Differences in Online and Traditional Classrooms

April 2012
Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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Internet Resources

Bartini, Maria.  An Empirical Comparison of Traditional and Web-Enhanced Classrooms.  Journal of Instructional Psychology  35:3-11  March 2008.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=31780823&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"Students in a 200-level Psychology course were enrolled in either a traditionally taught section or a web-enhanced section taught by the same instructor.  Both sections were identical in content and format except for the addition of a learning management software package (PageOut©; McGraw-Hill Companies, 2002) in the web-enhanced section.  PageOut was primarily used to administer on-line reading quizzes.  Students in the web-enhanced section had significantly higher exam scores than the traditional section.  Students also held favorable attitudes about the course and the web site."--Abstract.

Bigelow, Cale A.  Comparing Student Performance in an Online versus a Face to Face Introductory Turfgrass Science Course - A Case Study.  NACTA Journal  53:2-7  June 2009.
Available online at: http://search.proquest.com/pqrl/docview/214375627/fulltextPDF/135B5A90A936C598325/1?accountid=4332
"The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a newly created online turfgrass course by assessing the performance of thirty undergraduate Horticulture students.  Two groups of students, traditional lecture or online, simultaneously received identical course content during a 16-week semester.  Student performance was evaluated using quizzes, homework assignments and written exams."--Abstract.

Collis, Betty and Moonen, Jef.  Web 2.0 Tools and Processes in Higher Education: Quality Perspectives.  Educational Media International  45:93-106  June 2008.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=32718701&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"A major change has occurred in the way Web technology is being used in society.  The change is grounded in user empowerment using Web 2.0 tools and processes.  Students are already sophisticated users of these tools and processes, but outside of the mainstream instructional practices in higher education.  In this reflection, the educational potential of Web 2.0 tools and processes is discussed, followed by three sets of perspectives relating to the potential quality of such practices in higher education course settings.  For each perspective an analysis of key factors affecting the perceived value of Web 2.0 tools and processes is given, followed by suggestions for overcoming predictable barriers to uptake in mainstream instructional practice."--Abstract.

Cowan, J. E.  Strategies for Developing a Community of Practice: Nine Years of Lessons Learned in a Hybrid Technology Education Master's Program.  TechTrends  56:12-18  January-February 2012.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=67745499&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"Between 2000 and 2009, 243 students in 11 cohort groups participated in the Internet-Based Masters in Educational Technology (iMet) Program. ...An analysis of 78 student course reflections and 92 post-program surveys revealed that the community building strategies used in the program were instrumental in enhancing students' experiences and boosting program completion rates.  This article describes the key strategies used to develop and maintain a successful hybrid community of practice."--Abstract.

El Mansour, Bassou and Mupinga, Davison M.  Student’s Positive and Negative Experiences In Hybrid and Online Classes.  College Student Journal  41:242-248  March 2007.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24628953&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"As higher education institutions struggle to meet the growing demand for education from non-traditional students, many are turning to hybrid and online courses.  These courses, free up classroom space, allow faculty to reach a wider audience using technology; and are therefore cost effective.  But, what learning experiences do these courses provide students?  Understanding the students' experiences in these courses has implications on the effectiveness of the teaching strategies."--Abstract.

Ellis, Robert A. and others.  E-Learning in Higher Education: Some Key Aspects and Their Relationship to Approaches to Study.  Higher Education Research & Development  28:303-318  September 2009.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=37818991&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"While there has been systematic and on-going research into e-learning in universities for over two decades, there has been comparatively less evidence-based research into how key aspects of e-learning are internally constituted from a student perspective and how these aspects might be related to university students' learning experiences.  The purpose of this paper is to explore key aspects of e-learning that might be related to university student approaches to study, so that a better understanding of the internal structure of these aspects is achieved."--Abstract.

Fall, Lisa T. and others.  Revisiting the Impact of Instructional Immediacy: A Differentiation Between Military and Civilians.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education  12:199-206  Fall 2011.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=70303054&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"Members of the U.S. military are trained to be self-motivated leaders.  This training influences the life of all military personnel, including their learning experiences.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between known cues of computer mediated instructional immediacy and military motivation to learn as compared to civilian motivation to learn."--Abstract.

Glazer, Hilda R. and Wanstreet, Constance E.  Connection to the Academic Community: Perceptions of Students in Online Education.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education  12:55-62  Spring 2011.
Available online at:
"This study examines the degree to which doctoral learners at a distance education university feel connected to other learners, faculty, their school, and the university.  Using a pictorial measure of 2 circles with various degrees of overlap, the participants in this study (N = 395) saw themselves as more connected to people than to institutions.  Most learners were at least minimally connected to other learners (68%) and to faculty (64%).  More than 40% of the learners felt no connection to their school or university.  Suggestions for fostering connectedness are included."--Abstract.

Goldberg, Harry R. and others.  Redefining Classroom Instruction.  Advances in Physiology Education  30:124-127  2006.
Available online at: http://advan.physiology.org/content/30/3/124.full.pdf+html
"In this study, the role of the classroom instructor was redefined from a ‘lecturer’ responsible for delivering the core curriculum to a ‘facilitator’ at the center of an active learning environment.  Web-based lectures were used to provide foundation content to students outside of the classroom, which made it possible to improve the quality of student-faculty contact time in the classroom.  Students reported that this hybrid format of instruction afforded them a better understanding of the content, a higher probability of retaining the content, and the opportunity to spend more time thinking about the application of the content compared with more traditional lecture-based methods of instruction."--Abstract.

Harrison, Christine and Hogg, William.  Why Do Doctors Attend Traditional CME Events if They Don't Change What They Do in Their Surgeries?  Medical Education  37:884-888  October 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10832757&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"Conclusions despite current support for interactive and practice-linked educational activities, the doctors in this study valued the input of the experts who lectured at the course.  These doctors were not prepared to accept the currently held precept that their behaviour did not change as a result of attendance at traditional CME (Continuing Medical Education) programmes."--Abstract.

Heckaman, Kelly A. and others.  Classroom Space to CyberSpace: Benefits and Challenges of Developing and Delivering an Online, Rigorous Initial Teacher Certification Program.  Childhood Education  87, no. 5:345-350  2011.
Available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/875892824?accountid=4332

Hwang, A. and Arbaugh, J. B.  Seeking Feedback in Blended Learning: Competitive Versus Cooperative Student Attitudes and Their Links to Learning Outcome.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning  25:280-293  June 2009.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=39255487&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"Emerging research has revealed the impact of electronic media usage on student outcomes, such as satisfaction and reported learning efficacy.  However, little is known of its impact on measurable knowledge acquisition.  Results from this study showed that participation on discussion topics through Blackboard, an electronic discussion forum, predicted multiple-choice test performance.  In contrast, none of the traditional face-to-face feedback-seeking behaviours, neither with professors in class or out of class, nor among fellow students, had significant influence on test results."--Abstract.

Johnson-Freese, Joan.  The Reform of Military Education: Twenty-Five Years Later.  Orbis  56:135-153  January 2012.
Available online at: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0030438711000895/1-s2.0-S0030438711000895-main.pdf?_tid=623d94bc50fb5f18e15490b14026e119&acdnat=1334861224_8e09738640e591c7b29b9509e0bc5bd9
"Twenty-five years after Goldwater-Nichols, the U.S. military operates in perhaps the most complex environment it has ever faced.  But was the Goldwater-Nichols mandate and the push for better military education successful?  And if not, what might be done?"--Abstract.

Kushnir, Lena Paulo.  When Knowing More Means Knowing Less: Understanding the Impact of Computer Experience on e-Learning and e-Learning Outcomes.  Electronic Journal of e-Learning  7:289-300  December 2009.
Available online at: http://www.ejel.org/issue/download.html?idArticle=108
"Students often report feeling more overloaded in courses that use e-learning environments compared to traditional face-to-face courses that do not use such environments.  Discussions here consider online design and organizational factors that might contribute to students’ reports of information overload."--Abstract.

Larwin, K. and Larwin, D.  A Meta-Analysis Examining the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Postsecondary Statistics Education: 40 Years of Research.  Journal of Research on Technology in Education  43:253-278  Spring 2011.
Available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/858614433?accountid=4332
"This study demonstrates that subcategories can further the understanding of how the use of CAI in statistics education might be maximized.  The study discusses implications and limitations."--Abstract.

Li, Chi-Sing and Irby, Beverly L.  An Overview of Online Education: Attractiveness, Benefits, Challenges, Concerns and Recommendations.  College Student Journal  42:449-458  June 2008.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=32544879&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"Online education has grown tremendously over the past ten years.  The increased accessibility of the internet and the World Wide Web has created vast opportunities for non-traditional education through this medium (Karber, 2003).  The explosion of technology has also made teaching outside the traditional classroom possible for teachers and has also provided learners with easy access to course material.  This paper reviews literature related to online education.  Its attractiveness, benefits, and challenges are addressed.  Some concerns and recommendations are further discussed."--Abstract.

Limniou, M. and Smith, M.  Teachers' and Students' Perspectives On Teaching and Learning Through Virtual Learning Environments.  European Journal of Engineering Education  35:645-653  December 2010.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=55474157&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"The aim of this investigation was to get an insight into how teachers and students responded to the use of virtual learning environments (VLE) in engineering education and what their expectations were from online courses.  Teachers designed their online courses with the assistance of a support e-learning team and questionnaires were used for teachers and students to express their views on the online courses. ...Teachers' and students' perspectives were related to their personal characteristics, as students were more familiar with everyday e-communication tools."--Abstract.

Liu, Xiaojing and others.  Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions.  Journal of Educational Technology & Society  13:177-188  October 2010.
Available online at:
"This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program.  The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including language, communication tool use, plagiarism, time zone differences and a lack of multicultural content, which may affect international students' learning performances."--Abstract.

McFarlane, Donovan A.  A Comparison of Organizational Structure and Pedagogical Approach: Online versus Face-to-Face.  Journal of Educators Online  8:1-43  January 2011.
Available online at: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ917871.pdf
"This paper examines online versus face-to-face organizational structure and pedagogy in terms of education and the teaching and learning process.  The author distinguishes several important terms related to distance/online/e-learning, virtual learning and brick-and-mortar learning interactions and concepts such as asynchronous and synchronous interactions, etc, before deliberating on perceived differences in organizational structure and pedagogical approaches of virtual and brick-and-mortar schools by examining organizational structure, knowledge and pedagogical theories, ideas, and constructs."--Abstract.

McFarlin, Brian K.  Hybrid Lecture-Online Format Increases Student Grades in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course at a Large Urban University.  Advances in Physiology Education  32:86-91  March 2008.
Available online at: http://advan.physiology.org/content/32/1/86.full.pdf+html
"Hybrid courses allow students additional exposure to course content that is not possible in a traditional classroom environment.  This exposure may lead to an improvement in academic performance.  In this report, I describe the transition of a large undergraduate exercise physiology course from a traditional lecture format to a hybrid lecture-online format.  A total of 658 final grades (traditional = 346, hybrid = 312) was used to evaluate the effect of course format on academic performance."--Abstract.

Metz, Kimberly.  Benefits of Online Courses in Career and Technical Education.  Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers  85:20-23  September 2010.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=53722024&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"The article discusses the advantages of online courses in career and technical education (CTE) in the U.S.  These include the alternatives to the traditional school, opportunities for home schooling and ways to better meet the needs of the digital student in a global world.  The article mentions the blended or hybrid approach as an effective method of delivering online courses.  It states that online learning has a great potential to change the country's educational system."--Abstract.

Njenga, James Kariuk and Fourie, Louis Cyril Henry.  The Myths about E-Learning in Higher Education.  British Journal of Educational Technology  41:199-212  March 2010.
Available online at:
"Proponents have marketed e-learning by focusing on its adoption as the right thing to do while disregarding, among other things, the concerns of the potential users, the adverse effects on users and the existing research on the use of e-learning or related innovations."--Abstract.

Pedró, Francesc.  Comparing Traditional and ICT-Enriched University Teaching Methods: Evidence from Two Empirical Studies.  Higher Education in Europe  30:399-411  October-December 2005.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20617526&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Saeed, Nauman and others.  Emerging Web Technologies in Higher Education: A Case of Incorporating Blogs, Podcasts and Social Bookmarks in a Web Programming Course based on Students' Learning Styles and Technology Preferences.  Journal of Educational Technology & Society  12:98-109  November 2009.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=44785101&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"The adoption level of emerging web technologies is on the rise in academic settings.  However, a major obstacle in the practice of web-based instruction is the limited understanding of learners' characteristics and perceptions about technology use.  Thus there is a need to understand the relationship between students' learning styles and their preferences for instructional strategies, including the use of emerging web technologies."--Abstract.

Shivetts, Courtney.  E-Learning and Blended Learning: The Importance of the Learner: A Research Literature Review.  International Journal on E-Learning  10:331-337  July 2011
Available online at: http://www.editlib.org/f/33111
"This paper explores literature related to e-learning and blended learning environments.  The literature presented will assist the reader to determine the important role of the learner in the success of e-learning and blended learning courses.  This literature will conclude that student motivation is a major factor for e-learning and blended learning success."--Abstract.

Sweeney, Jill and others.  Traditional Face-To-Face and Web-Based Tutorials: A Study of University Students' Perspectives on the Roles of Tutorial Participants.  Teaching in Higher Education  9:311-323  July 2004.
Available online at:
"Despite considerable research on the outcomes of teaching approaches at the tertiary level, there have been very few investigations of students' perspectives on the different approaches.  This study, based on a series of in-depth interviews with students who completed a unit using traditional face-to-face tutorials and web-based bulletin-board tutorials, addresses the deficit.  The findings highlight the differences in students' perspectives on the two types of tutorials, including the perceived role played by the tutor, themselves and their peers.  The study suggests that a balance is needed between the two types of approaches."--Abstract.

Topper, Andrew.  Are They the Same?  Comparing the Instructional Quality of Online and Face-To-Face Graduate Education Courses.  Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education  32:681-691  December 2007.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=26946247&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Tsai, August.  A Hybrid E-Learning Model Incorporating Some of the Principal Learning Theories.  Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal  39:145-152  2011.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=59694466&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"In the context of e-learning many learning theories used in the physical classroom situation, including learning in a community adaptive, collaborative, scaffolding, and scenario learning, have been adopted and validated.  Based on these learning theories, an electronic platform and set of procedures for applying a hybrid e-learning model to an internationally accredited training course in industry was explored, developed, and evaluated for this study."--Abstract.

Visser, Lya and others.  Critical Thinking in Distance Education and Traditional Education.  Quarterly Review of Distance Education  4:401-407  Winter 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12620957&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Zacharis, Nick Z.  The Impact of Learning Styles on Student Achievement in a Web-Based Versus an Equivalent Face-to-Face Course.  College Student Journal  44:591-597  September 2010.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=54016493&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv
"This study investigated the relationship between students' learning styles and their achievement in two different learning environments: online instruction and traditional instruction."--Abstract.

Internet Resources (Student Research)

Grindle, Charles E.  21st Century Senior Leader Education: Ubiquitous Open Access Learning Environment.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, February 22, 2011.  24 p. (USAWC strategy research project).
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA543398
"This paper begins by providing an overview of the literature defining the 21st Century Educational environment from a public and Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) perspective for today's Army senior leader education system.  The paper then examines the infrastructure currently supporting the Senior Service College student educational environment.  Finally, the paper articulates a recommendation for the Army to enable 21st Century Education."--Abstract.


Advances in Web-Based Education: Personalized Learning Environments, edited by George D. Magoulas and Sherry Y. Chen.  Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub., 2006.  371 p.
"This book provides coverage of a wide range of factors that influence the design, use and adoption of Personalized Learning Environments"--Provided by Publisher. 
Book call no.: 371.3344678 A244

Assessing Online Learning, edited by Patricia Comeaux.  Bolton, MA, Anker Pub. Co., 2005.  175 p.
Book call no.: 371.358 A846

Clark, Ruth Colvin and Kwinn, Ann.  The New Virtual Classroom: Evidence-Based Guidelines for Synchronous E-Learning.  San Francisco, Pfeiffer, 2007.  280 p. (Pfeiffer essential resources for training and HR professionals)
"The New Virtual Classroom draws on current research in multimedia learning as well as practitioner experience to show how to effectively harness the power of the virtual classroom.  Written by Ruth Clark and Ann Kwinn - both recognized experts in instructional design and workforce learning, this resource includes guidelines, research, and illustrative examples that clearly show how to leverage the powerful instructional features in the new virtual classroom." "A practical resource, the book includes the key guidelines for initiating and maintaining participant engagement in virtual classroom sessions.  Specifically, you will learn how to leverage the whiteboard with meaningful visuals, create social presence with audio, and maintain involvement with frequent effective interactions using polling, whiteboard, application sharing, audio and chat facilities.  Beyond these fundamentals, you can learn how to manage cognitive load, blend your virtual classroom with other learning events, and adapt problem-based learning designs to virtual classroom technology." "The book also outlines the seven principles of effective virtual classroom design and offers tested techniques for converting face-to-face classroom courses into virtual classroom events as well as creating virtual classroom events from scratch."--Book Jacket. 
Book call no.: 658.3124 C594n

Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education, edited by Tim S. Roberts.  Hershey, PA, Idea Group Pub., 2005.  322 p.
"Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education offers a resource for researchers and practitioners in the area of computer-supported collaborative learning (also known as CSCL), particularly those working within a tertiary education environment.  This publication includes discussions of relevance to those interested in both theory and practice in this area and ponders such important current questions as: how can groups with shared goals work collaboratively using the new technologies?  What problems can be expected, and what are the benefits?  In what ways does online group work differ from face-to-face group work?  And what implications are there for both educators and students seeking to work in this area?"--Book Jacket. 
Book call no.: 378.1758 C738

Cranton, Patricia.  Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning: A Guide for Educators of Adults.  2nd ed. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2006.  228 p. (Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series)
Book call no.: 374 C891u 2006

The Distance Education Evolution: Issues and Case Studies, edited by Dominique Monolescu and others.  Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub., 2004.  326 p.
Book call no.: 371.358 D614

Distance Learning and University Effectiveness: Changing Educational Paradigms for Online Learning, edited by Caroline Howard and others.  Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub., 2004.  352 p.
Book call no.: 378.1758 D6141

The "E" is for Everything: E-Commerce, E-Business, and E-Learning in Higher Education, edited by Richard N. Katz and Diana G. Oblinger.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2000.  118 p. (EDUCAUSE leadership strategies, no. 2)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Book call no.: 378.00285 E92

Garrison, D. R. and Vaughn, Norman D.  Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework, Principles, and Guidelines.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2008.  245 p. (The Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series)
"This groundbreaking book offers a down-to-earth resource for the practical application of blended learning in higher education as well as a comprehensive examination of the topic.  Well-grounded in research, Blended Learning in Higher Education demonstrates how the blended learning approach embraces the traditional values of face-to-face teaching and integrates the best practices of online learning.  This approach has proven to both enhance and expand the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning in higher education across disciplines."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 371.3 G242b

Hanna, Donald E. and others.  147 Practical Tips for Teaching Online Groups: Essentials of Web-Based Education.  Madison, WI, Atwood Pub., 2000.  74 p.
Book call no.: 371.3344678 H243o

The Importance of Learning Styles: Understanding the Implications for Learning, Course Design, and Education, edited by Ronald R. Sims and Serbrenia J. Sims.  Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1995.  216 p.   (Contributions to the study of education, no. 64)
Book call no.: 370.1523 I341

Levy, Yair.  Assessing the Value of E-Learning Systems.  Hershey, PA, Information Science Pub., 2006.  284 p.
"Assessing the Value of E-Learning Systems provides an extensive literature review pulling theories from the field of information systems, psychology and cognitive sciences, distance and online learning, as well as marketing and decision sciences.  This book provides empirical evidence for the power of measuring value in the context of e-learning systems."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 371.3344678 L668a

Maeroff, Gene I.  A Classroom of One: How Online Learning Is Changing Our Schools and Colleges.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.  306 p.
"A Classroom of One is a report from the frontlines of online education, a revolution in learning that breaks the tyranny of time and place to make education a process that can occur anywhere at anytime for students from first grade through graduate school.  Gene Maeroff looks at how school and college courses taught entirely over the Internet are changing education by allowing students to earn credits and degrees without entering classrooms.  He looks critically at the way in which students and teachers interact without seeing each other, how online learning alters the role of teachers and professors, and how educational institutions must adapt to a world of virtual learners who may never come to campus."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 371.35 M185c

Oblinger, Diana and others.  Distributed Education and Its Challenges: An Overview.  Washington, American Council on Education, 2001.  47 p. (Distributed education: challenges, choices, and a new environment)
"Provides a general framework for understanding the key questions that distributed education poses to the higher education community."--Abstract.
Book call no.: 371.358 O12d

Palloff, Rena M. and Pratt, Keith.  Assessing the Online Learner: Resources and Strategies for Faculty.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2009.  153 p. (Jossey-Bass guides to online teaching and learning)
"This resource help higher education professionals understand the fundamentals of effective online assessment.  It offers guidance for designing and implementing creative assessment practices tied directly to course activities to measure student learning.  The book is filled with illustrative case studies, authentic assessments based in real-life application of concepts, and collaborative activities that assess the quality of student learning rather than relying on the traditional methods of measuring the amount of information retained."--Book Jacket. 
Book call no.: 378.17344678 P168a

Palloff, Rena M. and Pratt, Keith.  Collaborating Online: Learning Together in Community.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2005.  112 p. (Jossey-Bass guides to online teaching and learning; v. 2)
"Collaborating Online provides practical guidance for faculty seeking to help their students work together in creative ways, move out of the box of traditional papers and projects, and deepen the learning experience through their work with one another.  Authors Rena Palloff and Keith Pratt draw on their extensive knowledge and experience to show how collaboration brings students together to support the learning of each member of the group while promoting creativity and critical thinking."--Book Jacket. 
The Web Link is table of contents only.
Also available online at: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0421/2004017931.html
Book call no.: 371.395 P168c

Palloff, Rena M. and Pratt, Keith.  Lessons From the Cyberspace Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2001.  204 p. (Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series)
Book call no.: 371.358 P168L

Reed, Edward S.  The Necessity of Experience.  New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1996.  188 p.
"Primary experience, gained through the senses, is our most basic source for understanding reality and learning for ourselves.  Our culture, however, favors the indirect knowledge gained from secondary experience, in which information is selected, modified, packaged, and presented to us by others.  In this controversial book, Edward S.  Reed warns that second-hand experience has become so dominant in our technological workplaces, schools, and even homes that primary experience is endangered.  Reed calls for a better balance between firsthand and secondhand experience, particularly in our social institutions.  He contends that without opportunities to learn directly, we become less likely to think and feel for ourselves." "Since the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century, Western epistemological tradition has rejected primary experience in favor of the abstractions of secondhand experience.  Building on James Gibson's concept of ecological psychology, Reed offers a spirited defense of the reality and significance of ordinary experience against both modernist and postmodernist critics." "He expands on the radical critiques of work, education, and art begun by William Morris and John Dewey, offering an alternative vision of meaningful learning that places greater emphasis on unmediated experience, and he outlines the psychological, cultural, and intellectual conditions that will be needed to foster that crucial change."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 128.4 R323n

Ruhe, Valerie and Zumbo, Bruno D.  Evaluation in Distance Education and E-Learning: The Unfolding Model.  New York, Guilford Press, 2009.  306 p.
"With the rapid proliferation of distance education and e-learning courses, the need is growing for a comprehensive, professional approach to evaluating their effectiveness.  This indispensable book offers a road map to guide evaluation practice in these innovative learning environments.  Providing practical, step-by-step guidelines and tools for conducting evaluation studies - including how to deal with stakeholders, develop surveys and interview protocols, collect other scientific evidence, and analyze and blend mixed-methods data - the work also features a template for writing high-quality reports.  The 'unfolding model' developed by the authors draws on Messick's influential assessment framework and applies it to program evaluation.  Two case studies of actual programs demonstrate the unfolding model in action."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 378.175 R933e

Simons, Murray.  Professional Military Learning: Next Generation PME in the New Zealand Defence Force.  Tuggeranong, Australia, Air Power Development Centre, 2005.  114 p.
Book call no.: 355.550993 S611p

Sociocultural Perspectives on Learning Through Work, edited by Tara Fenwick.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2001.  100 p. (New directions for adult and continuing education, no. 92)
Book call no.: 374.973 N532 no.92

Teaching with Technology: Rethinking Tradition, edited by Les Lloyd.  Medford, NJ, Information Today Inc., 2000.  403 p.
Book call no.: 378.1733 T253

Team Teaching and Learning in Adult Education, edited by Susan Imel, Editor-in-Chief and others.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2000.  94 p. (New directions for adult and continuing education, no. 85)
"This volume illustrates several successful applications of team teaching and learning in educational contexts ranging from the traditional classroom to the online classroom, to the workplace, to the community.  The emphasis on practice is intentional; it is designed to vivify the inclusive nature of teaming relative to including different perspectives, different pedagogical methods, and both teachers and learners in the multidirectional process of adult learning.  The authors provide in-depth discussions of theory on subjects including collaborative learning, action learning, and learning for social transformation and for professional development.  Team teaching's challenges and demands are confronted with directness and ingenuity.  This volume is a resource for educators in a variety of settings - both those wishing to explore the underpinnings of team teaching and learning, as well as those preparing to implement this promising teaching-learning alternative."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 374.973 N532 no.87

Tyson, William.  Pitch Perfect: Communicating with Traditional and Social Media for Scholars, Researchers, and Academic Leaders.  Sterling, VA, Stylus, 2010.  224 p.
Book call no.: 659.2937873 T994p

United States.  Congress.  House.  Committee on Armed Services.  Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee.  Another Crossroads?: Professional Military Education Twenty Years After the Goldwater-Nichols Act and the Skelton Panel.  Hearing.  111th Congress, 1st session, May 20, 2009.  Washington, U.S. G.P.O. 2010.  103 p.
Also available online at: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS120703
Book call no.: 355.0071173 U58ab

Weller, Martin.  Delivering Learning on the Net: The Why, What & How of Online Education.  Sterling, VA, Stylus, 2002.  181 p. (Open and distance learning series)
Book call no.: 371.3344678 W448d

Workplace Learning, edited by W. Franklin Spikes.  San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1995.  95 p. (New directions for adult and continuing education, no. 68)
"With the increasingly rapid rate of change in today's workplace has come an increasing need to establish innovative ways to prepare employees to meet these challenges.  Workplace learning is becoming a major force in the initial and ongoing education of today's workers.  Increased technology, new management strategies, and reengineered and downsized organizations have caused workplace educators to rethink their craft and formulate answers to the new and immediate business issues faced by their organizations.  This volume of New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education is designed to help readers examine current issues surrounding workplace learning programs and incorporate these ideas into their own professional practice."--Book Jacket.
Book call no.: 374.973 N532 no.68

Document (Student Research)

Block, Megan Curran.  The Comparative Effectiveness of Computer-Mediated Communication Supplemented Satellite Distance Education and Traditional Face-to-Face Education.  Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, December 1995.  72 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA302817
Doc. call no.: M-U 39567-4 B6512c


Allen, Mike and others.  Comparing Student Satisfaction with Distance Education to Traditional Classrooms in Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis.  American Journal of Distance Education  16:83-97  June 2002.
"Presents a study which compared student satisfaction with distance education to traditional classrooms in higher education.  Discussion on meta-analysis as a method for synthesizing literature; Data and methods used; Findings."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7238206&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Baggaley, Jon.  Where did Distance Education Go Wrong?  Distance Education  29:39-51  May 2008.
Also available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/217781043?accountid=4332

Bethel, Edward C. and Bernard, Robert M.  Developments and Trends in Synthesizing Diverse Forms of Evidence: Beyond Comparisons Between Distance Education and Classroom Instruction.  Distance Education  31:231-256  November 2010.
"This paper describes a range of models and methods for synthesizing diverse forms of research evidence.  Although this topic is applicable to many contexts (e.g. education, health care), the focus here is on the research traditions of distance education and online learning.  Thirteen models and methods are described, and seven examples from distance education and online learning are used to illustrate them."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=54380065&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Cuomo, Scott A. and Donlon, Brian J.  Training a 'Hybrid' Warrior.  Marine Corps Gazette  92:50-55  February 2008.
Discusses how the "field training exercises" (traditional training) is vital to the student's quality of training.
Also available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/221448135/134E721FF1D503DF713/16?accountid=4332

Eldridge, John R. and Boyd, Jr., Warren A.  Something Old, Something New: Trainers and Computer-Based Learning.  Training & Development Journal  37:57-61  December 1983.
"Comparisons of problems encountered in CBL with those in conventional instruction."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9075825&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Lam, Monica.  Effectiveness of Web-Based Courses on Technical Learning.  Journal of Education for Business  84:323-331  July-August 2009.
"The author investigated the effectiveness of Web-based courses on technical learning.  The regression results show that the delivery format (Web-based or traditional classroom courses) has no significant effect on student performance.  However, although gender is a significant predictor in traditional classroom courses, its effect disappears in Web-based courses."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=41891189&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Lei, Simon A. and Gupta, Rajeev K.  College Distance Education Courses: Evaluating Benefits and Costs from Institutional, Faculty and Students' Perspectives.  Education  130:616-631  Summer 2010.
"The strategic plan for providing college education outside of the traditional classroom environment has rapidly evolved over the past decade via electronic mediums.  Advances in technology, along with increasing student enrollment size, have led many higher education institutions to begin offering distance education (web-based) courses.  Current literature suggests that fully-blown distance education facilitates and maximizes student learning more effectively than the traditional, face-to-face course format."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=50839014&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Margolis, Lee M. and others.  Effectiveness and Acceptance of Web-Based Learning Compared to Traditional Face-to-Face Learning for Performance Nutrition Education.  Military Medicine  174:1095-1099  October 2009.
"The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptance of Web-based (WB) versus face-to-face (FF) lecturing.  There were 48 soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, NC who completed the study, participating in either a Web-based or face-to-face lecture on nutrition for performance."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=45085721&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Maze, Rick.  Officers Need More Time in Classroom, Experts Say.  Air Force Times  70:12  October 19, 2009.

Meyer, Katrina.  When Topics are Controversial: Is it Better to Discuss Them Face-to-Face or Online?  Innovative Higher Education  31, no. 3:175-186  2006.
"Ten students in a graduate-level course on Historical and Policy Perspectives in Higher Education held face-to-face and online discussions on five controversial topics: diversity, academic freedom, political tolerance, affirmative action, and gender.  Upon completion of each discussion, they assessed their comfort, honesty, concern for others’ feelings, similarity of feelings to others, and willingness to disagree and then compared the face-to-face and online discussions on these measures.  Students’ assessments are complex and indicate that some topics did elicit feelings of discomfort, concern for others’ feelings, and willingness to disagree in the face-to-face discussions.  However, despite these feelings, the majority of students continued to prefer the face-to-face discussions.  Online discussions were valued to a lesser extent, but a consistent minority of students were more comfortable in that setting.  The age and race of the student also created differences in responses."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22615685&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Milliron, Mark David.  Online Education vs. Traditional Learning: Time to End the Family Feud.  Chronicle of Higher Education  57:B30-B32  November 5, 2010.
"In this article the author discusses ways college teachers can use teaching methods from traditional and online learning to ensure that students will succeed academically in the U.S.  He argues that online learning resources are only relevant when they have a purpose and points to remedial education, self-pacing of students, and educational quality as areas where U.S. universities need to improve to better serve students."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=55245102&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Ozkan, Hasan Huseyin.  Cooperative Learning Technique Through Internet Based Education: A Model Proposal.  Education  130:499-508  Spring 2010.
"Internet based education, which is an education model performed using the internet, is the name given to the personal pages prepared on the web and to the action formed by these pages.  In this study, the concept of Internet based education, the ways of communication on the internet and cooperative learning are explained at first, and then, the concept of cooperative learning using Internet based education its advantages are discussed.  Lastly, 'group research game technique' model based on the cooperative learning is proposed."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=48753413&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Pribesh, Shana and others.  A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Cohorts in a School Library Media Specialist Graduate Program: A Preliminary Study.  Journal of Education for Library & Information Science  47:303-323  Fall 2006.
Also available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/203239071/fulltext/1352B65853F2AF2F650/7?accountid=4332

Reuter, Ron.  Online Versus in the Classroom: Student Success in a Hands-On Lab Class.  American Journal of Distance Education  23:151-162  July-September 2009.
"This study compares learning success of online and on-campus students in a general education soil science course with lab and field components.  Two terms of students completed standardized pre- and postassessments designed to test knowledge and skills from the lecture and lab content of the course.  There was no difference in overall grade or lab assignment grades between course formats."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=43840980&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=airuniv

Woodaman, Ronald F. A. and Liebe, Robert.  Value of Resident PME: Results and Recommendations from 2001 PME Study.  Marine Corps Gazette  86:30-33  July 2002.
"Woodaman and Liebe provide a brief summary of Marine Corps officer professional military education (PME) programs conducted by the Studies and Analysis Division of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command from Jan to Aug 2001.  Increased resident PME manpower cost, recent PME policy changes affecting admissions, and advances in distance learning prompted Marine Corps University to request the study."--Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/221423333/134E71414DA20962D0C/13?accountid=4332

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