OPERATION RESTORE (UPHOLD) DEMOCRACY -- HAITI

September 19, 1994 - March 31, 1995


December 2001

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

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All sites last accessed July 10, 2012.


Internet Resources


Haiti: A Case Study in Post-Cold War Peacekeeping.
Available online at:
http://isd.georgetown.edu/files/ISDreport_Haiti_Dobbins.pdf

Offers a nine page report made by Ambassador James F. Dobbins, Special Advisor on Haiti, U.S. Dept. of State in September 1995 at the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy Conference.

Haiti Maps.
Available online at:
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/PCL/Map_collection/haiti.html

Offers maps of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, and Cap-Haitien from the Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection at the University of Texas at Austin.


Books


Ballard, John R.  Upholding Democracy: The United States Military Campaign in Haiti, 1994-1997.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1998.  263 p.
Book call no.: 972.94073 B189u

Europa World Year Book 1999.  London, Europa Publications, 1999.  2 vols.
Volume One: Haiti -- Recent History (provides background and dates to the intervention), pp 1658-1663.
Book call no.: R 940.503 E892 40th ed. v.1 1999

Fishel, John T.  Civil Military Operations in the New World.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1997.  269 p.
The Intervasion of Haiti, pp 209-233 (includes sections on the political context, the planning, and the unity of command and effort).
Book call no.: 355.34 F532c

Haitian Frustrations: Dilemmas for U.S. Policy, edited by Georges A. Fauriol.  Washington, Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1995.  236 p.
Meeting the Post-Intervention Challenges, pp 125-136.
Book call no.: 327.7307294 H153

Hayes, Margaret and Wheatley, Gary F.  Interagency and Political-Military Dimensions of Peace Operations: Haiti, a Case Study.  Washington, National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies--Directorate of Advanced Concepts, Technologies, and Information Strategies, 1996.  65 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307294 H418i

Perusse, Roland I.  Haitian Democracy Restored, 1991-1995.  New York, University Press of America, 1995.  170 p.
Haitian Policy in Crisis, pp 69-80.
UN-Sanctioned Intervention, pp 97-112.
Lessons in Conflict Resolution, pp 125-142.
Book call no.: 320.97294 P471h

Shacochis, Bob.  The Immaculate Invasion.  New York, Viking, 1999.  408 p.
Book call no.: 972.94073 S524i

"The Savage Wars of Peace": Toward a New Paradigm of Peace Operations, edited by John T. Fishel.  Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1998.  244 p.
The US and the UN in Haiti: The Limits of Intervention, by Thomas K. Adams, pp 175-194.
Book call no.: 341.584 S264

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Armed Services.  Haiti.  Hearing.  103rd Congress, 2nd session, hearing held October 7, 1994.  Washington, GPO, 1995.  100 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307294 U581h

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Foreign Affairs.  U.S. Policy Toward, and Presence in, Haiti.  Hearings and Markup.  103rd Congress, 2nd session.  Washington, GPO, September 1994.  96 p.
Includes text of H.J. Res 416 authorizing participation in Haiti, letter from Gen. Shalikashvili about Haiti, timetable for transition, etc.
Book call no.: 327.7307294 U581ua

United States.  Congress.  Joint Economic Committee.  The Caribbean Basin: Economic and Security Issues: Study Papers.  Report.  102nd Congress, 2nd session. Washington, GPO, 1993.  399 p.
Haiti's Troubled Path Towards Democracy and U.S. Policy Concerns, by Mareen Taft-Morales, pp 104-121.
Book call no.: 330.9729 C277

United States.  Congress.  Senate.  Committee on Foreign Relations.  Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere and Peace Corps Affairs.  Implementation and Costs of U.S. Policy in Haiti.  Hearing.  104th Congress, 1st session.  Washington, GPO, March 1995.  85 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307294 U58i


Documents


Army War College (U.S.) Strategic Studies Institute.  Haiti Strategy: Control, Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Rule of Law, Handoffs, and Exit, by Gabriel Marcella.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, October 1994.  9 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-558

Army War College (U.S.) Strategic Studies Institute.  Reconciling the Irreconcilable: The Troubled Outlook for U.S. Policy Toward Haiti, by Donald E.Schulz and Gabriel Marcella.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, March 1994.  62 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-526

Army War College (U.S.) Strategic Studies Institute.  Whither Haiti?, by Donald E. Schulz.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, April 1996.  52 p.
Reviews the prospects for political stability, democratization, and socioeconomic development with sobering conclusions.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-603

Barnes, James F.  Strategy for Haiti -- Security and Sustainability.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, April 1995.  34 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43117 B2612s

Bolton, Clinton S.  Military Operations Other than War: The Civil Military Operations Center in Operation Support Democracy.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1997.  20 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 B694m

Bright, Randall R.  Do We Walk Our Talk?  A Study on Operational Art in the Joint Operational Planning and Execution System.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College.  School of Advanced Airpower Studies, 1996.  63 p.
Operation Uphold Democracy (examines its planning process for operations), pp 19-30.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1 B855d

Center for Army Lessons Learned (U.S.).  Operation Uphold Democracy: Initial Impressions.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, July 1995.  3 vols.
Volume One: Haiti, D-20 to D+40.
Volume Two: Haiti, D-20 to D+150.
Volume Three: Haiti, The U.S. Army and United Nations Peacekeeping.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43127-31

Center for Naval Analyses.  The Intervasion of Haiti, by Adam B. Siegel.  Alexandria, VA, August 1996.  44 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 31914-27 no.539

Center for Naval Analyses.  Operation Uphold Democracy: Conflict and Cultures, by E. D. McGrady and John S. Ivancovich.  Alexandria, VA, 1997.  39 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 31914-27 no.541.10

Center for Naval Analyses.  Operation Uphold Democracy: Observations on Joint Assault Forces Operated from a CV, by E. D. McGrady and Robert E. Sullivan. Alexandria, VA, July 1996. 50 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 31914-40 no.96-3

Cox, Alexander A.  The Strategic Use of Military Force: Was the Strategic Use of Force in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century a Model for the U.S. Army and Operations Other than War?  A Monograph.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  55 p.
Haiti: Operation Uphold Democracy, pp 33-36.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 C877s

Davis, Donnie G.  Toward the Future of Theater Airlift Doctrine: Case Studies of Theater Airlift Doctrine in Operation Uphold Democracy and Operation Joint Endeavor.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College. School of Advanced Airpower Studies, 1998.  64 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1 D261t

Gonzalez, Emilio T.  Intervention and Occupation in Haiti: A Case Study in Irregular Warfare.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, June 1994.  30 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 G643i

Hall, Warren D., III.  The Obligation to Protect Human Rights: A New Legal Requirement for Commanders?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1996.  36 p.
Discusses whether U.S. forces were legally required to correct human rights violations in Haiti.  Based on the incident during Operation Uphold Democracy involving Captain Rockwood.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 H181o

Howard, Clyde I.  U.S. Military Intervention in Latin America: Past and Future.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1999.  21 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 H848u

Johnson, Ronald M.  Application of Aspects of Unconventional Warfare: Tools for Engaging the Current and Future Threat Trends of the Post-Cold War Environment.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1999.  144 p.
Especially note "Unconventional Warfare Operations during Operation Uphold Democracy".
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 J683a

Montgomery, Paul J.  Force Selection for Obtaining Lodgment in a MOOTW Environment: A Monograph.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. School of Advanced Military Studies, 1997.  50 p.
Operation Uphold Democracy is used as an example throughout the paper and discussed in terms of its methodology, doctrine, and analysis.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 M788f

O'Neal, Julie Johnette.  U.S. Intervention in Grenada, Panama, and Haiti: A Social Constructionist Perspective.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 1996.  144 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 O581u

Pattee, Phillip G.  Special Operations Forces and Non-State Actors in Operation Uphold Democracy: A Case Study.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  112 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 P315s

Rapp, Jeffrey N.  Intelligence Requirements for Military Operations Other than War.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1998.  45 p.
Haiti and Nation Assistance (discusses the intelligence requirements of Operation Uphold Democracy), pp 19-21.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 R221i

Riehm, Peter Josef A.  Suasion Through Military Presence: An Analysis of the Role of Presence in U.S.-Libyan Relations, 1977-1995.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  204 p.
Examines military presence as an effective means of influencing conflicts.  Uses Operation Support/Uphold Democracy in Haiti as an example (pp 1-10).
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 R555s

Shaw, Robert C.  An Assessment of Conventional and Special Operations Forces in Integration in Haiti: A Monograph.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  56 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 S535a

Shaw, Robert C.  Special Operations Forces Doctrine in Haiti.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  80 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 S535s

Strednansky, Susan E.  Balancing the Trinity: The Fine Art of Conflict Termination.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College.  School of Advanced Airpower Studies, February 1996.  51 p.
Haiti Case Study, pp 31-42.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1a S915b

United States.  Atlantic Command.  Operation Uphold Democracy: Joint After Action Report (JAAR).  Norfolk, VA, June 1995.  85 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 40390-26

United States.  Army.  Combined Arms Command.  Foreign Military Studies Office.  Planning for Haiti, by William W. Mendel and Stephan K. Stewman.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, June 1993.  1 vol.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43829-114

Urquhart, Martin I.  The Effectiveness of Human Intelligence in Operation Uphold Democracy.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  121 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 U79e

Wilkins, Aaron L.  The Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC) in Operation Uphold Democracy (Haiti).  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 1997.  37 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 W684c

Williams, Pat L.  Promoting Democracy: The United States and Haiti.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 1995.  106 p.
Offers background on Haiti's history, leaders at the time of intervention, maps, annexes, the U.S.-led intervention, and the current situation.
Especially note "Promoting Democracy: The United States and Haiti (1986-1995)", pp 43-78.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 W7263p

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Periodicals


AGORA: The 1994 U.S. Action in Haiti.  American Journal of International Law  89:58-87  January 1995.

Archambault, Raoul.  Joint Operations in Haiti.  Army  45:22-27+  November 1995.

Armstrong, Edward R.  Detainee Operations in Haiti During Operation Uphold Democracy.  Military Police, pp 16-19, Winter 1995.

Asker, James R.  U.S. Army Space Assets Get Workout in Haiti.  Aviation Week & Space Technology  141:20  September 26, 1994.

Background Notes: Haiti.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  6:494-498  June 12, 1995.
Comprehensive profile of the Republic of Haiti prior to the intervention.

Baumann, Robert F.  Operation Uphold Democracy: Power under Control.  Military Review  77:13-21  July-August 1997.

Benson, Kevin C. M.  Declaring Victory: Planning Exit Strategies for Peace Operations.  Parameters  26:69-80  Autumn 1996.
Offers an overview of the operation.
Also available online at: 
http://www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/Parameters/Articles/96autumn/benson.htm

Bilski, Andrew and Downie, Andrew.  The Siege of Haiti.  Maclean's  107:16-17  August 15, 1994.
Events prior to the operation.

Bowers, Stephen R.  Restoring Normalcy: Army Civil Affairs Specialists Played Critical Role in Haiti.  Armed Forces Journal International  132:18  March 1995.

Brown, Stephen D.  PSYOP (psychological operations) in Operation Uphold Democracy.  Military Review  76:57-64+  September-October 1996.

Capaccio, Tony.  "Commando Solo": Winning the Hearts and Minds of Haitians.  Defense Week  15:1+  October 17, 1994.
Psyops activities.

Capaccio, Tony.  New Pentagon Spy Service Conducted Operations in Haiti.  Defense Week  16:1+  April 17, 1995.

Casper, Lawrence E.  Flexibility, Reach, and Muscle: How Army Helicopters on a Navy Carrier Succeeded in Haiti.  Armed Forces Journal International  132:40-41  January 1995.

Chacho, Tania.  XVII Airborne CMISE (Corps Military Intelligence Support Element) Support in Haiti.  Military Intelligence  21:14-17  April-June 1995.

Christopher, Warren.  Haiti: Democratic Government Restored.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  5:717-719  October 24, 1994.
Fact sheet reviews the situation and announces executive order terminating efforts.

Clinton, William J.  Clinton Offers Justification for Invasion of Haiti.  Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report  52:2605-2606  September 17, 1994.

Clinton, William J.  Haiti.  Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents  30, no.38:1795-1808  September 26, 1994.
President's Radio Address, September 17, 1994, pp 1795-1796.
Address to the Nation on Haiti, pp 1799-1800.
Letter to Congressional Leaders on Haiti, pp 1801-1802.
President's News Conference with President Carter, General Powell, and Senator Nunn on Haiti, pp 1803-1808.

Clinton, William J.  Haiti.  Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents  30, no.41:2012-2026  October 17, 1994.
Letter to Congressional Leaders on Haiti (reviews the situation through October 1994), pp 2012-2021.
Executive Order 12932 -- Termination of Emergency with Respect to Haiti, pp 2025-2026.

Clinton, William J.  Invasion of Haiti Canceled: Peaceful Entry Agreed Upon.  Vital Speeches  60:740-741  October 1, 1994.

Clinton, William J.  The Possible Invasion of Haiti: To Restore a Democratic Government.  Vital Speeches  60:738-740  October 1, 1994.

Clinton, William J. and others.  Presidential News Conference: Haiti Deal to Restore Democracy, Minimize Risk, Clinton Says.  Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report  52:2722-2725  September 24, 1994.

Clinton, William J.  Significant Developments in Haiti: Message from the President of the United States.  Congressional Record  140:H2705-H2707  April 26, 1994.

Colaw, Becky.  Occupation of Haiti: Week One.  Airman  38:2-11  November 1994.

Cole, Ronald H.  Grenada, Panama, and Haiti: Joint Operational Reform.  Joint Force Quarterly  No.20:57-64  Autumn-Winter 1998-1999.
Especially note "Haiti", pp 61-64.
Also available online at: 
http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/1220.pdf

Cole, Stephen V.  Haiti: Invasion Averted by Carter Agreement.  For Your Eyes Only  No.353:1-2  October 3, 1994.
A chronology covering events from September 13-26, 1994.

Cooper, Dale B.  High Noon in Haiti.  Soldier of Fortune  20:32-35+  January 1995.

Cooper, Pat.  Global C2 System Debuts in Haiti.  Defense News  9:38  October 24-30, 1994.

Cushman, John H.  Haiti Becomes a Turning Point.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings  120:73-74  October 1994.
Describes the Joint Task Force Uphold Democracy mission and operational style.

Dobbins, James F.  Assessing the Progress of Haitian Democracy.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  6:709-710  September 25, 1995.
Provides an assessment of the situation after the operation and during UNMIH (United Nations Mission in Haiti).

Doerrer, Eric A.  Operational Vignette: Civil Affairs in Haiti.  Military Review  76:73-75+  March-April 1996.

Doherty, Carroll J.  As U.S. Troops Deploy Peacefully, Clinton's Battle Has Just Begun.  Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report  52:2701-2705  September 24, 1994.

Dolinish, Gerald A.  Logistics in Haiti.  Army Logistician  No.1:24-28  January-February 1996.
Also available online at: 
http://www.almc.army.mil/ALOG/issues/Janfeb96/ms944.htm

Dominic, Carl.  XVII Airborne Corps Intelligence Architecture in Haiti.  Military Intelligence  21:13  April-June 1995.

Dow, Mark.  Occupying and Obscuring Haiti.  New Politics  5:12-26  Winter 1995.
Discusses two questions: 1) Why did the US intervene in Haiti September 1994? and 2)What is the goal of the occupation?

Dunn, James L. and Custer, Jon M.  Operation Uphold Democracy: The Role of the SOCOORD (special-operations coordination element) as Part of a Joint Task Force.  Special Warfare  8:26-37  July 1995.

Falcoff, Mark.  What "Operation Restore Democracy" Restored.  Commentary  101:45-48  May 1996.
Discusses the aftermath of Operation Restore/Uphold Democracy.  Although the U.S. claims the operation was a huge success, democracy in Haiti is precarious at best.

Fishel, John T.  Operation Uphold Democracy: Old Principles, New Realities.  Military Review  77:22-30  July-August 1997.

Fulghum, David A.  Controllers over Haiti Ease Occupation Chaos.  Aviation Week & Space Technology  141:18-19  September 26, 1994.

Fulghum, David A.  Massed Airborne Forces Aimed at Heart of Haiti.  Aviation Week & Space Technology  141:71-72  October 10, 1994.

Galloway, Joseph L.  Follow the Leaders.  U.S. News & World Report  118:44-47  March 13, 1995.
Discusses the law and order brought to Haiti by U.S. and some of the duties performed by U.S. special forces during their stay.

Glennon, Michael J.  Sovereignty and Community after Haiti: Rethinking the Collective Use of Force.  American Journal of International Law  89:70-74  January 1995.

Goodman, Glen W., Jr.  Redefining Joint Force Packages: Atlantic Command Continues JTF-95 Experiment Following Haiti Contingency.  Armed Forces Journal International  132:10+  February 1995.

Greenwood, Thomas C.  Commander's Intent: The Seed of Haitian Success.  Marine Corps Gazette  79:43-44  February 1995.
Examines how a commander's intent guided task force actions and enhanced unit cohesion in Haiti.

Haiti.  Military Technology  19:48-49  January 1995.

Haiti.  Military Technology  22:45  January 1998.
Provides the expiration dates of the various UN missions in Haiti.

Haiti Intervention Tests Concept of Joint-Force Package.  International Defense Review  27:5  November 1994.

Haiti: The Nightmare Next Door.  Economist  332:19-21  September 24-30, 1994.

Halverson, Ronald R. and Bliese, Paul D.  Determinants of Soldier Support for Operation Uphold Democracy.  Armed Forces & Society  23:81-96  Fall 1996.

Henderson, Nancy C.  Civil Affairs and Logistics in Haiti.  Army Logistician  No.3:20-23  May-June 1996.

Hollis, Patrecia S.  Projecting America's Military Might.  Field Artillery, pp 6-9  April 1995.
Interview with Lt Gen Hugh Shelton.

Holzer, Robert.  Haiti Offers First Test for Joint U.S. Force Concept.  Defense News  9:1+  September 19-25, 1994.

Hudson, Neff and Nelson Soraya S.  Women Have Larger Role in Newest Mission.  Air Force Times  55:17  October 10, 1994.

Hughes, Christopher and Ziek, Thomas G.  Cordon and Search Operations.  Infantry  85:8-11  July-August 1995.

Ide, Douglas.  Presence for Peace (American and coalition forces in Haiti).  Soldiers  49:13-17  November 1994.

Isby, David C.  Restoring Hope Yet Again?  Military Intervention in Haiti.  Jane's Intelligence Review  6:381-383  August 1994.

Ives, Kim.  The Second U.S. Occupation (Haiti).  NACLA Report on the Americas  28:6-10  January-February 1995.

Jones, Melvin R.  Haiti Is Maneuver Welfare from the Sea.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings  121:67-70  July 1995.

Jones, Thomas S.  Review the Ingredients: Commander's Insights from Cap-Haitien.  Marine Corps Gazette  79:55-59  July 1995.
Discusses the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Caribbean which landed at Cap-Haitien Haiti on September 20, 1994.

Killebrew, Robert B. and Petraeus, David H.  Winning the Peace: Haiti, the US, and the UN.  Armed Forces Journal International  132:40-41  April 1995.

Kitfield, James.  The Move to Haiti.  Government Executive  26:65-66+  November 1994.

Klemens, Darren and Slaven, Kelly.  Task Force Castle: Joint Engineer Operations in Haiti.  Engineer  25:36-43  April 1995.

Livingstone, Neil C.  A Haitian Intervention?  The Pros and Cons.  Sea Power  37:35-36  August 1994.

Maddox, Bill and Healy, Gerard.  "Instant Advisers": Civil Affairs Team Assists Haitian Ministries.  Special Warfare  8:29-31  October 1995.

Malone, David.  Haiti and the International Community: A Case Study.  Survival  39:126-146  Summer 1997.
Reviews the events leading up to the intervention. Especially note "Use of Force", pp 131-134.

Martin, Ian.  Haiti: Mangled Multilateralism.  Foreign Policy  No.95:72-89  Summer 1994.
Describes the events and the missed opportunities prior to the intervention.

Masland, Tom and others.  Caught in the Middle.  Newsweek  124:36-38  October 10, 1994.
Police action on Haitian marchers prompt a review of U.S. mission.

Matthews, William.  Haiti Mission Succeeded, Leaders Say.  Air Force Times  56:12  March 11, 1996.
As US troops withdraw from participation in the UN mission (UNMIH), an assessment of the situation in Haiti is offered.

Matthews, William.  Haiti Missions Win Praise.  Air Force Times  55:22  October 17, 1994.
Mentions the accomplishments of the 2 1/2 week old operation.

Matthews, William.  Military Rehearses for Haiti Invasion.  Air Force Times  54:3  July 18, 1994.

Matthews, William.  New Role for Warriors (civil affairs).  Air Force Times  55:34  November 7, 1994.

Matthews, William.  Operation in Haiti Ends.  Air Force Times  56:6  April 29, 1996.
US withdraws from the UN mission UNMIH).

Matthews, William and Faram, Mark D.  Setting Sail for Haiti (includes description of task force).  Navy Times  43:8  October 11, 1993.

McDuffie, John M.  Force XXI Corps Support.  Army Logistician, pp 26-31  July-August 1995.
Reviews the activities and lessons learned of 1st Corps Support Command in Haiti.  1st Corps Support was designated the Joint Logistics Support Command during Operation Uphold Democracy.

McGeary, Johanna.  Did the American Mission Matter?  Time  147:36-39  February 19, 1996.
Provides information about the current state of affairs in Haiti and whether or not the U.S. peacekeeping mission made a difference.

Miles, Donna.  One Army, Two Fronts.  Soldiers  49:4-5  December 1994.

Miles, Donna.  Upholding Democracy in Haiti.  Soldiers  49:4-5  November 1994.

Morley, Morris and McGillion, Chris.  "Disobedient" Generals and the Politics of Redemocratization: The Clinton Administration and Haiti.  Political Science Quarterly  112:363-384  Fall 1997.
Offers background to the situation and decisions that led to the intervention.

Morris, Justin.  Force and Democracy: UN/US Intervention in Haiti.  International Peacekeeping  2:391-412  Autumn 1995.

Multinational Force Replaced by UN Peace-Keepers.  UN Chronicle  32:4-6  June 1995.
On March 31, 1995, the Multinational Force (US Operation Uphold Democracy) handed over its responsibility to the UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH).  This move was sanctioned by Security Council Resolution 975.

Muradian, Vago.  Airmen Gear Up for Long Mission (in Haiti).  Air Force Times  55:3+  October 10, 1994.

Muradian, Vago.  Here We Go Again!  This Time It's Haiti.  Air Force Times  55:12-14+  October 3, 1994.

Naylor, Sean D.  Down and Dirty in Haiti.  Army Times  55:12-13  October 3, 1994.
Bradley tanks were sent to Haiti due to the lessons learned in Somalia more than from any expectations of hard opposition to the intervention.

Naylor, Sean D.  Invasion (of Haiti) That Never Was.  Army Times  56:12-14+  February 26, 1996.

Nelan, Bruce W.  Road to Haiti.  Time  144:32-38  October 3, 1994.

Nelson, Soraya S.  Medics Fight to Keep Troops Healthy.  Air Force Times  55:26  October 24, 1994.

Nelson, Soraya S.  Troops Ailments Spur War on Mosquitoes (in Haiti).  Air Force Times  55:30  December 19, 1994.

Orenstein, Catherine.  Haiti Undone.  NACLA Report on the Americas  33:10-12  November-December 1999.
Reviews the current situation in Haiti including the status of the government, the rise of violence in 1999, reviews the outing of the military regime in 1994, etc.

Packer, George.  Why We Are in Haiti.  Dissent  42:6-10  Winter 1995.

Perry Hails "Incredible Logistics Achievement" in Haiti.  Aerospace Daily  171:497  September 28, 1994.

Peters, Katherine McIntire.  Haitian Mission Is Smoothed by Psyops Getting Out the Word.  Army Times  55:20  March 27, 1995.

Piskator, Gene.  LCU (landing craft utility) Operations in Haiti.  Army Logistician, pp 8-12, July-August 1995.

Quinn, John T.  Marine Expedition to Haiti: September-October 1994.  Marine Corps Gazette  79:50-54  July 1995.
Discusses the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Caribbean which landed at Cap-Haitien Haiti on September 20, 1994.

Reisman, W. Michael.  Haiti and the Validity of International Action.  American Journal of International Law  89:82-84  January 1995.

Resolution 940, July 31, 1994 (Haiti).  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  5:555-556  August 15, 1994.
Resolution sanctions the formation of the Multinational Force and the use of all necessary means to restore democracy in Haiti.

The Restoration of Democracy in Haiti.  Foreign Policy Bulletin  5:3-33  November-December 1994.

Riccardelli, Richard F.  Intelligence in Force-Projection Operations.  Army  46:46-51  January 1996.
Describes the USA 82nd Airborne Division's role in the operation.  Reviews the intelligence operations supporting Operation Uphold Democracy which was a force projection airbourne and air assault operation supported from the sea.

Robinson, Linda and Duffy, Brian.  Dealing with a Bad Hand?  (Haiti intervention).  U.S. News & World Report  117:26-31  October 3, 1994.

Rosenberg, Eric.  Behind the Scenes of the Invasion That Never Was.  Defense Week  15:1+  September 26, 1994.

Rotberg, Robert I.  Clinton Was Right (to go into Haiti).  Foreign Policy  No.102:135-141  Spring 1996.

Schellhammer, Michael W.  Lessons from Operation Restore Democracy.  Military Intelligence  22:18-20  January-March 1996.

Schneider, Mark L.  Haiti's Recovery Program.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  5:753-755  November 7, 1994.

Shacochis, Bob.  The Immaculate Invasion.  Harper's  289:44-62  February 1995.
Analyses the invasion of Haiti by U.S. troops.

Shaw, Robert C.  Integrating Conventional and Special Operations Forces.  Military Review  77:37-41  July-August 1997.
Refers to the Haiti operation.

Shelton, Henry H.  Contingency Operations in an Uncertain World: The Case of Haiti.  Strategic Review  26:37-41  Fall 1998.
General Shelton, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, commanded the Joint Task Force that conducted Operation Uphold Democracy.

Smith, Gaddis.  Haiti: From Intervention to Intervasion.  Current History  94:54-58  February 1995.
Examines the U.S. military intervention in Haiti in terms of what is old and new in U.S. policy for the region.

Soares, Joao Clemente Baena.  Birthpangs of Democracy.  World Today  56:16-18  January 2000.
Discusses the democratic and human rights issues in Haiti, the reason for the American intervention, two missions of the UN, etc.

Sorenson, Theodore.  Read Carefully: 10 Reasons to Invade Haiti.  U.S. News & World Report 116:38-39 June 27, 1994.

Steele, Dennis.  The U.S. Army in Haiti.  Army  44:14-18  November 1994.

Stolley, Richard B.  Our Man in Haiti (Gen Hugh Shelton).  Life  17:56-60+  November 1994.

Sullivan, Julian A. and Abney, Stephen D.  New Logistics Concepts Tested in Haiti.  Army Logistician, pp 7-9  May-June 1995.

Talbott, Strobe.  Promoting Democracy and Economic Growth in Haiti.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  6:185-189  March 13, 1995.
Progress report on the US-led, 31-nation effort to restore democracy in Haiti as of the end of the US operation and the beginning of the UN mission.

Talbott, Strobe and Deutch, John M.  U.S.--CARICOM Efforts to Support U.N. Security Council Resolution 940.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch  5:589-591  September 5, 1994.

Thomas, Evan and others.  Under the Gun (the Haitian intervention).  Newsweek  124:28-33  October 3, 1994.
U.S. troops are used in Haiti to disarm thugs and police the peace.

Trimble, Phillip R.  The President's Constitutional Authority to Use Limited Military Force.  American Journal of International Law  89:84-87  January 1995.

US Occupation of Haiti Highlights Lack of Military Preparedness; Sends Signals to Potential Foes.  Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy  22:20  September 30, 1994.

Valenzuela, Alfred and Russell, Theodore S.  Operation Uphold Democracy: The 10th Mountain Div Arty in Peace Operations.  Field Artillery, pp 26-30 June 1995.

Von Hippel, Karin.  Democratisation as Foreign Policy: The Case of Haiti.  World Today  51:11-14  January 1995.
The U.S.-led military intervention in Haiti set a precedent for using force to implant or restore democracy.  Discusses the significance and evolution of this campaign.

Wakefield, Tonya H.  JTF Haiti: Lasting Impressions.  Special Warfare  7:10-11  July 1994.
Special operations forces in Haiti.

Walker, Paulette V.  Who's There?  47 (army) Units Deploy to Haiti.  Army Times  55:14  October 3, 1994.

Waller, Douglas C.  How a Spec Ops Campaign Saved Lives (in Haiti).  Armed Forces Journal International  132:32+  June 1995.
Discusses the psychological operations used in Uphold Democracy.

Watkins, Steven.  What Haiti Taught C-130 Crews.  Air Force Times  55:30  January 23, 1995.

Watson, Russell and others.  Is This Invasion Necessary (U.S. military in Haiti)?  Newsweek  124:36-37+  September 19, 1994.

Weber, Cynthia.  Dissimulating Intervention: A Reading of the U.S.-Led Intervention into Haiti.  Alternatives  20:265-277  July-September 1995.

Weinschenk, Andrew.  Haiti Operations Cost U.S. Treasury Half Billion Dollars.  Defense Week  15:10  November 7, 1994.

Wilson, Thomas R.  Joint Intelligence and Uphold Democracy.  Joint Force Quarterly  No.7:54-59  Spring 1995.
Also available online at: 
http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/jfq1407.pd


Multimedia


Invasion, Intervention, "Intervasion": A Concise History of the U.S. Army in Operation Uphold Democracy.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command & General Staff College Press, 1999.  1 CD-Rom.
Book call no.: 972.94073 K924i  (CD-Rom Collection)

Operation Uphold Democracy: U.S. Forces in Haiti.  Norfolk, VA, United States Atlantic Command, 1997.  1 videocassette, 1 CD-Rom, 1 pamphlet.
This material is designed to provide lessons learned in the planning, execution, and support of a military operation other than war using key events and specific examples from Operation Uphold Democracy.
Book call no.: 972.94073 O61 (Video Collection)

United States.  American Forces Information Service.  Joint Combat Camera Center.  U.S. Forces in Haiti.  Washington, DOD Joint Combat Camera Center, 1995.  2 CD-Roms.
Book call no.: 972.94073 U58 (CD-Rom Collection)

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