December 2009

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site. 

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact  the Center's Web Maintainer for a password

All sites listed were last accessed December 7, 2009.

Internet Resources

The Causes of World War OneFirst World  March 2004.
Available online at:

Cederman, Lars-Erik.  Democratization and War in Political Science.  Democratization 15:509-524 June 2008.
Available online at:
Looks at democratization as a possible cause of conflict.

Conway, John P.  War and Religion:  Is Religion to Blame?  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College.
Available online at:

Malul, Miki and Shoham, Amir.  The Role of Culture and Economic Variables in Wars and Coups.  Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 12:1096 September 2006.
Available online at:
"The increasing number of local and regional conflicts around the world in the past several decades has led us to investigate the causes of war and coups." - Abstract

Moseley, Alex.  The Philosophy of War.  The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  2006.
Available online at:

Includes a short section on what causes war.

Von Mises, Ludwig.  Economic Causes of War.  Foundation for Economic Education, 2008.
Available online at:
This is the major part of a lecture delivered in Orange County, California, in October 1944.

Internet Resources - Student Research

Sellers, Robin B.  War Without Politics:  A Critique of Clausewitz.  Washington, National War College, January 1997.  12 p
Available online at:
Examines "the current relevance of the Clausewitzian assertion of the relationship between war and policy and its continuing applicability as we enter the 21st century." - Abstract


Ahmed, Nafeez Mosaddeq.  Behind the War on Terror:  Western Secret Strategy and the Struggle for Iraq.  Gabriola Island, Canada, New Society Publishers, 2003.  344 p.
Discusses the causes of the Iraqi War 2003.
Book call no.:  956.70443 A286b

Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, edited by Philip E. Tetlock and others.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1989.  401 p.
Volume 1 - Chapter 4:  The Causes of War:  A Review of Theories and Evidence, by Jack S. Levy.
Book call no.:  355.027 B419 v. 1

Bell, P. M. H.  The Origins of the Second World War in Europe.  3rd ed.  Harlow, England, Longman, 2007.  398 p.
"Approaches the subject from three different angles:  describing the various explanations that have been offered for the war and the historiographical debates that have arisen from them, analyzing the ideological, economic and strategic forces at work in Europe during the 1930s, and tracing the course of events from peace in 1932, via the initial outbreak of hostilities in 1939, through to the climactic German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 which marked the descent into general conflict." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  940.53112  B434o  2007

Blainey, Geoffrey.  The Causes of War.  3rd ed.  New York, Free Press, 1988.  325 p.
Book call no.:  355 B634c 1988

Bollerup, Soren R. and Christensen, Christian D.  Nationalism in Eastern Europe:  Causes and Consequences of the National Revivals and Conflicts in Late Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997.  308 p.
Book call no.:  320.540947 B691n

Brown, Seyom.  The Causes and Prevention of War.  2nd ed.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1994.  260 p.
Book call no.:  303.66 B879c 1994

Cashman, Greg and Robinson, Leonard C.  An Introduction to the Causes of War:  Patterns of Interstate Conflict from World War I to Iraq.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.  423 p.
"Explains the causes of war through a sustained combination of theoretical insights and detailed case studies."  Examples include World War I, World War II in the Pacific, the Six-Day War, the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Iran-Iraq War, and the Iraq War. - Book jacket
Book call no.:  355.027  C338i

Cashman, Greg.  What Causes War?  An Introduction to Theories of International Conflict.  New York, Lexington Books, 1993.  360 p.
Book call no.:  327.16 C338w

The Causes of Quarrel:  Essays on Peace, War, and Thomas Hobbes, edited by Peter Caws.  Boston, Beacon Press, 1989.  224 p.
Book call no.:  320.01 C734

Causes of War and the Consequences of Peacekeeping in Africa, edited by Ricardo Rene Laremont.  Portsmouth, NH, Heinemann, 2002.  311 p.
Includes conflicts in Sudan, Great Lakes Region, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Mozambique, Angola, and Nigeria.
Book call no.:  341.584096 C374

Churchman, David.  Why We Fight:  Theories of Human Aggression and Conflict.  Lanham, MD, University Press of America, 2005.  254 p.
"Draws on more than 20 academic disciplines to describe over 100 theoretical explanations for human aggression and conflict.  It also describes and assesses over 70 methods for managing conflict." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  303.6  C563w

Coates, David and others.  Blair's War.  Cambridge, United Kingdom, Polity, 2004.  184 p.
Discusses Prime Minister Blair's support of the war in Iraq.
Book call no.:  956.704432 C652b

Codevilla, Angelo and Seabury, Paul.  War:  Ends and Means.  2nd ed.  Washington, Potomac Books, 2006.  382 p.
Chapter 2:  The Causes of War.
Book call no.:  355.02  S438w  2006

The Coming Age of Scarcity:  Preventing Mass Death and Genocide in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Michael N. Dobkowski and Isidor Walliman.  Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press, 1998.  350 p.
Competition, Expansion, and Reaction:  The Foundations of Contemporary Conflict, by Joseph A. Tainter, pp 174-193.
Book call no.:  333.7 C733

Conflict after the Cold War:  Arguments on Causes of War and Peace, edited by Richard K. Betts.  3rd ed.  New York, Pearson Longman, 2008.  654 p.
"The carefully chosen and excerpted selections in this popular reader introduce students to the core debates about the causes and the future of war and peace.  Through the precision of its approach and attention to new issues, this reader challenges conventional wisdom and encourages more critical examination of the political, economic, social, and military factors that underlie political violence. " - Summary
Book call no.:  909.82 C7481 2008

Copeland, Dale C.  The Origins of Major War.   Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2000.  322 p.
"Brings attention to why governments make decisions that lead to, sustain, and intensify conflicts.  Copeland presents detailed historical narratives of several twentieth-century cases, including World War I, World War II, and the cold war." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  940.311 C782o

Couloumbis, Theodore A.  Introduction to International Relations:  Power and Justice.  3rd ed.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1986.  426 p.
War and Its Causes, pp 191-210.
Book call no.:  327 C855i 1986

Crockatt, Richard.  America Embattled:  September 11, Anti-Americanism, and the Global Order.  New York, Routledge, 2003.  205 p.
"Seeks to understand the terrible attacks of September 11 within a broader historical, political and ideological context.  Rather than drawing on simple 'clash of civilizations' oppositions, the author argues that it is important to have an awareness of the complex historical processes that influence." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  940.53112 R144s

Dunnigan, James F. and Martel, William.  How to Stop a War:  The Lessons of Two Hundred Years of War and Peace.  New York, Doubleday, 1987.  298 p.
The Four Causes of War, pp 26-38.
Book call no.:  303.66 D924h

Fierke, K. M.  Diplomatic Interventions:  Conflict and Change in a Globalizing World.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.  221 p.
Chapter 5:  Military Interventions.
Book call no.:  341.584 F465d

The Gaia Peace Atlas, edited by Frank Barnaby.  New York, Doubleday, 1988.  271 p.
The Roots of Conflict, pp 36-57.
Book call no.:  327.172 G137

Global Security Concerns:  Anticipating the Twenty-First Century, edited by Karl P. Magyar and Bradley S. Davis.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1996.  327 p.
History, Culture, and Change:  Foundations of Conflicts and Wars, by Karl P. Magyar, pp 3-27.
Anticipating the Twenty-First Century:  Economic Sources of Conflicts, by Maris McCrabb, pp 123-142.
The Third World's Nonviable States:  A Major Source of Conflict in the Twenty-First Century, by Gary A. Storie, pp 143-162.
Book call no.:  355.027 G562

Glossop, Ronald J.  Confronting War:  An Examination of Humanity's Most Pressing Problem.  3rd ed.  Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 1994.  435 p.
Causes of War, pp 47-106.
Book call no.:  303.6 G563c 1994

Hinde, Robert A. and Rotblat, Joseph.  War No More:   Eliminating Conflict in the Nuclear Age.  Sterling, VA, Pluto Press, 2003.  228 p.
Explores "what factors contribute to the outbreak of war, why people are willing to go to war, and what can be done to prevent war." - Summary
Book call no.:  355.02  H662w

How Did This Happen?  Terrorism and the New War
, edited by James F. Hoge and Gideon Rose.  New York, PublicAffairs, 2001.  324 p.
"How did this happen?  This book seeks to answer this question in all its critical aspects--the motives and actions of the terrorists, the status of the U.S. military, the context of the Middle East, bioterrorism, airport security, diplomatic pressures--and to provide readers with perspective, information, and sound interpretation." - Summary
Book call no.:  363.320973 H847

Howard, Michael Eliot.  The Causes of War and other Essays.  Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1983.  248 p.
Book call no.:  355.02 H851ca

Huisken, Ronald.  The Road to War on Iraq.  Canberra, Australia, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 2003.  109 p.  (Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defense, no.148)
"Seeks to describe and explain what appears to have been a massive failure of international diplomacy." - Introduction
Book call no.:  956.70443 H899r

International War:  An Anthology, edited by Melvin Small and J. David Singer.  Chicago, Dorsey Press, 1989.  419 p.
The Causes of War, pp 159-299.
Book call no.:  355.02 I61

Iraq:  Threat and Response, edited by Gerhard Beestermoller and David Little.  New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction Publishers, 2003.  151 p.
Argues against war with Iraq.
Book call no.:  327.730567 I65

James, Patrick.  Crisis and War.  Kingston, Ontario, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1988.  192 p.
International War and Its Causes, pp 3-27.
Book call no.:  355.027 J28c

Johnson, Dominic D. P.  Overconfidence and War:  The Havoc and Glory of Positive Illusions.  Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2004.  280 p.
"Opponents rarely go to war without thinking they can win - and clearly, one side must be wrong.  This conundrum lies at the heart of the so-called War Puzzle:  rational states should agree on their differences in power and thus not fight.  But as Dominic Johnson argues in Overconfidence and War, states are no more rational than people, who are susceptible to exaggerated ideas of their own virtue, of their ability to control events, and of the future." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  355.027 J66o

Kagan, John.  On the Origins of War and the Preservation of Peace.  New York, Doubleday, 1995.  606 p.
"Details five case studies of efforts to prevent war."  These include classical examples:  "Athenian Pericles' attempts to calm the Spartans in the fifth century BC and prevent what became the Peloponnesian War; and how the treaty after the First Punic War (218-201 BC) led to the Second Punic War, and the Treaty of Versailles played the same role in regard to the First and Second World Wars.  His only example of success is the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis." - Summary
Book call no.:  904.7 K11o

Lieber, Keir A.  War and the Engineers:  The Primacy of Politics over Technology.  Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2005.  226 p.  (Cornell Studies in Security Affairs)
"Examines the relationships among politics, technology, and the causes of war." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  355.02  L716w

Magstadt, Thomas M. and Schotten, Peter M.  Understanding Politics:  Ideas, Institutions and Issues.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1984.  556 p.
Immediate versus Ultimate Causes of War, p 440.
Human Nature as the Cause, pp 440-444.
Society as the Cause, pp 444-449.
Nature as the Cause, pp 449-452.
A Balanced View of War's Causes, pp 453-458.
Book call no.:  320 M212u

Martin, David.  Does Christianity Cause War?  New York, Oxford University Press, 1997.  226 p.
"This book is made up of eight lectures given under the auspices of the Sarum Lectureship in the University of Oxford during Hilary term, January to March 1995." - Preface
Book call no.:  261.873 M379d

Morrison, Wilbur H.  Twentieth Century American Wars:  Their Causes and Their Effects on American Life.  New York, Hippocrene Books, 1993.  456 p.
Book call no.:  973.9 M883t

Nelson, Keith L. and Olin, Spencer C., Jr.  Why War?  Ideology, Theory, and History.  Berkeley, University of California Press, 1979.  201 p.
Includes chapters on conservative, liberal, and radical ideology and theory about the causes of war.
Book call no.:  909.82 N427w

Offense, Defense, and War:  An International Security Reader, edited by Michael E. Brown and others.  Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2004.  444 p.
"Argues that the relative ease of offense and defense varies in international politics.  When the offense has the advantage, military conquest becomes easier and war is more likely:  the opposite is true when the defense has the advantage." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  355.03  O32

The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars, edited by Robert I. Rothberg and Theodore K. Rabb.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 1989.  352 p.  (Studies in Interdisciplinary History)
"A distinguished group of political scientists and historians examine the origins of major wars and discuss the problems in preventing a nuclear war." - Summary
Book call no.:  355.02 069

Otterbein, Keith F.  How War Began.  College Station, TX, Texas A&M University Press, 2004.  292 p.  (Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, no.10)
"Keith F. Otterbein draws on primate behavior research, archaeological research, data gathered from the Human Relations area files, and a career spent in research and reflection on war to argue for two separate origins." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  303.66 O89h

Pelletiere, Stephen C.  America's Oil Wars.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2004.  192 p.
"Argues that, in going to war twice against Iraq and once against Afghanistan the United States was seeking to put a lock on its future energy supplies." - Summary
Book call no.:  956.70443 P388a

Pelletiere, Stephen C.  Iraq and the International Oil System:  Why America Went to War in the Gulf.   Westport, CT, Praeger, 2001.  239 p.
"Iraq's victory over Iran in 1988 gave the nation the capability of becoming a regional superpower with a strong say in how the Gulf's oil reserves were managed.  Because the United States could not tolerate an ultranationalist state with the potential to destabilize the world's economy, war then became inevitable." - Summary
Book call no.:  956.70442 P388i

Prados, John.  Hoodwinked:  The Documents That Reveal How Bush Sold Us a War.  New York, The New Press, 2004.  375 p.
"Makes publicly available for the first time the primary source documents that show how intelligence on Iraq was consistently distorted, manipulated, and ignored by the administration." - Summary
Book call no.:  956.70443 P896h

Record, Jeffrey.  Dark Victory:  America's Second War Against Iraq.  Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 2004.  203 p.
"Examines the origins, objectives, conduct, and consequences of George W. Bush's 'preemptive war' on Iraq." - Summary
Book call no.:  956.70443 R311d

The Road to War in Serbia:  Trauma and Catharsis, edited by Nebojsa Popov and Drinka Gojkovi'c.  New York, Central European University, 2000.  711 p.
English translation of Srpska Strana Rata.
Book call no.:  949.703 R628

Roberts, Paul William.  A War Against Truth:  An Intimate Account of the Invasion of Iraq.  Vancouver, Canada, Raincoast Books, 2004.  366 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 R646w

The Scourge of War:  New Extensions on an Old Problem, edited by Paul F. Diehl.  Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Press, 2004.  266 p.
"A critical reexamination of the work of J. David Singer's influential Correlates of War project ." - Summary
Book call no.:  355.02 S432

Seabury, Paul.  War:  Ends and Means.  New York, Basic Books, 1989.  306 p.
The Causes of War, pp 35-60.
Book call no.:  355.02 S438w

Smith, Dan.  The Penguin Atlas of War and Peace.  4th ed.  New York, Penguin, 2003.  128 p.
"Provides a global overview of the causes and consequences of war today and the dynamics of peacemaking.  It analyzes current wars, their background, their trends and their prospects." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  355.009  K46n  2003

Sobek, David.  The Causes of War.  Malden, MA, Polity, 2009.  229 p.
"Understanding the onset of war.... requires a movement away from single theories towards one that embraces the multi-faceted causes of war." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  355.027 S677c

Speer, James P.  World Polity:  Conflict and War:  History, Causes, Consequences, Cures.  Fort Bragg, CA, Q.E.D. Press, 1986.  323 p.
Part II investigates the causes of international conflicts:  the nature of man, natures of nations and the nature of the international system.
Book call no.:  327 S742w

Stoessinger, John G.  Why Nations Go to War.  8th ed.  Boston, St. Martin's Press, 2001.  286 p.
Studies the two world wars, Korea, Vietnam, India and Pakistan, the Arab States and Israel, the two Persian Gulf wars, and Sarajevo and Kosovo.
Book call no.:  909.82 S872w 2001

Suganami, Hidemi.  On the Causes of War.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1996.  235 p.
Book call no.:  355.027 S947o

Taylor, Scott.  Spinning on the Axis of Evil:  America's War Against Iraq.  Ottawa, Canada, Esprit de Corps Books, 2003.  231 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 T246s

Treverton, Gregory F. and others.  Exploring Religious Conflict.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2005.  64 p.
If hyperlink does not open, copy into browser.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  303.6 T812e

The Use of Force:  Military Power and International Politics, edited by Robert J. Art and Waltz, Kenneth N.  7th ed.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.  539 p.
"The selections in this fully updated text represent the best analysis by influential thinkers on the use of force in international affairs." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  327.172  U84  2009

Van Creveld, Martin L.  The Transformation of War.  New York, Free Press, 1991.  254 p.
Chapter 5:  What War is Fought for.
Book call no.:  355.020904 V223t

Van Evera, Stephen.  Causes of War:  Power and the Roots of Conflict.  Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1999.  270 p.
"Demonstrates that ideas from the Realist paradigm can offer strong explanations for international conflict and valuable prescriptions for its control." - Summary
Book call no.:  355.027 V252c

Wilmer, Franke.  The Social Construction of Man, the State, and War:  Identity, Conflict, and Violence in Former Yugoslavia.  New York, Routledge, 2002.  220 p.
"Uses the recent conflicts in the former Yugoslavia as a model for investigating what causes war to occur in a particular time and place, and with such brutality." - Summary
Book call no.:  949.703 W743s

Woocher, Lawrence.  Preventing Violent Conflict:  Assessing Progress, Meeting Challenges.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace, 2009.  16 p.  (Special Report, no. 231)
"Effective conflict prevention requires knowledge about when, where, and how to design and implement appropriately tailored strategies for each case." - Page 10.
Book call no.:  302.69  W873p

Yetiv, Steve A.  Explaining Foreign Policy:  U.S. Decision-Making in the Persian Gulf War.  Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.  288 p.
Book call no.:  956.704422 Y48e

Ziegler, David W.  War, Peace, and International Politics.  6th ed.  Boston, Little, Brown, 1993.  458 p.
Causes of War, pp 151-163.
Book call no.:  327 Z66w 1993

Documents (Student Research)

Abonadi, Earl E. K.  Weinberger-Powell and Transformation:  Perceptions of American Power from the Fall of Saigon to the Fall of Baghdad.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2006.  101 p.
"The most influential 'Never Again' argument has been the 1984 Weinberger Doctrine, later expanded to the Weinberger-Powell Doctrine, which sought to limit the use of American military power...Examines the course of U.S. military transformation since 1973 and analyzes the correlation between it and policy makersí perceptions of the increased potency of force." - Abstract
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525  A154w

Alkubaisi, Hassan M.  Entanglement in Iraq.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2004.   20 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 A4152e

Carlberg, Matthew A.  Epidemics Don't Cause Wars, but They Can End 'em.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, July 2002.  49 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 C278e

David, William E.  Environmental Scarcity as a Cause of Violent Conflict.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  67 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 D249e

Newton, Brandon D.  Punishment, Revenge, and Retribution:  A Historical Analysis of Punitive Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  65 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 N561p

Richardson, Natalie D.  Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait:  The Work of a Madman or a Predictable State Leader?  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2005.  28 p.
Uses well-known theories to study whether or not Saddam Hussein was a rational actor when he invaded Kuwait.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122  R524i

Sharon, Patrick J.  The Merchants of Mesopotamia and the Causes of the Persian Gulf War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, April 1996.  54 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 S531m

Stone, John W.  War and Human Evolutionary Behavior.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, May 1986.  49 p.
Theories on the Causes of War, pp 5-12.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 S878w

Tritten, James John.  Does New Technology Lead to War?  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 1988.  7 p.
"Discussion of new technologies leading to wars.  Historical case studies are reviewed with four alternate responses suggesting that nations do not go to war when faced with an enemy having developed a new technology of such significance that the very nature of war might change." - Abstract
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525-52

Ulrich, Donald K.  A Moral Argument on Preventive War.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2005.  18 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 U45m

Westphal, Steven D.  Counterterrorism:  Policy of Preemptive Action.   Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 2003.  24 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 W537c


Burgos, Russell A.  Origins of Regime Change:  "Ideapolitik" on the Long Road to Baghdad, 1993-2000.  Security Studies 17:221-256 April 2008.
"Saddam Hussein's ouster was not simply the result of idiosyncratic or nefarious decision-making processes within the Bush administration, but was instead the realization of a social choice made by U.S. foreign policy elites well before George W. Bush came to power."  - Abstract
Also available online at:

Colaresi, Michael P. and Thompson, William R.  Alliances, Arms Buildups and Recurrent Conflict:  Testing a Steps-to-War Model.  Journal of Politics 67:345-364 May 2005.
Also available online at:

Copeland, Dale C.  Economic Interdependence and War:  A Theory of Trade Expectations.  International Security 20:5-41 Spring 1996.
Inquires on whether or not economic interdependence increases or decreases the probability of war between states.
Also available online at:<5:EIAWAT>2.0.CO;2-S

Desch, Michael C.  Planning War in Peacetime.  Joint Force Quarterly No.30:94-104 Spring 2002.
"Focuses on the impact of war planning on the effectiveness of military activities.  Evidences to support the view that war plans can cause actual wars; impact of defensive war plans on possible international conflicts; role of changing plans in the battle of France 1940." - Abstract
Also available online at:

Dowd, Alan W.  Thirteen Years:  The Causes the Consequences of War in Iraq.  Parameters 33:46-60 Autumn 2003.
Also available online at:

Eash, Joseph J., III.  New Instruments for War and Peace.  Joint Force Quarterly No.27:95-97 Winter 2000-2001.
Reports on studies to determine the causes of conflicts.
Also available online at:

Einstein, Albert and Freud, Sigmund.  Why War?  International Journal of Group Tensions 1:3-25 January-March 1971.
An exchange of letters between Einstein and Freud in 1932. Originally Warum Krieg.

Fielding, Marcus.  Regime Change:  Planning and Managing Military-Led Interventions as ProjectsRUSI 151:20-22+ October 2006.
"This article offers a conceptual construct for military-led interventions.  It first considers the nature of military-led interventions intended to effect regime change, and then develops a conceptual construct for reconstruction and societal reform that intervention forces can apply." - Article
Also available online at:

Fink, Susan D.  The Trouble with Mixed Motives:  Debating the Political, Legal, and Moral Dimensions of InterventionNaval War College Review 57:19-32 Summer-Autumn 2004.
Discusses the causes of the Iraqi War 2003.
Also available online at:

Freedman, Lawrence.  International Security:  Changing Targets.  Foreign Policy No. 110:48-63 Spring 1998.
The Causes of Conflict, pp 57-59.
Also available online at:

Freedman, Lawrence.  War in Iraq:  Selling the Threat.  Survival 46:7-49 Summer 2004.
Also available online at:

Friedman, Norman.  What Are the Parallels of 1914 Germany and 2004 Iran?  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:4+ October 2004.
Also available online at:

Homer-Dixon, Thomas F.  Environmental Scarcity, Mass Violence, and the Limits to Ingenuity.  Current History 95:359-365 November 1996.
"Scarcities of critical environmental resources in particular cropland, freshwater, and forests-are contributing to mass violence in several areas of the world." - Article
Also available online at:

Houweling, Hank W. and Siccama, Jan G.  The Epidemiology of War, 1816-1980.  Journal of Conflict Resolution 29:641-663 December 1985.
"Investigates whether warfare is clustered in time and in space.  Using a method of analysis proposed by epidemiologists, significant evidence is found for time-space interaction not only in participation in war but also in outbreaks of war." - Article
Also available online at:<641:TEOW1>2.0.CO;2-7

Howard, Michael.  The Causes of War.  Wilson Quarterly 8:90-103 Summer 1984.

Howard, Michael.  The Causes of War:  Historians and the Problem of Power.  Encounter 58:22-30 March 1982.

Huntingdon, Samuel P.  The Clash of Civilizations?  Foreign Affairs 72:22-49 Summer 1993.
Author argues that "the fundamental sources of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic.  The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural.  The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future." - Article
Also available online at:

Jervis, Robert.  Arms Control, Stability, and Causes of War.  Political Science Quarterly 108:239-253 Summer 1993.
Explains the theory of arms control and the causes of war in relation to general directions specifying when and where armed conflict will occur.
Also available online at:<239:ACSACO>2.0.CO;2-H

Kahl, Colin H.  Population Growth, Environmental Degradation, and State-Sponsored Violence:  The Case of Kenya, 1991-93.  International Security 23:80+ Fall 1998.
Also available online at:<80:PGEDAS>2.0.CO;2-Z

Kaldor, Mary and Salmon, Andrew.  Military Force and European StrategySurvival 48:19-34 Spring 2006.
Assumes that European forces will be involved in military operations contributing to global security.  "Prerequisites for these operations include:  the primacy of human rights; legality; appropriate military response; clear political authority; civil, police and military coordination; and adequate intelligence and information." - Abstract

Kaufmann, Chaim.  Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas:  The Selling of the Iraq War.  International Security 29:5-48 Summer 2004.
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Lambelet, John C.  Do Arms Races Lead to War?  Journal of Peace Research 12, no. 2:123-128 1975.
Also available online at:<123:DARLTW>2.0.CO;2-4

LeBlanc, Stephen A.  Why Warfare?  Lessons from the Past.  Daedalus 136:13-21 Winter 2007.
Suggests that "studying anthropology and history can illuminate the causes of war." - Abstract
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Levy, Jack S.  Declining Power and the Preventive Motivation for War.  World Politics 40:82-107 October 1987.
Focuses on the preventive motivation as a contributory cause of war.

Also available online at:<82:DPATPM>2.0.CO;2-M

Levy, Jack S.  Misperception and the Causes of War:  Theoretical Linkages and Analytical Problems.  World Politics 36:76-99 October 1983.
Also available online at:<76:MATCOW>2.0.CO;2-A

Levy, Jack S.  Organizational Routines and the Causes of War.  International Studies Quarterly 30:193-222 June 1986.
"Identifies the theoretical linkages by which rigid organizational routines of the military may contribute to the outbreak of war, and examines the analytical problems involved in making such inferences." - Abstract
Also available online at:<193:ORATCO>2.0.CO;2-R

Levy, James.  Neville Chamberlain's Appeasement Policy as the Cause of World War II Is One of History's Myths.  Military History 23:65-67 September 2006.
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Lieber, Keir A.  The New History of World War I and What It Means for International Relations Theory.  International Security 32:155-191 Fall 2007.
"The new historiography of World War I, however, challenges many of the long-held assumptions about the origins of the conflict." - Abstract
Also available online at:

Mayer, Arno J.  Internal Causes and Purposes of War in Europe, 1870-1956:  A Research Assignment.  Journal of Modern History 41:291-303 September 1969.
Also available online at:<291:ICAPOW>2.0.CO;2-K

Merrill, A. Brent.  The Causes of War.  Military Review 62:44-52 July 1982.

Moodie, Michael.  Conflict Trends in the 21st Century.  Joint Force Quarterly No. 53:19-27 2009.
"States that the reasons for present conflicts are a combination of economic, political, psychological and social elements." - Summary
Also available online at:

Nesser, Petter.  Jihadism in Western Europe after the Invasion of Iraq:  Tracing Motivational Influences from the Iraq War on Jihadist Terrorism in Western Europe.  Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 29:323-342 June 2006.
Also available online at:

Prakash, Shri.  Causes of Conflicts in the Third World During the Post-Cold War Phase.  India Quarterly 50:23-36 January-June 1994.

Quester, George H.  Six Causes of War.  Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 6, no.1:1-23 1982.
Uses the matrices of game theory to argue that exactly opposite causes may account for different wars, and offers historical illustrations.

Rapoport, Anatole.  War Without Hatred.  Humanist 49:14-17+ July-August 1989.
Examines the question:  if hatred no longer causes armed conflict, what does?
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Rowe, David M.  The Tragedy of Liberalism:  How Globalization Cost the First World War.  Security Studies 14:407-447 July-September 2005.
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Russett, Bruce M.  Cause, Surprise, and No Escape.  Journal of Politics 24:3-22 February 1962.
Toward a theory of the cause of war, using World War I as an illustration.

Schweller, Randall L.  Domestic Structure and Preventive War:  Are Democracies More Pacific?  World Politics 44:235-269 January 1992.
Also available online at:<235:DSAPWA>2.0.CO;2-8

Seaton, Jean.  Why Do We Think the Serbs Do It?  The New 'Ethnic' Wars and the Media.  Political Quarterly 70:254-270 July-September 1999.
"Many contemporary wars simply do not start looking like the old-fashioned ones between nations with battles (which is not to say that they cannot rather swiftly turn into such affairs).  It is in this way that Kosovo is clearly part of a trend." - Article
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Sherk, George William.  The Fifth Horseman:  The Coming Resource and Water Wars.  Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 27, no.4:8-10 1999.
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Special Issue on Causes of War.  Journal of Peace Research 18, no. 1:entire issue 1981.
Six articles on various aspects of research into the causes of war.
Also available online at:<>1.0.CO;2-J

Special Issue on Environmental Conflict.  Journal of Peace Research 35:entire issue May 1998.
Articles include:  "Beyond Environmental Scarcity:  Causal Pathways to Conflict," by Wenche Hauge and Tanja Ellingsen, pp 299-31; "Demographic Pressure and Interstate Conflict:  Linking Population Growth and Density to Militarized Disputes and Wars, 1930-1989," by Jarslav Tir and Paul F. Diehl, pp 319-339; and "The Limits and Promise of Environmental Conflict Prevention:  The Case of the GEF" (Global Environment Facility), by Rodger A. Payne, pp 363-380
Also available online at:<>1.0.CO;2-E

Suganami, Hidemi.  Bringing Order to the Causes of War Debates.  Millennium 19:19-35 Spring 1990.

Tarzi, Shah M.  Democratic Peace, Illiberal Democracy, and Conflict Behavior.  International Journal of World Peace 24:35-60 December 2007.
"The key conclusion of this study is that regimes in transition to democracy and illiberal democracies, including electoral democracies characterized by contested institutions or contested sectarian and identity groups, are highly predisposed to external conflict and diversionary war with both other democracies and non-democratic regimes." - Abstract
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Terry, James P.  A Legal Appraisal of Military Action in Iraq.  Naval War College Review 57:53-66 Summer-Autumn 2004.
Also available online at:

Van Evera, Stephen.  Offense, Defense, and the Causes of War.  International Security 22:5-43 Spring 1998.
Addresses these questions:  is war more likely when conquest is easy?  Could peace be strengthened by making conquest more difficult?  What are the causes of offense dominance, and how can they be controlled?
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Wester, Franklin E.  Preemption and Just War:  Considering the Case of Iraq.  Parameters 34:20-39 Winter 2004-2005.
Also available online at:

Western, Jon.  The War over Iraq:  Selling War to the American Public.  Security Studies 14:106-139 January-March 2005.
Also available online at:

Yilmaz, Muzaffer E.  Intra-State Conflicts in the Post-Cold War Era.  International Journal of World Peace 24:11-33 December 2007.
"Provides an analytical discussion of the dynamics of intra-state conflicts that seem to have replaced the ideological clashes of the Cold War as the principal sources of current conflicts." - Abstract
Also available online at:

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