ANTHRAX VACCINE AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS ISSUES


June 2000

Compiled by Melinda M. Mosley
Bibliographer, Air University Library
Maxwell AFB, AL

CONTENTS

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site. 

All sites listed were last accessed on June 15, 2000.


Internet Resources


Chemical and Biological Weapons Resource Page.
Available at: http://www.cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/defenses.htm
Information on force protection and the anthrax vaccine.

Department of Defense.Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program.
Available at: http://www.anthrax.osd.mil/
Documents, Congressional testimony and hearing reports, policies, full text newspaper and periodical articles, related sites.

Friedlander, Arthur M. and others. Anthrax Vaccine: Evidence for Safety and Efficacy Against Inhalational Anthrax. Journal of American Medical Association 282:2104-2106 December 8, 1999.
Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v282n22/full/jct90025.html

Gunby, Phil. Fewer Anthrax Injections? Journal of the American Medical Association 283:1680 April 5, 2000.
Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v283n13/full/jmu00000-1.html
Reports of a congressionally mandated study on the number of vaccine injections needed.

Inglesby, Thomas V. Anthrax as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management. Journal of American Medical Association 281:1735-1745 May 12, 1999.
Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v281n18/full/jst80027.html

Surveillance for Adverse Events Associated with Anthrax Vaccination--U. S. Department of Defense, 1998-2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 49:341-345 April 28, 2000.
Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4916a1.htm

United States Air Force Medical Service.Anthrax Tool Kit.
Available at: http://sg-www.satx.disa.mil/moasgop/restricted/ccaindex.cfm
FAQs, policies and procedures, hearing reports. Available from .mil domains only.


REPORTS ON THE INTERNET


United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Defense Vaccines: Force Protection or False Security? Hearing. 106th Congress, 1st session. October 21, 1999.
Available online at: http://www.house.gov/reform/hearings/healthcare/99.10.12/index.htm

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations. The Impact of the Anthrax Vaccine Program on Guard and Reserve Units. Hearing. 106th Congress, 1st session, September 29, 1999.
Available online at: http://www.house.gov/reform/ns/press/witness_list929.htm

United States. General Accounting Office. Medical Readiness: DoD Continues to Face Challenges in Implementing its Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program. Testimony before the Armed Services Committee, April 13, 2000.
Available online at: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/ns00157t.pdf
Update to October 1999 Report no. 00-36.


BOOKS


Bevalacqua, Armando. Terrorism Handbook for Operational Responders. Albany, NY, Delmar Publishers, 1998. 110 p.
Training manual for first response personnel in the aftermath of a terrorist incident. Includes chapters with overview and details of chemical agents and biological toxins.
Book call no.: 658.473 B571t

Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat, edited by Joshua Lederberg. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1999. 351 p.
Book call no.: 327.1745 B6151

Chemical and Biological Warfare, edited by Brian Solomon. New York, H. W. Wilson, 1999. (Reference shelf, v. 71 no. 3)
Essays on topics relating to chemical and biological warfare.
Book call no.: 808.5 R332 v. 71, no. 3

Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare. New York, W. H. Freeman and Company, 1997. 284 p.
Book call no.: 358.3 C689e

Guillemin, Jeanne. Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1999. 321 p.
Book call no.: 614.561 G958a

Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, edited by Frederick R. Sidell. Washington, Walter Reed Medical Center, 1997. 721 p.
Anthrax, by Arthur M. Friedlander, pp 47-475.
Book call no.: 616.98023 M4891 CPC Reserve

Moodie, Michael. Chemical and Biological Weapons and Deterrence: Will Deterrence Work?. Alexandria, VA, Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 1998. 71 p. (The Deterrence series, case study 7)
Book call no.: 358.3 C517 v.7

Rettig, Richard A. Military Use of Drugs Not Yet Approved by the FDA for CW/BW Defense: Lessons from the Gulf War.. Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 1999. 102 p.
Also available online at: http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1018.9/MR1018.9.html/index.html
Book call no.: 616.98023 R439m

United States. Congress. House. Commitee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations. The Anthrax Immunization Program. Hearing. 106th Congress, 1st session, March 24, 1999. Washington, GPO, March 1999. 124 p.
Also available online at: http://www.house.gov/reform/ns/hearings/testimony/witnesslistfor3-24.htm
Book call no.: 614.561 U58a

United States. Congress. House. Commitee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations. Department of Defense's Sole-Source Anthrax Vaccine Procurement.. Hearing. 106th Congress, 1st session, June 30, 1999. Washington, GPO, June 1999. 73 p.
Book call no.: 352.553 U58d

United States. Congress. House. Commitee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations. DoD's Mandatory Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program for Military Personnel. Hearing. 106th Congress, 1st session, April 29, 1999. Washington, GPO, April 1999. 200 p.
Book call no.: 614.561 U58d

Zilinskas, Raymond A. Biological Warfare: Modern Offense and Defense. Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000. 309 p.
Book call no.: 327.1745 B615


DOCUMENTS


Bester, William T. A New Enemy: Silent, Lethal, and Invisible. Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 1998. 35 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 B561n

Tueller, John. Biological Warfare Defense: Should the Operational Commander Worry?. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1998. 27 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 T913b

United States. General Accounting Office. Chemical and Biological Defense: Observations on DOD's Plans to Protect U.S. Forces, by Mark E. Gebicke. Washington, GAO, March 17, 1998. 12 p. (T-NSIAD Report no. 98-83)
Also available online at: http://www.gao.gov/AIndexFY98/abstracts/ns98083t.htm
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026-147 no.98-83 [T]

United States. General Accounting Office. Medical Readiness: DoD Faces Challenges in Implementing Its Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program. Washington, GAO, October 1999. 54 p. (NSIAD Report no. 00-36)
Also available online at: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/ns00036.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026--147 no. 00-36

United States. General Accounting Office. Medical Readiness: Issues Concerning the Anthrax Vaccine, by Kwai-Cheung Chan. Washington, GAO, July 21, 1999. 11 p. (T-NSIAD Report no. 99-226)
Also available online at: http://www.gao.gov/AIndexFY99/abstracts/ns99226t.htm
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026--147 no. 99-226 [T]

United States. General Accounting Office. Medical Readiness: Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine, by Kwai-Cheung Chan. Washington, GAO, April 29, 1999. 7 p. (T-NSIAD Report no. 99-148)
Also available online at: http://www.gao.gov/AIndexFY99/abstracts/ns99148t.htm
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026--147 no. 99-148 [T]

Wolf, William T. Domestic Biological Counter-Terrorism Policy: Are We Doing Enough? Carlisle Barracks, PA, U. S. Army War College, 1999. 38 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 W855d


PERIODICALS


America the Unready. Economist 354:34 January 22, 2000.
Biowarfare could be the worst terrorist threat of all.

Bacevich, Andrew J. Bad Medicine for Biological Terror. Orbis 44:221-236 Spring 2000.
Article questioning the anthrax vaccine program.

Beal, Clifford. Biological Warfare Defence: Facing the Invisible Enemy. Jane's Defence Weekly 30:23-26 November 4, 1998.
The US and UK are accelerating counters to BW.

Bombs, Gas, and Microbes: The Desperate Efforts to Block the Road to Doomsday. The Economist 347:23-25 June 6, 1998.

Calvert, Brian R. Anthrax: A Close Look at a Vexing Vaccine. National Guard 53:18-20 March 1999.

Castellon, David. How Many Are Leaving over Anthrax Shots? Air Force Times 60:26 December 6, 1999.
Focuses on the Guard and Reserve.

Castellon, David. Opponents of Anthrax Shots Find Voice at Forum. Air Force Times 60:10 November 22, 1999.

Castellon, David. Reservists Stand Ground Against Vaccine. Air Force Times 60:10 August 23, 1999.

Castellon, David. Reservists: Vaccine Program Hurts Readiness, Careers. Air Force Times 60:18 October 11, 1999.

Castellon, David. Taking a Hard Line on Anthrax Shots: Air Force Assumes Tough Stance with Two Inoculation Refusers. Air Force Times 60:8 January 31, 2000.

Chittaranjan, Kalpana. Biological Weapons: An Insidious WMD (weapon of mass destruction). Strategic Analysis 22:1427-1443 December 1998.
Includes use - past, present and alleged.

Cunningham, Tom. Anthrax: Myth vs. Fact. Soldiers 54:2-3 December 1999.
Also available online at: http://www.dtic.mil/soldiers/dec1999/features/index.html
Ten reasons for being protected with the anthrax vaccine.

Dixon, T. C. and others. Medical Progress: Anthrax. The New England Journal of Medicine 341:815-826 September 9, 1999.

Funk, Deborah. Anthrax Critics Continue to Stand Ground. Air Force Times 59:18 February 8, 1999.

Funk, Deborah. Anthrax: Everything You Want to Know about the Vaccine Before You Get Your Shot. Air Force Times 59:12-14 May 3, 1999.

Funk, Deborah. Anthrax Shots Planned: U. S. Troops in Mideast to Be the First Inoculated. Air Force Times 58:6 December 29, 1997.

Funk, Deborah. Anthrax Vaccination Program Begins Early. Air Force Times 59:10 August 31, 1998.

Funk, Deborah. Anthrax Vaccine Maker Protected Against Lawsuits. Air Force Times 59:19 July 19, 1999.

Funk, Deborah. Panel (House Armed Services Personnel Subcommittee) Wants Anthrax Shots to Stay Mandatory. Air Force Times 60:18 October 11, 1999.

Funk, Deborah. Senate Panel Sees "Readiness Shortfalls": U.S. Ill-Prepared for Chemical, Biological Warfare, Report Says. Air Force Times 59:12 September 21, 1998.

Funk, Deborah. Vaccine Project Hits Snag: Anthrax Drug Supplier Fails FDA Manufacturing Inspection. Air Force Times 60:8 December 27, 1999.
Problems with BioPort, Inc., have delayed the second phase of the vaccination program six months to a year. Also includes "DoD Using Education to Halt Vaccine Concerns".

Ginburg, Yana. Sailors Claim Unfair Punishment for Refusing Anthrax Vaccination. Navy Times 48:8 November 23, 1998.

Ginburg, Yana. Sailors Discharged over Vaccine. Navy Times 47:8 September 21, 1998.

Grier, Peter. Up in the Air about Anthrax. Air Force Magazine 82:68-71 October 1999.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/1099anthrax.html
A growing number of troops, especially in the Guard and Reserve, are refusing to take their anthrax shots.

Harris, Ronald. Anthrax--Controversy and Facts. Officer 76:20-21 April 2000.

Hasenauer, Heike. Anthrax Update . Soldiers 53:16-17 September 1998.
Also available online at: http://www.dtic.mil/soldiers/sep1998/index.html

Hewish, Mark. On Alert Against the Bio Agents: Tactical Biological-Agent Detection Approaches Reality. Jane's International Defense Review 31:53-57 November 1998.

Istock, Conrad A. Bad Medicines. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 54:21-23 November-December 1998.
Also available online at: http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/1998/nd98/nd98istock.html
Implications of the U. S. anthrax vaccinations.

Keck, Thomas J. Anthrax Vaccine Is Safe. Combat Edge 8:30-31 November 1999.
Also available online at: http://www2.acc.af.mil/combat-edge//Nov99/Novem99.pdf

Kuhn, Tom. Baring Up to Anthrax Shots. Airman 42:36-37 May 1998.
Also available online at: http://www.af.mil/news/airman/0598/anthrax.htm
Includes answers to frequently asked questions.

Maier, Timothy. Why BioProbe Got a Shot in the Arm. Insight on the News 15:13-15 September 20, 1999.
The company that landed the military contract to produce an anthrax vaccine is under congressional scrutiny.

Maier, Timothy W. A Dose of Reality. Insight on the News 15:10-12+ September 20, 1999.
Details those refusing the anthrax vaccine.

Maze, Rick. Pentagon Unable to Back Claim of Three-Shot Anthrax Shield. Air Force Times 60:20 October 25, 1999.

Mazzuchi, John F. and others. Protecting the Health of U. S. Military Forces: A National Obligation. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 71:260-265 March 2000.
Commentary.

Philpott, Tom. The Anthrax Controversy. U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 125:118 September 1999.

Roberts, Brad and Pearson, Graham S. Bursting the Biological Bubble: How Prepared Are We For Biowar? Jane's International Defense Review 31:21-24 April 1998.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Ryan Orders Anthrax Info for All. Air Force Times 60:12 March 20, 2000.

Schafer, Susanne M. Gulf Troops to Get Shots for Anthrax. Air Force Times 58:8 March 16, 1998.
Includes information about research studies on vaccinated animals.

Scott, James. A Moment of Clarity in the Anthrax-Shot Debate. Air Force Times 60:17 February 14, 2000.
Commentary.

Shelton, Raymond S. No Democracy Can Feel Secure (from Biological Warfare). U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 124:39-44 August 1998.

Simon, Barry L. Anthrax Vaccine Protects Against a Lethal Weapon. TIG Brief 50:8-11 November-December 1998.

Simon, Jeffrey D. Terrorists and Biological Weapons. Defense Analysis 14:331-333 December 1998.

Tucker, Jonathan. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: How Real a Threat? Current History 99:147-153 April 2000.

Vaccine Exemptions Would Undermine Policy. Air Force Times 60:60 February 21, 2000.
Editorial.

Venter, Al J. Biological Warfare: The Poor Man's Atomic Bomb. Jane's Intelligence Review 11:42-47 March 1999.
The threat of biological warfare from mid to small sized nations is on the increase.

Weible, Jack. End to Anthrax Shots Sought. Air Force Times 58:10 March 23, 1998.
End sought by a group of scientists and military rights advocates.

Williams, Carl. Anthrax Vaccine Program Explained. Leader 20:11-13 March 2000.

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