Congo Crisis: 1960-1965

December 2002

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site. 

All sites listed were last accessed on December 12, 2002.

Internet Sites

U.S. Army Center of Military History. The Congolese Rescue Operation (November 1964).
Available online at:

FAS: Military Analysis Network. Operation Red Dragon.
Available online at:
U.S.-Belgian Rescue of European Hostages.

Glasgow, W. H. (U.S. Army Center of Military History). Operations Dragon Rouge and Dragon Noire. Headquarters, United States Army, Europe, Operations Division, Historical Section, 1965.
Available online at:

McDonald, Glenn Steven (University of Geneva). Peace Enforcement: Mapping the 'Middle Ground' in Peace Operations. Canada, 2001.
Available online at:
See Chapter 2: The Congo (1960-1964): .

McGill, Alexander. An African Rapid-Deployment Force for Peace Operations on the African Continent. July 1995.
Available online at:
Overview of Operation Red Dragon and peacekeeping in Africa.

Past Humanitarian Interventions.
Available online at:,%2520Section%2520B.pdf+Past+Humanitarian+Interventions.&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
See Section - Belgium’s Intervention in the Congo, 1960.


Abi-Saab, Georges. The United Nations Operation in the Congo, 1960-1964. New York, Oxford University Press, 1978. 206 p.
Book call no.: 341.139 A148u

Chatterjee, Dwarka Nath. Storm Over the Congo. New York, Advent Books, 1980. 251 p.
Book call no.: 967.5102 C495s

Dayal, Rajeshwar. Mission for Hammarskjold: The Congo Crisis. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1976. 335 p.
Book call no.: 967.5 D275m

Hoyt, Michael P. E. Captive in the Congo: A Consul's Return to the Heart of Darkness. Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 2000. 275 p.
Book call no.: 967.51031 H871c

Kanza, Thomas R. Conflict in the Congo: The Rise and Fall of Lumumba. Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1972. 346 p.
Book call no.: 967.5 K16c

Lefever, Ernest W. Uncertain Mandate: Politics of the U.N. Congo Operation. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins Press, 1967. 254 p.
Book call no.: 341.139675 L493u

Martelli, George. Experiment in World Government: An Account of the United Nations Operation in the Congo, 1960-1964. London, Johnson Publications, 1966. 244 p.
Book call no.: 341.139675 M376e

Odom, Thomas P. Dragon Operations: Hostage Rescues in the Congo, 1964-1965. Washington, D.C., Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1988. 224 p.
Book call no.: 967.5103 O25d

Ohaegbulam, Festus Ugboaja. Nigeria and the UN Mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Case Study of the Formative Stages of Nigeria's Foreign Policy. Tampa, FL, University Presses of Florida, 1982. 190 p.
Book call no.: 327.669 O36n

Packham, Eric S. Freedom and Anarchy. Commack, N.Y., Nova Science Publishers, 1996. 322 p.
Book call no.: 967.5103 P119f

Packham, Eric S. Success or Failure? The UN Intervention in the Congo After Independence. Commack, N.Y., Nova Science Publishers, 1998. 326 p.
Book call no.: 320.9675 P119s

Reed, David. 111 Days in Stanleyville. New York, Harper & Row, 1965. p.
Book call no.: 967.5 R323o

Rikhye, Indar Jit. Military Adviser to the Secretary-General: U.N. Peacekeeping and the Congo Crisis. New York, St. Martin's Press, 1993. 355 p.
Book call no.: 341.584 R572m

"The Savage Wars of Peace": Towards a New Paradigm of Peace Operations, edited by John T. Fishel. Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1998. 244 p.
Coverage of the Congo and a chapter on lessons that should have been learned regarding peace operations.
Book call no.: 341.584 S264

Simmonds, R. Legal Problems Arising from the United Nations Military Operations in the Congo. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1968. 357 p.
Book call no.: 341.139675 S592L

Valahu, Mugur. The Katanga Circus: A Detailed Account of Three UN Wars. New York, R. Speller, 1964. 364 p.
Book call no.: 967.5 V136k

Van Nederveen, Giles. USAF Airlift Into the Heart of Darkness, the Congo 1960-1978: Implications for the Modern Air Mobility Planners. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air University Press, 2001. 61 p.
Also available online at: ADA394617
Book call no.: 358.440973 V265u

Wagoner, Fred E. Dragon Rouge: The Rescue of Hostages in the Congo. Washington, D.C., National Defense University, Research Directorate, 1980. 219 p.
Book call no.: 365.45 W135d

Witte, Ludo de. The Assassination of Lumumba. New York, Verso, 2001. 224 p.
Book call no.: 967.5103 W828m


Abt Associates. Case Studies in the Termination of Internal Revolutionary Conflict: Project TIRC. Cambridge, MA, 1966-1967. 12 vols.
See Volume 11: Conflict Resolution in the Congo, by Marc Schulman.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42351-2

Dahlgren, Wallace C. The United Nations Operation in the Congo as a Model for Future Peacekeeping Activities, A Case Study. Maxwell AFB, AL. 109 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 32983 D1311u

Eckwright, Royce E. and Cantwell Gerald T. The Congo Airlift - 1960. Historical Divison, Office of Information, United States Air Forces Europe., [S.I.], 1961. 1 v.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41206

Hays, Ralph M. Airpower in the Congo: A Factor for Political Stability. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1967. 88 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 32983 H425a

Jackson, Joe M. The Congo Operation as a Model for Future Peacekeeping. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1964. 105 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U32983 J13c

Jakowatz, Louis G. Stanleyville Rescue: Contemporary Applications. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1987. 21 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 J252s

Orwa, D. Katete. Responses of the United Nations and the United States to the Congo Crisis: Events and Issues. Akron, Ohio, University of Akron, 1979. 351 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-138

Parris, Harry N. An Evaluation of the Success or Failure of the United Nations Military Operation in the Congo. Maxwell AFB, AL, 1963. 52 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 32983 P2611e


Beaten Airmen Part of USAF Airlift Covering 12,000 Miles. Air Force Times 21:5 September 3, 1960.

Brown, Stephen D. Destination Stanleyville (1964 Congo hostage rescue). Military Review 71:38-50 March 1991.

Congo Airlift Makes First Anniversary. Air Force Times 21:14 July 22, 1961.

Congo Mob Attacks 8 Unloading AF Plane. Air Force Times 21:5 September 3, 1960.

Dupuy, R. Ernest. A Soldier's Nightmare: That's the UN Congo Picture Today. Army, Navy, Air Force Register 81:13 September 17, 1960.

Ewing, John R. Congo Rescue (of American and European Hostages, Nov 24, 1964). Airman 9:10-13 November 1965.

Harris, H. E. D. Operation "Sarafield": The Irish Army in the Congo. Army Quarterly 83:62-74 October 1961.

Holm, Richard L. A Plane Crash, Rescue, and Recovery: A Close Call in Africa Studies in Intelligence 43:23-35 Winter 1999-2000.
Personal narrative covering an historical perspective of the crisis in the Congo.
Also available online at:

Operation New Tape: A History of MATS Operations in the Congo. MATS Flyer 12:4-8 January 1965.

Ramos, Francisco J. The United Nations and the Congo Crisis. Military Review 45:50-57 November 1965.

Schwarzenbach, Edmund C. In the Belgian Congo. Military Review 40:95-105 October 1960.

Shani, Joshua. Airborne Raids. Air University Review 35:41-55 March-April 1984.
Contains an overview of Operation Dragon Rouge.
Also available online at:

Smith, John F. The Congo Airlift. Bee-Hive 35:24-27 Fall 1960.

Tarleton, H. Watkins. Operation New Tape: The Congo Airlift. Air University Quarterly Review 13:18-33 Summer 1961.

van Haute, Andre. Revolt in the Congo: The Part Played by the Belgian AF in July 1960. Air Pictorial 27:158-159 May 1965.

Wettering, Fredrick L. "Dealing with Anarchy." JFQ: Joint Forces Quarterly 4:17-23 Spring 1994.
Article on Operation Dragon Rouge.

Williams, G. Mennen. Congo Realities and U.S. Policy. (Address at the Ford Hall Forum, Boston, Apr 25, 1965). For Commanders  
Part One, 5:1-4 September 1,1965 
Part Two, 5:1-4 September 16, 1965

Witze, Claude. School for Beginners (Operation New Tape, the Military Airlift to the Congo Area). Air Force 43:26-28 October 1960.

Back Arrow Return to Bibliography List