ACSC Research Topic

April 2005

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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All sites listed were last accessed on April 4, 1005.

Internet Resources

Campbell, Douglass. Close Air Support: A Primer. Annapolis, MD, U.S. Naval Institute, April 9, 2003.
Available online at:
Close air support, or CAS as it is known, is an aerial attack mission flown against enemy ground forces that are close enough to friendly forces to require detailed coordination before commencing the attack. When supporting the fluid, violent world of ground combat, the flier must confirm the target with some on-site observer or risk shooting the wrong people. Though noncombatants and other friendly groups aren't usually included in the official definition of "enemy," they face the same risk if they're in the battle area.

Elliott, Scott. CSAF Reconfirms Service's Commitment to Close Air Support. Air Force Print News AirForceLink, February 11, 2004.
Available online at:

Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Close Air Support (CAS). September 3, 2003. 205 p. (Joint Publication 3-09.3).
Available online at:

Military Readiness: Lingering Training and Equipment Issues Hamper Air Support of Ground Forces. Washington, U. S. General Accounting Office, May 2003. 44 p. (GAO-03-505).
Available online at:

Project Air Force Research Brief. Beyond Close Air Support: Forging a New-Air Ground Partnership. Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2005. 1 p.
Available online at:

Rolfsen, Bruce. Close Air Support Gets Even Closer With New Office. C4ISR Journal: The Journal of Net Centric Warfare. February 18, 2005.
Available online at:
Moving to improve close-air support for the Army and Marine Corps, the Air Force has stood up an office to coordinate how the service trains and equips airmen involved with air strikes. The new office is another step in the Air Force's renewed embrace of close-air support.


Campbell, Douglas. The Warthog and the Close Air Support Debate. Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 2003. 302 p.
Book call no.: 358.43 C187w

Don, Bruce W. and others. Future Ground Commanders' Close Support Needs and Desirable System Characteristics. Santa Monica, Ca, Rand, 2002. 153 p. (MR-833-OSD)
To explore new questions about the demand for and capabilities of close support, the authors applied varying types and levels of support to a series of combat scenarios. The results suggest that close support does not always help—but can be crucial. Timing may be less important than matching weapons, including damage patterns and terminal guidance systems, to targets, and using advanced systems to identify targets may afford greater impact.
Also available online at:
Book call no.: 355.46 F996


Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Binney, Michael W. Joint Close Air Support in the Low Intensity Conflict. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2003. 71 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 B614j

Harrison, Douglas M. Why Did the Army Develop Armed Helicopters for Close Combat Attack Instead of Relying on Air Force Close Air Support. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2004. 31 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 H318w

Hasken, Scott A. A Historical Look At Close Air Support. Fort Leavenworth, KS, U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2003. 74 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 H349h

Hoppe, Glenn M. Current Close Air Support Doctrine: Out of Step With New Technology and Urban Combat Requirements.. Newport, R.I., Naval War College, 2001. 29 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 H7981c

Kaufman, Randy L. Precision Guided Weapons: Panacea or Pitfall for the Joint Task Force Commander?. Newport, R.I., Naval War College, 2003. 24 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 K211p

Luke, Bryan K. Will Close Air Support Be Where Needed and When to Support Objective Force Operations in 2015? Fort Leavenworth, KS, U. S. Army Command and General Staff College. School of Advanced Military Studies, 2002. 96 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 L954w

McBride, Keith D. Three Timeless Procedures for CAS. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003. 35 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 M1193t

McPhillips, Chris A. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Future in Close Air Support. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2004. 39 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 M1722u

Napolitano, William M. Diverging Trends in Close Air Support. Carlisle Barracks, PA, U. S. Army War College, 2003. 31 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 N216d

Serres, Todd J. New Close Air Support Doctrine: Getting Control of Emerging Technology and Advanced Concepts. Fort Leavenworth, KS, U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2002. 140 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 S488n


Archer, Mark E. Helicopters Will Provide Close Air Support. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:49-51 July 2004.
Advanced technology promises to give helicopters the speed, range and endurance to provide close air support to troops around the world from the sea. The U.S. Navy has not used its helicopters in this way since Vietnam conflict. Used effectively in roles including logistics, search-and-rescue, antisubmarine warfare, antisurface operations and combat search-and-rescue, Navy helicopters rarely leave their familiar blue-water area of operations. To accomplish the CAS mission, a Navy helicopter would have to be heavily armed.
Also available online at:

Brill, Arthur P. Close Air Support: More Improvement Is Needed. Sea Power 46:15 November 2003.
US forces are aiming to improve on their Close Air Support (CAS) to avoid any other "friendly fire" incidents during military engagements. Despite the success of the CAS in the Iraqi war, many experts in the military and elsewhere in government believe that further improvement is needed in CAS interoperability and mission execution. CAS developments are presented.
Also available online at:

Cebrowski, Arthur. Retooling Joint Close Air Support: Air and Ground Segments Should Be Interdependent Parts of a Single System. ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance Journal) May 1, 2003.
Close-air support refers to supporting troops who are in contact with the enemy. It is support of the close-in fight, which means the ordnance that's delivered falls not only on the enemy but close to friendly forces as well. It connotes nothing about where the ordnance comes from or where the attack aircraft is located, nor should it.

Deptula, David A. and Dahl, Sigfred J. Transforming Joint Air-Ground Operations for 21st Century Battlespace. Field Artillery number 4:21-25 July-August 2003.
Also available online at:

Dusch, Carles D. Anaconda Offers Lessons in Close Air Support. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:78-81 March 2003.
Focuses on the close air support provided by the U.S. Air Force in the military Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan. Complaints against the support provided by the Air Force to ground troops; Failure of the army to inform the Air Force commanders about the operation; Doctrine regarding strategic attack of the air force. INSET: What We Did (Not) Learn from Korea.
Also available online at:

Erwin, Sandra I. Close Air Support System Helps Reduce Fratricide. National Defense 86:15 March 2002.
Also available online at:

Erwin, Sandra I. Revised Rules For Close Air Support. National Defense 88:19 July 2004.
Several instances of air-to-ground friendly fire by U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan were attributed to misunderstandings between operators from different services, who may not necessarily speak the same language when it comes to close air support.
Also available online at:

Frey, James W. Keyhole CAS for Modern Warriors. Marine Corps Gazette 88:39-41 May 2004.
Also available online at:

Goodman, Glenn W. Close Air Support. Armed Forces Journal 139:54-57 January 2002.

Grange, David L. The Close Air Support Imperative. Armed Forces Journal 140:14-15 December 2002.
Failings in Afghanistan highlight deficiencies in U.S. Air Force doctrine and equipment.

Grant, Rebecca. The Clash About CAS. Air Force Magazine 86:54-59 January 2003.
Doctrinal bias and organizational concerns can make the Army an unhappy customer, even in the age of precision weapons.
Also available online at:

Jansen, John and others. The Tower of Babel: Joint CAS Operations in Afghanistan. Infantry 93:33-39 January-February 2004.
It is important to examine the performance in executing close-air support missions in Afghanistan because CAS is one of the defining expressions of joint operations at the tactical level of war. Specific recommendations to improve J-CAS at operational level are provided.
Also available online at:

Jasper, Scott and Binney, Michael. Joint Close Air Support Training Transformation. Marine Corps Gazette 88:71-79 May 2004.
Also available online at:

Kennedy, Harold. Air Force Seeks to Upgrade Close Air Support Fleet. National Defense 88:44-46 July 2004.
Also available online at:

Kennedy, Harold. Military Steps Up Training For Joint Close Air Support. National Defense 89:44+ December 2004.
Also available online at:

Meilinger, Phillip S. Air-Ground Cooperation Perspectives. Military Review 83:50-58 November-December 2003.
Air-ground cooperation (AGC) is the interaction of air and ground forces to ensure the synchronization, coordination, and integration of air operations with the joint commander's campaign plan. Current warfare is moving into an era of dramatic political, technological, and doctrinal change, so AGC must keep pace. Meilinger discusses the perspectives of the AGC in dealing with discord among military personnel.
Also available online at:

Olson, Robert. Close Air Support's New Look: Strategic Assets Go Tactical. Armed Forces Journal 141:46-47 April 2004.
From the Commentary section.

Puttre, Michael. Close Air Support From Afar. Journal of Electronic Defense 26:40-42+ June 2003.
Examines how precision-guided weapons and advanced sensors are making it possible for ground forces to call on support fires from a variety of airborne platforms in the United States. Concept of a lighter expeditionary force; Extension of the effects-driven warfare concept; Reasons for bringing precision-guided weapons into the close-air-support role.
Also available online at:

Ripley, Tim. Briefing: Close Air Support. Jane's Defence Weekly 39:24-27 July 2, 2003.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Commander Defends Anaconda Air Support. Air Force Times 63:20 January 20, 2003.
The Air Force general who commands the service's active-duty fighters and bombers is contesting Army statements that warplanes were slow to provide close-air support during Operation Anaconda last March.

Rolfsen, Bruce. On Time and On Target: Aircrews, Controllers Scramble for Smarter Close Air Support. Air Force Times 64:14-16 December 1, 2003.

Rolfsen, Bruce and Bacon Lance M. Juggling Sorties: Combined Air Operations Center Is Nucleus of Massive Air Campaign. Air Force Times 63:12-13 April 21, 2003.

Wieland, Justin. Hoooah! Army Life For Airmen. Combat Edge 13:4-9 October 2004.
Wieland relates his experiences in a 4-month deployment at Iraq as an Air Liaison Officer with the first Infantry Division. He provides insight into the Tactical Air Control Party world and food for thought with respect to maximizing safety in such a dangerous environment.
Also available online at:

Wilson, J. R. Not Too Close: Putting Ordnance Where Ground Forces Want It. Armed Forces Journal 141:42-44 January 1, 2004.  

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