Airpower Theory


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Armitage, M. J. and Mason, R. A. Air Power in the Nuclear Age. Second Edition. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1985. 318 p.
"The authors have not sought to present a complete historical record of theory and practice between 1945 and 1984, but rather to examine specific campaigns or regions which they believe to have been particularly important. The emphasis is not on tactical operations, although several are examined in detail, but rather on the contribution of air power to a military campaign or to co-ordinated military strategy in pursuit of a political objective. The authors have sought to illustrate both the potential and the limitations of air power."
Notes and References, pp 280-302.
Select Bibliography and Further Reading, pp 303-307.
Index, pp 308-318.
Book call no.: 358.400904 A733a  1985

Boyle, Andrew. Trenchard. London, Collins, 1962. 768 p.
Bibliography, pp 737-740.
Notes on Sources, pp 741-747.
Index, pp 749-768.
Book call no.: 92 T792b

Builder, Carl H. The Icarus Syndrome: The Role of Air Power Theory in the Evolution and Fate of the U.S. Air Force. New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction Publications, 1994. 299 p. (RAND Studies)
Part II. Creation:
   Chapter 4. The Precursors, pp 41-48.
   Chapter 5. The Prophets, pp 49-57.
   Chapter 6. The Theory, pp 59-68.
   Chapter 7. Prophecy, pp 69-80.
Index, pp 293-299.
Book call no.: 358.403 B932i

Builder, Carl H. The Masks of War: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 240 p. (A RAND Corporation Research Study)
Chapter 6. The Air Strategy, pp 67-73.
Notes to Chapter 6, pp 218-219.
Bibliography, pp 231-234; Index, pp 235-240.
Book call no.: 355.033573 B932m

Challenge and Response: Anticipating US Military Security Concerns, edited by Karl P. Magyar and others. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1994. 431 p.
Air Theory for the Twenty-First Century, by Col John A. Warden, III, pp 311-332.
Also available online at:
Book call no.: 355.033073 C4373

Chun, Clayton K. S. Aerospace Power Into the Twenty First Century: A Primer. Colorado Springs, CO, U.S. Air Force Academy in Cooperation with AU Press, 2001. 337 p.
See chapter 2, pp.35-72 "Aerospace Power Theory".
Also available online at:
Book call no.: 358.400973 C559a

De Seversky, Alexander P. Air Power: Key to Survival. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1950. 376 p.
"It is De Seversky's theory that peace can be maintained only by an invincible American air armada. The author takes issue with much of the modern military thinking on that score, and urges the immediate creation of such an air force." (Taken from the Book Review Digest, 1950 Annual).
Book call no.: 358.4 D452a

De Seversky, Alexander P. Victory Through Air Power. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1942. 354 p.
"Major Seversky's power of analysis is great, his imagination is bold and sweeping, his grasp of his subject masterful. Beside his vision of the future of air power, the conceptions of those in charge of our present air strategy seem earthbound and cautious. But his enthusiasm sometimes carries him too fast and too far... Nevertheless, he has written a brilliant book. He shows what might be done in three-dimensional warfare, if we could only break through the crust of two-dimensional thinking." (Taken from the review by F.S. Dunn in Yale Review, Summer 1942).
A Walt Disney version is part of a DVD set "Walt Disney On the Front Lines: The War Years".  DVD call no.: 791.4334 W231.
Book call no.: 623.74 D451v

Douhet, Giulio. The Command of the Air, translated by Dino Ferrari. New York, Coward-McCann, 1942. 394 p.
The first edition of The Command of the Air was published in 1921 under the auspices of the Ministry of War.
Book call no.: 358.4 D737c

The Dynamics of Air Power, edited by GpCapt Andrew Lambert and Arthur C. Williamson. Bracknell, Berkshire, Royal Air Force Staff College, 1996. 187 p.
Part I, Evolving Theory.
Book call no.: 358.414 D997

Emme, Eugene M. The Impact of Air Power: National Security and World Politics. New York, Van Nostrand Co., 1959. 914 p.
Part Two, The Revolution in Warfare.
   Chapter III. Classical Theories of Air Warfare.
      "Introduction", pp 155-160.
      "The Command of the Air" by General Giulio Douhet, pp 161-169.
      "The Development of Air Power" by Brig General William Mitchell, pp 170-175.
      "Our Future in the Air", by Brig General P.R.C. Groves, pp 176-181.
      "Doctrine of the German Air Force" by Major General Max Wever, pp 181-185.
      "Development of United States Air Doctrine, 1917-1941" by James L. Cate, pp 186-191.
      "Air Power and National Security" by Viscount Trenchard, pp 192-200.
      "What Is Air Power?" by Major Alexander P. de Seversky, pp 201-206.
      References for Chapter III, pp 206-208.
Index, pp 895-914.
Book call no.: 358.08 E54i

Evolution of Aerial Warfare. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University, Air Force ROTC, 1963. 175 p.
Chapter 3. United States Air Doctrine Between 1919-41, pp 37-67:
   Leaders in Air Doctrine Development: Douhet, Trenchard, Mitchell, and de Seversky, pp 39-52.
Book call no.: 358.4 A29827e 1963

Fabyanic, Thomas A. Strategic Air Attack in the United States Air Force: A Case Study. Manhattan, KS, Military Affairs/Aerospace Historian, Kansas State University, 1976. 206 p.
Chapter II. Doctrinal Formulation, 1920-1940, pp 15-45.
Notes on Chapter II, pp 181-185.
Also published as Air War College research report, M-U 32983 F136s.
Book call no.: 358.42 F136s

Finney, Robert T. History of the Air Corps Tactical School 1920-1940. Washington, Center for Air Force History, 1992. Original imprint 1955, by the Research Studies Institute, USAF Historical Division, Air University. 145 p. (USAF Historical Studies, no. 100)
The School as the Air Corps Doctrinal Center, pp 56-59.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
See site below. Scan down the list to no. 100.  Long load time required.
Also available online at:
Book call no.: 358.4142 F514h

Flugel, Raymond R. United States Air Power Doctrine: A Study of the Influence of William Mitchell and Giulio Douhet at the Air Corps Tactical School, 1921-1935. Norman, OK, July 1965. 270 p. (Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Oklahoma)
Bibliography, pp 259-266.
Book call no.: 358 F646u

Gauvreau, Emile and Cohen, Lester. Billy Mitchell: Founder of Our Air Force and Prophet Without Honor. New York, E.P. Dutton, 1942. 318 p.
"Account of Billy Mitchell's stormy career in decade after World War I. His early conviction of the importance of aviation in next war and his trial sinking of two battleships are described in detail. Controversial in tone, book is timed to meet rising interest in this celebrated quarrel." (From review by Joseph C. Shipman, Library Journal, September 1, 1942). Index, pp 307-318.
Book call no.: 92 M69g

Gooch, John, ed. Airpower Theory and Practice. London, Frank Cass, 1995. 276 p.
This group of studies first appeared in a special issue on 'Air Theory and Practice' of the Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 18, no. 1, March 1995.
Proselytiser and Prophet: Alexander P. de Seversky and American Airpower, by Phillip S. Meilinger, pp 7-35.
   Notes, pp 30-35.
British and American Approaches to Strategic Bombing: Their Origins and Implementation in the World War II Combined Bomber Offensive, by Tami Davis Biddle, pp 91-144.
   The U.S. Air Corps, Theory, and the Tactical School, pp 110-114.
   Notes, pp 129-144.
Book call no.: 358.4 A29838

Hansell, Haywood S., Jr. The Air Plan That Defeated Hitler. Atlanta, GA, Higgins-McArthur/Longino & Porter, Inc., 1972. 315 p.
Chapter II. Concepts, Principles, and Strategy of the Air Corps Tactical School, pp 6-48.
Index, pp 312-315.
Book call no.: 940.5442 H249a

Hurley, Alfred F. Billy Mitchell--Crusader for Air Power. New Edition. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1975. 190 p.
Notes, pp 152-177.
Bibliography, pp 178-184.
Index, pp 185-190.
Book call no.: 92 M69h 1975

Kennett, Lee. A History of Strategic Bombing. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982. 222 p.
Chapter 3. The Prophets, pp 39-57.
Notes (by chapter), pp 191-200.
Bibliographical Note--Essay on Sources, pp 201-210; Index, pp 211-222.
Book call no.: 358.41409 K36h

Legend, Memory and the Great War in the Air, by Dominick A. Pisano, Thomas J. Dietz, Joanne M. Gernstein, and Karl S. Schneide. Seattle, WA. Published for the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, by the University of Washington Press, 1992. 144 p.
Chapter VII. Fear and Faith: The Air War's Long Shadow, pp 124-135.
A Bibliographic Guide, pp 138-140.
Book call no.: 940.44 L511

Levine, Isaac D. Mitchell--Pioneer of Air Power. New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1943. 420 p.
Mitchell's Own Writings (list arranged chronologically), pp 401-405.
Index, pp 407-420.
Book call no.: 92 M69L

Makers of Modern Strategy--From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, edited by Peter Paret with the collaboration of Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1986. 941 p.
The successor to the first 'Makers of Modern Strategy', which originated in a seminar in American Foreign Policy and Security Issues at Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University in 1941.
Chapter 21. Voices from the Central Blue: The Air Power Theorists, by David MacIsaac, pp 624-647.
Includes Bibliographical Notes and Index, pp 877-941.
Book call no.: 355.02 M235 1986

Makers of Modern Strategy--Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler, edited by Edward Mead Earle with the collaboration of Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1943. 553 p.
Chapter 20. Douhet, Mitchell, Seversky: Theories of Air Warfare, pp 485-503.
Includes Bibliographical Notes and Index, pp 521-553.
Book call no.: 355.09 Ea7m

Martin, Jerome V. Victory from Above: Air Power Theory and the Conduct of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, June 1994. 98 p. (Air University. ARI Command-Sponsored Research Report, no. AU-ARI-92-8)
Chapter 1. Theory, pp 1-15.
Chapter 5. Applying Air Power Theory, pp 63-91.
Chapter 6. Air Power Theory Revalidated, pp 93-98.
Book call no.: 956.70442 M381v

McFarland, Stephen L. and Newton, Wesley P. To Command the Sky: The Battle for Air Superiority over Germany, 1942-1944. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991. 328 p.
See Index for subjects: Douhet, Giulio; Mitchell, William; Trenchard, Hugh; Air Corps Tactical School Bombardment Orientation.
Selected Bibliography, pp 305-318.
Book call no.: 940.544 M143t

School of Advanced Airpower Studies. The Paths of Heaven: The Evolution of Airpower Theory, edited by Col Phillip S. Meilinger, USAF. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1997. 650 p.
Introduction, by Col Phillip S. Meilinger, pp xi-xxx.
Giulio Douhet and the Origins of Airpower Theory, by Col Phillip S. Meilinger, pp 1-40.
Trenchard, Slessor, & Royal Air Force Doctrine before World War II, by Col Phillip S. Meilinger, pp 41-78.
Molding Airpower Convictions: Development and Legacy of William Mitchell's Strategic Thought, by LtCol Mark A. Clodfelter, pp 79-114.
The Influence of Aviation on the Evolution of American Naval Thought, by Dr. David R. Mets, pp 115-149.
Airpower Thought in Continental Europe Between the Wars, by Dr. James S. Corum, pp 151-181.
Interwar US Army Aviation and the Air Corps Tactical School: Incubators of American Airpower, by LtCol Peter R. Faber, pp 183-238.
Alexander P. de Seversky and American Airpower, by Col Phillip S. Meilinger, pp 239-277.
Strategic Airpower and Nuclear Strategy: New Theory for a Not-Quite-So-New Apocalypse, by Dr. Karl P. Mueller, pp 279-320.
Air Theory, Air Force, and Low Intensity Conflict: A Short Journey to Confusion, by Prof Dennis M. Drew, pp 321-355.
John Boyd and John Warden: Airpower's Quest for Strategic Paralysis, by LtCol David S. Fadok, pp 357-398.
An Ambivalent Partnership: US Army and Air Force Perspectives on Air-Ground Operations, 1973-90, by Dr. Harold R. Winton, pp 399-441.
The Evolution of NATO Air Doctrine, by Col Maris "Buster" McCrabb, pp 443-484.
Soviet Military Doctrine and Air Theory: Change Through the Light of a Storm, by LtCol Edward J. Felker, pp 485-528.
Ascendant Realms: Characteristics of Airpower and Space Power, by Maj Bruce M. DeBlois, pp 529-578.
Reflections on the Search for Airpower Theory, by Dr. I.B. Holley, Jr., pp 579-599.
Index, pp 607-650.
Also available online at: 
Book call no.: 358.4 P297

Service Historique de l'Armée de l'Air. Actes du Colloque International "Précurseurs et Prophètes de l'Aviation Militaire", edited by Gen Lucien Robineau. Paris, October 1990. 351 p.
Presentations in the English language:
   The Prophets of Airpower and Their Place in History, by Robin Higham, pp 47-63.
   The Legacy of Billy Mitchell, by Dr. David MacIsaac, pp 71-77.
   Claire Chennault, by Martha Byrd, pp 79-93.
   Alexander P. de Seversky as a "Lay Prophet of Air Power," by Professor Roger A. Beaumont, pp 95-107.
   Trenchard: The Master Builder, by GpCapt Ian Madelin, pp 151-159.
   Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John Slessor, by Air Commodore Henry Probert, pp 161-172.
   Les Praticiens du Bombardement Strategique en Grande-Bretagne: Harris et les Autres, by Sebastian Cox, pp 173-199 (presentation in English).
   Robert Knauss, the German "Douhet," by Dr. Horst Boog, pp 275-291.
   Hugo Junkers and His Relation to Aviation and Air Power, by Werner Heinzerling, pp 293-299.
   Table des Matieres, pp 349-351.
Book call no.: 358.4009 C714a

Sherman, William C. Air Warfare. New York, Ronald Press Co., 1926. 307 p. (Ronald Aeronautic Library)
"The material in this book has been prepared, in large part, from the notes made by the author while an instructor at the Air Service Tactical School and at the Command and General Staff School."
Book call no.: 629.13 S553a

Sherry, Michael S. The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1987. 435 p.
Chapter 1. The Age of Fantasy, pp 1-21.
Chapter 2. The Age of Prophecy, pp 22-46.
Sources and Notes to Chapters 1 and 2, pp 369-373.
Book call no.: 358.400973 S553r

Sigaud, Louis A. Douhet and Aerial Warfare. New York, Putnam's, 1941. 134 p.
"Douhet began with the thought that the airplane as a new means of combat would revolutionize completely existing methods of warfare. He worked out how he believed aerial warfare should be waged. Then he proceeded to evolve a thoroughly integrated doctrine for the modern conduct of war on land, at sea, and in the air with the sum total of a nation's resources, and primarily from the standpoint of Italy. This took from 1909 to 1930 and was appreciably more than the work of a fanatic pioneering the aerial bombing of civilians." "A fundamental part of the Douhet doctrine--but only a part--is that the air forces of a nation must constitute a separate arm outside the army and the navy so that they will not be merely auxiliaries of the land sea forces and so incapable of independent military operations. Another is that the three separate arms of the land, the sea, and the air must be united, through a Department of National Defense to which the Departments of War, Navy, and Air are completely subordinate, into a single armed force. This single armed force is headed by a supreme commander-in-chief and possesses a National Defense General Staff." Quoted from the Preface.
Book call no.: 629.133 Si2d

Warden, John A., III. The Air Campaign: Planning for Combat. Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC, National Defense University Press, 1988. 193 p.
"The Air Campaign is an attempt to come to grips with the very complex philosophy and theory associated with air war at the operational level."
Endnotes, pp 173-182; Selected Bibliography, pp 183-186; Index, pp 187-192.
A Critique of "The Air Campaign," by LtCol Timothy G. Murphy, USAF, Airpower Journal 8:63-74 Spring 1994 (Notes, pp 73-74).
Also available online at: and at:
Book call no.: 358.414 W265a

Watts, Barry D. The Foundations of US Air Doctrine; The Problem of Friction in War. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1984. 166 p.
Chapter 2. Douhet and Mitchell, pp 5-15.
   Douhet's Image of War: Unrestrained Offense.
   Mitchell's "Aerial Knights."
   Notes, pp 13-15.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Also available online at:
Book call no.: 358.400973 W348f

Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. New York, Macmillan, 1973. 584 p.
Chapter 11. A Strategy of Air Power: Billy Mitchell, pp 223-241.
See Index for subjects: Douhet, Gen Giulio, ideas summarized; Liddell Hart, Sir Basil Henry, quoted on air power.
Book call no.: 355.0973 W418a


Air University. College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education. The Foundations of Air Power Theory. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1996. Videotape (Air and Space Power Series).
"The videotape traces the evolution of air power theory from the times of Douhet, Trenchard, and Mitchell to the present."
Video call no.: M-U  37097-51


Some documents listed below are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Barlow, Jason B.  Strategic Paralysis--An Airpower Theory for the Present. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, February 1994. 91 p. (Air University. School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Thesis)
Chapter 3. Choosing the Right Targets, pp 25-42:
   The Theories of Clausewitz and Jomini.
   The Airpower Theories of Douhet, Mitchell, Liddell Hart, and Warden.
Bibliography, pp 83-91.
Shortened version appears in Airpower Journal 7:4-15 Winter 1993.
Also available online at: and at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1a B258s

Beene, Jeffrey K. Bomber Force 2000: Operational Concepts for Long-Range Combat Aircraft. Newport, RI, February 1994. 53 p. (Naval War College Paper)
Section V. Validation of Air Power Theory, pp 20-27.
    No Air Power Without Technology.
    What Would Clausewitz Say?  A New Look at Some Old Guys (Douhet; Mitchell; Trenchard; De Seversky)  Essence of Air Power Theory.   A New Paradigm.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 B414b

Burkhart, John S. One More Time--Can Airpower Win the War? Newport, RI, June 1992. 22 p. (Naval War College Paper)
"This paper addresses the airpower theories of Douhet and Mitchell as they apply to the four modern wars the United States has been involved in."
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 B9591o

Cappelluti, Frank Joseph. The Life and Thought of Giulio Douhet. New Brunswick, NJ, 1967. 310 p. (Thesis (Ph.D.)--Rutgers University, 1967)
"The contribution of the Italian general, Giulio Douhet, to the development of the doctrines of air power was a very significant one. The purpose of this study was to examine the life and the intellectual formation of this figure to determine how important that contribution was." Bibliography, pp 295-309.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-558

Chennault, C. L. The Role of Defensive Pursuit. Maxwell Field, Air Corps Tactical School, 1933. 39 p.
"At odds with most other Air Corps Tactical School instructors, Chennault tried to promote his air power theories with the unpublished but influential text and with the Flying Trapezers, his aerial acrobatic team." (Annotation taken from an article by Jeffrey C. Benton in his historical series "The Air Force in Montgomery," Montgomery Advertiser, September 8,1997.
Doc. call no.: M-U 19805

Cichowski, Kurt A.  Aerospace Doctrine Matures Through a Storm: An Analysis of the New Air Force Manual 1-1. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, June 1993. 59 p. (Air University. School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Thesis)
Previous Doctrines, pp 3-18 (Notes, pp 12-18). Bibliography, pp 51-59.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1a C568d

Ehlers, Robert S. Searching for the Silver Bullet Coercion Mechanisms and Airpower Theory. Maxwell AFG, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2002. 33 p.
This paper examines air coercion, a strategy of increasing importance to the Air Force and other Services.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 E332s

Faber, Peter R. Competing Visions of Aerospace Power: A Language for the 21st Century. Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 1997. 139 p. (Naval War College. Department of Advanced Research Paper)
Chapter 3. Fifteen Competing Theories of Airpower, pp 65-122.
    Airpower Theory Prior to 1945.
    Five Modern Theories of Airpower:
      Irving Janis.
      Thomas Schelling.
      Ernest May.
      John Warden.
      Robert Pape.
Bibliography, pp 126-139.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662-6 F115c

Fadok, David S. John Boyd and John Warden: Air Power's Quest for Strategic Paralysis. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1995. 55 p. (Air University. School of .Advanced Airpower Studies. Thesis)
Chapter 6. Boyd, Warden, and the Evolution of Air Power Theory, pp 39-46.
Bibliography, pp 51-55.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1a F146j

Ford, James Michael.  Air Force Culture and Conventional Strategic Airpower. Maxwell AFB, AL, May 1992. 84 p. (Air University. School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Thesis)
Early Airpower Doctrine:
    Trenchard, pp 5-6.
    Giulio Douhet, pp 6-7.
    Billy Mitchell, pp 7-10.
    Air Corps Tactical School, pp 10-12.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1 F699a

Frizzell, Donaldson D.  Early Theories of Air Strategy. Carlisle Barracks, PA, May 1972. 82 p. (U.S. Army War College Research Paper)
"This paper considers the early development of air strategy and air doctrine. A survey of literature revealed three men who were instrumental in shaping the development of air strategy. They were Giulio Douhet of Italy, Billy Mitchell of the United States, and Sir Hugh Trenchard of Great Britain. From their experiences in World War I, these men shaped the early doctrine."
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-11 F921e

Gass, Robert F. Theory, Doctrine, and Ball Bearings: Applying Future Technology to Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996. 47 p. (School of Advanced Military Studies. Monograph)
"This study examines factors influencing the development of theory and doctrine based on emerging and future technology. It uses the air power theory of Giulio Douhet and the unescorted daylight strategic bombing doctrine of the US Army Air Force to illustrate hazards in projecting into the future as a means of constructing theory and doctrine."
Bibliography, pp 45-47.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 G251t

Gilbert, Silvanus Taco, III. What Will Douhet Think of Next? An Analysis of the Impact of Stealth Technology on the Evolution of Strategic Bombing Doctrine. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, June 1993. 48 p. (Air University. School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Thesis)
Chapter 2. Theory, pp 3-8. (Notes, pp 7-8).
Bibliography, pp 43-48.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1a G466w

Gruner, Glenn A. Clausewitz at Mach II--Has Classical Military Theory Kept Pace with Technology? Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1993. 50 p. (School of Advanced Military Studies. Monograph)
Section III. Air Power Theory, pp 18-24:
   A. Giulio Douhet--'The Command of the Air'.
   B. Colonel John Warden--'The Air Campaign'.
Section VI. Implications for a Theory of Air Warfare, p 43.
Selected Bibliography, pp 49-50.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 G891c

Jusell, Judson J. Space Power Theory A Rising Star. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 1998. 70 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no. M-U 43122 J962s

Saimons, Vickie J.  Defensive Air Strategies. Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1992. 46 p. (School of Advanced Military Studies. Monograph)
Theory: Clausewitz; Douhet; Warden, pp 3-8.
History: Battle of Britain; North Vietnam; 1973 Arab-Israeli War; Bekka Valley, pp 9-26.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 S132d

U.S. Air Force. Office of Air Force History. The Development of Air Doctrine in the Army Air Arm 1917-1941, Thomas H. Greer. Washington, GPO, 1985. 154 p. (Special Studies)
Concepts of the nature of war: influence of Mitchell and Douhet, pp 48-52.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 42229-74


Air Power Symposium. Strategic Review 23:56-68 Winter 1995.
"Editor's Note: Carl Builder's recent book, 'The Role of Air Power Theory in the Evolution and Fate of the U.S. Air Force' created a great deal of debate both inside the Air Force and elsewhere ... Strategic Review asked a number of individuals to examine Builder's thesis: The result is this symposium."
Getting the Future Right, by MajGen Robert E. Linhard, USAF.
Projecting Air Power, by Gen T. Ross Milton, USAF, Ret.
Bomber Pilots vs. Fighter Pilots? by Gen Bruce K. Holloway, USAF, Ret.
Air Power, by Arthur G.B. Metcalf.

Belote, Howard D. Warden and the Air Corps Tactical School What Goes Around Comes Around. Airpower Journal 1339-47 Fall 1999.
Also available at:

Brodie, Bernard. The Heritage of Douhet. Air University Quarterly Review 6:64-69+ Summer 1953.
"...the acuity and insight of Douhet's vision command respect. It may be true that the atomic bomb gives his theories a support that would be very much missed without it, and that Douhet deserves no credit for anticipating the atomic bomb. But it is also true that he was able to create a framework of strategic thought which is considered by many responsible airmen to fit the atomic age astonishingly well."

Brodie, Bernard. Some Notes on the Evolution of Air Doctrine. World Politics 7:349-370 April 1955.
"Air power is too young to have among the theorists of its strategy more than one distinguished name, and he has carried all before him. The views of General Giulio Douhet would be worth study today even if air force thinking had progressed considerably beyond him and away from him, because he would still remain the first to have presented an integrated, coherent philosophy for the employment of air power."
Also available online at:>

Caldwell, Cy. The Return of General Douhet. Aero Digest 59:36-37 July 1949.
"The Italian Jules Verne, whose prophecies concerning the might of the airplane in war have been derided for a full generation, may have been talking about a new age of bombing fury that is only just beginning."

Carpenter, P. Mason and McClain, George T.  Air Command and Staff College Air Campaign Course: The Air Corps Tactical School Reborn? Airpower Journal 7:72-83 Fall 1993.
The Air Corps Tactical School, pp 75-76.
Also available online at:

De Seversky, Alexander P.  A Lecture on Air Power. Air University Quarterly Review.
Part 1, 1:25-41 Fall 1947,
Part 2, 1:23-40 Winter 1947.
"To sum up: The next war will be fought in the air. The side which will first assume effective control of the skies over the enemy nation, and thus destroy its ability to deliver atom bombs, will win. After that ... there will be no reason for invasion unless the beaten country has something to which the winner wants to help himself."

Dickman, Joseph L. Douhet and the Future. Air University Quarterly Review 2:3-15 Summer 1948.
Nine statements representing Douhet's fundamental concepts of Air Power, p 4.

Estes, Richard H.  Giulio Douhet--More on Target Than He Knew. Airpower Journal 4:68-78 Winter 1990.
"Douhet believed that, with the advent of technology, the army and navy had become 'organs of indirect attrition of national resistance.' The air arm, on the other hand, could act directly to break national resistance at the very source. But not just any air force would do. Douhet rejected the idea of an auxiliary air arm of the army or navy or a collection of 'knights-errant' flying fighters. Rather, he called for a fleet of massive, self-defending bombers that would dominate not only the enemy, but also the military budget of Italy--or any other country that would listen to his ideas. He wanted an air force that could win not just air battles but total command of the air. This command of the air would have a debilitating effect on the capability of land and sea forces, which would be relegated to a secondary role in future conflicts. The army and navy would remain part of an 'indivisible whole' of the three armed services but would no longer be a significant factor in successfully resolving a war."
Also available online at:

Eula, Michael J. Giulio Douhet and Strategic Air Force Operations.  Air University Review 37:94-99 September-October 1986.
A study in the limitations of theoretical warfare.
Notes, p 99.
Also available online at:

Faber, Peter R. Airpower Theory: A Language for Analysis. Soldier-Scholar, a Journal of Contemporary Military Thought 1:4-9 Fall 1994.
"By focusing on four categories--timing, targeting, mechanisms, and political outcomes--the air theorist can rely on a 'user friendly' framework to avoid a common historical mistake: fixating on the 'how' of air strategy rather than the 'why.'"
Bibliographical Notes, pp 8-9.

Gunzinger, Mark A. Toward a Flexible Theater Air Warfare Doctrine. Air Power History 43:50-57 Winter 1996.
Air Force strategic air warfare doctrine is rooted in the theories of the earliest air power advocates. Challenging the traditional strategic air warfare is still perceived by some airmen as an attack against the Air Force.
Also available online at:

Holley, I. B.  Fifty Questions For Doctrine Writers.  Airpower Journal 11:27-31 Fall 1997.
Presents the author's views on writing Air Force doctrines. Author's proposals for a series of searching questions for people launching a doctrinal center; Steps for promulgating doctrines.
Also available at:

Holley, I. B. The Doctrinal Process Some Suggested Steps. Military Review 59:2-13 April 1979.

Howard, Michael. The Concept of Air Power, an Historical Appraisal. Air Power History 42:4-11 Winter 1995.
"The theory of sea power became, as I said at the beginning, a paradigm for the theorists of air power. The early air power theorists took over these concepts consciously or unconsciously. The experience of the first months, indeed the first weeks, of World War I set the pattern."
This article is based on a lecture that Sir Howard gave at the Pentagon on September 7, 1984, on the occasion of the thirty-seventh anniversary of the United States Air Force.

Hurley, Alfred F. Young "Billy" Mitchell and the "Old Army." Airpower Historian 8:8-38 January 1961.
"The space above the earth now presented a completely new dimension in warfare. He (Mitchell) was by American standards a specialist in aeronautics, but in reality he had in March 1917 only an inkling of its potential by contrast to the picture which the war was to give him. By the end of the war, he had formulated a conception of aeronautics which made him believe that in the future it would be the major answer to the military problems evoked by America's world-wide responsibilities and the increasing technological advances of the twentieth century."

Manzo, Louis A. Morality in War Fighting and Strategic Bombing in World War II. Air Power History 39:35-50 Fall 1992.
Modern Military Theorists:
   Giulio Douhet, pp 41-43.
   Billy Mitchell, pp 43-44.
   Air Corps Tactical School, pp 44-45.

Meilinger, Phillip S. Giulio Douhet and Modern War. Comparative Strategy 12:321-338 July-September 1993.
"The purpose of this essay is to reexamine the theories of Douhet, analyze them based on their own internal logic, reassess them, and show their relevance to modern war."
Notes, pp 335-338.

Meilinger, Phillip S. The Historiography of Airpower Theory and Doctrine. Journal of Military History 64:467-402 April 2000.
Meilinger enumerates and assesses a number of works on airpower theory and doctrine, and attempts to reveal the historiography of ideas on airpower employment.
Also available online at:

Ransom, Harry H. Lord Trenchard, Architect of Air Power. Air University Quarterly Review 8:59-67 Summer 1956.
A tribute to Hugh Montague Trenchard, during and after World War I architect of air power and first Marshall of the Royal Air Force.

Ransom, Harry H. Trenchard of the RAF. Air Force 39:98 May 1956.
"Trenchard and Mitchell were convinced that 'eventually airpower will be much greater than sea power.' And both believed, so Mitchell's diary reveals, that 'the only way to handle airpower is to unify it under one command.'"

Sabin, Philip. Modern Air Power Theory--Some Neglected Issues. Hawk Journal, pp 5-13, 1994.
The author highlights four areas in which current air power theory seems inadequate:
   The definition of air power.
   Command of the air.
   Aerial coercion.
   The limitations of air power.
References, p 13.

Saundby, Sir Robert. (General Giulio Douhet) Prophet of Air Power. The Aeroplane 90:342-343 May 4, 1956.
"We can now see that, given a weapon that matches its great powers of concentration and penetration, air power has exactly fulfilled the words of Douhet, written 35 years ago not long after the dawn of its eventful history."

Shiner, John F. Reflection on Douhet--The Classic Approach. Air University Review 37:93-95 January-February 1986.
"Douhet firmly believed that strategic air power was an instrument capable of delivering quick victory. 'The Command of the Air' convinced other aviators of this idea, and in the United States the book served to reinforce the views of the Air Corps officers who had come independently to the same conclusion."
Also available online at:

Smith, James B. Some Thoughts on Clausewitz and Airplanes. Air University Review 37:52-59 May-June 1986.
"This article explores two aspects of Clausewitz and Airplanes: The role of the ideas of Clausewitz in the development of doctrine at the Air Corps Tactical School and the importance of doctrine of Clausewitz's concepts in modern air warfare."
Notes, pp 58-59.
Also available online at:

Smith, Perry M. Douhet and Mitchell: Some Reappraisals. Air University Review 18:97-101 September-October 1967.
An essay on two studies on the development of air power doctrine within the Army Air Service, Alfred Hurley's "Billy Mitchell--Crusader for Air Power" and Raymond Flugel's "United States Air Power Doctrine: A Study of the Influence of William Mitchell and Giulio Douhet at the Air Corps Tactical School, 1921-1935."

Spaight, J. M. The Ghost of Douhet. Royal Air Force Quarterly 2:117-121 April 1950.
"He was the apostle of frightfulness in the air. He made no bones about it. The war of his vision would be 'an inhuman, an atrocious performance.' It would spread terror though the enemy nation by striking at the great centres of population and thus by 'direct action' would break down all material and moral resistance."

Special Issue on Airpower Theory and Practice, edited by John Gooch. Journal of Strategic Studies 18:entire issue March 1995.
Introduction, by John Gooch, pp 1-6.
Proselytiser and Prophet: Alexander P. de Seversky and American Airpower, by Phillip S. Meilinger, Col, USAF, pp 7-35. (Notes, pp 30-350).
Institution and Airpower: The Making of the French Air Force, by Pascal Vennesson, pp 36-97. (Notes, pp 58-67).
The Luftwaffe and the Coalition Air War in Spain, 1936-1939, by James S. Corum, pp 68-90. (Notes, pp 87-90).
British and American Approaches to Strategic Bombing: Their Origins and Implementation in the World War II Combined Bomber Offensive, by Tami Davis Biddle, pp 91-144. (Notes, pp 129-144).
'Precision' and 'Area' Bombing: Who Did Which, and When? By W. Hays Park, pp 145-174. (Notes, pp 169-174).
Atlantic Airpower Co-operation, 1941-1945, by John Buckley, pp 175-197. (Notes, pp 195-197).
Strategic Bombers over the Missile Horizon, 1957-1963, by Peter J. Roman, pp 198-236. (Notes, pp 229-236).
Airpower vs. Electricity: Electric Power as a Target for Strategic Air Operations, by Daniel T. Kuehl, LtCol, USAF, Ret, pp 237-266. (Notes, pp 260-266).

Tomlinson, William H. (Giulio Douhet): The Father of Airpower Doctrine. Military Review 46:27-31 September 1966.
"As a military philosopher Douhet appreciated the importance of studying the military lessons of the past, but primarily he felt his nation must focus its military thinking on how warfare of the future--not of the past--should influence military preparedness. In World War I, nations strived to gain and occupy certain desired land areas. However, to do so meant first breaking through the enemy's defensive lines before invading its territory. According to Douhet, in future conflicts airpower would make it possible to go far behind the fortified lines of defense where: ... 'the effect of such aerial offensives upon morale may well have more influence upon the conduct of the war than their material effects.'"

Trenchard, Sir H. M. Aspects of Service Aviation. Army Quarterly 2:10-21 April 1921.
Employment, pp 18-21.

Winton, Harold R. A Black Hole in the Wild Blue Yonder: The Need for a Comprehensive Theory of Air Power. Air Power History 39:32-42 Winter 1992.
"Needed but lacking is a body of codified, systematic thought that can purport to be called a comprehensive theory of air power; this is needed to help anticipate future trends beyond the merely technological."

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