CULTURAL AWARENESS AND THE MILITARY


March  2010

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


CONTENTS

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site. 

Some of the "Internet Resources" materials and other links in this publication require access to MSFRIC's subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact  the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

If a file does not open by clicking on the link, copy the link into your browser address bar.

All sites listed were last accessed  March 30, 2010.
 


Internet Resources


Air Force Culture and Language Center.
Available online at:  http://www.culture.af.edu/index.html
Center's website offers separate sections on Culture Education, Culture Training, Language Resources, and Prepare to Deploy/Research a Country.

Air War College.  Socio-Cultural and Language Resources.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/culture/

Army Command and General Staff College.  Combined Arms Research Library.  CAC Commander's Cultural Awareness Reading List.
Available online at:  http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/biblio/cac_cultural.asp

Army Command and General Staff College.  Combined Arms Research Library.  Cultural Awareness.
Available online at:  http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/resources/biblio/cultaware.asp

Includes links to online documents and related websites.

Brown, Keith.  "All They Understand Is Force":  Debating Culture in Operation Iraqi Freedom.  American Anthropologist 110:443-453 December 2008.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1706489501&sid=4&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Explores the impact of cultural knowledge exposed during Operation Iraqi Freedom and the different military understanding of these cultural approaches by U.S. Forces.  Explores the conflicting beliefs and varied approaches to their missions.

DoD Regional and Cultural Capabilities:  The Way Ahead.
Available online at:  http://www.culture.af.edu/PDF/CulturalCapabilities.pdf
Publication is "the outcome of a gathering of senior leaders from the Department of Defense to focus on the mission demands for regional and cultural capabilities and develop a framework for synchronizing policies, plans, and programs to meet these demands".  Summit held June 2007.
Includes "The Regional and Cultural Expertise Summit:  Building a Framework to Meet National Defense Challenges.

Najafbagy, Reza.  Problems of Effective Cross-Cultural Communication and Conflict Resolution.  Palestine-Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture 15-16:146-150 2008.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=42842725&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv
The author contends that "the contributing factor to the failure of several international cooperation and conflict settlement is related to the communication problem and cultural differences.  He claims that effective communication based on cultural understanding is effective in addressing political, economic and social problems of various countries worldwide." - Abstract

Nobel, Orly Ben-Yoav and others.  Winning the War and the Relationships:  Preparing Military Officers for Negotiations with Non-Combatants.  West Point, NY, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership, U.S. Military Academy, August 2007.  33 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA472089
"Current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan involving counterinsurgency, peace-keeping, stability and support missions and nation building have increased interest in cross-cultural negotiation skills as a central component of military leadership." - Abstract

Racius, Egdunas.  The 'Cultural Awareness' Factor in the Activities of the Lithuanian PRT in Afghanistan.  Baltic Security & Defence Review 9:57-78 2007.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=26112425&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv
"Examines the cultural awareness factor in the activities of the Lithuanian Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in a central Afghanistan province of Ghor.  It questions the extent to which Lithuanian governmental institutions, supervising the mission perceive the cultural awareness factor as a crucial step in the successes and failures of the activities of the Ltihuanian PRT in the province as well as in the capital, Kabul." - Abstract

Security Assistance:  U.S. and International Historical Perspectives, edited by Kendall D. Gott and Michael G. Brooks.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006.  692 p.  (The Proceedings of the Combat Studies Institute 2006 Military History Symposium).
Available online at:  http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/2006Symposium.pdf
Cross-Cultural Considerations for US Security Assistance in the Middle East, by Hank Kron, pp 55-73.

State Dept.:  Military Counterinsurgency Manual Stresses Cultural Awareness.  US Fed News Service, Including US State News January 9, 2007.
The U.S. Army and Marine Corps have published an updated field manual for fighting insurgencies that stresses cultural awareness, personal contacts, reconstruction strategies and close cooperation with nonmilitary agencies.  The manual, titled Counterinsurgency, updated for the first time in 20 years, includes new lessons from Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere, as well as a historical overview spanning more than a century that calls attention to important aspects of past insurgencies.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1191783061&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD


Internet Resources (Student Research)

Aniola, Jaroslaw.  Communication in Civil-Military Cooperation.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, March 2007.  105 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467135
"Culturally sensitive communications such as negotiation and media interactions are vital to effective coordination and cooperation in modern peacekeeping.  Thus, Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC) officers must know how to deal with the media.  They must know how, despite enormous cultural diversity, to successfully conduct their jobs; how to work efficiently with interpreters; and finally, how to resolve local conflicts using negotiations." - Abstract

Briceno, Alejandro P.  The Use of Cultural Studies in Military Operations.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.  25 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA491143
"Understanding the intrinsic values of an enemy's ideology, the civilian population, and the friendly forces that we will encounter will enable our forces to make decisions that will minimize unintended consequences and maximize our intended influence in the most positive manner possible." - Executive Summary

Clark, Shannon.  Muslim Culture:  Center of Gravity for Global War on Terror.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2007.  19 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470747
The author emphasizes the importance for the interagency and non-governmental organization to work well with Muslim leaders to change the culture that refuses to modernize and globalize.

Claxton, Randy O.  Detainee Healthcare in the Theater Hospitals:  Are Air Force Medics Prepared for the Challenge?  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2009.  32 p.
Available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=3f95e85c-38cd-4f3b-ada0-019e13adf2ed
Examines how the Air Force Medical Services (AFMS) can better prepare the medical personnel in providing medical care for detainees in the Air Force Theater Hospitals (AFTS) and the importance of understanding the culture of the detainees.

Coles, John P.  Full Spectrum Intelligence Support for the Joint Commander:  Incorporating Cultural Intelligence into Joint Doctrine.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 2005.  25 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA464552
"Contends that joint intelligence doctrine focuses too much on traditional adversaries in combat situations and does not adequately address issues of foreign culture.  Analyzes the focus of the joint intelligence doctrine and its lack of consideration of foreign culture." - Abstract

Ellis, Deborah M.  Integrating Language and Culture.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2005.  55 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA437562
"Future conflicts will be asymmetrical with more ethnic and religious issues as the source of conflict.  An understanding of language and culture is just as important as understanding the enemy order of battle." - Abstract

Farrington, Jessie O.  Developing Strategic Leaders While Maintaining the Warfighting Edge.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2007.  18 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467210
"The complex contemporary political stage and operations in support of the Global War on Terrorism have demanded a different kind of Army strategic leader.  These officers must be sound tactical and operational leaders, be multi-disciplined, and possess senior management, cultural, and diplomatic skills not typically required of officers in the past." - Abstract

Houghton, Anne-Marie.  Effective Use of Females to Support Nation Building Operations in Afghanistan.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2009.  25 p.
Available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=32581e8e-9372-43fe-95a3-ac5c8ae8054f
Since women are now increasingly in the front lines more appropriate training for their own safety should be given .

Latham, George A., II.  Cultural Awareness and Cross Cultural Communication:  Combat Multipliers for Leaders in the Next Millennium.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College. School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2000.  59 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA389824

Karcanes, James A.  Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander:  Moving Beyond Culture-Centric Warfare.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2007.  22 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470803
Emphasizes the necessity of cultural awareness to achieve cultural knowledge of potential adversaries and coalition partners in order for the commander to meet the challenges that culture brings to the contemporary operating environment.

Keene, Sean T.  Know Your Enemy and Know Yourself:  Assessing Progress in Developing Cultural Competence to Enhance Operational Effectiveness.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2007.  21 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470764
The author analyzes that "the nation's recent culture-focused initiatives in meeting the demands for cultural competence fall short of transforming cultural competence within the armed forces of the United States in order to ensure successes at the operational level." - Abstract

Kleiner, Carolyn F.  The Importance of Cultural Knowledge for Today's Warrior-Diplomats.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2008.  24 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA478493

McCarthy, Michael.  Developing Cultural Competence at the Tactical Level:  The Art of the Possible.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2009.  60 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA512487
"A unit must train collectively in a physically and culturally simulated environment in order to apply cultural skills as a base foundation for cultural competence." - Abstract

Rothstein, Michael.  Fire, Ready, Aim:  Developing Intercultural Skills During Officer Formal Education.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, September 2006.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA515487

Suther, George N.  Conducting Japanese Negotiations Strategic Vision and Cultural Adaptation.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2008.  28 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA478246
In order to understand convention for negotiation it is necessary to understand the host nation’s history and culture.


Books


Goodwin, Deborah.  The Military and Negotiation:  The Role of the Soldier-Diplomat.  New York, Frank Cass, 2005.  243 p.
See index for references to culture.
Book call no.:  355.4 G656m

Hardison, Chaitra M. and others.  Cross-Cultural Skills for Deployed Air Force Personnel:  Defining Cross-Cultural Performance.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2009.  184 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA499701
Book call no.:  355.5071 C951

Jager, Sheila Miyoshi.  On the Uses of Cultural Knowledge.  Carlisle, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, November 2007.  30 p.
"Highlights the importance of culture, and cultural awareness, in formulating a broad strategy for counterinsurgency which also has wide-ranging implications for U.S. foreign policy." - Foreword
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB817.pdf
Book call no.:  355.0218 J24o

Kim, Jiyul.  Cultural Dimensions of Strategy and Policy.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, May 2009.  46 p.
"There has been a growing recognition in the post-Cold War era that culture has increasingly become a factor in determining the course of today’s complex and interconnected world.  The U.S. experience in Afghanistan and Iraq extended this trend to national security and military operations." - Summary
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB919.pdf
Book call no.:  303.482 K49c

Metrinko, Michael J.  The American Military Advisor:  Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute and Strategic Studies, Army War College, August 2008.  83 p.
"Describes the preparations that an advisor should make, illustrates the questions he should ask, and explains the political and cultural complexities that affect his mission." - Abstract
Also available online at:  https://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB869.pdf
Book call no.:  355.0320973 M594a

Salmoni, Barak A. and Holmes-Eber, Paula.  Operational Culture for the Warfighter:  Principles and Applications.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps University Press, 2008.  344 p.
Book call no.:  355.50973 S172o

Schmidl, Erwin A.  Peace Operations Between War and Peace:  Small Wars & Insurgencies.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2000.  173 p.
This group of studies first appeared in a special issue of the journal Small Wars & Insurgencies, Autumn 1999.  Comparisons of Srebrenica and Somalia show that the demands of peace interventions often more resemble counter-insurgency operations of the past than some of the more peaceful peacekeeping missions of the 'blue helmet' type.  This calls for better and more extensive preparation for troops and personnel involved, including cultural awareness training.
Book call no.:  355.35 P355

Selmeski, Brian R.  Military Cross-Cultural Competence:  Core Concepts and Individual Development.  s.l., Centre for Security, Armed Forces & Society, Royal Military College of Canada, 2007.  42 p.
Book call no.:  355.5071 S468m

Stewart, Andrew W.  Friction in U.S Foreign Policy:  Cultural Difficulties with the World.  Carlisle, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, 2006.  24 p.
"This paper examines the ideological threats confronting the United States and America’s lack of cultural savvy, along with its implications, proposing a new outlook for policy leaders and strategists." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB706.pdf
Book call no.:  303.48273 S849f

Strategic Culture and Weapons of Mass Destruction:  Culturally Based Insights into Comparative National Security Policymaking, edited by Jeannine L. Johnson and others.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.  285 p.
"This work describes strategic culture and its value as a methodological approach to the study of international relations.  The strategic culture approach yields important insights into the national and organizational motivations behind state decisions to acquire, proliferate or deploy weapons of mass destruction and fills the theoretical and empirical gaps suffered by realist and neo-realist approaches." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  355.0217 S8984

Tressler, David M.  Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment:  Lessons from Iraq.  Carlisle, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, August 2007.  111 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB792.pdf
Book call no.:  355.550973 T799n

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Armed Services.  Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee.  Defense Language and Cultural Awareness Transformation:  To What End?  At What Cost?  Hearing.  110th Congress, 2nd session, July 9, 2008.  Washington, GPO, 2009.  148 p.
Also available online at:  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/FDLP122
Book call no.:  303.482 U585d

Wunderle, William D.  A Manual for American Servicemen in the Arab Middle East:  Using Cultural Understanding to Defeat Adversaries and Win the Peace.  New York, Skyhorse Publishing, 2008.  128 p.
Book call no.:  306.09174927 W965m

Wunderle, William D.  Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness:  A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006.  136 p.
If hyperlink does not open, copy into browser.
Also available online at:  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS81757
Book call no.:  335.4 W965t


Documents


Abbe, Allison and others.  Cross-Cultural Competence in Army Leaders:  A Conceptual and Empirical Foundation.  Arlington, VA, Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2007.  54 p.
"This report presents a framework for cross-cultural competence in Army leaders, reviews empirical research on predictors of intercultural effectiveness, and describes existing measures of cross-cultural competence and related constructs." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA476072
Doc. call no.:  M-U 31716-34 no.2008-01

Barnett, J. W.  Insight into Foreign Thoughtworlds for National Security Decision Makers.  Alexandria, VA, Institute for Defense Analyses, January 2004.  61 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420821
Doc. call no.:  M-U 40381-41 no.2665

Barucky, Jerry and others.  Evaluation of Cross-Cultural Models for Psychological Operations:  Test of a Decision Modeling Approach.  Mesa, AZ, Air Force Research Laboratory, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Warfighter Training Research Division, 2001.  69 p.
This study utilized findings from existing predictive models that deal with the use of information related to cultural traits and attitudes of potential target audiences to develop a system that could help military planners estimate the probability of achieving various PSYOP objectives.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA400796
Doc. call no.:  M-U 44289-16 2000 no. 0158

Hancock, Peter A. and others.  An Initial Framework for Enhancing Cultural Competency:  The Science of Cultural Readiness.  Patrick AFB, FL, Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute, Directorate of Research, 2007.  60 p.  (DEOMI Internal Report CCC: 07-2)
"In order that military personnel be better armed to access vital information and are thus able to use it to enhance their probability of mission success, we need a science of cultural readiness.  In this we need to identify and distill methods of measurement and assessment which allow us to capture and disseminate culturally-contingent information." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488614
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43543-16 no.07-2

Ross, K. G. and Thornson, C. A.  Toward an Operational Definition of Cross-Cultural Competence from the Literature.  Patrick AFB, FL, Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute, Dirctorate of Research, 2008.  17 p.  (DEOMI Internal Report CCC; 08-3)
"The purpose of this project is to derive a preliminary operational definition of cross-cultural competence and test and validate related measures in the military population." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488612
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43543-16 no.08-3


Documents (Student Research)

Abrahams, David S.  Meta-Meaning in Context:  The Military Application of Sociolinguistic Anthropology to Operations in the Arabic Speaking World.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, May 2007.  77 p.
"This paper demonstrates how a better understanding of culture can lend itself to a better understanding of meaning in discourse between two cultures who operate across a linguistic barrier.  The paper falls under the tradition of cultural relativism, and the modern version of linguistic relativity."- Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470457
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 A159m

Anderson, Donald J.  Cultural Intelligence:  Meeting Today's Demands.  Newport, RI, Naval War College. Joint Military Operations Dept., May 2004.  21 p.
To meet today's challenges and to prepare for both unlimited war and MOOTW, cultural intelligence must be integrated into the Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace phase of the Commander's Estimate of the Situation.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425940
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 A5462c

Arcuri, Anthony P.  The Importance of Cross-Cultural Awareness for Today's Operational Environment.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2007.  30 p.
The author contends how the lack of cross cultural awareness has decreased military effectiveness and explains what needs to be done to correct these shortcomings." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469379
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 A6571i

Beckno, Brian.  Preparing the American Soldier in a Brigade Combat Team to Conduct Information Operations in the Contemporary Operational Environment.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, June 2006.  102 p.
Identifies skills and applications that American soldiers in a Brigade Combat Team should be educated and trained on to effectively conduct IO.  These skills are intercultural communication, language, negotiation, and media awareness.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA451276
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 B3971p

Beeson, Michael D.  The Language of Conflict:  How a Combined/Joint Force Commander Can Overcome Military Linguist Shortages to Enhance Information Operations.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2002.  25 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA400907
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 B415L

Beleaga, Constantin Emilian.  The Role of Cultural Understanding and Language Training in Unconventional Warfare.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.  83 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA429682
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B428r

Bledsoe, Elizabeth E.  The Use of Culture in Operational Planning.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  66 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA436485
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 B646u

Bohm, Jason Quinton.  Complacency Kills:  The Need for Improvement in the Way the Marine Corps Prepares for Future Conflict.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2001.  71 p.
Although the Marine Corps’ focus should remain on developing combat readiness, it must do more to properly prepare for future MOOTW.  Author identifies a number of recommendations that the Marine Corps should take in achieving this goal.  They include standardizing cultural awareness training and expanding the Marine Corps foreign language program.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401238
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 B676c

Brents, William B.  America 's Cultural Awakening.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2007.  18 p.
Argues "that the military and the Army in particular must genuinely understand the cultures and languages of the places they are sent if they are to successfully carry out US foreign policy." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469107
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B839a

Chandler, Jennifer V.  Why Culture Matters:  An Empirically-Based Pre-Deployment Training Program.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2005.  93 p.
Presents the why and the how culture is important in pre-deployment training and how it will improve the military's ability to operate successfull military missions.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439382
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 C455w

Chowning, Scott D.  The Clash of Cultures.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003.  29 p.
Examines three cases from Korea to Vietnam to Kosovo to explore the implications of past failings to understand culture.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 C552c

Christensen, R. Bryan.  Weight of Culture in Nation Building.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.  90 p.
"Iraqi culture is radically different from U.S. culture and so it has become an easy scapegoat for any apparent lack of progress by U.S. forces in postwar operations.  The lack of progress is attributed to a fundamental misunderstanding of Iraqi culture. However, successful nation building in a culture that is very distant from the United States is not without precedent.  This work analyzes the U.S. occupation of Japan to determine what went right in that occupation and what lessons learned there can be applied to Iraq." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471210
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 C554w

Chung, Michael H.  U.S. Policy Toward the Korean Peninsula Unification:  A Cross-Cultural Perspective.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2009.  20 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA498023
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 C5592u

Clark, Todd J.  Developing a Cultural Intelligence Capability.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.  72 p.
Contends that "the effect of cultural ignorance is directly linked to mission accomplishment and therefore the military must improve its collective cultural capabilities to address this threat to military operations." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA502169
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 C595d

Clarke, Alan J.  Tribal Identity and Conflicts with Tribes.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2008.  22 p.
Addresses the impact the tribes pose to the future of conflicts.  Offers two case studies - The Plains Indian Wars of 1865-1891 and the Philippine Insurgency.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA478534
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 C5971t

Crooks, Rory A.  Cultivating a Cross-Cultural Disposition.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff, June 2007.  79 p.
"The Army has incorporated knowledge of foreign cultures and foreign languages into its professional military education (PME) curricula.  While this knowledge and these skills are clearly needed, possessing them does little to shape the dispositions of military students.  PME must examine the foundations of its educational philosophy and seek more creative approaches to teaching cultural awareness." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471220
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 C948c

Csicsila, Michael A.  Using BATs, CATs, and RATs to Defeat Transnational Terrorist and Control Ungoverned Space.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2006.  53 p.
According to the author "the Department of Defense must establish specially trained and selected advisory teams that immerse themselves in the country for 2-3 years, and who work at the regional, country and unit level, provide the cultural understanding and regional coordination that is required to defeat transnational terrorist and control ungoverned space." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449943
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 C958u

Davidson, Michael L.  Culture and Effects-Based Operations in an Insurgency.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2005.  55 p.
"Despite its domination of conventional warfare the United States military finds itself in a quagmire concerning the unconventional fight in Iraq.  Cultural factors influence the genesis, lifetime, and demise of an insurgency.  To understand insurgency and the environment that breeds it, one has to understand culture." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA437568
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 D253c

Didziulis, Joseph R.  Winning the Battle for Hearts and Minds:  Operationalizing Cultural Awareness During Stability Operations.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2008.  36 p.
"The cultural dimension has been an item of interest for conflict after conflict and yet the military seems to lack the ability to operationalize this fundamental concept until far too much blood has been needlessly spilled." - Abstract
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/rims/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=downloadpaper&objectid=f77f77a7-5dac-4737-80fa-13231dada486&rs=PublishedSearch
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 D558w

Evans, Michael R.  Clear, Hold and Build:  The Role of Culture in the Creation of Local Security Forces.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2006.  64 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA450083
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 E923c

Fawcett, Grant S.  Cultural Understanding in Counterinsurgency:  Analysis of the Human Terrain System.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2009.  52 p.
Human Terrain System was used as a means to have a better understanding of culture at the operational and tactical level.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA505497
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 F278c

Gordon, James A.  Cultural Assessments and Campaign Planning.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2004.  56 p.
Examines case studies of actions in Vietnam, Somalia, Haiti, and Iraq, and argues that the United States either misunderstood or did not appropriately consider cultural aspects in planning campaigns.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA429762
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 G6631c

Haschak, Kirk J.  Manning the Limes:  Preparing Officers for Operating on the Strategic Perimeter.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2006.  18 p.
Studies historical successes and failures of Army operations in light of the cultural preparedness of the officers involved, and examines areas where better cultural awareness could have facilitated operations.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449349
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 H344m

Healey, Edward J., Jr.  Cultural Competency Training in the United Marine Corps:  A Prescription for Success in the Long War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.  75 p.
Demonstrate the importance of cultural awareness in military operations by incorporating a comprehensive training program to insure that Marines deploying have the cultural competency to be successful in the field.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA482980
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 H434c

Holiday, Hershel L.  Improving Cultural Awareness in the U.S. Military.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2008.  28 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA482217
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 H732i

Horst, Paul R., Jr.  Cross-Cultural Negotiations.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, February 2007.  35 p.
Examines the impact of culture on negotiations.
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/rims/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=downloadpaper&objectid=66cb70b5-1b24-4131-9f1e-9dc230a1d33c&rs=PublishedSearch
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 H819c

Hoskins, Brant D.  Religion and Other Cultural Variables in Modern Operational Environments.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.  62 p.
Examines questions on the importance and necessary steps to account for religious and cultural factors in future operational environments.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470675
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 H826r

Hudson, Jeff D. and Warman, Steven A.  Transforming the American Soldier:  Educating the Warrior-Diplomat.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2005.  59 p.
Authors "examine the current levels of cultural understanding and irregular warfare being taught in U.S. Army conventional military schools." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435524
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 H885t

Jackson, Matthew J.  Swimming with the Natives:  Cultural Immersion and Its Applications for Naval Special Warfare.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.  101 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA427334
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 J131s

Leardi, Joseph L.  Influence of the First Crusade on the Current Situation in the Middle East.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.  97 p.
Investigates if the current clash between the Arab Islamic and American culture may have been influenced by the First Crusade.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463854
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 L438i

Lewis, Brett G.  Developing Soldier Cultural Competency.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2006.  16 p.
Examines the role of cultural competency in U.S. military operations and the essential components necessary in developing culture competency among the soldiers.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449393
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 L6732d

Locke, Christine A.  Chinese Methods of Interpersonal Conflict Management.  Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.  98 p.
Discusses the different cultural responses to conflict and conflict management styles between United States and Peoples Republic of China.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470802
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 L814c

Montgomery, Pollyanna.  Building Better Strategists.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2008.  24 p.
States that the "officers must not only be able to develop strategies, they must be able to communicate them to civilian policymakers and interagency partners around the globe, with an understanding of the strategic cultures involved." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479688
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 M7881b

Moody, Kevin L.  Cultures in Conflict:  An Assessment of Frontier Diplomacy During the French and Indian War.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.  35 p.
Focuses on the “cultural impacts on coalition warfare and differing strategic objectives among Amerindians and the European powers.” - Introduction
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA491333
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 M817c

Moore, Timothy.  Measuring the Role of Cultural Awareness in Tracing the Human Terrain.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, October 2008.  24 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA494241
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 M824m

Newman, Lea.  The Role of Culture in Conflict Resolution.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.  75 p.
“Examines how a better understanding of culture and cross-cultural communication can positively enhance the conflict resolution process." - Introduction
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479976
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 N553r

Peltier, Isaac J.  Surrogate Warfare:  The Role of U.S. Army Special Forces.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  42 p.
"Analysis of the two most recent UW campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq suggest that cultural awareness and regional expertise are critical to conducting surrogate warfare, as well as the ability to function as an operational-level joint headquarters capable of planning and supporting an unconventional warfare campaign." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA436109
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 P393s

Pepper, Joseph, Jr.  Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq:  The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.  59 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA450481
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 P4241w

Poitras, Maurice V.  Adoptable Afghan Customs or Practices in a Military Operations Environment.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2009.  46 p.
Identifies aspects of Afghan cultures, if adopted could help the military forces in military operations environment.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA506264
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 P757a

Stenmark, Timothy E.  Looking for Gold Nuggets in the Melting Pot:  Language, Cultural Awareness, and the Fourth Generation Warrior.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2006.  34 p.
Contends the need for improved skills and cultural competence as necessary to winning in the “long war” against terrorism.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475652
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 S8251L

Strader, O. Kent.  Culture:  The New Key Terrain Integrating Cultural Competence into JIPB.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.  74 p.
"The purpose of this monograph is to provide operational commanders and staff with a glimpse of the potential of non-lethal power of culture.  This monograph suggests that it maybe possible to weaponize culture, specifically through the use of cultural intelligence." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA450632
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 S895c

Stringer, L. Michelle.  Women Training Iraqi Soldiers and Police in Iraq:  The War with Three Fronts.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2008.  33 p.
Investigates the different issues women face in the current war not only fighting the enemy but dealing with the culture in Iraq.
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/rims/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=downloadpaper&objectid=0829bf64-3185-461a-ab1b-ae6221e27b80&rs=PublishedSearch
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 S9181w

Sulehri, Waqas A.  Americans' Views of the Muslim World:  Realities and Fallacies.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.  119 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462694
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 S9496a

Trabun, Michael A.  When the West Meets Islam:  Cultural Issues and Considerations for the Regional Combatant Commander.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, May 2004.  25 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425936
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 T758w

Whitaker, Marvin S.  The UIR Framework:  An Approach to Developing Culturally Savvy Logisticians.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2008.  28 p.
"Shows how Understand, Immerse, and Reinforce (UIR) Framework can be applied to an Army logistician’s career to demonstrate a complimentary method of increasing cross-cultural savvy and thereby providing additional benefits to the military services." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA478489
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 W5781u

White, Patrick J.  Geography:  A "New" Domain for the United States Air Force's Cross-Cultural Competency Framework.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2008.  73 p.
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/rims/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=downloadpaper&objectid=c5f7df73-c50b-40b0-9b6b-26f607725cbf&rs=PublishedSearch
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 W5872g

Williams, Timothy R.  Culture -- We Need Some of That!:  Cultural Knowledge and Army Officer Professional Development.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2006.  19 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA448821
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 W7271c

Wilson, Harold L.  Managing Perceptions of United States Africa Command.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, February 2009.  32 p.
In order for America to attain and sustain its credibility, Africans must perceive that America’s goals are in their best interests as well." - Introduction
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=7b8deda0-71c8-4cde-81c1-eaa6b2cc5d5b
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 W748m

Wilson, James S.  Iraqi Sunnis' Cultural Receptivity of Islamic Extremists' Beliefs.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2008.  25 p.
This paper "analyzed the Iraqi Sunni behaviors and willingness to associate with Islamic extremists, but not to accept Islamic extremism and had determined that insurgent actions do reflect the cultural values of honor and social character versus extremists' views." -Abstract
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/rims/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=downloadpaper&objectid=521ce93c-8901-4c5b-abdb-582d5c94e796&rs=PublishedSearch
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 W7493i

Zahn, Matthew A. and Lacey, Wayne R.  Building a Virtual Cultural Intelligence Community.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2007.  77 p.
The author states that "although cultural intelligence plays a key role in many of America’s political and military successes, the maintenance of a broad-based, detailed cultural intelligence capability has thus far proven elusive and with the advent of networked collaboration tools, the intelligence community now has the ability to deploy a virtual cultural intelligence community." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471070
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 Z191b


Periodicals


Abbe, Allison and Halpin, Stanley M.  The Cultural Imperative for Professional Military Education and Leader Development.  Parameters 39:20-31 Winter 2009-2010.
"This article describes current conceptual approaches to increasing soldiers' and leaders' capability of dealing with cultural factors and explains why the services need to go beyond these approaches if they are to establish a comprehensive strategy for developing and institutionalizing broadly defined cultural capability".-Article
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1986259171&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Bailliet, Cecilia.  "War in the Home":  An Exposition of Protection Issues Pertaining to the Use of House Raids in Counterinsurgency Operations.  Journal of Military Ethics 6:173-197 2007.
 "Conclusion emphasizes the importance of taking into account gender and cultural considerations to properly address the interest of family members - i.e., women, children and the elderly who are most affected by house raids.  - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a782840910~db=all

Bedsole, Timothy K.  Religion:  The Missing Dimension in Mission Planning.  Special Warfare 19:8-15 November-December 2006.
The author "discusses the need of integration of a new religious-factors analysis into the intelligence preparation of the battlefield.  Stresses that failure to consider the dynamics of religion will limit intelligence and allow religion to remain a secret code of motivating messages and symbols that will confound the analysis and hamper the understanding of the enemy's center gravity." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1184142561&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Bigge, Lauren.  Native Tongues:   New Guard Program Taps Arab-American Communities to Surmount Language, Cultural Barriers U.S. Troops Face in the Middle East.  National Guard 60:28-29 October 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1169291021&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Bonvillain, Dorothy G.  Cultural Awareness and WOT (War on Terrorism).  Field Artillery, pp 22-27, March-April 2007.
Cultural awareness is linked in the success in the contemporary operation environment.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1278238471&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Bore, Henri.  Building Partnership with African Armed Forces.  Marine Corps Gazette 93:83-86 October 2009.
Emphasizes the importance of cultural knowledge to understand the African military cultural terrain.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1881170371&sid=7&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Bore, Henri.  Cultural Awareness and Irregular Warfare:  French Army Experience in Africa.  Military Review 86:108-111 July-August 2006.
Discusses the challenges French soldiers encountered in operating in the different cultures in Africa.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22351108&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Bradford, John F. and Bradford, Annette.  Develop Cross-Cultural Competence.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 134:78-79 March 2008.
"Presents information on the new U.S. maritime strategy of developing cross-cultural relationship, and establishing a broad set of global maritime partners." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=31405255&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Brinsfield, John W. and Wester, Eric.  Ethical Challenges for Commanders and Their Chaplains.  Joint Force Quarterly No. 54:20-21 2009.
"Reports on the ethical considerations for U.S. commanders and chaplains in bringing peace to Central and Southwest Asia." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=44242043&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Burgess, Richard R.  Cultural Links:  Foreign Area Officers Help Forge Relationships Between U.S. Forces and Indigenous Populations.  Sea Power 48:22-24 November 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=925438301&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Carlson, John D.  Winning Souls and Minds:  The Military's Religion Problem and the Global War on Terror.  Journal of Military Ethics 7:85-101 June 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=32996496&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Cavallaro, Gina.  Role Reversal:  Afghan Troops Bring Lessons to U.S. Soil.  Army Times 67:16 February 5, 2007.
Reports on the two-week military mission of Afghan soldiers to train and advise U.S. service members about the way of doing business in Afghanistan.

Charkowske, Kevin M.  Practical Impacts and Effectiveness of Cultural Intelligence.  Marine Corps Gazette 89:20-23 October 2005.
Overall cultural intelligence had a significant impact on the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit's success in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Iraq.  Aspects of culture and behavior extend beyond the "meet and greet" mentality for which cultural intelligence is often used.  Author discusses how cultural intelligence facilitated mission accomplishment in support of Operations Unified Assistance and Iraqi Freedom III.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=916373361&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Coker, Christopher.  Between Iraq and a Hard Place:  Multinational Co-operation, Afghanistan and Strategic Culture.  RUSI Journal 151:14-19 October 2006.
"Multinational cooperation makes particular sense in a world of fragile states and failing societies." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1170637831&sid=4&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Connable, Ben.  All Our Eggs in a Broken Basket:  How the Human Terrain System Is Undermining Sustainable Military Cultural Competence.  Military Review 89:57-64 March-April 2009.
"Focuses on the weaknesses and shortcomings of the military cultural training and education in meeting the Armed Forces' operational requirements in the U.S.   It discusses the need to have a comprehensive change in the military cultural training and intelligence analysis, by applying the long-term knowledge and cultural terrain analysis program. " - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=37223113&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Crossland, R. L.  Sometimes the Insignificant Is Significant.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 135:12 August 2009.
Contends that "the success of the rescue operation of merchant vessel Maersk Alabama's Captain Richard Phillips from the Somali pirates was due to establishing cultural knowledge and insight into the human element. - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=43715340&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Croot, Edward C.  Digging Deeper.  Special Warfare 20:26-29 March-April 2007.
For soldiers going through the Special Forces Qualification Course, and those already in the field, one of the most critical lessons is the importance of understanding and embracing the culture of the area where they will be operating.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1256751371&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Der Derian, James.  The Desert of the Real and the Simulacrum of War.  International Affairs 84:931-948 September 2008.
Author relates his experiences with the First Battalion, 25th Marines during their one week training at Twentynine Palms (desert expanse south of the Interstate 40, home of the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center) the location for final training for marines before they depart for Iraq.  Discusses how cultural awareness was part of the training.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34611878&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Dunne, Jonathan P.  Cultures Are Different:  Modifying Maslow's Hierarchy for Contemporary COIN.  Marine Corps Gazette 93:8+ February 2009.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1637641081&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Egnell, Robert.  Explaining US and British Performance in Complex Expeditionary Operations:  The Civil-Military Division.  Journal of Strategic Studies 29:1041-1075 December 2006.
"A nation's structure and culture of civil-military relations are important and largely overlooked factors in explaining the performance of armed forces involved in complex expeditionary operations."- Abstract
Also available online at:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a769180907~db=all

Elder, Ralph E.  Arab Culture and History:  Understanding Is the First Key to Success.  Armor 116:42-44 January-February 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1215730131&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Elkhamri, Mounir.  Dealing with the Iraqi Populace:  An Arab-American Soldier's Perspective.  Infantry 96:8-10 January-February 2007.
Reflects on the importance of cultural and human factors to the success of the counterinsurgency in Iraq.  Cultural training should represent a large portion of the soldiers' predeployment training, especially for maneuver and civil affairs units.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=25101757&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Fast, Barbara G.  Always Out Front.  Military Intelligence 31:2-7 January-March 2005.
Focuses on grappling with the complexity of total environment and threat as the most important aspects of intelligence support to operations, the difficulty of understanding the environment and identifying the most significant aspects of various elements of the environment for every operation, and the need for all soldiers to develop an awareness of the indigenous culture.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=18530515&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Finney, Nathan K.  Human Terrain Support for Current Operations.  Infantry 98:4-6 March-April 2009.
"Provides information on the Human Terrain Teams (HTTs) program of the U.S. military which aims to help brigade commanders in Afghanistan and Iraq understand local needs and culture." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=44043766&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Freakley, Benjamin C.  Cultural Awareness and Combat Power.  Infantry 94:1-2 March-April 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=17254933&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gerwehr, Scott.  Cross-Cultural Variation in Denial and Deception.  Defense Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2:51-78 2006.

Goldstein, Evan R.  Task:  Professors on the Battlefield.  Wall Street Journal 250:W11 August 17, 2007.
Discusses the relationship between the academe and the armed forces, and the U.S. Department of Defense's Human Terrain System.  The system embeds social scientists with brigades in Afghanistan and Iraq, where they serve as cultural advisers to brigade commanders.  The initiative was led by General David H. Petraeus, commander of the multinational forces in Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1321502721&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Gooren, Robert H. E.  Soldiering in Unfamiliar Places:  The Dutch Approach.  Military Review 86:54-60 March-April 2006.
Dutch soldiers are trained that cultural awareness and basic respect for host nation culture are essential to force security and the success of the mission.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=20673843&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Goswami, Namrata.  India's Counter-Insurgency Experience:  The 'Trust and Nurture' Strategy.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 20:66-86 March 2009.
"The author argues that a counter-insurgency strategy of 'trust and nurture' based on democratic political culture, measured military methods, special counter-insurgency forces, local social and cultural awareness and an integrative nation-building approach will result in positive handling of India's internal security problems." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a910291239~db=all

Grace, Jean.  "The New Army."  National Defense 90:38-41 May 2006.
As they train for combat in mock Middle Eastern villages, soldiers find that their fighting skills often cannot make up for a shortage of interpreters and a poor understanding of Iraqi culture.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1040340051&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Grant, Greg.  Adapt or Die.  Government Executive 39:36-41 August 1, 2007.
Army Sgt Jennings "told the soldiers the Army was waging an entirely new type of war in which the traditional skills of fire and maneuver were less important than softer skills, such as cultural awareness and building trust and confidence among the Iraqi people".  Emphasizes the importance of having the ability to communicate and work with the local people.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1321858421&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Hajjar, Remi M.  A New Angle on the U.S. Military's Emphasis on Developing Cross-Cultural Competence:  Connecting In-Ranks' Cultural Diversity to Cross-Cultural Competence.  Armed Forces and Society 36:247-263 January 2010.
Discusses the importance of cross-cultural competency in achieving success in military operations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=47143449&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Humphreys, Brian E.  Problems of Culture:  Leadership in the Afghan National Army.  Marine Corps Gazette 91:46-49 July 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1312212031&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Jaffe, Greg.  Local Knowledge:  In Iraq, One Officer Uses Cultural Skills to Fight Insurgents.  Wall Street Journal 246:A1-10 November 15, 2005.
Describes the job of cultural experts in the US Army, and reviews one officer's work near the Iraq-Syria border.  Cultural experts dress in civilian clothes and speak native languages.  US officials say that the officer described will spend the rest of his career in the Middle East, operating alone in often hostile territory.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=926383261&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kipp, Jacob and and others.  The Human Terrain System:  A CORDS for the 21st Century.  Military Review 86:8-15 September-October 2006.
Describes the Human Terrain System being managed by the Foreign Military Studies Office, a U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command organization.  The HTS aims to address cultural awareness shortcomings at the operational and tactical levels.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=23055986&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Klein, Helen Altman and Kuperman, Gilbert.  Through an Arab Cultural Lens.  Military Review 88:100-105 May-June 2008.
Discusses "the impact of combined military and peacekeeping operations in the Arab Middle East by the U.S. in bringing legitimacy and attracting international support".  Reviews a U.S. Air Force commissioned study of the Arab mind to identify key differences between Arab and Western thinking".  These differences "can fuel misunderstanding and hostility during Arab-Western interactions".- Abstract/Article
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=34409609&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kron, Hank.  United States Security Cooperation in the Middle East Cross-Cultural Considerations and Customer Relations.  DISAM Journal 30:75-77 March 2008.
"Provides cross-cultural communication skills for U.S. security cooperation implementers.  Special focus is given the skills necessary to interpret the actual meanings that occur within interpersonal engagement in the Middle East." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=32001823&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kusiak, Pauline.  Sociocultural Expertise and the Military:  Beyond the Controversy.  Military Review 88:65-76 November-December 2008.
"The author reflects on the controversy concerning the sociocultural mastery of military personnel.  It focuses on the controversy concerning the usefulness of such sociocultural mastery to the military personnel and officers and cites how it can ameliorate the cooperation between military men and the civilian, particularly in security affairs." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=36065636&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Leslie, Mark S.  Cultural Understanding:  The Cornerstone of Success in a COIN Environment.  Infantry 96:7-12 July-August 2007.
Emphasizes the importance of incorporating cultural sensitivity and cultural awareness into the planning and execution of the mission.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1379120661&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Leslie, Mark S.  Integrating Cultural Sensitivity into Combat Operations.  Armor 116:35-38 January-February 2007.
Examines the advantages of incorporating cultural sensitivity to combat operations of the U.S. Army in Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1215730111&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Lively, James W.  Cultural Education.  Marine Corps Gazette 91:21-24 April 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1253257721&sid=5&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Magnuson, Stew.  Cultural Radars.  National Defense 93:30-31 February 2009.
Discusses one way of accelerating cultural training is through a web-based system such as OLIVE (On-line Interactive Virtual Environment).
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1643677691&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mamedov, Mikail.  "Going Native" in the Caucasus:  Problems of Russian Identity, 1801-64.  Russian Review 67:275-295 April 2008.
The article discusses the controversial manifestation of the Russian officers going native.  This sort of disguise by the Russians, wearing Caucasian outfits, were very effective in every war in the region." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=31207403&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

McConnell, Richard A. and others.  The MiTT and Its "Human Terrain":  Transitioning the Iraqi Army into the Lead.  Field Artillery, pp 11-14, January-February 2007.
Based on the authors' experiences mentoring and coaching both an Iraqi Army battalion and the Iraqi police with whom the Iraqi Army operates to improve security in Mosul, Iraq.  The article presents a few ideas about fostering teamwork within the human terrain in Mosul.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1230303711&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

McFate, Montgomery.  Anthropology and Counterinsurgency:  The Strange Story of Their Curious Relationship.  Military Review 85:24-38 March-April 2005.
Role of anthropology in national-security establishment; impact of cultural and social knowledge on military operations; factors that affect the outcome of military operations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16782859&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

McFate, Montgomery.  The Military Utility of Understanding Adversary Culture.  Joint Force Quarterly  No. 38:42-48 Summer 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17583830&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

McFate, Montgomery and Jackson, Andrea.  An Organizational Solution for DoD's Cultural Knowledge Needs.  Military Review 85:18-21 July-August 2005.
The need for cultural and social knowledge has been increasingly recognized within the armed services.  While much of this knowledge is available inside and outside the government, there is no systematic way to access or coordinate information from these sources.  Authors detail how to develop a specialized organization within DoD to produce, collect, and centralize cultural knowledge.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=902580341&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

McIntosh, Scott E.  Building a Second-Half Team:  Securing Cultural Expertise for the Battlespace.  Air & Space Power Journal 21:61-70 Spring 2007.
Argues that the United States needs nonkinetic, "softer" solutions, such as civil affairs, public affairs, and psychological operations--informed by cultural expertise--to meet its national-security objectives in present and future conflicts.
Also available online at:  http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj07/spr07/mcintoshspr07.html

Mulrine, Anna.  Planning and Training for the Post-"Surge".  U. S. News & World Report 143:30-31 September 3, 2007.
Highlights the efforts of U.S. troops in Iraq to prepare for the role of advising Iraqi soldiers and police.  Increased emphasis is being placed on language instruction, and recognition of cultural differences between Sunni and Shia locals.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=26360647&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

NATO Planning Alliance-Wide Cultural Awareness Training Initiative.  Inside the Pentagon 22:1+ September 28, 2006.

Nett, Robert B.  Ambassadors to the World:  Cultural Awareness for Americans in Uniform.  Infantry 94:18-19 November-December 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=973269421&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Pacheco, Isaac D.  The 7th Warfighting Skill:  How Culture Is Changing the Face of Today's Battlefield.  Leatherneck 92:26-29 October 2009.
Contends that culture has an immediate impact on the operations and success of the mission whether it's Afghanistan or any region where Marines are deployed.  According to the article "the team would continue to reinforce the importance of cultural understanding as a lifesaving tool and provide the training tools Marines need to succeed on the front lines." - Abstract
Also available online at:   http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1875966931&sid=7&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Paul, Matthew C.  Tactical Questioning: Human Intelligence Key to Counterinsurgency Campaigns.  Infantry 95:22-25 January-February 2006.
Provides recommendations for U.S. soldiers on the appropriate questions to ask the Iraqi citizens of different age groups to gather intelligence information.  Soldiers must be cognizant of local customs and behaviors before engaging in conversation with the populace.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1017981701&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Peters, Katherine McIntire.  Culture Club:  The Marine Corps Aims to Add Cultural Knowledge to Its Arsenal.  Government Executive 39:13-15 April 1, 2007.
Discusses how the Marine Corps' attempts "to teach something more than cultural sensitivity or cultural awareness." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1257595851&sid=5&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Puertas, Lorenzo.  Corporal Jones and the Moment of Truth.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:42-44 November 2004.
This article focuses on the need for cultural training of U.S. soldiers to ensure they make the right decisions while patrolling.  Stories from Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq demonstrate that these lessons often are painfully relearned, time and time again, by each new rotation of troops.  This information must first come through formal training and a cultural orientation to the battlespace, the enemy, and the civilian population.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15035520&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Reger, Mark A. and others.  Civilian Psychologists in an Army Culture:  The Ethical Challenge of Cultural Competence.  Military Psychology 20:21-35 January 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=31561365&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Robinson, Klaudius K.  Cultural Awareness and Understanding.  Armor & Cavalry Journal 1:34-35+ January-February 2008.
Reinforces the fact that language skills and cultural sensitivity are as important as critical weapon systems.

Robinson, Paul.  Rolling Thunder:  A Failure of Intelligence and Cultural Awareness?  Royal Air Force Air Power Review 10:76-87 Autumn 2007.
The author hypothesizes why the Rolling Thunder was a failure of intelligence and cultural awareness.

Rusling, Matthew.  Ready, Aim, Specialize!  National Defense 93:36-37 September 2008.
States that the Marines in order to be successful in future conflicts need to gain a deeper and better understanding of the most volatile regions of the world.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1559415271&sid=7&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Salmoni, Barak A.  Beyond Hearts and Minds:  Culture Matters.  U.s. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:54-56+ November 2004.
Operation Iraqi Freedom is a multifaceted war in which U.S. troops not only must root out insurgents — as was accomplished in this Fallujah enclave — but must be trained to grasp indigenous mores, mind-sets, and means of operating.  Success in 21st-century conflicts increasingly will depend on understanding the larger cultural picture.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15035524&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Sanders, Kirsten.  Cultural Awareness and the Armed Forces.  Infantry 97:27-28 May-June 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=33554900&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Sargent, Ron.  Strategic Scouts for Strategic Corporals.  Military Review 85:12-17 March-April 2005.
Since the Vietnam War, US military operations have largely occurred in full view of the public and as a result, the Army must change if it wishes to maintain strategic legitimacy in faraway lands, as it simply cannot afford to collaterally alienate the people it tries to influence, liberate, protect, or aid.  Author claims that throughout history, conventional military forces have rarely fared well operating in regions where indigenous cultures are significantly different from their own.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16782849&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Scales, Robert H. Jr.  Culture-Centric Warfare.  United States Naval Institute Proceedings 130:32-36 October 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=732184181&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Segelhorst, Ken.  An Introduction to Arab Culture:  A Brief Synopsis for US Soldiers  Infantry 98:39-44 January-February 2009.
In order to succeed in counterinsurgency, the servicemen must have a deeper knowledge and understanding of the people and their culture.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1728842521&sid=7&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Steed, Brian L.  Bees and Spiders:  Seeing the World from Different Perspectives.  Army 59:24-25 December 2009.
Explains the analogy of the bees (Americans) and spiders (Arabs) -- how the American and the Middle Eastern military are motivated and how different cultures see the world differently.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1923355801&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Strader, O. Kent.  The Role of the American Advisor.  Armor 114:18-22 November-December 2005.
Discusses the principles on becoming successful military advisors in the U.S. Significance of cultural awareness and sensitivity to advisors; respect of the Muslim religion and history; need for negotiation skills.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=933564001&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Tripodi, Christian.  Peacemaking Through Bribes or Cultural Empathy?  The Political Officer and Britain's Strategy Towards the North-West Frontier, 1901-1945.  Journal of Strategic Studies 31:123-151 February 2008.
"Proposes that while cultural understanding is of genuine importance when operating in such a challenging environment, possession of it does not necessarily aid either the design or implementation of successful policy." - Abstract from Author
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=28552248&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Ulibarri, William J.  Cultural Awareness--Winning at the Tactical Level.  Infantry 97:2 May-June 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=33554886&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

VanOtten, George A.  Culture Matters.  Military Intelligence 31:30-37 January-March 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=18530537&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Wunderle, William.  How to Negotiate in the Middle East.  Military Review 87:33-37 March-April 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1248982331&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Zeman, P. M.  Goat-Grab Diplomacy in Iraq.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 131:20-25 November 2005.
In Iraq, civil affairs is generally associated with all non-tactical operations that affect the local populace.  What is not commonly addressed is the requirement for engagement on all tactical levels, particularly at the battalion-commander level.  In the absence of any credibly enforced civil law, Iraqi tribal law controlled by the tribal sheiks can re-establish and strengthen local area security significantly.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=18805096&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv


This page was last updated on 02/20/2014 03:51 PM

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