BALANCED SCORECARD


March 2006

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some articles listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact you local library for availability. AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on March 6, 2005


Internet Resources


Balanced Scorecard Institute.  Washington, DC.
Available online at:  http://www.balancedscorecard.org/

Bardoll, Jake and Kamensky, John.  Key Factors That Make a Balanced Scorecard Successful.  PA Times 28:15-23 July 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=17770698

Blondeau, Sharon E.  Balanced Scorecard Goal Four:  Provide Policy Management, Advocacy and Problem Solving:  Measuring Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives.  Fort Sam Houston, TX, Academy of Health Sciences, Health Care Administration, June 2002.  62 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420829
The Great Plains Regional Medical Command is the headquarters for ten Army Medical Treatment Facilities within its geographical boundaries. In an effort to maximize its efficiency and improve internal customer relations, the GPRMC has incorporated use of a Balanced Scorecard within its management scheme. The scorecard serves as a strategy map to communicate its overall plans and goals throughout organization.

DiGiacomo, Joseph.  Implementing Knowledge Management as a Strategic Initiative.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2003.  99 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420493
This research is intended as an implementation guide for managers to apply knowledge management as a strategic initiative within the contracting element of a major system command. The study incorporates the four-pillar model of knowledge management developed by Dr. Michael Stankosky. The four pillars within the model are: leadership, organization, technology and leaning. Knowledge management was one of five strategic initiatives in the overall strategic plan, which was developed using Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Scorecard methodology.

Dilla, William N. and Steinbart Paul John.  Relative Weighting of Common and Unique Balanced Scorecard Measures by Knowledgeable Decision Makers.  Behavioral Research in Accounting 17:43-53 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=16677224

Fryzlewicz, John M.  Analysis of Measures of Performance and Continuous Improvement at the Naval Dental Center Pearl Harbor, Hawaii .  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2000.  102 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA386398
The Balanced Scorecard, developed by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, is a strategic management tool that has been successfully implemented in the private sector. This tool uses a balance of a historical perspective (financial) and three operational perspectives (customer service, internal business processes, and innovation and learning) that allow managers to readily evaluate an organization's performance towards achieving its vision and mission. This study examines the applicability of the Balanced Scorecard concept to Government organizations as a potential strategic management tool.

Gregg, Laura.  Lessons Learned from the Brink of Disaster.  Journal for Quality & Participation 28:8-11 Spring 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=17153327

Grover, Michael A.  Strategic Performance Measurement in an Air Force Logistics Organization.  Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology. School of Logistics and Acquisition Management, December 1997.  119 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA338879
Strategic performance measures are being used to define and communicate longer term planning imperatives to organizational members and external stakeholders. These measures are designed to support the concept of a strategic management process, in which the progress towards strategic goals, and also the goals are continuously reviewed and updated. One such performance measurement system, the balanced scorecard, describes the organizational strategy with reference to four common organizational perspectives: Financial, Customer, Internal Process and Growth and Development. A case study is performed to produce a balanced scorecard for a base level Air Force logistics organization.

Hafner, Kristine A.  Partnership for Performance:  The Balanced Scorecard Put to the Test at the University of California. 17 p. 
Available online at:  http://bas.ucsc.edu/P4PatUC.pdf

Hughes, Susan B. and others.  How Groups Produce Higher-Quality Balanced Scorecards Than Individuals.  Management Accounting Quarterly 6:34-44 Summer 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=18733218

Kaplan, Robert S. and Norton, David P.  The Balanced Scorecard:  Measures that Drive Performance
Available online at:  http://www.don-imit.navy.mil/cca/document/BSC-DrivePerf.pdf
Reprint of article from Harvard Business Review, January-February 1992.

Kaplan, Robert S. and Norton, David P.  Partnering and the Balanced Scorecard.  Cambridge, MA, Harvard Business School, December 2002. (Working Knowledge for Business Leaders series).
Available online at:  http://hbswk.hbs.edu/pubitem.jhtml?id=3231&t=entrepreneurship

Kaplan, Robert S. and Norton, David P.  Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work
Available online at:  http://www.don-imit.navy.mil/cca/document/PutBSCWork.pdf
Reprint of article from Harvard Business Review, September-October 1993

Kaplan, Robert S and Norton, David P.  The Strategy-Focused Organization:  How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment.  Boston, MA, Harvard Business School Press, 2001.  400 p.
Available through the NetLibrary electronic books service.  Please ask a librarian how to create a free NetLibrary account.

Karathanos, Demetrius and Karathanos, Patricia.  Applying the Balanced Scorecard to Education.  Journal of Education for Business 80:222-230 March-April 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=16801480

Knoess, Christoph.  From Strategic Intent to Strategy.  Community College Journal 76:34-37 October-November 2005.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=921451951&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Office of Personnel Management.  The Strategy-Focused Organization:  How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment.  Spring 2001. (Workforce Performance Resources Newsletter reprint).
Available online at:  http://www.opm.gov/perform/articles/2001/spr01-5.asp

Office of Personnel Management.  Using a Balanced Scorecard Approach to Measure Performance.  April 1997. (Workforce Performance Resources Newsletter reprint).
Available online at:  http://www.opm.gov/perform/articles/095.asp

Olve, Nils Göran and Sjöstrand, Anna.  The Balanced Scorecard.  Oxford, UK, Capstone Pub., 2002.  109 p.
Available through the NetLibrary electronic books service. Please ask a librarian how to create a free NetLibrary account.

Peachey, Todd A.  An Examination of Information Technology Valuation Models for the Air Force .  Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology. School of Logistics and Acquisition Management, September 1998.  93 p.  
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA354295
This research uncovered 18 models that use a variety of methods to value information technology. Of these models, five could currently be used by the Air Force based on the availability of the required data. These models are: Cost Benefit Analysis, Cost of Information Management, IT Spending, Residual Value, and the Balanced Scorecard.

Pointer, Dennis D. and others.  The Balanced Scorecard:  A Tool for Maximizing Board Performance.  Trustee 58:17-20 April 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=16813359

Taylor, Rick T.  Non-Monetary Performance Metrics for Use in a Technology Exchange Organization.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2001.  145 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA392803
The Joint Technology Exchange Group (JTEG) exists to disseminate information on new technologies throughout the DoD depot community. An analysis of the roles and abilities of JTEG and needs of the depots was done, and metrics were developed to properly capture the effectiveness of JTEG. Performance metrics are based on balanced scorecard methodologies to emphasize effort that is linked to goals. Metrics generative are primarily non-monetary in nature, and bring visibility to how effort is linked to organizational goals. This study has applicability to other service-oriented, public organizations.

U.S. Dept. of Defense.  Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Logistics and Materiel Readiness.  Balanced Scorecard
Available online at:  http://www.acq.osd.mil/log/lmr/bsc.htm
Includes memorandums, presentations, and related links.

U.S. Dept. of Energy.  Office of Procurement and Assistance Management.  Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Home Page.
Available online at:  http://professionals.pr.doe.gov/ma5/MA-5Web.nsf/Business/Balanced+Scorecard?OpenDocument
This page contains links to information on the subject of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). It is intended to assist DOE employees, contractors and anyone who is interested in BSC methodology.

U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.  KnowNet:  Balanced ScoreCard
Available online at:  http://www.knownet.hhs.gov/performance/bscdr/default.htm
Includes instruction modules, briefings, and presentations.

Wunder, Thomas.  New Strategy Alignment in Multinational Corporations.  Strategic Finance 87:35-41 November 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=18911346


Books


Gates, Susan M.  Ensuring the Quality and Productivity of Education and Professional Development Activities:  A Review of Approaches and Lessons for DoD.  Santa Monica, CA , Rand, 2001.  234 p.
Includes a section on Balanced Scorecard.
Book call no.:  355.50973 E59

Harvard Business Review on Measuring Corporate Performance.  Boston, MA , Harvard Business School Press, 1998.  229 p.
Contents include: Balanced Scorecard - Measures that Drive Performance; Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work; Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System.
Book call no.:  658.4013 H339

Kaplan, Robert S and Norton, David P.  The Balanced Scorecard:  Translating Strategy Into Action .  Boston, MA, Harvard Business School Press, 1996.  322 p.
Book call no.:  658.4012 K17b

Niven, Paul R.  Balanced Scorecard Step-by-Step for Government and Nonprofit Agencies.  Hoboken, NJ, Wiley, 2003.  305 p.
Book call no.:  352.357 N734b

Oblinger, Diana and Katz, Richard N.  Renewing Administration:  Preparing Colleges and Universities for the 21st Century.  Bolton, MA, Anker Pub. Co., 1999.  330 p.
Book call no.:  378.101 R411


Documents


Kem, Dale A. and others.  Performance Metrics for Defense Working Capital Funds:  A Focus on Supply Management.  McLean, VA, Logistics Management Institute, July 2000.  110 p. 
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA392753
Many Department of Defense (DoD) support organizations are financed with revolving funds to take advantage of the flexibility offered by them. DoD is interested in developing performance metrics applicable to program analysis of defense support business areas. Using the Balanced Scorecard, this report identifies 19 metrics and evaluates the potential for near-term implementation at the DoD Inventory Control Points.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42274-15 no. PA804T1

Lee, Cindy.  GPRA and Its Significance to the Acquisition Workforce.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2000.  36 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA393955
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 L477g


Periodicals


Angel, Robert and Rampersad, Hubert.  Improving People Performance:  The CFO's New Frontier.  Financial Executive 21:45-48 October 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=18522805

Cavoli, Christina.  The Balanced Scorecard and Other Thoughts on Metrics.  Defense AT&L 33:9-11 Jan-Feb 2004.

Hall, Mary-Jo.  Bridging the Distance:  Using the Balanced Scorecard to Move from Leadership Strategy to Employee Action and Organizational Results.  Program Manager 29:24-28 November-December 2000.

Holt, Timothy N.  Bringing the Balanced Scorecard to the AMEDD (Army Medical Department).  U.S. Army Medical Department Journal  pp 4-14,  April-June 2001.

Kaplan, Robert S. and Norton, David P.  How to Implement a New Strategy Without Disrupting Your Organization.  Harvard Business Review 84:100-109 March 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=19707492

Kaplan, Robert S. and Norton, David P.  The Office of Strategy Management.  Harvard Business Review 83:72-80 October 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=18500918

Kaplan, Robert S. and Norton, David R.  The Balanced Scorecard:  Measures That Drive Performance.   Harvard Business Review 83:172-180 July- August 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&an=17602418

Schoomaker, Eric B.  Managing the MC (Medical Corps) Through a Team Approach and the Balanced Scorecard.  U.S. Army Medical Department Journal  pp 3-8, April-June 2005.

Schwartz, Jay.  The Balanced Scorecard Versus Total Quality Management: Which Is Better for Your Organization?  Military Medicine 170:855-858 October 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=18713255

Streit, Phillip L.  DoD Financial Indicators:  DoD Financial Management Balanced Scorecard.  Armed Forces Comptroller 49:40-42 Summer 2004.

Walton, Len and others.  Air Force Security Assistance Center, Foreign Military Sales Center Institutionalizes How It "Develops and Executes International Agreements" by Linking Strategic Initiatives to the Balanced Scorecard Process.  DISAM Journal 26:113 Spring 2004.


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