AIRPOWER DOCTRINE
World War I /Post War Period


Contents

All sites listed were last accessed October 13, 2004.

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Books


Air Power History Turning Points from Kitty Hawk to Kosovo, edited by Sebastian Cox and Peter Gray. London, Frank Cass, 2002. 362 p. (Cass series studies in air power, no. 13)
Each paper considers the significant turning point in the air conflict considered: these include the 1991 bombing of Baghdad, Britain and NATO's strategy in Kosovo, the UK's doctrine and practice during the Gulf War, air tactics in North Africa during WWII, Soviet air doctrine from 1935-1941, and the development of air power during WWI.
Book call no.
358.4009 A2981

Boyne, Walter J. Silver Wings--The Human and Technological Achievements in the History of the United States Air Force. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1993. 336 p.
Foreword by General James H. Doolittle.
Introductory Note by Lee Ewing.
Chapter Two. The Birth of Air Power 1917-1918, pp 37-79.
Chapter Three. The Trying Years of the Golden Age, 1919-1939, pp 81-126. (Creating the Doctrine, pp 90-92).
Suggested Reading, p 332; Index, pp 333-336.
Book call no.: 358.400973 B792s

Caine, Philip D. American Pilots in the RAF: The WWII Eagle Squadrons. Washington, Brassey's (US), 1993. 415 p.
Military Role of Air Power (End of World War I), pp 11-14.
Selected Bibliography, pp 381-400.
Book call no.: 940.544941 C135e 1993

Evolution of Aerial Warfare. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University, Air Force ROTC, 1963. 175 p.
Chapter 2. Aerial Warfare in World War I, pp 18-36.
United States Air Doctrine Between 1919-41, pp 37-67.
Book call no.: 358.4 A29827e 1963

Fabyanic, Thomas A. Strategic Air Attack in the United States Air Force: A Case Study. Manhattan, KS, Military Affairs/Aerospace Historian, Kansas State University, 1976. 206 p.
Chapter I. World War I and the Emergence of Strategic Attack Concepts and Capability, pp 1-14.
Notes on Chapter I, pp 179-180.
Also published as Air War College Research Report, M-U 32983 F136s. Book call no.: 358.42 F136s

Kennett, Lee. The First Air War, 1914-1918. New York, Free Press, 1991. 275 p.
"It has often been said that there was little realistic conception of how air power might be used--what air forces like to call doctrine. This is true, but it is also understandable. The air weapon was after all distinctive, indeed unique. Of all the 'new' weapons of the Great War, it alone had no predecessor and no precedent."
Endnotes, pp 231-249.
Essay on Sources, pp 251-260.
Index, pp 261-275.
Book call no.: 940.44 K36f

Legend, Memory and the Great War in the Air, by Dominick A. Pisano, Thomas J. Dietz, Joanne M. Gernstein, and Karl S. Schneide. Seattle, Published for the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, by the University of Washington Press, 1992. 144 p.
Fear and Faith: The Doctrine of Strategic Bombing, pp 13-16.
The Long Shadow of Strategic Bombing, pp 16-17.
Strategic Bombing: A New Kind of Warfare, pp 104-123.
A Bibliographic Guide, pp 138-140.
Book call no.: 940.44 L511

MacCloskey, Monro. The United States Air Force. New York, Praeger, 1967. 244 p.
Chapter I. Origin and Development of Air Power, 1861-1939, pp 1-30.
   World War I, pp 15-19.
   The Air Service During World War I, pp 19-24.
   The Air Service Between the Wars, pp 25-30.
Bibliography, pp 237-238; Index, pp 239-244.
Book call no.: 358.0973 M127u

MacIsaac, David. Strategic Bombing in World War Two: The Story of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey. New York, Garland Pub, 1976. 231 p.
Chapter One. All the Winds of Doctrine--The Origins of "Strategic Bombing", pp 4-10.
Book call no.: 940.544 M152s

Mitchell, William. Memoirs of World War I--"From Start to Finish of Our Greatest War". New York, Random House, 1960 (Original copyright 1928, by Liberty Weekly, Inc.). 312 p.
Chapter 30. The Great Attack on St. Mihiel, pp 234-248.
"It was the greatest concentration of air power that had ever taken place and the first time in history in which an air force, cooperating with an army, was to act according to a broad strategical plan which contemplated not only facilitating the advance of the ground troops but spreading fear and consternation into the enemy's line of communications, his replacement system and the cities behind them which supplied our foe with the sinews of war."
"Nothing like this had ever been tried before. It marked the beginning of the great strategical air operations away from the troops."
Book call no.: 940.44 M682m

Morrow, John H., Jr. The Great War in the Air: Military Aviation from 1909-1921. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. 458 p.
"John Morrow's excellent volume offers a comprehensive treatment of aviation in the World War I era including not just Germany, France, Britain, and the United States but also Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. While this breadth of coverage is a distinct strength, it is also a drawback; in such a broad panorama, necessarily few issues are treated in depth. Moreover, the chronological arrangement in which each country is discussed separately by year results in a rather choppy narrative. But readers who persist will be rewarded with a wealth of insights on the evolution of air doctrine, organization, command relationships, the formulation of air strategy, and so on, in each of the contending nations." (Quoted from the book review by Dr. I.B. Holley, Jr. in Technology and Culture, June 1994, pp 626-628.
Selected Bibliography, pp 423-442; Index, pp 443-458.
Book call no.: 940.44 M883g

Mowbray, James A. The Fabric of Air Warfare Doctrine, Operational Experience, and Integration of Strategic and Tactical Air Power From World War I to World War II. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1991. 41 p. (CADRE paper AU-ARI-CP-90-3)
Also available at: https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay1990/cadre/au-ari-cp-90-3.pdf
Book call no. 358.400973 M936f

Smith, Dale O.  U.S. Military Doctrine: A Study and Appraisal.  New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1955. 256 p.
Foreword by General Carl Spaatz.
Chapter 5. The Beginnings of Air Doctrine, pp 110-150 (After World War I, pp 143-144).
Bibliography, pp 237-245; Index, pp 247-256.
Book call no.: 355 S645u

U.S. Air Force. Office of Air Force History. Case Studies in the Development of Close Air Support, edited by Benjamin Franklin Cooling. Washington, 1990. 606 p. (Special Studies)
Developments to 1939, by Lee Kennett, pp 13-70.
   The First World War, 1914-1918, pp 13-27.
Notes, pp 61-66; Bibliographical Essay, pp 67-70.
Also available online at: http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/Annotations/coolingclose.htm
Book call no.: 358.4142 C337

The U.S. Air Service in World War I, compiled and edited by Dr. Maurer Maurer. Maxwell AFB, AL, Albert F. Simpson Historical Research Center, 1978-1979. 4 vols.
Volume I. The Final Report and a Tactical History.
Volume II. Early Concepts of Military Aviation.
Volume III. The Battle of St. Mihiel.
Volume IV. Postwar Review.
Also available online at: http://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/Annotations/maurerairservice.htm
Book call no.: 940.44973 U581

Vallance, Andrew G. B.  The Air Weapon: Doctrines of Air Power Strategy and Operational Art. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1996. 214 p.
The Development of Air-Power Thought: World War I, pp 2-10.
Notes, Chapter 1: The Database: A Historical Background, pp 191-193.
Select Bibliography, pp 204-209.
Book call no.: 358 V177a

 


Documents


Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Cox, Gary C. Beyond the Battle Lines U.S. Air Attack Theory and Doctrine 1919-1941. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1996. 51 p. (School of Advanced Airpower Studies)
This study examines the development and usefulness of US air attack theory and doctrine during the interwar period, 1919–1941. This period represents more than 20 years of development in US Air Corps attack theory and doctrine. It was the first peacetime period of such development.
Also available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/aupress/SAAS_Theses/SAASS_Out/Cox/Cox_about_out.htm
Doc. call no. M-U 43998-1a C877b

Cuadros, Richard G.  Friction and Airpower During WWI. Maxwell AFB, AL, October 1991. 15 p. (Air University. Air War College. Research Report)
"This paper examines the major contributions of air power during World War I and the development of air power doctrine from the perspective of friction."
Doc. call no.: M-U 43117 C961f

Finney, Robert T. The Development of Tactical Air Doctrine in the U.S. Air Force, 1917-1951. Maxwell AFB, AL, USAF Historical Division, Research Studies Institute, 1952. 52 p.
I. World War I, pp 1-11.
Footnotes, 5 p following p 52.
Doc. call no.: M-U 44229

Fogleman, Ronald R.  The Development of Ground Attack Aviation in the United States Army Air Arm: Evolution of a Doctrine, 1908-1926. Durham, NC, 1971. 101 p. (Thesis (M.A.)--Duke University, 1971)
Chapter II. European Developments During the Early War Years: 1914-1917, pp 30-41.
Chapter III. The Crucible of Combat, the European and American Experience: 1917-1918, pp 42-58.
Selected Bibliography, pp 93-101.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-676

Rember, W. Bruce. Operational Lessons from the Dawn of Air Power. Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1993. 58 p. (School of Advanced Military Studies. Monograph)
"This monograph examines the development of air combat employment concepts during World War I ... Literature on World War I aviation focuses either on tactical aspects of the war, especially dramatic accounts of the aces, or the roots of strategic bombing concepts, championed in the 1920s. Often overlooked is the operational level of war, where air and ground forces synchronize their actions to accomplish a theater commander's objectives."
Chapter IV. Air Power Lessons and Classical Theories, pp 29-37.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 R385o

Yoshino, Ronald W. A Doctrine Destroyed: The American Fighter Offensive, 1917-1939. Claremont, CA, 1985. 417 p. (Dissertation (Ph. D.)--Claremont Graduate School)
"By 1931 pursuit aviation's chief advocate, Captain Claire Lee Chennault, searched vainly for a fighter offensive at the Air Corps Tactical School, the flying arm's educational center. Simultaneously, adherents of the new strategic bombing concept attacked Chennault because he challenged their belief that bombers were invincible. Lacking modern pursuits and the offensive doctrine, Chennault fashioned a defensive role for the fighter. Discouraged, in 1937 he resigned from the Air Corps after failing to broaden his force's mission. Thus America entered World War II with its fighter aviation unprepared to play an aggressive role in the coming struggle."
Chapter I. Introduction: The Great War and Air Doctrines, a Preface.
Chapter II. Europe's Air War, 1914-1915.
Chapter III. Europe's Air War, 1916-1917.
Chapter IV. American Aerial Combat, 1917-1918.
Chapter V. Chateau-Thierry, July-August, 1918.
Chapter VI. St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne, September-November 1918.
Chapter VII. A Doctrine Diminished, 1918-1929.
Chapter VIII. A Doctrine Denied, 1930-1937.
Chapter IX. A Doctrine Destroyed, 1930-1937.
Selected Bibliography, pp 403-417.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-832


Periodicals


Babcock, Anthony D.  The American Air Power Experience in World War I. Soldier-Scholar, a Journal of Contemporary Military Thought 1:9-15 Fall 1994.
"Brigadier Generals William Mitchell and Benjamin Foulois watched European armies in action so that they could create an American Air Service that worked. They saw the Allies using aerial reconnaissance, artillery spotters, pursuit planes, and bombers. What they saw in other air services became the basis for the US air forces in World War I. Without their foresight, the United States would have entered the war without the air power that proved so crucial to ending the fighting."
Bibliographic Notes, pp 14-15.

Corum, James S. The Old Eagle as Phoenix: The Luftstreitkräfte Creates an Operational Air War Doctrine, 1919-1920. Air Power History 39:13-21 Spring 1992.
The author summarizes: "...the Reichswehr Air Staff's unique and comprehensive program of analyzing the lessons of World War I can be counted as one of the decisive developments in Luftwaffe history. The body of air war operational doctrine that came out of the 1919-20 studies determined the direction of U.S. air training, planning, and technical development. Although modified in a few points, the development of Luftwaffe operational doctrine can claim a clear and direct heritage from the program initiated by Hans von Seeckt and Helmut Wilberg."

Durden, W. Kevin. World War I from the Viewpoint of American Airmen. Airpower Journal 2:28-41 Summer 1988.
"The aerial warfare of World War I had little effect on the outcome of the war itself, and American involvement in the air war played a very minor role in the conflict. What made the evolution of air combat during the war so important is that it marked the evolution of the airplane from a curious invention into a military weapon. The rise of the concept of air power later in the twentieth century was due to the air combat during the Great War, and the future US Air Service, US Army Air Forces, and the US Air Force saw their beginnings in the men who flew from grass airfields in borrowed aircraft. How these men viewed this first air war formed the basis for US military aviation."
Notes, p 41.
Also available online at: http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj88/durden.html

Gorrell, Edgar S.  An American Proposal for Strategic Bombing in World War I. Air Power Historian 5:102-117 April 1958.
"Of Gorrell's original proposal, Laurence S. Kuter later said that it is the 'earliest, clearest and least known statement of the American conception of air power."

Greer, Thomas H.  Air Arm Doctrinal Roots, 1917-1918. Military Affairs 20:202-216 Winter 1956.
"As a preparation for the major role it was to play in World War II, the American air arm found its experience in the first World War was brief and limited. That war had an important bearing, however, upon the development of air doctrine in the interval between wars, because it was the only actual combat test to which American airmen and equipment had been put. Theories and practice maneuvers might be worked out in the light of later trends in technology and methods of warfare, but one fact always remained: the only battle test up to 1941 had been the action in World War I."
Also available online at:  http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-3931%28195624%2920%3A4%3C202%3AAADR1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L

Johnson, Garner. Forgotten Progress The Development of Close Air Support Doctrine Before World War II. Air Power History 46:44-65 Spring 1999.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=1702630&db=aph

Murray, Williamson. British and German Air Doctrine Between the Wars Air University Review 31:39-58 March-April 1980.
"In the history of the development of air power, the decade of the 1930s was one of the most important--perhaps the most important. The doctrines, tactics, and the technological revolution all presaged what was to come in the Second World War."
Notes, pp 57-58.
Also available online at:  http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1980/mar-apr/murray.html

The Strategic Bomber. A Quarterly Review Staff Monograph. Air University Quarterly Review 8:88-137 Summer 1955.
Developing Bombardment Doctrine, pp 91-95.
Developing the Bomber, pp 95-100.

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