OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (AFGHANISTAN)


April 2005

Compiled by AUL Staff
Air University Library
Maxwell AFB, AL



For more information, see Air University Library bibliographies: Conflict Termination in the Afghanistan Crisis 2003 compiled March 2005 or Afghanistan, compiled September 2003.

Contents 

General Information
Aerial Operations
Casualties
Coalition Support
Command and Control
Communications
Costs
Engineers
Ethical Aspects
Fratricide
Intelligence
Joint Operations
Land Operations
Legal Aspects
Lessons Learned
Logistics
Marines
Medical Aspects
Naval Operations
Operations
       Anaconda
       Mongoose
       Mountain Sweep
Peacekeeping
Prisoners of War
Psychological Operations
Reserve Forces
Space Operations
Special Operations
Weapon Systems and Equipment

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some articles listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability. AU students and faculty can contact  AUL's  Web Maintainer for a password

All sites listed were last accessed on April 6, 2005.


General Information


Internet Resources

Air University Library.  Map Room.  Operation Enduring Freedom.
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/maps/enduring.htm 
Includes several links to sites with maps of Afghanistan.

Center for Defense Information. Operation Enduring Freedom. Washington.
Available online at:
http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/index.cfm?ProgramID=39&issueid=48
Bimonthly updates on the action in Afghanistan.

Clement, John G. Operation Enduring Freedom as an Enabling Campaign In the War on Terrorism.  Ft. Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2003. 55 p.
Available online at: http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/fulcrum_main.pl?database=ft_u2&searchid=106313724410168&keyfieldvalue=ADA415851&filename=%2Ffulcrum%2Fdata%2FTR_fulltext%2Fdoc%2FADA415851.pdf
"In 'Should Deterrence Fail: War Termination in Campaign Planning', James W. Reed defines an enabling campaign as achieving some intermediate strategic objectives short of termination. With this in mind, is Operation Enduring Freedom an effective enabling campaign to create conditions for the defeat of terrorism in the Central Command area of responsibility?"

National Defense University.  Operation Enduring Freedom - August 2003.
Available online at: http://www.jfsc.ndu.edu/library/publications/bibliography/operation_enduring_freedom.asp
Bibliography with many links to information about Operation Enduring Freedom.

Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan.  Global Security.org.
Available online at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/enduring-freedom.htm
Information includes order of battle, operations, weapons, maps, imagery, and links.

Project on Defense Alternatives. Strange Victory: A Critical Appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan War, by Carl Conetta. January 30, 2002 . (Research monograph, no.6).
Available online at: http://www.comw.org/pda/0201strangevic.html

United States. Department of Defense. Defend AMERICA.
Available online at: http://www.defendamerica.mil/
US DoD news about the war on terrorism.

United States. Navy. Operation Enduring Freedom
Available online at: http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/news/news_stories/pentstruck.html

University of Texas at Austin. Perry-Casteneda Library Map Collection. Afghanistan Maps.
Available online at: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/afghanistan.html
Includes city, country and historical maps, as well as links to war maps.


Books

Conetta, Carl. Strange Victory: A Critical Appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan War.  Cambridge, MA, Project of Defense Alternatives, Commonwealth Institute, 2002. 1 vol. (Project of Defense Alternatives Research Monograph 6)
Also available online at: http://www.comw.org/pda/0201strangevic.html
Book call no.: 973.931 C752s

Falk, Richard A. The Great Terror War. New York, Olive Branch Press, 2003. 203 p.
See chapter titled: Appraising the War Against Afghanistan.
Book call no.: 973.931 F191g

Imperial Crusades: Iraq, Afghanistan in Yugoslavia: A Diary of Three Wars, by Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair.  New York, Verso, 2004.  378 p.
Book call no.: 973.931 I341

Lansford, Tom. All for One: Terrorism, NATO and the United States. Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2002. 214 p.
The Military Response to 11 September, pp 108-131.
Book call no.: 973.931 L295a

Martin, John. Defeating Terrorism: Strategic Issue Analyses. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College. 2002. 111 p.
Maintaining Public Support for Military Operations, by Leonard Wong, pp 65-69.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA405999
Book call no.: 363.320973 M381d

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Operation Enduring Freedom : Hearing before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, 107th Congress, second session, February 7 and July 31, 2002. Washington, U. S. GPO, 2002. 120 p.
Conduct of Operation Enduring Freedom, by Gen Tommy R. Franks, Commander in Chief, U.S. Central Command, February 7, 2002, pp 5-61.
Book call no.: 973.931 U58o

Documents

Herring, Gregory K. The War in Afghanistan: A Strategic Analysis. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 2003. 25 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420140
Doc. call no.: 39080-537 H5671w

Periodicals

Ackerman, Robert K.  Operation Enduring Freedom Redefines Warfare. Signal 57:3-5 September 2002.
"Operation Enduring Freedom demonstrated that information technologies no longer merely support warfighting--they in fact are the thread around which joint combat operations are woven."

Ackerman, Robert K. Preparation Built Successes in Afghanistan, Iraq, the U.S. General Who Won Two Wars Credits Relationships, Expertise and Training.  Signal 58:37-38+ May 2004.

Afghanistan Imagery Reveals Snapshot of Future Challenges.
Signal 56:21-23 February 2002.

Air Support Lessons from Afghanistan and Iraq. Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29:48-49 November 2003.

Atkeson, Edward B.  On Perfect War. Army 52:39-40+ February 2002.
"There is every reason to believe that history will reflect that the strategy employed in Afghanistan by the U.S. leadership, while perhaps never as explicitly declared as some observers may have wished, emerged as extraordinarily acute and fitting."

Bergner, Daniel.  Where the Enemy is Everywhere and Nowhere. New York Times Magazine 152:38-47+ July 20, 2003.
Focuses on the search for Al-Qaeda and other terrorists along the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Number of American troops and coalition forces in Afghanistan in an effort to deny sanctuary to terrorists; recap of military efforts in Afghanistan to find Osama bin Laden; statistics from terrorism experts regarding the number of terrorists that graduated from the Al-Qaeda training camps as of October 2001 and the number that have been captured since, suggesting much of their forces remain free.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10297095&db=aph

Chartier, Robert J. Environmental Issues Associated with Operation Enduring Freedom.  Engineer 33:24-27 October-December 2003.

Cohen, Eliot A.  A Tale of Two Secretaries. Foreign Affairs 81:33-46 May-June 2002.
"The difficult questions remaining after the Sept 11 attacks are: is the Pentagon headed for fundamental change? What lessons, if any, should defense officials take from the operations in Afghanistan?"
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6489861&db=aph 

Corbin, Marcus.  Operation Enduring Freedom and Military Transformation. Defense Monitor 31:4-5+ September 2002.

Crawley, Vince.  Officials Wary of Deception, Denial in Enemy Strategy. Air Force Times 62:20 November 5, 2001.

Crawley, Vince.  On Two Fronts (a U.S.-led coalition conducting both combat and humanitarian operations). Air Force Times 62:16-17 October 22, 2001.

Davis, Anthony.  Afghan Security Deteriorates as Taliban Regroup. Jane's Intelligence Review 15:10-15 May 2003.

Davis, Anthony.  How the Afghan War Was Won. Jane's Intelligence Review 14:6-13 February 2002.
Describes the coordination of US precision bombing with United Front assaults on the ground. Includes a list of key dates in the campaign, pp 10-11.

Durham, Hunter R. Persuasive Diplomacy: Innovative Surgical Operations Maintain Stability in Afghanistan.  Armed Forces Journal 142:44-46+ February 2005.

Enduring Images
(chiefly pictorial). Airman 46:14-17 February 2002.

Fields-Meyer, Thomas and Sider, Don.  Man with a Mission. People 56:81-82 October 29, 2001.
Profiles General Tommy Franks, head of the U. S. Central Command portion of Operation Enduring Freedom.

Friedman, Norman.  Afghanistan As a Littoral War.  Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 30:24-27 June 2004.

Grant, Rebecca.  The War Nobody Expected. Air Force Magazine 85:34-40 April 2002.
Details the efforts of the U.S. Air Force to destroy the al-Qaeda terrorist network and the Taliban government in Afghanistan. Includes objectives of Operation Enduring Freedom; types of aircraft used; classification of bombers.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/april2002/0402airwar.asp 

Gresham, John D.  Forces Fighting for Enduring Freedom. U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 127:45-47 November 2001.

Gusinov, Timothy.  "Kyareses": Taliban's Death Trap or Escape Route? Military Intelligence 28:46-49 April-June 2002.
"Much has been written about the caves in Afghanistan. Almost overlooked, however, are the nation's numerous underground irrigation and water supply tunnels, the dreaded 'kyareses'."

Hafemeister, Rod. Valor in the Skies.  Air Force Times 64:22-23 July 19, 2004.

Hewish, Mark. Battlefield Air Operations: Weight and Time Are the Main Targets. Jane's International Defense Review 37:44-50 May 2004.

Howard, Michael.  Mistake to Declare This a 'War'. RUSI Journal 146:1-4 December 2001.
Remarks Delivered at a RUSI/The Guardian Conference on 'New Policies for a New World' on 30 October 2001.

Leibstone, Marvin.  War Against Terrorism & the Art of Restraint. Military Technology 25, no.11:18-21 2001.

Lesure, Marie.  The "Market Price" of Terrorism. Armed Forces Journal International 139:22-24 June 2002.

Lubold, Gordon.  The Boom Operators. Army Times 62:12 January 28 2002.
Describes the work of explosive ordnance disposal personnel near Kandahar.

Maloney, Sean M. Afghanistan: From Here to Eternity?  Parameters 34:4-15 Spring 2004.

McHugh, Jane. 17 Heroes (Soldiers, airmen from Ranger team awarded Silver, Bronze Stars).  Army Times 63:14-16 January 27, 2000.

Naylor, Sean D.  Soldiers in Afghanistan Value Safety over Fashion. Army Times 62:15 February 18, 2002.
Operation Enduring Freedom has offered yet another insight into how differently the services express their views on force protection.

Peterson, Gordon I. Special Report: Operation Enduring Freedom. Sea Power 44:20-22 November 2001.

Plata, Holly.  The Other Afghan Campaign. Soldiers 57:14-15 July 2002.

Radu, Michael.  This Afghan War Is Different. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 127:48-49 December 2001.
"Early analysis of the U.S.-British military actions against the Taliban and al Qaeda in Afghanistan seemed to accept that the prospects for military success in that country were poor. The major premises of this conventional wisdom, however, were simply myths...the facts do not support them." Article explores how the US actions depart from past Russian and British models.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Actions under Fire Earned Tech Sergeant an Air Force Cross.  Air Force Times 63:10 January 13, 2003.

Rolfsen, Bruce.  Afghan War Means Long Flights. Air Force Times 62:9 October 1, 2001.

Schmidle, Robert E. and Hoffman, Frank G.  Commanding the Contested Zones.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:50-52+ September 2004.

Schwartz, T. P.  Waging War Against Hostile Combat Units That Fight According to Al Qur'an. Marine Corps Gazette 86:75-77 September 2002.
"Ironically, knowing more about the religion of our current adversaries can enable us to hold them to higher standards of combat behavior than to which any of our adversaries have been subject during the other wars of our Nation's history. Knowing more about Al Qur'an might help us to avoid needlessly motiviating and provoking our adversaries and mobilizing world opinion against us."

Seeking Terrorists (pictorial only). Air Force Magazine 85:40-47 February 2002.

Sinclair, E. J. Pairing Leaders and Experts to Enhance Aviation Warfighting. Army Aviation 53:8+ August-September 2004.

Steele, Dennis.  Ghost Town of the al Qaeda (chiefly pictorial). Army 52:49 July 2002.

Thurlby, Cherie A.  Focus on the Fight (chiefly pictorial). Airman 47:10-15 March 2003.

Tirpak, John A.  Enduring Freedom. Air Force Magazine 85:32-39 February 2002.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/feb2002/0202airwar.asp 

The War on Terror. Air Force Magazine 84:26-33 November 2001.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/nov2001/1101attack.pdf 

Watanabe, Nathan K. Blue Force Tracker and Army Aviation Operations in Afghanistan. Army Aviation 53:18+ March-April 2004.

Wood, David.  In Afghanistan, Women Are on the Front Lines. Army Times 62:18 March 11, 2002.


Aerial Operations


Internet Resources

Brown, Lawrence T. You've Got to be Kidding: Empowering the JFACC with Selected Ground Reconnaissance Forces . Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2003. 39 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415381
Abstract: In the last twenty years, airpower has become a decisive force in its own right, beginning with Desert Storm, followed by Operation Allied Force and most recently, Operation Enduring Freedom. Two primary lessons were learned from these three conflicts concerning airpower. First, airpower cannot win wars by itself; it needs the synergistic effects of ground forces. Second, US Special Forces on the ground early dramatically increase the effectiveness of the air campaign. If these lessons are indeed true, how can we make airpower more effective than current constructs? This paper seeks to demonstrate that the airpower can become more effective when SOF or other conventional reconnaissance forces are placed under the control of the JFACC for initial rapid and decisive airpower operations.


Books

Hirsh, Michael. None Braver: U.S. Air Force Pararescuemen in the War on Terrorism. New York, New American Library, 2003. 296 p.
Book call no.: 958.1046 H669n

Immaculate Warfare: Participants Reflect on the Air Campaign over Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq, edited by Stephen D. Wrage. Westport, CT, Praeger, 2003.
Book call no.: 358.420973 I33

Miller, Diana. Terrorism: Are We Ready?  Huntingdon, NY, Nova Science, 2002.  224 p.
Chapter 34: Operation Enduring Freedom: Potential Air Power Questions for Congress.
Book call no.: 363.320973 T3281


Documents

Bolkcom, Christopher. Operation Enduring Freedom: Potential Air Power Questions for Congress. Washington, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2001. 6 p.
Doc. call no.: OTS.AREA / M-U 42953-1 no.01-RS21020

Sullivan, David M. Transforming America's Military : Integrating Unconventional Ground Forces into Combat Air Operations. Newport, RI , Naval War College, 2002. 25 p.
"In Afghanistan, air power was significantly enhanced by unconventional forces on the ground. Meanwhile, forces of our ad hoc coalition partners have borne the brunt of high intensity force-on-force land battles. The most recent example of this method for employing forces is the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan. In Central Asia, the forces providing terminal attack control, laser guidance, and target surveillance have been Special Operations Forces, CIA operatives, and indigenous coalition land forces. These are proving to be extremely effective ad hoc arrangements. This study examines the transformation of the American way of war and how to efficiently employ SOF and CIA operatives at the operational level in support of an air-centric operation."
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401010
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 S9492t

Werenskjold, Craig J. The Effect of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems on Precision Engagement. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2002. 54 p.
See Section III: Afghanistan UAV Employment, pp 21-30.
Also available online at: http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/fulcrum_main.pl?database=ft_u2&searchid=10631208067867&keyfieldvalue=ADA406036&filename=%2Ffulcrum%2Fdata%2FTR_fulltext%2Fdoc%2FADA406036.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 W487e
 

Periodicals

Agnard, Bernard and Wodka-Gallien Philippe. The Mirage 2000D in Afghanistan: An After-Action Report. Journal of Electronic Defense 26:59-62 April 2003.
Discusses the close-air support and reconnaissance missions of French Mirage 2000D in support of the U.S.-led Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

Arana-Barradas, Louis A. The Afghan Air Link. Airman 46:2-9 May 2002.

Broberg, Scott E. Are We Properly Prepared for Helicopter Operations in Afghanistan? Marine Corps Gazette 86:70-74 May 2002.

Brown, David. GW (George Washington) Pilots Soar with Purpose but Fight in Relative Obscurity. Navy Times 51:20 August 26, 2002.

Burger, Kim, Koch, Andrew, and Bender, Bryan. Special Report: Afghanistan. Jane's Defence Weekly vol 37: Part One: Afghanistan: First Lessons, pp 18-21 December 19, 2001; Part Two: Afghanistan: The Key Lessons, pp 20-27. January 2, 2002. Includes breakdown of sorties flown.

Castellon, David. C-17s Get Roar of Approval for Role in Afghanistan. Air Force Times 62:34 May 27, 2002.

Castellon, David. Combat Loaded: War Demands Even More of Airlift and Tankers. Air Force Times 62:12-14 November 5, 2001.

Castellon, David. Missions in Afghanistan Took EC-130Hs over Threat Areas. Air Force Times 62:20 June 3, 2002.

Chipman, Don. Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-e Sharif. Air Power History 50:34-45 Spring 2003.

Davis, Anthony. How the Afghan War was Won. Jane's Intelligence Review 14:6-13 February 2002.
Describes the coordination of US precision bombing with United Front assaults on the ground. Includes a list of key dates in the campaign, pp 10-11.

Day, John. After Afghanistan--The Role of Air Power. RUSI Journal 147:38-43 December 2002.
Drawn from the Trenchard Memorial Lecture delivered at RUSI on October 25, 2002.

Donegan, Matt. KC-10 Refuelers Keep OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom) Fighters in Flight. Mobility Forum 11:26-29 July-August 2002.

Fidler, Kenneth. Mission Outweighs Risks for C-17 Aircrews Delivering Aid over Afghanistan. Mobility Forum 11:14-17 January-February 2002.

Finn, Chris. The Employment of Air Power in Afghanistan and Beyond. Royal Air Force Air Power Review 5:1-13 Winter 2002.

Franzak, Michael V. Nightmares in Afghanistan. Naval Aviation News 85:18-21 May-June 2003.
Reports on the combat experiences of the "Flying Nightmares" of Marine Attack Squadron (VMA) 513 in Afghanistan. Includes discussion of challenges overcome by the Nightmares, which operated out of an old, neglected Soviet air base.

Fulghum, David A. and Wall, Robert. Heavy Bomber Attacks Dominate Afghan War. Aviation Week & Space Technology 155:22 December 3, 2001.
U.S. heavy bombers have appeared in the Afghanistan conflict as little more than distant contrails, but the small force -- primarily 18 Boeing B-1s and B-52s operating from Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean -- has dropped most of the 4,700 tons delivered by the Air Force, which comprise 72% of the war's total.

Fulghum, David A. and Wall Robert. U.S. Stalks Taliban With New Air Scheme. Aviation Week & Space Technology 155:32+ October 15, 2001.

Goodman, Glenn. Close Air Support. Armed Forces Journal International 139:54+ January 2002.

Grant, Rebecca. An Air War Like No Other. Air Force Magazine 85:30-37 November 2002.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/nov2002/1102airwar.asp 

Grant, Rebecca. The Airpower of Anaconda. Air Force Magazine 85:60-63+ September 2002.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/sept2002/0902anaconda.asp 

Grant, Rebecca. Reach-Forward. Air Force Magazine 85:42-47 October 2002.
"'Reach-forward' refers to a situation in which a commander thousands of miles from a theater uses a powerful communications system to manage a tactical event in real time. In Enduring Freedom...CENTCOM senior staff at MacDill AFB, Florida, often granted or withheld approval for tactical execution of a specific strike in Afghanistan."
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/oct2002/1002reach.asp 

Grant, Rebecca. The War Nobody Expected. Air Force Magazine 85:34-40 April 2002.
Details the efforts of the U.S. Air Force to destroy the al Qaeda terrorist network and the Taliban government in Afghanistan. Includes objectives of Operation Enduring Freedom; types of aircraft used; classification of bombers.
Also available at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/april2002/0402airwar.asp 

Grier, Peter. The Combination that Worked (airpower and space communications). Air Force Magazine 85:30-32 April 2002.
Also available online at: http://www.afa.org/magazine/april2002/0402combo.asp 

Haun, Phil M. Direct Attack---A Counterland Mission. Air & Space Power Journal 17:9-16  Summer 2003.
In the recent air operations in Kosovo and Afghanistan, U.S. airpower has been employed against enemy armies independent of friendly ground operations. Yet the Air Force doctrinal description of how it fights does not reflect this reality of modern combat. Current Air Force doctrine assumes conditions of simultaneous air and land operations and does not address the use of airpower to attack enemy ground forces in the absence of friendly ground forces.
Also available online at:
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=10175863

Helton, Tim. Response Team Repairs C-5 in Kyrgyzstan. Mobility Forum 11:28-29 May-June 2002.

Kauchak, Marty. Focus on OEF's Air Campaign. Armed Forces Journal International 139:20-22 March 2002.

Nathman, John B. "We Were Great": Navy Air in Afghanistan. U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:94-96 March 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Apaches Save Day--and Their Reputation. Air Force Times 62:18 March 25, 2002.

Ohman, Jonathan R. VMFA-314 (Marine fighter attack squadron) Combat Operations. Marine Corps Gazette 86:34-35 July 2002.

Reade, David. Navy P-3 Operations in the War on Terrorism. Sea Power 45:23 June 2002.
Reports on the operations of the P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft in Afghanistan.

Reade, David. Orion Scans Terrain from Kosovo to the Hindu Kush. Sea Power 46:35-37 June 2003.
Includes discussion of the Navy's P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft's role in Operation Enduring Freedom.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Civilian Deaths Renew Debate about Air Campaign's Accuracy. Air Force Times 62:10-11 July 15, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Commander Defends Anaconda Air Support. Air Force Times 63:20 January 20, 2003.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Delivering a Message: C-17 Crews Endure Challenging, Exhausting Mission of Delivering Aid to Afghanistan. Air Force Times 62:26 November 12, 2001.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Enduring Freedom to Act as Test for AEF (Air Expeditionary Force) Structure. Air Force Times 62:14 October 15, 2001.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Few Fighters Tasked with Overseas Mission. Air Force Times 62:22 October 8, 2001.

Roos, John G. Turning Up the Heat: Taliban Became Firm Believers in Effects-Based Operations. Armed Forces Journal International 139:36-38+ February 2002.

Striking Back (air and ground elements press the war in Afghanistan; chiefly pictorial). Air Force Magazine 85:32-39 January 2002.

Trowbridge, Gordon. Holding Up in the Rough: C-5s Shine on Dangerous, Dusty Afghan Airstrip. Air Force Times 63:8+ September 16, 2002.

Wall, Robert. MH-47 Crews Detail Conflict's Exploits, Woes. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:22-23 April 15, 2002.
U.S. Army special operations forces believe that Afghanistan's high mountains and rough terrain could have thwarted several missions without the small force of MH-47E helicopters to call on.

Wall, Robert. War Experience Sparks New Weapons Interest. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:80 April 29, 2002.
The Pentagon is exploring whether to equip the AC-130 gunship with unmanned aircraft and standoff missiles so it can duplicate its success in Afghanistan in future wars.

Wood, Janice. A Mission of Firsts: The C-17 and Its Crews Make History During Operation Enduring Freedom. Armed Forces Journal International 139:50-54 May 2002.


Casualties


Internet Resources

DoD Identifies Those Killed in Operation Anaconda. Defense Link, March 5, 2002.
Available online at:
http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/2002/b03052002_bt101-02.html

Global War on Terrorism - Casualty Summary: Operation Enduring Freedom
as of March 19, 2005. Prepared by Defense Manpower Data Center, Statistical Information Analysis Division.
Available online at:
http://www.dior.whs.mil/mmid/CASUALTY/WOTSUM.PDF

Project on Defense Alternatives. Operation Enduring Freedom: Why a Higher Rate of Civilian Bombing Casualties,  by Carl Conetta. January 18, 2002, revised January 24, 2002. (Briefing report #11).
Available online at: http://www.comw.org/pda/0201oef.html

Periodicals

Afghanistan Claimed the Lives of 2 Female Fliers. Air Force Times 64:23 November 24, 2003.

Castellon, David. Air Force Master Sergeant First Enduring Freedom Casualty. Air Force Times 62:13 October 22, 2001.
Reports on the death of Evander Earl Andrews, an Air Force civil engineer.

Crawley, Vince.  War on Terrorism Deaths Pass 1,100.  Air Force Times 65:38 September 13, 2004.

Human Toll: U.S. Service Members Who Died in Support of Combat Operations.  Air Force Times 2005.
Appears on page 7 of each issue.

Naylor, Sean D. In Casualties' Wake, a Quest to Prevent Friendly Fire. Air Force Times 62:19 December 31, 2001.

Naylor, Sean D. In Search of Casualties. Army Times 62:18-19 April 15, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Air Force Loses First Plane in War. Air Force Times 62:8-9 June 24, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Reports: AC-130 Cited in Death Once Attributed to Enemy. Air Force Times 63:10 November 11, 2002.

Shadid, Anthony. Victims of Circumstance. Middle East Report 32:12-17 Spring 2002.
"A definitive toll of Afghan civilians killed by U.S. bombs will probably prove impossible. But it is becoming clear that US claims that fewer civilians have died in Operation Enduring Freedom than in any previous campaign are likely untrue."

Weisman, Jonathan. Killed in Action. Air Force Times 62:14-16 March 18, 2002.
The airmen killed on March 1, 2002 in Operation Anaconda were the Air Force's first combat deaths since Operation Desert Storm.

Wheeler, Nicholas. Dying for "Enduring Freedom": Accepting Responsibility for Civilian Casualties in the War Against Terrorism. International Relations 16:205+ August 2002.
"Although U.S. actions have been justified in terms of respect for the Just War principle of non-combatant immunity, this article shows how this principle rested uneasily with alternative moral theories of war that influenced the process of target selection..."


Coalition Support


Internet Resources

250 Troops for Operation Enduring Freedom.  Government.nl. February 25, 2005.
Available online at:
http://www.government.nl/actueel/nieuwsarchief/2005/02February/25/0-42-1_42-56112.jsp
"The Netherlands will contribute 250 troops to Operation Enduring Freedom, the international alliance fighting terrorism in Afghanistan."

FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database. Coalition Concludes Mountain Sweep in Afghanistan. August 5, 2002.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=32W1086366189&db=mth
Coalition forces completed Operation Mountain Sweep in Southeastern Afghanistan Aug. 26 with the repositioning of combat forces. "The objective of Mountain Sweep was to find and destroy remaining al Qaeda elements in that area, search for weapons or usable intelligence data for coalition forces, and project combat power into the area to deny the enemy sanctuary there," said Col. Roger King, Combined Joint Task Force - 180 public affairs officer. Mountain Sweep took place over eight days and included five combat air assault missions and three major convoy road marches to various objectives in the region.

German Armed Forces Involvement in Operation Enduring Freedom. June 10, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/en/News-by-subject/International-,11114/Enduring-Freedom.htm
"Under the Cabinet-proposed plan for the use of German forces in the fight against international terrorism approved by parliament on November 16, 2001 of 2 3,900 military personnel can be made available for Operation Enduring Freedom."


Books

Lansford, Tom. All for One: Terrorism, NATO and the United States . Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2002. 214 p.
The Military Response to 11 September, pp 108-131. Includes a section on bilateral military assistance (pp 117-125), which describes the role of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Turkey, and other countries. 
Burdensharing, pp 132-162. "While the NATO allies did not contribute a substantial percentage of the troops involved in the military campaign in Afghanistan, they did provide substantial support, especially in the form of naval and air assets."
Book call no.: 973.931 L295a

Martin, John. Defeating Terrorism : Strategic Issue Analyses. [Carlisle Barracks, PA], Strategic Studies Institute, 2002. 111 p.
Coalition Partners: Pakistan, by Steven Metz, pp 75-78. 
Coalition Partners: India, by Andrew Scobell, pp 79-81. 
Reaction of Key Asian States to the War on Terrorism, by Andrew Scobell, pp 97-100.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA405999
Book call no.: 363.320973 M381d

Documents

Gerleman, David J., Stevens, Jennifer E., and Hildreth, Steven A. Operation Enduring Freedom: Foreign Pledges of Military & Intelligence Support . Washington, Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service, 2001. 11 p.
Also available online at: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/6207.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 42953-1 no.01-RL31152

Kouzmanov, Krassi. NATO's Response to the 11 September 2001 Terrorism : Lessons Learned. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2003. 69 p.
Analyzes NATO's decisions and actions in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and assesses the probable future role of the Alliance in combating international terrorism. NATO's responses to the 11 September attacks, the unconventional and asymmetric threat posed by international terrorism, and the distinct contributions that the military can make in combating terrorism support the main hypothesis examined in this study: that NATO may be unable to play more than specific limited roles in the fight against international terrorism.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415031
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 K883n

Sullivan, David M. Transforming America's Military: Integrating Unconventional Ground Forces into Combat Air Operations. Newport, RI , Naval War College, 2002. 25 p.
"In Afghanistan, air power was significantly enhanced by unconventional forces on the ground. Meanwhile, forces of our ad hoc coalition partners have borne the brunt of high intensity force-on-force land battles. The most recent example of this method for employing forces is the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan. In Central Asia, the forces providing terminal attack control, laser guidance, and target surveillance have been Special Operations Forces, CIA operatives, and indigenous coalition land forces. These are proving to be extremely effective ad hoc arrangements. This study examines the transformation of the American way of war and how to efficiently employ SOF and CIA operatives at the operational level in support of an air-centric operation."
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401010
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 S9492t

Periodicals

Agnard, Bernard and Wodka-Gallien Philippe. The Mirage 2000D in Afghanistan: An After-Action Report. Journal of Electronic Defense 26:59-62 April 2003.
Discusses the close-air support and reconnaissance missions of French Mirage 2000D in support of the U.S.-led Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

Antonenko, Oksana. Putin's Gamble. Survival 43:49-59 Winter 2001.
Vladimir Putin took a major gamble after 11 September, setting aside all outstanding strategic disagreements and offering full Russian support to the US-led coalition against terror. This gamble entails significant risks to his political future, since large sections of Russia's public and political elites do not share his apparent confidence in the American and European commitment to reward Moscow for its support.

Bentley, Christopher F. Afghanistan: Joint and Coalition Fire Support in Operation Anaconda. Field Artillery, pp 10-14 September-October 2002.

Brosky, John. It Takes Two to Interoperate. Journal of Electronic Defense 25:43-48 August 2002.
Explores France's participation in Operation Enduring Freedom, air fields established by the French Air Force near Afghanistan, and the working relationship between the U.S. and French forces.

Brown, David. All Nations on Deck (international exercises). Navy Times 51:14-16 May 13 2002.

Brown, David. Coalition Aircraft Patrol the Seas for Enduring Freedom. Navy Times 51:28 August 12, 2002.

Fiorenza, Nicholas. European Navies Weigh In: Modernization Programs Aim at Eliminating Shortfalls Seen During Afghanistan Operations. Armed Forces Journal International 139:54+ March 2002.

Fiorenza, Nicholas. Holding the Line: German-Netherlands Corps Shoulders Peacekeeping in Afghanistan. Armed Forces Journal International 140:14 May 2003.

Fiorenza, Nicholas. Tip of the Spear. Armed Forces Journal International 139:32+ February 2002.
Reports on the contributions of US allies' special operations forces.

Goodman, Glenn W., Jr. Central Asian Partners. Armed Forces Journal International 139:60-61 January 2002.

Gordon, Philip H. NATO after 11 September. Survival 43:89-106 Winter 2001.
"...while the anti-terrorism campaign changes NATO's character and carries many risks, it also demonstrates NATO's continued utility and provides an opportunity to renovate and give new life to an alliance whose future was uncertain. While NATO's formal military role was necessarily very limited in the first weeks of the military campaign, the alliance's political solidarity was highly significant, as is the military interoperability that will allow some allies to participate in later stages of the campaign."

Gresham, John D. Forces Fighting for Enduring Freedom. U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 127:45-47 November 2001.

Harney, Robert A. Thai Coalition Engineer Unit Supports Operation Enduring Freedom. Army Logistician 36:26-30 January-February 2004.

Khan, Asad. Pakistan--An Enduring Friend. Marine Corps Gazette 86:34-37 June 2002.

Lesure, Marie. The "Market Price" of Terrorism: US Allies Add to Toll Paid by Taliban and Al Qaeda. Armed Forces Journal International 139:22-24 June 2002.

Prusher, Ilene R. and and others. Coalition Members Weigh Strengths in US-Led Effort. Christian Science Monitor 94:7 November 27, 2001.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5556687&db=aph

Rumsfeld Outlines Coalition Contributions. Air Force Magazine 85:11 April 2002.

Tiron, Roxana. Canadian Army Snipers Gain from Afghanistan Experience. National Defense 88:16-17 January 2004.

Williamson, Joel E. and Moroney, Jennifer D. P. Security Cooperation Pays Off: A Lesson from the Afghan War. DISAM Journal 24:79-82 Spring 2002.
One of the essential lessons of Operation Enduring Freedom is the importance of regional access for U. S. military forces. To the surprise of many around the world, the U. S. was able to gain a ring of access for its forces in countries either not regarded as openly friendly or where relations with the U. S. had been strained.

Wirsing, Robert G. Precarious Partnership: Pakistan's Response to U.S. Security Policies. Asian Affairs: An American Review 30:70-78 Summer 2003.
Includes discussion of the advantages and disadvantages to Pakistan of cutting its diplomatic ties with Kabul following the U.S.-led bombing campaign against Afghanistan; key interests of Pakistan in return for its collaboration with the global coalition.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10416271&db=aph

Wisecup, Phil and Williams, Tom. Enduring Freedom: Making Coalition Naval Warfare Work. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:52-55 September 2002.


Command and Control


Internet Resources

Donovan, Paul B. JFMCC: Theater C2 in Need of SOLE (Special Operations Liaison Element). Newport, RI, Naval War College. Joint Military Operations Dept., 2003. 26 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415445
"Functional operational command and control is an absolute necessity for the successful employment of sustained combat operations. During the past ten years, "revolutionary" changes have occurred in the conduct of war. Airpower seems to have become the weapon of choice. Airpower, directed onto targets by Special Operations Forces (SOF), produced devastating results against the Taliban during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The command and control network for the war in Afghanistan has functioned well."

Doty, Denis P. Command and Control of Special Operations Forces for 21st Century Contingency Operations. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2003. 26 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415457
The establishment of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) in the late 1980's created a single command designed to correct serious deficiencies in the ability of the United States to conduct special operations and engage in low-intensity conflict. Among other things, the creation of USSOCOM intended to correct problems associated with the command and control of Special Operations Forces (SOF). However, these command and control problems still exist today. Recent contingency operations in Afghanistan and the Philippines have shown the command and control difficulties with SOF.

Yarmie, Michael S. The Communications Bridge: Planning and Implementing Strategic Communications for Operation Enduring Freedom and Beyond. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2003. 39 p.
Available online at: http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/fulcrum_main.pl?database=FT_U2&searchid=106303877127478&keyfieldvalue=ADA415793&filename=%2Ffulcrum%2Fdata%2FTR_fulltext%2Fdoc%2FADA415793.pdf
For the past several years many combatant commanders have listed strategic communications and C4 reach-back capabilities among the top four items on their Integrated Priority Lists. These requirements in whole or in part remain unresolved today. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) further validated the urgent need of strategic reach-back communications from the Area of Operations (AOR) to the Continental United States (CONUS). This report analyzes the strategic communications infrastructure that the military planned, installed and operated to support operations in the Central Command AOR.

Periodicals

Grant, Rebecca. Reach-Forward. Air Force Magazine 85:42-47 October 2002.
"'Reach-forward' refers to a situation in which a commander thousands of miles from a theater uses a powerful communication system to manage a tactical event in real time. In Enduring Freedom...CENTCOM senior staff at MacDill AFB, Florida, often granted or withheld approval for tactical execution of a specific strike in Afghanistan."

McNulty, Dennis J. Base Camp Infrastructure Development and C2 (command and control) in Afghanistan. Engineer 32:4-8 October-December 2002.


Communications


Internet Resources

Yarmie, Michael S. The Communications Bridge: Planning and Implementing Strategic Communications for Operation Enduring Freedom and Beyond. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2003. 39 p.
Available online at: http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/fulcrum_main.pl?database=FT_U2&searchid=106303877127478&keyfieldvalue=ADA415793&filename=%2Ffulcrum%2Fdata%2FTR_fulltext%2Fdoc%2FADA415793.pdf
For the past several years many combatant commanders have listed strategic communications and C4 reach-back capabilities among the top four items on their Integrated Priority Lists (PLs). These requirements in whole or in part remain unresolved today. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) further validated the urgent need of strategic reach-back communications from the Area of Operations (AOR) to the Continental United States (CONUS). This report analyzes the strategic communications infrastructure that the military planned, installed and operated to support operations in the Central Command AOR.


Periodicals

Ackerman, Robert K. Technology Empowers Information Operations in Afghanistan. Signal 56:17-20 March 2002.
Satellite communications, Web services and imagery have come of age in the battlespace of Operation Enduring Freedom.

Grant, Rebecca. Reach-Forward. Air Force Magazine 85:42-47 October 2002.
"'Reach-forward' refers to a situation in which a commander thousands of miles from a theater uses a powerful communication system to manage a tactical event in real time. In Enduring Freedom...CENTCOM senior staff at MacDill AFB, Florida, often granted or withheld approval for tactical execution of a specific strike in Afghanistan."

Kenyon, Henry S. Linking the Farthest Shore. Signal 56:59-61 April 2002.
U.S. Marine Corps deployments into Afghanistan have demonstrated the service's growing digitalization. As troops disembarked to locations far from their various ships, connectivity was maintained through a variety of mobile communications systems. On the tactical level, Marines used battlefield intranets to coordinate operations and send digital imagery to their commanders in near real time.


Costs


Internet Resources

Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.  Estimated Cost of Operation Enduring Freedom: The First Two Months, by Steven Kosiak. December 6, 2001.
Available online at: http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/Archive/B.20011207.Estimated_Cost_of_/B.20011207.Estimated_Cost_of_.htm

Cost Estimating Methodology for Operation Enduring Freedom & Post-September 11th Counter-Terrorism Force Protection & Homeland Security Initiatives.  January 30, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.ra.pae.osd.mil/adodcas/DoDCAS2002presentations/Cost%20of%20War%20brief%20DODCAS2.pdf
Briefing to the Department of Defense Cost Analysis Symposium, January 30, 2002.

Periodicals

Costs for Operation Enduring Freedom: Up to $1b Per Month. National Defense 86:15 December 2001.

Crawley, Vince.  $401.7 Billion Iraq Bill Is Extra.  Air Force Times 64:16 February 16, 2004.

Fulghum, David A. Bombing Costs Escalate in Afghanistan Operations. Aviation Week & Space Technology 155:38 December 10, 2001.

Maze, Rick. CBO Warns of Billions in War Debt. Army Times 64:33 July 12, 2004.

Moniz, Dave. Monthly Costs of Iraq, Afghan Wars Approach that of Vietnam. USA Today September 8, 2003.
Available online through Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

Rebuilding Afghanistan Will Cost $15 Billion over a Decade. Engineering News-Record 248:9 January 21, 2002.

Wall, Robert. War Costs Overextend Pentagon Purse, Gear. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:31 March 25, 2002.


Engineer Units


Internet Resources

Cummings, Gregory A. and Martin R. J.  At War with Terrorism: Civil Engineer Support to Operations Noble Eagle and Enduring Freedom. Washington, Headquarters, USAF Civil Engineer Division, 2002. 6 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA405407

Periodicals

Baldwin, Donald P. Engineer Interoperability: The Face of Engineering in III Marine Expeditionary Force. Marine Corps Gazette 87:31-32 December 2003.

Cahlink, George. Building a Presence. Government Executive 34:47-48+ December 2002.
Capturing the northern city of Mazar-e-Sharif was a key victory in the campaign to win control of Afghanistan. The fall of the Taliban stronghold opened access to one of the country's 3 main airfields. Kathleen Ferguson, deputy Air Force civil engineer, says the challenges in setting up the Mazar-e-Sharif air base emphasize the need for combat engineers near the front lines. Along with logistics managers and civil engineers across the military services, Ferguson is harvesting lessons from the campaign in Afghanistan, Operation Enduring Freedom, to improve the way the military sets up and maintains bases around the world. 
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8861865&db=f5h

Engineers in Iraq and Afghanistan (pictorial only). Military Engineer 95:49-51 September-October 2003.

Harney, Robert A. Thai Coalition Engineer Unit Supports Operation Enduring Freedom. Army Logistician 36:26-30 January-February 2004.

Kasten, David. Operation Enduring Freedom: A Waypoint toward Geospatial Engineering Transformation. Engineer 33:27+ April-June 2003.

Lawson, Rhonda M. First Engineer Stryker Unit.  Engineer 34:46-47 January-March 2004

McNulty, Dennis J. Base Camp Infrastructure Development and C2 (command and control) in Afghanistan. Engineer 32:4-8 October-December 2002.

McNulty, Dennis J. Repairing Runways and Clearing Mines in Afghanistan. Engineer 32:8-14 July 2002.

Miller, Daniel A. A. and Sullivan, John P.  The Value of Expeditionary Engineering in Engagement in Combat Support.  Marine Corps Gazette 87:14-16+ December 2003.

Mohr, Jerry T. Operation Enduring Freedom from the Military Engineer Perspective. Engineer 32:4-7 July 2002.


Ethical Aspects


Books

War 2002 (alternative title: British Medical Journal, War 2002). London, BMJ Publishing Group of the BMA, February 9, 2002.
Was the Afghan Conflict a Just War? by Jennifer Leaning, pp 353-355.
Book call no.: 616.98023 W253

Periodicals

Byers, Michael. Letting the Exception Prove the Rule. Ethics and International Affairs  17,no.1:9+ 2003.
Includes discussion of the legal justifications for intervening in Afghanistan.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Civilian Deaths Renew Debate about Air Campaign's Accuracy. Air Force Times 62:10-11 July 15, 2002.

Tyson, Ann Scott. Weighing War in Afghanistan on a Moral Scale. Christian Science Monitor 93:3 October 19, 2001.
Looks at questions of whether the United States is waging a 'just war' in Afghanistan, in light of proceeding military actions.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5367861&db=aph

Wheeler, Nicholas. Dying for "Enduring Freedom": Accepting Responsibility for Civilian Casualties in the War Against Terrorism. International Relations 16:205+ August 2002.
"Although US actions have been justified in terms of respect for the Just War principle of non-combatant immunity, this article shows how this principle rested uneasily with alternative moral theories of war that influenced the process of target selection...argues that whilst the Taliban and al-Qaeda are responsible for exposing Afghan citizens to US attacks, this does not absolve US political and military leaders of responsibility for their conduct of the war."

Wood, David. Air Strikes Stir Questions about Status of Noncombants. Air Force Times 62:18  March 25, 2002.
A punishing series of airstrikes on suspected al-Qaeda terrorists raises questions as to whether women and children -- normally assumed to be innocent noncombatants -- have lost their protected status in U.S. military operations.


Fratricide


 Periodicals

Friedman, Norman. Dealing with Friendly Fire. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:4+ March 2003.

Jasper, Scott.  Joint Close Air Support Training Transformation.  Marine Corps Gazette 88:71-78 May 2004.

Naylor, Sean D. In Casualties' Wake, a Quest to Prevent Friendly Fire. Air Force Times 62:19 December 31, 2001.

Rolfsen, Bruce. In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time (Report: Navigation system malfunctions, miscommunication led to friendly fire accident). Air Force Times 63:10-11 January 20, 2003.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Why Friendlies Died: Report Details How 4 Canadians Were Killed, Evidence Against Pilots. Air Force Times 63:12-13 September 30, 2002.

Trowbridge, Gordon. 'Go Pills,' Pilot Fatigue in Friendly Fire Case Spotlight. Air Force Times 63:10-11 January 27, 2003.


Intelligence


Periodicals

Ackerman, Robert K. Commercial Imagery Aids Afghanistan Operations. Signal 56:16-19 December 2001.

Ackerman, Robert K. Technology Empowers Information Operations in Afghanistan. Signal 56:17-20 March 2002.
Satellite communications, Web services and imagery have come of age in the battlespace of Operation Enduring Freedom.

Berry, John F. The 513th Military Intelligence Brigade in Support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Military Intelligence 28:4 April-June 2002.

Ehrlich, Robert J. Enduring Freedom. Military Intelligence 29:65-66+ January-March 2003.
Focuses on the intelligence-related lessons learned from operations in Afghanistan; includes information of the Falcon View, a software program that displays maps and geographically referenced overlays.

Ford, Gregory J. Lessons Learned from Afghanistan: A Battalion S2's Perspective.  Military Intelligence 30:19-23+ January-March 2004.

Fulghum, David A. Intel Emerging as Key Weapon in Afghanistan. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:24-25  March 11, 2002.
The Afghanistan air campaign is not over, but analysts and senior military officials are hailing it as the first conflict in which intelligence was the primary U.S. weapon. Key factors in their assessment were persistence (the ability to maintain round-the-clock surveillance), integration at the tactical and operational levels of intelligence from many sources, and the ability to control data collection.

Hebert, Adam J. Operation Reachback. Air Force Magazine 87:56-58 April 2004.

Hutson, Charles E. NGIC (National Ground Intelligence Center) Uses Web-Based Visualization Technology to Inform Soldiers of Minefield Locations in Afghanistan. Military Intelligence 28:28-30 October-December 2002.

Intel Take from Enemy at Shah-e-Kot Great, MIs Say. Army Times 62:16 March 25, 2002.

McKrell, Eileen F. Network-Centric Intelligence Works. U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:44-48 July 2003.
Describes the author's experiences with network centric operations in Carrier Group Three/Battle Force Fifth Fleet during Operation Enduring Freedom.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10189774&db=aph

Moores, Drew. The 101st Airborne Division Deployable Intelligence Support Element (DISE) in Operation Enduring Freedom. Military Intelligence 28:38-40 October-December 2002.

Stallings, Ron. CI (counterintelligence) and HUMINT (human intelligence) Operations in Support of Operation Enduring Freedom.  Military Intelligence 29:43-46 October-December 2003.


Joint Operations


Periodicals

Brill, Arthur P., Jr. To the Caves of Tora Bora. Sea Power 45:24-33 Almanac Issue, January 2002.

Crawley, Vince. DoD Officials Credit 'Jointness' for Successes in Afghanistan. Army Times 62:33 May 27 2002.

Roos, John G. Long Reach: Battlefield Success Remains Rooted in All-Encompassing Support. Armed Forces Journal International 139:30-32+ March 2002.
The speed with which US and allied forces routed Taliban and al Qaeda fighters in Afghanistan validated the thrust of the Pentagon's decade long pursuit of fielding highly effective, joint-service combat forces. More telling, perhaps, were the results achieved through the coordinated targeting activity of Army Special Forces on the ground and Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Special Operations Forces airpower.

Roos, John G. Turning Up the Heat: Taliban Became Firm Believers in Effects-Based Operations. Armed Forces Journal International 139:36-38+ February 2002.


Land Operations


Books

Boots on the Ground: Stories of American Soldiers from Iraq in Afghanistan,
edited by Clint Willis.  New York, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2004.  304 p.
Book call no.: 956.7044342 B725


Exum, Andrew. This Man's Army: A Soldier's Story from the Front Lines of the War on Terrorism.  New York, Gotham Books, 2004.  239 p.
Book call no.: 973.931 E96t

Franks, Tommy.  American Soldier by Tommy Franks with Malcolm McConnell.  New York, Regan Books, 2004.  590 p.
Book call no.: 92 F8282a

Operation Enduring Freedom: October 2001-March 2002. 
Washington, U.S. Army Center of Military History, 2004.  46 p.
Book call no.: 958.1046 O61

Periodicals

Betancourt, Alberto. Task Force Rakkasans. Soldiers 57:4-8 April 2002.

Harper, Sue and Jones, Gregory. Supporting Afghanistan from Europe: U.S. Army Europe's 21st Theater Support Command. Army 52:41-42 August 2002.

Haun, Phil M. Direct Attack---A Counterland Mission. Air & Space Power Journal 17:9- Summer 2003.
In the recent air operations in Kosovo and Afghanistan, U.S. airpower has been employed against enemy armies independent of friendly ground operations. Yet the Air Force doctrinal description of how it fights does not reflect this reality of modern combat. Current Air Force doctrine assumes conditions of simultaneous air and land operations and does not address the use of airpower to attack enemy ground forces in the absence of friendly ground forces.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=10175863

Mitchell, Joshua D. A Case for Howitzers in Afghanistan. Field Artillery, pp 6-9 November-December 2003.

Naylor, Sean D. A Patrol, Silent and Surreal: The 101st Expands Its Presence over Afghanistan's Desolate Landscape. Army Times 62:8-9 February 11, 2002.

Sink, James A. First Lethal FA (Field Artillery) Fires in Afghanistan: Lessons Learned at Firebase Shkin. Field Artillery, pp 16-19 November-December 2003.

Steele, Dennis. Dust and Mines: Patrolling in Afghanistan. Army 52:44-47 April 2002.

Steele, Dennis. A U.S. Army Line Battalion in the War on Terrorism: The Mountains. Army 52:22-26+ June 2002.

Striking Back (air and ground elements press the war in Afghanistan; chiefly pictorial). Air Force Magazine 85:32-39 January 2002.

Tewksbury, Dennis D. Decentralized Fires in Afghanistan: A Glimpse of the Future? Field Artillery, pp 10-15 November-December 2003.


Legal Aspects


Internet Resources

"Enduring Freedom:" Abuses by U.S. Forces in Afghanistan. Human Rights Watch, March 2004.
Available online at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/afghanistan0304/index.htm

Documents

De Alicante, Tony F. How Now Shall We Fight? The Relevance of the Law of Armed Conflict to the United States and its Coalition Members in Light of the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September 2001. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2002. 23 p.
"The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the war in Afghanistan that followed have presented situations never before encountered by the United States in armed conflict and have changed some of the ways in which the U.S. conducts warfare. The Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) has not kept up with those changes. As a result, the U.S. must examine whether the application of the LOAC is still relevant to how we fight wars and against whom we are fighting in the twenty-first century, and make necessary adjustments so that operational commanders will have a framework to use in warfare that is current and relevant to helping them maintain superiority on the battlefield."--
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA400948
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 D279h

Elsea, Jennifer. Treatment of 'Battlefield Detainees' under the Geneva Conventions . Washington, Congressional Research Service, 2002. 1 vol. (Terrorism Briefing Book )
Book call no.: M-U 42953-45a

Periodicals

Byers, Michael. Letting the Exception Prove the Rule. Ethics and International Affairs 17,no.1:9-16 2003.
Includes discussion of the legal justifications for intervening in Afghanistan.

Jeter, Paul E. What Do Special Instructions Bring to the Rules of Engagement?  Chaos or Clarity.  Air Force Law Review 55:377-411 2004.

Roberts, Adam. Counter-Terrorism, Armed Force and the Laws of War. Survival 44:7-32 Spring 2002.
In military operations involving action against terrorists, the relevance of the laws of war, often now called international humanitarian law, is problematical....Is the law applicable to such operations? Should it be applied in situations different from what was envisaged in treaties? And are detainees "prisoners of war"? A difficulty in applying the law is that governments usually view terrorists, like rebels in civil wars, as simply criminal.

Sirak, Michael.  Briefing: Legal Armed Conflict.  Jane's Defence Weekly 41:24-28 January 14, 2004


Lessons Learned


Internet Resources

Air War College. Gateway to Internet Resources.  Lessons Learned.
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-lesn.htm#gwot 
See section: War on Terrorism/Afghanistan.

Brown, Lawrence T. You've Got to be Kidding: Empowering the JFACC with Selected Ground Reconnaissance Forces. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2003. 39 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415381
Abstract: In the last twenty years, airpower has become a decisive force in its own right beginning with Desert Storm followed by Operation Allied Force and most recently Operation Enduring Freedom. Two primary lessons were learned from these three conflicts concerning airpower. First, airpower cannot win wars by itself; it needs the synergistic effects of ground forces. Second, US Special Forces on the ground early dramatically increase the effectiveness of the air campaign. If these lessons are indeed true, how can we make airpower more effective than current constructs? This paper seeks to demonstrate that the airpower can become more effective when SOF or other conventional reconnaissance forces are placed under the control of the JFACC for initial rapid and decisive airpower operations.


Books

Biddle, Stephen D. Afghanistan and the Future of Warfare : Implications for Army and Defense Policy. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute,  Army War College, 2002. 58 p.
America's novel use of special forces, precision weapons, and indigenous allies has attracted widespread attention since its debut in Northern Afghanistan last fall. It has proven both influential and controversial. Many think it caused the Taliban's sudden collapse. For them, this "Afghan Model" represents warfare's future, and should become the new template for US defense planning. Critics, however, see Afghanistan as an anomaly - a non-repeatable product of local conditions. This briefing examines the Afghan Model's actual role in the fall of the Taliban, using evidence collected from a combination of 45 participant interviews, terrain inspection in Afghanistan, and written documentation from both official and unofficial sources.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA408757
Book call no.: 355.033573 B584a

Cordesman, Anthony H. The Lessons of Afghanistan: War Fighting, Intelligence, and Force Transformation . Washington, CSIS Press, 2002. 168 p. (Significant Issues Series, v. 24, no. 4)
Book call no.: 958.1046 C794L

Crane, Conrad C. Avoiding Vietnam: The U.S. Army's Response to Defeat in Southeast Asia. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2002. 34 p.
Abstract: As American operations against terrorism spread around the globe to places like Afghanistan and the Philippines, an increasing tendency has been for commentators to draw parallels with past experience in Vietnam. Even soldiers on the ground have begun to speak in such terms. The author analyzes the Army's response to that defeat in Southeast Asia and its long-term impact. Contrary to the accepted wisdom that nations which lose wars tend to learn best how to correct their mistakes, he argues that Americans tried to forget the unhappy experience with counterinsurgency by refocusing on conventional wars. While that process eventually produced the powerful force that won the Persian Gulf War, it left an Army with force structure, doctrine, and attitudes that are much less applicable to the peace operations and counterterrorism campaign it now faces. 
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA407526
Book call no.: 355.033573 C8911a

Lessons from Operations Injuring Freedom, by Robert S. Tripp and others. Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2004. 119 p.
Also available online at: http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1819/MR1819.pdf
Book call no.: 355.411 L641

Documents

Kouzmanov, Krassi. NATO's Response to the 11 September 2001 Terrorism : Lessons Learned. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2003. 69 p.
Analyzes NATO's decisions and actions in response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States and assesses the probable future role of the Alliance in combating international terrorism. NATO's responses to the 11 September attacks, the unconventional and asymmetric threat posed by international terrorism, and the distinct contributions that the military can make in combating terrorism support the main hypothesis examined in this study: that NATO may be unable to play more than specific limited roles in the fight against international terrorism.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415031
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 K883n

Mason, Doug. A New American Way of War?  Identifying Operational Lessons from American Involvement in Southwest Asia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2002. 21 p.
"This paper addresses the question of whether the conduct and outcome of the United States last three conflicts (Desert Storm, Kosovo and Afghanistan), represent a new American Way of War. For those that espouse the idea of a new American Way of War, its characteristics include increased Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance capabilities, the dominant nature of precision guided munitions, the increased effectiveness of Special Operations Forces, and the ability to project power from the continental United States. The characteristics and lessons that are mistakenly labeled as new either fit comfortably within the existing framework of the American way of war, or are misrepresented. Further, the apparent obsession on redefining the American way of war is obscuring more important lessons that should be gleaned from these three conflicts. These lessons include the current state of the relationship between fire and maneuver, the changing nature of close air support, the compression of the sensor to shooter loop, and important coalition and jointness issues."
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401131
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 M398n

Periodicals

Afghanistan Victory. CQ Researcher 12:734+ September 13, 2002.
Comments on the range of lessons learned in Operation Enduring Freedom that will guide further transformations of the U.S. military.

Air Support Lessons from Afghanistan and Iraq. Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29:48-49 November 2003.

Brill, Arthur P. Afghanistan Diary. Sea Power 45:75-79 April 2002.

Burger, Kim, and others. Special Report: Afghanistan. Jane's Defence Weekly vol 37: Part One: Afghanistan: First Lessons, pp 18-21 December 19, 2001; Part Two: Afghanistan: The Key Lessons, pp 20-27. January 2, 2002. Includes breakdown of sorties flown.

Cohen, Eliot A. A Tale of Two Secretaries. Foreign Affairs 81:33-46 May-June 2002.
"The difficult questions remaining after the Sept 11 attacks are: is the Pentagon headed for fundamental change? What lessons, if any, should defense officials take from the operations in Afghanistan?"

Corbin, Marcus. Operation Enduring Freedom and Military Transformation. Defense Monitor 31:4-5+ September 2002.

Day, John. After Afghanistan--The Role of Air Power. RUSI Journal 147:38-43 December 2002.
Drawn from the Trenchard Memorial Lecture delivered at RUSI on October 25, 2002.

Ehrlich, Robert J. Enduring Freedom. Military Intelligence 29:65-66+ January-March 2003.
Focuses on the intelligence-related lessons learned from operations in Afghanistan; includes information of the Falcon View, a software program that displays maps and geographically referenced overlays.

Erwin, Sandra I. Naval Aviation: Lessons from the War. National Defense 86:16-19 June 2002.

Erwin, Sandra I. Success of 'Lessons Learned' Process Based on Truthfulness. National Defense 87:24-25+ July 2002.

Finn, Chris. The Employment of Air Power in Afghanistan and Beyond. Royal Air Force Air Power Review 5:1-13 Winter 2002.

Ford, Gregory J. Lessons Learned from Afghanistan: A Battalion S2's Perspective.  Military Intelligence 30:19-23+ January-March 2004.

Friedman, Norman. More Lessons from Afghanistan. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:4+ February 2003.

Hawkins, William R. What Not to Learn from Afghanistan. Parameters 32:24-32 Summer 2002.
Also available online at: http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/02summer/hawkins.htm

Hebert, Adam J. Supply Chain Visibility: U.S. Air Force Adapts to War in Afghanistan and Learns Logistics Lessons. Armed Forces Journal International 139:30+ April 2002.

Herndon, Robert B. Effects-Based Operations in Afghanistan. Field Artillery, pp 26-30 January-February 2004.

Hoffman, Frank G. Early Lessons from Enduring Freedom. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:2 April 2002.

Jogerst, John. What's So Special about Special Operations? Lessons from the War in Afghanistan. Aerospace Power Journal 16:98-102 Summer 2002.

Kaufman, Gail and Svitak, Amy. Putting Lessons to Use: Schooled in Desert Storm, Afghanistan Air Wars, Air Force Surprises in Iraq. Air Force Times 63:12 April 7, 2003.

Keeter, Hunter. Marine Aviation Community Draws Lessons From Afghanistan. Defense Daily 216:4-5 October 29, 2002.

Lowe, Christian. A Look at Lessons Learned. Air Force Times 62:8 January 28, 2002.

Lubold, Gordon. Desert. Marines Start Digging into Lessons Learned in Afghanistan. Navy Times 51:24 September 9, 2002.

McKenna, Ted. U.S. Army Quick Fixes: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan on Display at AUSA (Association of the U.S. Army) 2004. Journal of Electronic Defense 27:30-39 December 2004.

Meilinger, Phillip S. Preparing for the Next Little War: Operation Enduring Freedom Points to New Ways of Warfighting. Armed Forces Journal International 139:38+ April 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Hard-Won Knowledge. Army Times 62:14-15 June 3, 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Learning from Operation Anaconda. Air Force Times 63:12-13 July 29, 2002.

O'Hanlon, Michael E. A Flawed Masterpiece. Foreign Affairs 81:47-63 May-June 2002.
Lessons learned include: 1) military progress does not always depend on highly expensive weapons platforms; 2) human skills remain important in war; 3) military mobility and deployability should continue to be improved; and 4) more joint-service experimentation and innovation are highly desirable.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6489865&db=aph

Peck, Fred. Somalia, Afghanistan: A Script for Reconstruction of Iraq. Sea Power 46:78-81 April 2003.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Air Force Learned Lessons in Kosovo, But Problems Remain. Air Force Times 62:15 February 4, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Recording History as It's Made: Task Force Gathers Information on Operation Enduring Freedom. Air Force Times 62:30 May 27, 2002.

Roos, John G. Turning Up the Heat: Taliban Became Firm Believers in Effects-Based Operations. Armed Forces Journal International 139:36-38+ February 2002.

Vego, Milan. What Can We Learn from Enduring Freedom? U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:28-33 July 2002.

Venzke, Ben N. and Ibrahim, Aimee. Lessons Learned in Afghanistan: Al-Qaeda's Advice for Mujahideen in Iraq. Military Intelligence 30:40-51 January-March 2004.

Wall, Robert. Military Assesses War Strengths, Shortfalls. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:26-27 April 15, 2002.
To cull lessons from ongoing operations and improve future efforts, the Air Force set up a small team to do the requisite analysis. Named ''Task Force Enduring Look,'' the 35-person team was established even before the U.S. military commenced hostilities in October. Rather than merely compiling a postwar review, Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. John Jumper asked for a product that could ''help the warfighter in the short term,'' said USAF Col. James Hunt, the task force's director. The difference in approach is due to the fact that military officials expect a long, multi-phase campaign they want to affect as it progresses.

Williamson, Joel E. and Moroney, Jennifer D. P. Security Cooperation Pays Off: A Lesson from the Afghan War. DISAM Journal 24:79-82 Spring 2002.
One of the essential lessons of Operation Enduring Freedom is the importance of regional access for U. S. military forces. To the surprise of many around the world, the U. S. was able to gain a ring of access for its forces in countries either not regarded as openly friendly or where relations with the U. S. had been strained.

Wood, David. Disturbing Lessons Emerge from Anti-Terror Push. Army Times 62:20 May 6, 2002.
The global war on terrorism is getting disturbing news from Israel and Afghanistan: evidence that blunt, conventional military force doesn't work against irregular fighters and terrorists, and can even backfire dangerously.


Logistics


Internet Resources

"Eagle Fury" Heavy Drop a First in Afghanistan. FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database February 19, 2003.
Parachute riggers dropped a total of 38,088 gallons of fuel to the Forward Area Refueling Point in support of Operation Eagle Fury in the Bahgran Valley, Afghanistan. "The significance to the drop is that until this point there has not been a heavy drop in Afghanistan or in support of Operation Enduring Freedom," said Warrant Officer Peter Lautzenheiser, the air drop systems technician and platoon leader of the riggers in Company E, 782nd Main Support Battalion, attached to HQ Company A, 307th Logistical Task Force. "To the best of my knowledge, the last time any fuel was air dropped, certainly by the 82nd Airborne, if not by the entire Army, was in Vietnam."
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=32W1689388591&db=mth

Knight, Perry L. Observations on Operation Enduring Freedom: Recommendations for Development of the Transformation Objective Force Logistics Structure. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2003. 61 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415286
This paper examines selected logistics observations from Operation Enduring Freedom within the historical context of the Army's experiences in previous smaller-scale contingency operations, and provides implications and recommendations for the Objective Force logistics structure.

Documents

Granger, Martha G. Moving an Expeditionary Force: Three Case Studies in Afghanistan. Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2003.  69 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415877
Doc. call no.: M-U 4202-2 G758m

Periodicals

626th Logistics Task Force Keeps Supplies Flowing in Kandahar. Army Logistician 34:43 July-August 2002.

Airdrop of Fuel Supports Combat Operations in Afghanistan. Army Logistician 35:41 May-June 2003.

Arana-Barradas, Louis A. The Afghan Air Link. Airman 46:2-9 May 2002.

Betancourt, Alberto. Kandahar's Supply Hub. Soldiers 57:4-7 May 2002.

Cahlink, George. Building a Presence. Government Executive 34:47-48+ December 2002.
Capturing the northern city of Mazar-e-Sharif was a key victory in the campaign to win control of Afghanistan. The fall of the Taliban stronghold opened access to one of the country's 3 main airfields. Kathleen Ferguson, deputy Air Force civil engineer, says the challenges in setting up the Mazar-e-Sharif air base emphasize the need for combat engineers near the front lines. Along with logistics managers and civil engineers across the military services, Ferguson is harvesting lessons from the campaign in Afghanistan, Operation Enduring Freedom, to improve the way the military sets up and maintains bases around the world. Among the approaches are increased pre-positioning of equipment in potential hot spots and at sea, US partnerships with other nations to build military facilities and make more extensive use of existing ones, and greater reliance on contractors to build and operate bases overseas.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8861865&db=f5h

Cahlink, George. Masters of Surge. Air Force Magazine 86:59-62 April 2003.
Focuses on U. S. Air Force depots' support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

Christianson, Claude V. Delivering Materiel Readiness to the Army. Army 54:27-30 April 2004.

Contract Support for Operation Enduring Freedom.
Army Logistician 35:22-23 March-April 2003.

Desjarlais, Orville F., Jr. Bearing the Burden: Kyrgyz Republic Air Base Supports Global War on Terrorism. Airman 49:20-25 February 2005.

Desjarlais, Orville F., Jr. K-2 Connection.  Airman 48:2-7 November 2004.

Erwin, Sandra I. War on Terrorism Tests Logisticians' Skills. National Defense 87:19-21 July 2002.

Grier, Peter. Loggie Power. Air Force Magazine 85:68-72 November 2002.
Describes the logistics challenge faced by the U. S. Air Force during Operation Enduring Freedom; includes achievements of fuel specialists and problems related to aging aircraft.

Hall, John. Afghan Supply Pipeline Performance. Army Logistician 35:4-8 January-February 2003.
Includes description of tasks performed by the Logistics Support Activity of the Army Materiel Command in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

Hebert, Adam J. Supply Chain Visibility: US Air Force Adapts to War in Afghanistan and Learns Logistics Lessons. Armed Forces Journal International 139:30+ April 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. 'We Support to the Utmost': The 528th Special Operations Support Battalion. Special Warfare 15:13-15 September 2002.

MTMC (Military Traffic Management Command) Team Fights War on Terrorism. Army Logistician 34:22-24 May-June 2002.

Mann, Robert P., Jr. Improving Intratheater Joint Distribution.  Army Logistician 36:3-5 May-June 2004.

McClean, David R. and Henson, Phillip E. Moving the Force across Europe: EUCOM's Joint Movement Center. Army Logistician 36:26-29 September-October 2004.

McDonnell, James J. and Novak, J. Ronald.  Logistic Challenges in Support of Operation Enduring Freedom.  Army Logistician 36:9-13 September-October 2004.

McKenzie, Kenneth F.  Marines Deliver in Mountain Storm.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:48-53 November 2004.

Meden, Gary R. First in Support - the 21st Theater Support Command. Army Logistician 36:18-21 March-April 2004.

Newman, Richard J. Tankers and Lifters for a Distant War. Air Force Magazine 62:56-60 January 2002.

Puckett, Amee. 'If Special Forces Needs It, We Get It'. Army Times 62:15 December 24, 2001.

Rolfsen, Bruce. A New Way to Deliver Food. Air Force Times 62:17 October 22, 2001.

Simon, Seena. '100 Percent Totally Self-Sufficient'. Air Force Times 62:14+ January 28, 2002.

Steer, Frank R. and Mahan, Charles S., Jr. Senior Logisticians Compare Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom to Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.  Logistics Spectrum 38:13-18 January-March 2004.

Trowbridge, Gordon. More Enduring Freedom Supplies Go by Land, Sea. Air Force Times 63:22 November 4, 2002.
Discusses the efficiency of sea and land shipment compared to airlift.

VanVactor, Jerry D. The Changing Face of Medical Logistics in Afghanistan.  Army Logistician 36:14-17 September-October 2004.

Wells, George W., Jr. The Theater Support Command at War. Army Logistician 36:46-48 July-August 2004.


Marines


Periodicals

Afghanistan Diary. Sea Power 45:75-79 April 2002.
Reports on Phase One operations of the Marine Corps in Operation Enduring Freedom, including deployment of Marine expeditionary units and performance of AV-8B Harriers.

Baldwin, Donald P. Engineer Interoperability: The Face of Engineering in III Marine Expeditionary Force. Marine Corps Gazette 87:31-32 December 2003.

Brill, Arthur P. Afghanistan Diary. Sea Power 45:75-79 April 2002.

Brill, Arthur P. Jr. To the Caves of Tora Bora. Sea Power 45:24-33 Almanac Issue, January 2002.

Brinkley, C. Mark. In a Fighting Hole: Marine Fire Team Watches, Waits on the Front Line in Afghanistan. Army Times 62:16 December 17, 2001.

Brinkley, C. Mark. Marines Take Afghan Airfield; C-17s Touch Down Soon After. Air Force Times 62:18 December 10, 2001.

Crawley, Vince. SOCOM Lauded for Its Focus on 'Customers'. Air Force Times 62:17 March 25, 2002.
U.S. military is being urged to follow the customer-focused example of the U.S. Special Operations Command when rushing military equipment to war fighters in Afghanistan. Also discusses plans for Marine amphibious ready groups to notify SOCOM headquarters before deploying so they can be included in future war and contingency plans.

Franzak, Michael V. Nightmares in Afghanistan. Naval Aviation News 85:18-21 May-June 2003.
Reports on the combat experiences of the "Flying Nightmares" of Marine Attack Squadron (VMA) 513 in Afghanistan. Includes discussion of challenges overcome by the Nightmares, which operated out of an old, neglected Soviet air base.

Henderson, Clayton. Weapons Platoon in the Defense of Kandahar. Marine Corps Gazette 86:42-45 July 2002.

Henderson, Clayton and Broene, Jason E. Fire Support in the Defense of Kandahar. Marine Corps Gazette 86:45-47 July 2002.

Keeter, Hunter. Marine Aviation Community Draws Lessons From Afghanistan. Defense Daily 216:4-5 October 29, 2002.

Kenyon, Henry S. Linking the Farthest Shore. Signal 56:59-61 April 2002.
U.S. Marine Corps deployments into Afghanistan have demonstrated the service's growing digitalization. As troops disembarked to locations far from their various ships, connectivity was maintained through a variety of mobile communications systems. On the tactical level, Marines used battlefield intranets to coordinate operations and send digital imagery to their commanders in near real time.

Kiper, Richard L. Into the Dark: The 3/75th Ranger Regiment. Special Warfare 15:6-7 September 2002.

Krumm, Bob. Why Are the Marines in Afghanistan? U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:112 January 2002.

Lubold, Gordon. In Charge in Kandahar: Marines Take Over Airport, Embassy and Eye Tora Bora. Army Times 62:21 December 31, 2001.

McKenzie, Kenneth F.  Marines Deliver in Mountain Storm.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:48-53 November 2004.

Miller, Daniel A. A. and Sullivan, John P.  The Value of Expeditionary Engineering in Engagement in Combat Support.  Marine Corps Gazette 87:14-16+ December 2003.

Ohman, Jonathan R. VMFA-314 (Marine fighter attack squadron) Combat Operations. Marine Corps Gazette 86:34-35 July 2002.

Tomko, T. Shane. The 11 Commandments and the Defense of Kandahar. Marine Corps Gazette 86:38-41 June 2002.

Tomko, T. Shane. Defense of Kandahar. Marine Corps Gazette 86:35-36 July 2002.


Medical Aspects


Internet Resources

Hyams, Kenneth C. and others. Protecting the Health of United States Military Forces in Afghanistan: Applying Lessons Learned since the Gulf War. Clinical Infectious Diseases vol 34, June 15, 2002 (7 pages).
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6945369&db=aph 


Periodicals

Bateman, Timothy E. LRMC (Landstuhl Regional Medical Center) Logistic Support for OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom). U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, pp 56-59 October-December 2002.

Burnett, Mark W. The Role of the Operational Physician in a Medical Center. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, pp 44-45 October-December 2002.

Ervin, Mark D. OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom) In-Theater Evacuation. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal. pp 46-51 October-December 2002.

Funk, Deborah. Afghan Deployment Exposes Surgical Teams' Needs. Army Times 62:32 May 27, 2002.

Funk, Deborah. Doctors Looking for Cause of Pneumonia in Troops. Air Force Times 64:23 August 18, 2003.
Reports on the effort of U. S. Army doctors and laboratory technicians to find out what is causing pneumonia in troops deployed in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

Funk, Deborah. Medical People Armed and Ready for Chem-Bio War. Army Times 62:16 November 12, 2001.

Funk, Deborah. Post-Deployment Medical Screening Takes In-Depth Slant. Navy Times 52:28 May 12, 2003.

Funk, Deborah. Registry Could Cut War Deaths: Data Reporting System Aims to Improve Care for Wounded. Army Times 65:18 January 31, 2005.

Funk, Deborah. War in Afghanistan Shows Specialized Needs of Surgical Teams. Air Force Times 62:22 June 10, 2002.

Gibson, Rebecca J. Bridging Language and Culture Barriers. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, 60-66 October-December 2002.

Harvey, Sally C. Debriefing/Decompression: Psychological Support for OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom) Casualties. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, pp14-20 October-December 2002.

Hasenauer, Heike. After the Medevac. Soldiers 58:14-17 June 2003.
Explores the development of the U. S. Deployed Warrior Medical Management Center (DWMMC) to help soldiers deployed in support of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

Murdock, Cabot S. Application of TEP (totally extraperitoneal) Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair during OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom). U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, pp 30-33 October-December 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Life Savers: New Armor Stemmed Casualties in Bagram, but Surgical Team Still Had Its Hands Full. Army Times 62:16 April 22, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Close Care: Medical Units Bring Surgical Capabilities to the Front Lines. Air Force Times 62:22 June 10, 2002.

Rundell, James R. and Baine, Damon G. Overview: The First OEF (Operation Enduring Freedom) Patients Evacuated to LRMC (Landstuhl Regional Medical Center). U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, pp 6-13 October-December 2002.

Simon, Seena and Castellon, David. Doing More with Less. Air Force Times 62:34 November 12, 2001.
Focuses on the mission of U. S. Air Force medical teams supporting Operations Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle.

VanVactor, Jerry D. The Changing Face of Medical Logistics in Afghanistan.  Army Logistician 36:14-17 September-October 2000.


Naval Operations


Periodicals

Brown, David. Carriers Rule: Why Flattops are Critical to this War. Navy Times 51:12-13 November 5, 2001.

Cooke, Leonard W. W. A Deployment to Remember: The Navy's Seabees in Afghanistan. Sea Power 45:55-57 October 2002.

Dendy, John B. Up from the Sea. Airman 46:8-11 August 2002.

Fiorenza, Nicholas. European Navies Weigh In: Modernization Programs Aim at Eliminating Shortfalls Seen During Afghanistan Operations. Armed Forces Journal International 139:54+ March 2002.

Nathman, John B. "We Were Great": Navy Air in Afghanistan. U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:94-96 March 2002.

Naval Space Ops Crucial to Afghan War. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:86-88 April 8, 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Navy: Above and Beyond in Afghanistan. Navy Times 51:24 August 5, 2002.

Peterson, Gordon I. Bush: "The Might of Our Navy is Needed Again." Sea Power 45:13-23 January 2002.
Includes an assessment of strategies of attacks on Afghanistan.

Reade, David. Navy P-3 Operations in the War on Terrorism. Sea Power 45:23 June 2002.
Reports on the operations of the P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft in Afghanistan.

Wisecup, Phil and Williams, Tom. Enduring Freedom: Making Coalition Naval Warfare Work. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:52-55 September 2002.


Operation--Anaconda


Internet Resources

Operation Anaconda: A Day-by-Day Guide to the First Week of Fighting. Time, March 10, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101020318/popup/index.html

Operation Anaconda Costs 8 Lives. CNN.com, March 4, 2002.
Available online at: http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/central/03/04/ret.afghan.fighting/

Books

Operation Anaconda: An Airpower Perspective,
by Rebecca Grant. Washington, Headquarters, U.S. Air Force, 2005. 1 vol.
Report by "Rebecca Grant and the team of professionals at Task Force Enduring Look and the Office of Air Force Lessons Learned."
Also available at: http://www.af.mil/library/posture/Anaconda_Unclassified.pdf
Book call no.: 958.1047 O61

Moore, Robin.  The Hunt for Bin Laden: Task Force Dagger.  New York, Random House, 2003.    373 p.
Book call no: 363.320973 M823h


Smucker, Philip.  Al Qaeda's Great Escape: The Military and the Media on Terror's Trail.  Washington, Brassey's, 2004.  229 p.
Book call no.: 958.1046 S666a

Periodicals

Bentley, Christopher F. Afghanistan: Joint and Coalition Fire Support in Operation Anaconda. Field Artillery, pp 10-14 September-October 2002.

Geibel, Adam. Making Sense of Anaconda. Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 28:34-36 May 2002.

Grant, Rebecca. The Airpower of Anaconda. Air Force Magazine 85:60-63+ September 2002.

Hastert, Paul L. Operation Anaconda: Perception Meets Reality in the Hills of Afghanistan.  Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 28:11-20 January-February 2005.

McElroy, Robert H. Afghanistan: Fire Support for Operation Anaconda. Field Artillery, pp 5-9: September-October 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Anaconda Winds Down. Army Times 62:14-15 March 25, 2002.

Naylor, Sean D. Learning from Operation Anaconda. Air Force Times 63:12-13 July 29, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Commander Defends Anaconda Air Support. Air Force Times 63:20 January 20, 2003.

The Soldiers of Task Force Rakkasan. Army 52:30-34+ April 2002.

Steele, Dennis. Another Rendezvous with Destiny. Army 52:22-24+ April 2002.

Steele, Dennis. Operation Anaconda: Taking the Fight to the Enemy in Afghanistan. Army 52:19-20 April 2002.

Steele, Dennis. A U.S. Army Line Battalion in the War on Terrorism: The Mountains. Army 52:22-26+ June 2002.

Weisman, Jonathan. Killed in Action. Air Force Times 62:14-16 March 18, 2002.
The airmen killed on March 1, 2002 in Operation Anaconda were the Air Force's first combat deaths since Operation Desert Storm.

Welch, Ryan.  Operation Anaconda: The Battle for Sha-i-Kot Valley.  Armor 112:36-41 November-December 2003.


Operation Mongoose


Periodicals

Steele, Dennis. Afghanistan: The Devils Keep Up the Heat. Army 53:16-20+ March 2003.


Operation -- Mountain Sweep


Internet Resources

Coalition Forces Complete Operation Mountain Sweep. Defense Link, August 26, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Aug2002/n08262002_200208261.html

Operation Mountain Sweep. Global Security.org.
Available online at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/oef-mountain_sweep.htm

Periodicals

FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database. Coalition Concludes Mountain Sweep in Afghanistan. August 5, 2002.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=32W1086366189&db=mth
Coalition forces completed Operation Mountain Sweep in Southeastern Afghanistan Aug. 26 with the repositioning of combat forces. "The objective of Mountain Sweep was to find and destroy remaining al Qaeda elements in that area, search for weapons or usable intelligence data for Coalition forces and project combat power into the area to deny the enemy sanctuary there," said Col. Roger King, Combined Joint Task Force - 180 public affairs officer. Mountain Sweep took place over eight days and included five combat air assault missions and three major convoy road marches to various objectives in the region.

Cox, Matthew. On the Hunt: War on Terrorism More about Chasing Bad Guys than Fighting Them. Army Times 63:8+ September 9, 2002.


Peacekeeping


Periodicals

Fiorenza, Nicholas. Holding the Line: German-Netherlands Corps Shoulders Peacekeeping in Afghanistan. Armed Forces Journal International 140:14 May 2003.

Martin, Kimberly Zisk. Defending Against Anarchy: From War to Peacekeeping in Afghanistan. Washington Quarterly 26:35-52 Winter 2002-2003.

Not a Dress Rehearsal. Economist 368:35-37 August 16, 2003.
"On August 11, 2003, the international peacekeeping force in Kabul, known as ISAF, was placed under the strategic command of NATO. Separately from ISAF, the American-led coalition...has been working hard to stabilize the southern bit of Afghanistan, though it is hard to qualify its success...Every plan for Afghanistan made tangible reconstruction a priority. Unfortunately, there has been very little of it."

Prawdzik, Christopher. Enduring Commitment. National Guard 57:24-28 February 2003.


Prisoners of War


Documents

Elsea, Jennifer. Treatment of 'Battlefield Detainees' under the Geneva Conventions. Washington, Congressional Research Service, 2002. 1 vol. (Terrorism Briefing Book )
Book call no.: M-U 42953-45a


Periodicals

Betancourt, Alberto. On Guard at Guantanamo. Soldiers 57:4-8 July 2002.

Corera, Gordon. What the Guantanamo Captives Know. Jane's Intelligence Review 14:48-51 July 2002.

Haskell, Bob. Guarding Terrorists: Army Guard MPs Dispatched to Cuba to Help Secure Al-Qaeda and Taliban Fighters Captured in Afghanistan. National Guard 56:21-23 February 2002.

Munsey, Christopher. SeaBees to Build Prisons for Taliban, Al-Qaida. Navy Times 51:19 January 21, 2002.

Roberts, Adam. Counter-Terrorism, Armed Force and the Laws of War. Survival 44:7-32 Spring 2002.
In military operations involving action against terrorists, the relevance of the laws of war, often now called international humanitarian law, is problematical....Is the law applicable to such operations? Should it be applied in situations different from what was envisaged in treaties? And are detainees "prisoners of war"? A difficulty in applying the law is that governments usually view terrorists, like rebels in civil wars, as simply criminal.


Psychological Operations


Periodicals

Ackerman, Robert K. Infowarrriors Insure Local Citizenry Gets the Message. Signal 56:20-21 March 2002.
When Operation Enduring Freedom commenced, information operations began with the introduction of public information designed to achieve a tactical or even strategic goal. CENTCOM launched its Afghanistan operations with leaflet showers accompanied by humanitarian airdrops.

Briscoe, C. H. Coalition Humanitarian Liaison Cells and PSYOP (Psychological Operations) Teams in Afghanistan. Special Warfare 15:36-38 September 2002.

Goodman, Glenn W., Jr. The Power of the Word: US Special Operations Forces Used Leaflets and Radio Broadcasts to Sway Afghans. Armed Forces Journal International 139:30-31 February 2002.

Isaac, Eugene and Doerr, Patrick, ed. One on One with Commando Solo.  Sergeants 43:10-14 March 2004.

Kiper, Richard L. 'Of Vital Importance': The 4th PSYOP (Psychological Operations) Group. Special Warfare 15:19-21 September 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. To Educate and to Motivate: The 345th PSYOP (Psychological Operations) Company. Special Warfare 15:32-33 September 2002.

Puckett, Amee. PSYOP (Psychological Operations) Battalions Send Afghans Message of 'Truth'. Army Times 62:18 December 17, 2001.


Reserve Forces


Internet Resources

FDCH Regulatory Database. Guard, Reserve War Contributions "Tremendous", Says Franks. February 28, 2002.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=32W3075170315&db=mth


Periodicals

Castellon, David. 5,131 Air Reservists Activated. Air Force Times 62:4 October 1, 2001.

Fiorenza, Nicholas. Changing of the Guard: NATO Expands Ops in Afghanistan.  Armed Forces Journal 141:25-26 April 2004.

Jones, Greg. Army Reserve Rigger Unit Helps with Afghan Airlift. Army Reserve Magazine 48:14-15 Spring 2002.
Discusses the experiences of Reservists of the Army's 421st Quartermaster Company in the preparation of humanitarian aid supplies for airlift to Afghanistan, and the integration of reserve soldiers with those on active duty.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6912828&db=f5h

Plata, Holly. Army Reservists Bring Relief to Afghan Town Following Devastating Earthquake. Army Reserve Magazine 48:8-9 Summer 2002.
Reports on the contribution of U.S. Army Reserve in delivering relief goods to Afghanistan after an earthquake and the cooperation between Army Reservists and the International Security and Assistance Force.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7476922&db=f5h

Prawdzik, Christopher.  Forgotten Front (Afghanistan).  National Guard 58:31-33 July 2004.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Few Fighters Tasked with Overseas Mission. Air Force Times 62:22 October 8, 2001.

Rolfsen, Bruce. More Active, Reserve Units Tapped for Operation Enduring Freedom. Air Force Times 62:26 October 15, 2001.

The War on Terrorism. Citizen Airman 53:2-4 December 2001.
Reports the role of the United States air force reserve to the war on terrorism in Afghanistan. Operation of humanitarian drop zone by the C-17 reservists; Activities of KC-135 and KC-10 as pump fuel to bombers aircraft; Security operation for suspicious packages by the reserve security forces specialists.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5947312&db=f5h


Space Operations


Periodicals

Ackerman, Robert K. Commercial Imagery Aids Afghanistan Operations. Signal 56:16-19 December 2001.

Covault, Craig. Naval Space Ops Crucial to Afghan War. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:86-88 April 8, 2002.

Covault, Craig. Navy Enlists NASA in the War on Terror. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:30-31 April 8, 2002.
NASA military support is growing, especially to the Navy, where the satellite imagery is used for strike operations.

Grier, Peter. The Combination that Worked [airpower and space communications] Air Force Magazine 85:30-32 April 2002.
Also available online at : http://www.afa.org/magazine/april2002/0402combo.asp 

Naval Space Ops Crucial to Afghan War. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:86-88 April 8, 2002.

Scott, William B. Improved Milspace Key to Antiterrorism War. Aviation Week & Space Technology 155:36-37 December 10, 2001.
Investments in "blue force tracking" and real-time air strike monitoring systems pay dividends in Afghanistan.

Scott, William B. Milspace Comes of Age in Fighting Terror. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:77-78 April 8, 2002.
Space takes center stage in combat operations and becomes a laboratory for military transformation.

Scott, William B. Winning War Requires Integrated Space 'Net'. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:28 April 15, 2002.

Simon, Seena. This War Employs Space Operators like None Before. Air Force Times 63:9 September 9, 2002.


Special Operations


Internet Resources

Brown, Lawrence T. You've Got to be Kidding: Empowering the JFACC with Selected Ground Reconnaissance Forces. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2003. 39 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415381
Abstract: In the last twenty years, airpower has become a decisive force in its own right beginning with Desert Storm followed by Operation Allied Force and most recently Operation Enduring Freedom. Two primary lessons were learned from these three conflicts concerning airpower. First, airpower cannot win wars by itself; it needs the synergistic effects of ground forces. Second, US Special Forces on the ground early dramatically increase the effectiveness of the air campaign. If these lessons are indeed true, how can we make airpower more effective than current constructs? This paper seeks to demonstrate that the airpower can become more effective when SOF or other conventional reconnaissance forces are placed under the control of the JFACC for initial rapid and decisive airpower operations.

Donovan, Paul B. JFMCC: Theater C2 in Need of SOLE (Special Operations Liaison Element). Newport, RI, Naval War College. Joint Military Operations Dept., 2003. 26 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415445
"Functional operational command and control is an absolute necessity for the successful employment of sustained combat operations. During the past ten years, "revolutionary" changes have occurred in the conduct of war. Airpower seems to have become the weapon of choice. Airpower, directed onto targets by Special Operations Forces (SOF), produced devastating results against the Taliban during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The command and control network for the war in Afghanistan has functioned well."

Doty, Denis P. Command and Control of Special Operations Forces for 21st Century Contingency Operations. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2003. 26 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415457
The establishment of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) in the late 1980's created a single command designed to correct serious deficiencies in the ability of the United States to conduct special operations and engage in low-intensity conflict. Among other things, the creation of USSOCOM intended to correct problems associated with the command and control of Special Operations Forces (SOF). However, these command and control problems still exist today. Recent contingency operations in Afghanistan and the Philippines have shown the command and control difficulties with SOF.

Books

Allen, Patrick H. F. US Special Operations Command in Action. Shrewsbury, UK, Airlife, 2002. 144 p.
Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan, pp 140-143. Pictorial only.
Book call no.: 356.1670973 A428u

Carney, John T. and Schemmer, Benjamin F. No Room for Error : The Covert Operations of America's Special Tactics Units from Iran to Afghanistan. New York, Ballantine Books, 2002. 334 p.
Book call no.: 356.160973 C289n

Dunnigan, James F. The Perfect Soldier: Special Operations, Commandos, and the Future of U.S. Warfare.  New York, Citadel Press, 2004.  308 p.
Book call no.: 356.167 D924p

Micheletti, Eric. Special Forces in Afghanistan 2001-2003: War Against Terrorism. Paris, Histoire & Collections, 2003. 175 p.
Book call no.: 356.16 M623s

Moore, Robin. The Hunt for Bin Laden: Task Force Dagger. New York, Random House, 2003. 373 p.
Book call no.: 363.320973 M823h

A Tribute to Special Operations. Tampa, FL, Faircount, 2003. 200 p.
Snake Eater's Ball: Operation Enduring Freedom, by John D. Gresham, pp 170-174+.
Book call no.: 356.160973 T822

Documents

Sullivan, David M. Transforming America's Military : Integrating Unconventional Ground Forces into Combat Air Operations. Newport, RI , Naval War College, 2002. 25 p.
"In Afghanistan, air power was significantly enhanced by unconventional forces on the ground. Meanwhile, forces of our ad hoc coalition partners have borne the brunt of high intensity force-on-force land battles. The most recent example of this method for employing forces is the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan. In Central Asia, the forces providing terminal attack control, laser guidance, and target surveillance have been Special Operations Forces, CIA operatives, and indigenous coalition land forces. These are proving to be extremely effective ad hoc arrangements. This study examines the transformation of the American way of war and how to efficiently employ SOF and CIA operatives at the operational level in support of an air-centric operation."
 Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 S9492t

Periodicals

Avallon, Paul.  With SF (special forces) in Afghanistan: Busting a Taliban Bomb-Making Cell.  Soldier of Fortune 29:42-47+ May 2004.

Bacon, Lance M. To Hell and Back (first U.S. service members in Afghanistan). Air Force Times 63:14-17 March 24, 2003.

Cox, Matthew. On the Ground with Special Ops. Army Times 63:8+ September 16, 2002.

Crawley, Vince. SOCOM Lauded for Its Focus on 'Customers'. Air Force Times 62:17 March 25, 2002.
U.S. military is being urged to follow the customer-focused example of the U.S. Special Operations Command when rushing military equipment to war fighters in Afghanistan. Also discusses plans for Marine amphibious ready groups to notify SOCOM headquarters before deploying so they can be included in future war and contingency plans.

Fiorenza, Nicholas. Tip of the Spear. Armed Forces Journal International 139:32+ February 2002.
Reports on the contributions of US allies' special operations forces.

Goodman, Glenn. Tip of the Spear: US Army Special Forces Take on High Profile in Global War on Terrorism. Armed Forces Journal International 139:34-35 June 2002.

Goodman, Glenn W., Jr. Made to Order: U.S. Special Operations Forces Display Their Strengths in Afghanistan War. Armed Forces Journal International 139:68-69 December 2001.

Goodman, Glenn W., Jr. The Power of the Word: US Special Operations Forces Used Leaflets and Radio Broadcasts to Sway Afghans. Armed Forces Journal International 139:30-31 February 2002.

Kennedy, Harold. Will Special Ops Success "Change the Face of War"? National Defense 86:20-21 February 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. Caves and Graves: The 19th SF (Special Forces) Group. Special Warfare 15:30-31 September 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. 'Find Those Responsible': The Beginnings of Operation Enduring Freedom. Special Warfare 15:3-5 September 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. Into the Dark: The 3/75th Ranger Regiment. Special Warfare 15:6-7 September 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. 'We Don't Fail': The 112th Special Operations Signal Battalion. Special Warfare 15:8-9 September 2002.

Kiper, Richard L. 'We Support to the Utmost': The 528th Special Operations Support Battalion. Special Warfare 15:13-15 September 2002.

Kreisher, Otto. In the Forefront of the War on Terror. Sea Power 45:41-46 December 2002.
Focuses on the role of special operations forces in Operation Enduring Freedom, and includes information about Navy SEALs and Special Warfare Combatant craft Crewmen.

The Liberation of Mazar-E Sharif: 5th SF (Special Forces) Group Conducts UW (unconventional warfare) in Afghanistan. Special Warfare 15:34-41 June 2002.

Lowe, Christian. Controllers Key to Autumn Offensive. Air Force Times 62:16 March 25, 2002.
Reports on the improvement in the precision bombing and targeting capabilities of the U.S. Air Force combat controllers in the U.S. war in Afghanistan.

Newman, Richard J. Masters of Invisibility. Air Force Magazine 85:36-41 June 2002.

Puckett, Amee. 'If Special Forces Needs It, We Get It'. Army Times 62:15 December 24, 2001.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Horsemanship, Weather Figure into Afghan War Effort. Air Force Times 62:16 March 25, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Seasoned Fighter Pilot Steers Special Operations Command. Air Force Times 62:25 January 28, 2002.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Spec Ops (special-operations) to Be in on the Chase. Air Force Times 62:10 October 1, 2001.

Schroder, James A. Ambush at 80 Knots: Company B, 3/160th SOAR (Special Operations Aviation Regiment). Special Warfare 15:39-41 September 2002.

Schroder, James A. Forty-Five Seconds on a Hot LZ (landing zone): the 2/160th Soar (Special Operations Aviation Regiment). Special Warfare 15:46-49 September 2002.

Schroder, James A. Observations: ARSOF (Army special-operations Forces) in Afghanistan. Special Warfare 15:50-52 September 2002.

Sepp, Kalev I. Armed Convoy to Kabul: The 3/20th SF (Special Forces) Group. Special Warfare 15:34-35 September 2002.

Sepp, Kalev I. The Campaign in Transition: From Conventional to Unconventional War. Special Warfare 15:24-26 September 2002.

Sepp, Kalev I. Change of Mission: ODA (Operational Detachment A) 394. Special Warfare 15:27-29 September 2002.

Shanker, Thom. Conduct of War Is Redefined By Success of Special Forces. New York Times 151:A1 January 21, 2002.
Examines how United States Special Operations forces in Afghanistan have reshaped war-fighting doctrine.

Steele, Dennis. Combat in Hell's Highland. Army 52:38-41 January 2002.

Steele, Dennis. Operation Anaconda: Taking the Fight to the Enemy in Afghanistan. Army 52:19-20 April 2002.

Steele, Dennis. The U.S. Army in Afghanistan: The First Boots on the Ground. Army 51:32 December 2001.

Tiron, Roxanna. Navy Special Warfare Expands Command Role in Joint Force. National Defense 87:40-41 February 2003.

Wall, Robert. MH-47 Crews Detail Conflict's Exploits, Woes. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:22-23 April 15, 2002.
US Army special operations forces believe that Afghanistan's high mountains and rough terrain could have thwarted several missions without the small force of MH-47E helicopters to call on.

Wall, Robert. Special Ops Accident Surge Prompts Fixes. Aviation Week & Space Technology 157:54 October 7, 2002.
"A precipitous spike in aircraft accidents during the past year has prompted U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command to provide pilots additional training and has triggered interest in upgrades to the organization's fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters."


Weapon Systems & Equipment


Documents

Werenskjold, Craig J. The Effect of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems on Precision Engagement. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2002. 54 p.
      See Section III: Afghanistan UAV Employment, pp 21-30.
Also available online at: http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/fulcrum_main.pl?database=ft_u2&searchid=10631208067867&keyfieldvalue=ADA406036&filename=%2Ffulcrum%2Fdata%2FTR_fulltext%2Fdoc%2FADA406036.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 W487e


Periodicals

Brinkley, C. Mark. The Weapons: U.S. Might vs. Guerrilla Grit. Air Force Times 62:20 October 15, 2001.

Cox, Matthew. 82nd Deploys to Afghanistan with Artillery. Army Times 62:12 July 8, 2002.

Cox, Matthew. Afghan Location Prohibited Use of Heavy Guns. Army Times 62:9 May 20, 2002.

Mitchell, Joshua D. Afghanistan: Firing Artillery Accurately with Air Force Met Support. Field Artillery, pp 38-41 January-February 2003.

Prochniak, Scott E. and Yates, Dennis W. Counterfire in Afghanistan. Field Artillery15-18 September-October 2002.

Wall, Robert. War Experience Sparks New Weapons Interest. Aviation Week & Space Technology 156:80 April 29, 2002.
The Pentagon is exploring whether to equip the AC-130 gunship with unmanned aircraft and standoff missiles so it can duplicate its success in Afghanistan in future wars.


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