maxwell AFB, AL , Air Command and Staff College, April 2002. 20 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 V156a


Ademiluyi, Sanya. Hanging in the Balance. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:33-34 April 2004.
"It's a good idea that would help the economies of the participating countries. However, lack of progress on the final investment decision would delay for delivery the West African Gas Pipeline project."

Adeyemi, Segun. ECOWAS Seeks UN Peace Force in Cote D'Ivoire. Jane's Defence Weekly 41:18-19 January 14, 2004.

Apprendi, Matthew J. Reserve Marines Prep for West African Deployment. Marines 32:32 October-December 2003.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=13237740

Cotton: Where Next for the WTO? Africa Confidential 44:6-7 September 26, 2003.
"The failure of trade talks in Cancun is bad news for West African cotton farmers."

De Figueiredo, Antonio. West Africa: Don't Let History Repeat Itself. New African No.430:16-17 June 2004.
U.S. shows interest in Western Africa, both for its oil and as a platform to combat terrorism.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13271362

Johnston, Patrick. Conference Report: Governance and Insecurity in West Africa. African Affairs 103:295-296 April 2004.

King, Martin L. Boost for HIV/AIDS' Fight. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:43 March 2004.
"West African nations set to benefit from grant which aims to combat spread of the AIDS disease among transport and commercial sex workers and migrants."

King, Martin L. Curse of the River Niger. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:15 June 2004.
"Africa's third longest river which runs across most of the west African states is threatened by climate change."

King, Martin L. Obstacles to Free Trade. Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:39-40 May 2004.
"Little progress on the implementation of agreed protocol on economic integration slows free movement of goods between West African countries."

King, Martin L. "Remove All Bureaucratic Bottlenecks". Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:39-40 May 2004.
Interviews Emmanuel Ekunno, vice president of Neimeth, a Nigerian drugs manufacturing company.

King, Martin L. "We Must Have Quality to Be Competitive". Africa Today: Voice of the Continent 10:41-43 May 2004.
Interviews Kofi Abutiate, managing director of Paracelsus Pharmacy and Marketing Company.

Konings, Piet. Organised Labour and Neo-Liberal Economic and Political Reforms in West and Central Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 21:447-471 September 2003.

Leach, Melissa. Security, Socioecology, Polity: Mande Hunters, Civil Society, and Nation-States in Contemporary West Africa. Africa Today 50:vii-xvi Summer 2004.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13831581

Liberia Stabilization Efforts Help Anchor Region. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 32,no.6:20 2004.

Miles, William. African Islamism, from Below. World & I 18:257-265 December 2003.
Discusses Islam and West Africa.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=11528453

Paulo, Manuel and Vines, Alex. West Africa's Oil Boom: Blessing or Curse? World Today 60:26-27 May 2004.

Reeve, Richard. Focus of West African Instability Shifts to Guinea. Jane's Intelligence Review 16:12-19 February 2004.

Reeve, Richard. Senegambia's Trafficking Hubs. Jane's Intelligence Review 16:26-29 March 2004.
"Reports on the nature of smuggling activities in Gambia and Senegal and the growth of cocaine and heroin trans-shipment through the region."

Schofield, Clive. Bakassi Dispute Could Derail West African Peace Process. Jane's Intelligence Review 16:44-49 March 2004.
"Investigates the implications of the dispute over the sovereignty of the Bakassi peninsula for the peace process between Cameroon and Nigeria."

Smith, Adam M. At Last unto the Breach: The Logic of a U.S. Military Command in West Africa. Orbis 48:305-319 Spring 2004.

Three Steps Forward... Middle East No.343:22-23 March 2004.
Discusses the Western Sahara situation.
Also available online at:,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12599683

West Africa: Peace Deals and Petro-Wealth. Africa Confidential 45:2-4 January 9, 2003.

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