INFORMATION OPERATIONS


March 2010

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of target web sites or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at those locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.   AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on March 15, 2010.


Information Operations, General


Internet Resources

Air University Research Information Management System (AURIMS). 
Available online at:  http://www.afresearch.org/
Offers access to Air University student research reports with many related to Information Operations.  Also provides access to AU Press books, the AU Blue Dart System, AF Research Institute, and the Air & Space Power Journal.  Restricted site.

Air War College.  Cyberspace and Information Operations Study Center. 
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/info-ops/
The Cyberspace and Information Operations Study Center was established at the Air War College in 2005 to contribute to the USAF and Joint Cyberspace and Info-Ops communities strategic and operational understanding and application of 21st century Information Age operations.

Buchholz, David R.  Information Operations:  Where Next?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2005.  19 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA464548
"This paper addresses the “ownership” of joint information operations (IO) by asking if U.S. Strategic Command is the right combatant commander to coordinate all Department of Defense information operations.  Doctrine already addresses the issue of combatant commander responsibility for ensuring IO is planned and executed in the respective commands but an IO vacuum exists with respect to standardized IO training and integration across the combatant commands."--Abstract from web site.

Duczynski, Guy.  Making Information Operations Effects-Based:  Begin with the End (-State) in Mind!  Churchlands Campus, Edith Cowan University, Australia, 2005.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA472241
"The paper offers that a systems approach that includes a problem space, a solution space and a design space may bring the necessary totality to the subject, guarding against premature use of means that appear to fit well with the context - a fixation with efficiency rather than effectiveness.  The paper argues that an examination of the systemic interactions amongst factors may deepen planners’ or policy-makers’ understanding of why a region or area of interest behaves the way it does, before they attempt to change it.  A method is detailed that couples effects statements and means and highlights capability requirements.  A case study example is provided using North Korea."--Abstract from publication.

Federation of American Scientists.  Intelligence Warfare and Information Security on the Web. 
Available online at:  http://fas.org/irp/wwwinfo.html
A selective guide to information warfare resources on the Web, as well as a directory of points of entry to related resources.

Information Operations Primer:  Fundamentals of Information Operations.  U.S. Army War College, November 2009.
Available online at:   http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/dmspo/Publications/Information%20Operations%20Primer%20AY10-Web%20Version%20(Nov%2009).pdf
“This document provides an overview of Department of Defense Information Operations (IO) doctrine and organizations at the joint and individual service levels.  It begins with an overview of Information Operations.  It then examines the critical concept of information superiority presented in Joint Vision 2020.  Current IO Doctrine at the joint and service levels are then summarized.  Relevant organizations dedicated to the IO are identified along with their respective missions and capabilities.  Finally, the document concludes with an overview of Information Operations Conditions (INFOCONS) and an IO specific glossary.”--Abstract from publication.

InfoWar
Available online at:  http://www.infowar.com
This site is dedicated to tracking open source stories to the full-spectrum of information warfare, information security, and critical infrastructure protection.  Provides separate sections on  cybersecurity, cyberattack, cyberconflict, and cyberthreats.

IWS - The Information Warfare Site
Available online at:  http://www.iwar.org.uk/iwar/
An online resource that aims to stimulate debate on a variety of issues involving information security, information operations, computer network operations, homeland security and more.  Has a number of DOD doctrine documents related to this subject.

Murphy, Dennis M. and Rohozinski, Rafal.  New Media and the Warfighter:  Workshop Initial Impressions.  Carlisle, PA,  Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College, 2008.  5 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA484684
The United States Army War College in cooperation the SecDev Group conducted an information effects workshop from 15 January to 17 January 2008 at the Collins Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College.  Portions of this issue paper are extracted from case studies developed by Rafal Rohozinski for the workshop.

O'Connell, Ed and Benard, Cheryl.  A New IO Strategy:  Prevention and Disengagement.  Strategic Insights May 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.stimson.org/newcentury/pdf/New_IO_Strategy.pdf  (If link does not open, paste into internet browser address box).

United States.  Department of the Air Force.  Information Operations:  Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.  January 11, 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/afdd2_5.pdf
Establishes doctrinal guidance for information operations (IO).

United States.  Department of the Army.  Army War College.  DIME:  Information as Power
Available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/dime/information_operations.cfm
The Information as Power web site is an online resource that provides an electronic library of current and historical articles and documents.  This web site offers current information related to the information element of national power.  Areas addressed include Information Operations, Strategic Communication, Network Centric Warfare and to a lesser degree, military robotics and information assurance.

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 3-13:  Information Operations.  February 13, 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_13.pdf
This publication provides doctrine for information operations planning, preparation, execution, and assessment in support of joint operations.


Internet Resource (Student Research)

Bohan, Patrick J.  Joint Task Force – Information Operations (JTF-IO):  Should One Exist?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2005.  18 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463384
Historical:  "Current doctrine does not provide sufficient guidance on component IO tasking.  Based on analysis of recent conflicts with respect to IO, creation of a Joint Task Force-Information Operations (JTF-IO) is warranted to provide component level control, direction and authority to conduct IO throughout the joint task force."--Abstract from web site.


Books

Ideas as Weapons:  Influence and Perception in Modern Warfare, edited by G. J. David and T. R. McKeldin.  Washington, D.C., Potomac Books, 2009.  458 p.
Includes bibliographical references (pp 407-438) and index.  "This book seeks to illuminate the uses of information in armed conflict by juxtaposing the views of those (militants) engage in manipulating information against the historic context.  The anthology is divided into four sections:  geopolitical, operational, strategic, and tactical."--part of the Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.343 I19

Allen, Patrick D.  Information Operations Planning.  Norwood, MA, Artech House, 2007.  323 p.
“Covers all aspects of Information Operations (IO) planning, including attack, defense, and influence, as well as planning for logistics of IO.”--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.343 A428i

Bass, Carla D.  Building Castles on Sand?:  Ignoring the Riptide of Information Operations.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air War College, 1998.  46 p.
This historical document presents vulnerabilities in U.S. information infrastructure and strategic policy about 10 years ago.
Also available online at:  http://aupress.maxwell.af.mil/Maxwell_papers/Text/mp15.pdf
Book call no.:  355.343 B317b

Buttyan, Levente and Hubaux, Jean-Pierre.  Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks:  Thwarting Malicious and Selfish Behavior in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2008.  485 p.
Issues such as cheating with identities, illegitimate access to confidential data, attacks against privacy and "stealing of bandwidth" are described along with the existing security techniques and putative methods of protection for the future. These areas can be translated directly to military application.
Book call no.:  005.8 B989s

Haridakis, Paul M.  and others.  War and the Media:  Essays on News Reporting, Propaganda and Popular Culture.  Jefferson, NC, McFarland , 2009.  259 p.
"The contributors examine historical and contemporary examples that reflect the role of the media or mass communication or both during war."--Provided by publisher.
Book call no.:  070.449355 W2532

Information Operations:  Warfare and the Hard Reality of Soft Power, edited by Leigh Armistead.  Washington, D.C., Brassey's, 2004.  277 p.
A textbook produced in conjunction with the Joint Forces Staff College and the National Security Agency.
Book call no.:  355.3430973 I43

Information Warfare:  Separating Hype from Reality, edited by Leigh Armistead.  Washington, D.C., Potomac Books, 2007.  189 p.
Grounds Information Operations in the real world and concentrates on IO's actual challenges, capabilities and accomplishments.
Book call no.:  355.343 I434

Kinniburgh, James and Denning, Dorothy.  Blogs and Military Information Strategy.  Hurlburt Field, FL, JSOU Press, 2006.  33 p.
"Explores the potential value of blogs to military information strategy.  Examines whether blogs are influential, whether the information environment adequately supports blogging for an information campaign, and whether blogs offer a significant, reliable source of intelligence for information operations."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.343 K55b

Libicki, Martin.  Conquest in Cyberspace:  National Security and Information Warfare.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007.  323 p.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Book call no.:  355.343 L695c

Lonsdale, David J.  The Nature of War in the Information Age:  Clausewitzian Future.  New York, Frank Cass, 2004.  269 p.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Book call no.:  355.02 L862n

O’Shaughnessy, Nicholas J.  Politics and Propaganda:  Weapons of Mass Seduction.  Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Press, 2004.  264 p.
The author shows us why propaganda continues to be one of the prime movers of human history.  His comprehensive study of rhetoric, myth, and symbol explains both the evolution of propaganda and its continued success in the modern and post-modern eras.
Book call no.:  303.375 O82p

Paul, Christopher.  Information Operations:  Doctrine and Practice:  A Reference Handbook.  Westport, CT, Praeger Security International, 2008.  175 p.
"A no-nonsense treatment of information operations, this handbook makes clear what does not fall under IO, how the military plans and executes such efforts, and what the role of IO ought to be in the 'war of ideas'."--Summary from publication.
Book call no.:  355.34340973 P324i

Rid, Thomas.  War and Media Operations:  The U.S.  Military and the Press from Vietnam to Iraq.  New York, Routledge, 2007.  226 p.
"War and Media Operations introduces a model of organizational learning, redraws the US military’s cumbersome learning curve in public affairs from Vietnam, Grenada, Panama, the Persian Gulf, Somalia, and the Balkans to Afghanistan, and finally examines whether the lessons of the past were implemented during the invasion of Iraq in 2003."--part of the Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  070.44 R542w

Rid, Thomas and Hecker, Marc.  War 2.0:  Irregular Warfare in the Information Age.  Westport, CT, Praeger Security International, 2009.  280 p.
Book call no.:  355.02 R542w

Seife, Charles.  Decoding the Universe:  How the New Science of Information Is Explaining Everything in the Cosmos, from Our Brains to Black Holes.  New York, Viking, 2006.  296 p.
Seife explains how information theory, became the crucial science of our time.  Starts with the breaking of the Enigma code during World War II through the computer revolution.  Information theory is now at the forefront of theoretical physics.
Book call no.:  006.33 S459d

Steele, Robert David.  Information Operations:  Putting the "I" Back into Dime.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S.  Army War College, 2006.  75 p.
"Defines and discusses three information operations (IO) elements:  Strategic Communication (the message); Open Source Intelligence (the reality); and Joint Information Operations Centers (the technology).  Concludes with a strategic overview of the various conceptual and technical elements required to meet modern IO needs, and provides a requirements statement that could be tailored to the needs of any Combatant Commander, service, or agency."--part of the Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB642.pdf
Book call no.:  355.343 S814i

Sun Tzu and Information Warfare:  A Collection of Winning Papers from the Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Competition, edited by Robert E. Neilson.  Washington, National Defense University Press, 1997.  167 p.
Historical value.
Also available online at:  http://www.ndu.edu/inss/siws/STAW.pdf  (If link does not open, paste into internet browser address box).
Book call no.:  355.343 S957

Thom, Maxie C.  Information Warfare Arms Control:  Risks and Costs.  USAF Academy, CO, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, 2006.  66 p.
Also available online at:  http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps69661/ocp63.pdf  (If link does not open, paste into internet browser address box).
Book call no.:  341.63 T452i

United States.  Executive Office of the President.  Cyberspace Policy Review:  Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Information and Communication Infrastructure.  Washington, D.C.,  Executive Office of the President of the United States, 2009.  38 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501541
Book call no.:  303.4833 U58c

U.S. Army War College.  Information in Warfare Group.  Information as Power:  An Anthology of Selected United States Army War College Student Papers.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2006.  193 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/dime/ or http://www.carlisle.army.mil/DIME/documents/Information%20as%20Power%20Vol%204%20(web-final).pdf
Book call no.:  355.02 I43


Documents

U.S. Army War College.  Department of Military Strategy Planning and Operations.  Information Operations Primer:  Fundamentals of Information Operations.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, Dept. of Military Strategy, Planning, and Operations, 2008.  164 p.
"This essay examines both IO and SC (Strategic Communications) conceptually and doctrinally as they apply to the information element of national power.  They are intended as a guide to these topics to facilitate academic discussion and are not authoritative."--Summary from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA509052
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-643a

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 6-0: Joint Communications System.  Washington, D.C.  Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2006.  138 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp6_0.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42592 no. 6-0 2006

Zhansan, Ke.  Study in Guiding Ideology of Information Operations in Joint Campaigns.  Charlottesville, VA, Department of the Army, National Ground Intelligence Center, 2005.  11 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 44152-7 2003 no. 01053


Documents (Student Research)

Blackington, Robert E.  Air Force Information Operations (IO) Doctrine:  Consistent with Joint IO Doctrine?  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2001.  53 p.
Provides historical insight to why recent revisions have occurred.   "This research paper analyzes the consistency between Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) 2-5, Information Operations, and Joint Pub (JP) 3-13, Joint Doctrine for Information Operations, in three principal areas:  1.  The components of information superiority (IS) and definitions of the key terms IS, IO, and information warfare (IW), 2.  Air Force addition of the terms counterinformation (CI), offensive counterinformation (OCI), and defensive counterinformation (DCI), 3.  The capabilities and related activities used to carry out offensive and defense IO."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA399888
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 B6282a

Bookard, Joe Daniels.  Defining the Information Within Military Information Operations:  Utilizing a Case Study of the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2006.  63 p.
The research presented in this work examines the Indian government's response to counterinsurgency through the categories of information defined by the author.  The author's definition of information focuses on how decision-makers, mainly military commanders, assign value to information within and extracted from the information environment.
Also available online at:  http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/p4013coll3&CISOPTR=720&CISOBOX=1&REC=7
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 B724d

Bortree, James R.  Information Operations During the Malayan Emergency.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2006.  95 p.
"This thesis focuses on the specific British IO lessons learned during the Malayan Emergency.  The thesis will also examine the IO implications of British organizational and cultural adaptation to counter the insurgents.  Finally, it will also examine the most recent list of relevant Joint Doctrine, which drives how the individual services train, equip and resource forces for counter insurgency."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA451360
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B739i

Burton, Gerald V.  Principles of Information Operations:  A Recommended Addition to U.S. Army Doctrine.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2003.  62 p.
Examines whether or not existing American, Russian, and Chinese doctrine and theory can provide the sought after guidance on combining Information Operations (IO) elements.  Offers an analysis of all three nations' writings on IO and synthesis of the related ideas.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415801
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 B9743p

Cox, Joseph L.  Information Operations in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom – What Went Wrong?  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2006.  133 p.
"This monograph examines the integration of Information Operations (IO) during Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF).  As a rule, most commanders considered IO ineffective because IO was unable to respond to the complex environments of Afghanistan and Iraq."--Abstract from web site.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449922
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 C8771i

Hardy, Charles K.  Information Operations as an Element of National Power:  A Practitioners Perspective on Why the United States Can't Get it Right.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2005.  20 p.
Examines the U.S.  strategic national policies on information operations.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432386
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 H268i

Harris, David A.  Information Operations as a Counter to US Air Dominance:  A Rival’s Perspective.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2007.  58 p.
"By examining the air campaigns in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq through the lens of Chinese and Russians analysts, information operations has been the key lesson learned to counter US air dominance.  From this analysis, some broader conclusions were made concerning the conduct of IO in peace-time, the confusion surrounding IO terminology, the challenges of identifying deception in the targeting and operational analysis process, and the integration of IO and air superiority objectives within a campaign."--Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470650
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 H313i

Kirpekar, Ulhas.  Information Operations in Pursuit of Terrorists.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.  231 p.
"This research examines the relationship between terrorism and information operations keeping in view Martin Libicki’s notion of information warfare as a Mosaic of Forms.  This research begins with the basics of terrorism and information operations, and proceeds to highlight the use of information operations by terrorist organizations and in particular its use by Al Qaeda."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474087
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 K593i

Mackin, Patrick B.  Information Operations and the Global War on Terror:  The Joint Force Commander's Fight for Hearts and Minds in the 21st Century.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2004.  25 p.
"Examines the Australian Defense Force's successful experience with Information Operations in two recent conflicts.  Current U.S. efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq are explored and recommendations are provided."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA422766
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 M1581i

Molinari, Robert.  Winning the Minds in "Hearts and Minds":  A Systems Approach to Information Operations as Part of Counterinsurgency Warfare.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  57 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA436114
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 M722w

Robinson, Kelly G.  The Death of Information Operations:  Making the Case for Non-Kinetic Operations.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2005.  37 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA476299
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 R6622d

Rogers, Stephen C.  Improving Information Operations with a Military Cultural Analyst.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  44 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA436283
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 R729i

Rose, Ehrich D.  Defending America's Center of Gravity.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2006.  18 p.
"The National Defense Strategy states “America is a Nation at War”, but unless the United States effectively employs strategic communications and secures the National Will, the ability to maximize military power to achieve national security objectives is jeopardized. Where once the military domination ... warfare in the twenty-first century now requires information dominance to preserve the United States’ Center of Gravity (COG)."--from Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA448816
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 R795d

Sicoli, Peter A.  Filling the Information Void:  Adapting the Information Operation (IO) Message in Post-Hostility Iraq.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  67 p.
"An in depth examination of five challenges faced by IO officers at the start of the post-hostility phase of operations in Iraq.  Discusses the major principles contained in FM 3-13, Information Operations:  Doctrine, Tactics Techniques and Procedure, and examines whether doctrinal adjustments are needed to provide more effective guidance for IO officers facing the issues identified in the five problem areas."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA436260
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 S567f


Periodicals

Adams, Charlotte.  Cyberwarfare Looms Large in Information Systems.  Signal 63:90-93 February 2009.
According to government and industry experts, U.S. forces are just beginning their learning curve.  According to Hathaway, the number of trusted public Internet connections in the federal .gov space at one point was more than 8,000.  According to some experts, there are more honor level students in computer science and other technical programs in China than the total number of students in the United States who are enrolled in these types of programs, he asserted.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1646140221&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Baker, Ralph O.  The Decisive Weapon:  A Brigade Combat Team Commander's Perspective on Information Operations.  Military Review 86:13-33 May-June 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1078923341&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Beavers, Garry J.  Defining the Information Campaign.  Military Review 85:80-82 November-December 2005.
"No official military definition for an information campaign exists, despite the frequent use of that term to describe a technique used in information operations.  Beavers defines what the information campaign is all about"--from the Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=982471051&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Boland, Rita.  Military Receives Outlines to Revamp Acquisition.  Signal 64:43-47 November 2009.
According to the policies and procedures report, the Secretary of Defense should recognize that the current acquisition process for information technology is ineffective.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1903086271&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Brumley, L.  and others.  Causes and Effects of Perception Errors.  Journal of Information Warfare 5:41-53 November 2006.
"Proposes that both Information Warfare attacks and non-intentional perception errors can be categorized as causes of misperception."--Abstract from article.

Charette, Robert N.  Open-Source Warfare.  IEEE Spectrum 44:26-32 November 2007.
"Terrorists are leveraging information technology to organize, recruit, and learn--and the west is struggling to keep up."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/security/opensource-warfare

Collings, Deirdre and Rohozinski, Rafal.  Shifting Fire.  Military Technology 32, no. 11:110-113 2008.
"The article "discusses the implications of Information Operation (IO) when conducting counterinsurgency (COIN) in the midst of stability and reconstruction (SSTRO).  It states that the key objective of COIN/SSTRO is to win the confidence and loyalty of the people.  It adds that IO needs to be considered beyond the doctrinal concept of five core capabilities aligned to influence opposing forces or shape the battlefield."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=35691750&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Darley, William M.  Clausewitz's Theory of War and Information Operations.  Joint Force Quarterly (JFQ) 40:73-79 Winter 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19568189&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Darley, William M.  Strategic Imperative:  The Necessity for Values Operations as Opposed to Information Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.  Air & Space Power Journal 21:33-41 Spring 2007.
Also available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/cadre/aspj/airchronicles/apj/apj07/spr07/darleyspr07.html

Darnton, Geoffrey.  Content Analysis as a Tool of Information Warfare.  Journal of Information Warfare 4:1-11 September 2005.
Discusses content analysis and its application as part of the information warfare armory.  Proposes research to merge epidemiological theory with content analysis.  Content analysis introduces a new dimension to information warfare whereby a home population, and not just an "enemy" may also be a target of information operations.

Emery, Norman and others.  Fighting Terrorism and Insurgency:  Shaping the Information Environment.  Military Review 85, no. 1:32-39 January-February 2005.
To succeed in the new terrorist security environment, Joint Publication 3-13 must provide an information operations approach that better defines and shapes operations in the information environment to enable victories over non-state actors in the physical environment.  JP 3-13 was reworked in 2006.  This article provides excellent background for the reworked publication. 
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=817489671&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Franz, Timothy P. and others.  Defining Information Operations Forces:  What Do We Need?  Air & Space Power Journal 21:53-63 Summer 2007.
Also available online at:  http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj07/sum07/franz.html

Guevin, Paul R.  Information Operations.  Air & Space Power Journal 18:122-124 Summer 2004.
A good historical account of what needs to be addressed in new doctrine for Information Operations.  Has there been a change?
Also available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/cadre/aspj/airchronicles/apj/apj04/sum04/guevin1.html

Hubbard, Zachary P.  IO (Information Operations)  in the Information Age "Part I".  Journal of Electronic Defense 27, no. 4:51-57 April 2004.
Provides background argument on why doctrine needed to be changed. "Information operations have yet to be fully understood or embraced by the US military.  Yet the military has applied IO doctrinally at least since 1998, when the Department of Defense (DoD) first published Joint Publication (JP) 3-13, Joint Doctrine for Information Operations.  The military applied IO tactics, techniques, and procedures operationally as early as the end of 1995, when the US first introduced ground troops into Bosnia."-- Copied from the abstract.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=620659971&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Hubbard, Zachary P.  IO (Information Operations)  in the Information Age "Part II".  Journal of Electronic Defense 27, no. 5:49-53 May 2004.
Provides background argument on why doctrine needed to be changed. General Hal M. Hornburg is engaged in a quest to "operationalize" and normalize IO in the Air Force, thus truly establishing IO as a true core competency.  Part of his concern for IO stems from the less-than-satisfactory ratings Air Force IW received in a Rand study published in September 2002.  (Recall that IW is a subset of IO according to Air Force doctrine.)
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=640242241&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Metz, Thomas F.  Massing Effects in the Information Domain:  A Case Study in Aggressive Information Operations.  Military Review 86, no. 3:2-12 May-June 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1078923291&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mize, Randy.  Revised Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5, Information Operations.  Air & Space Power Journal 19, no. 2:36 Summer 2005.
There are three distinct groups of capabilities that form the foundation of the new doctrinal definition of IO:  influence operations, electronic warfare [EW] operations, and network warfare operations; are used in concert with specified integrated control enablers.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=973190961&sid=4&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Paschall, Joseph F.  IO (Information Operations) for Joe:  Applying Strategic IO at the Tactical Level.  Field Artillery Journal 10, no. 4:25-29 July-August 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=913854251&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Stahl, Pamela M. and Harryman, Toby.  The Judge Advocate's Role in Information Operations.  The Army Lawyer, pp 30-38, March 2004.
"(Authors) provide an overview of Army information operations (IO) doctrine and the judge advocate's role in the IO campaign, particularly in stability operations where the center of gravity is likely not a particular military unit or terrain feature, rather it is restoring basic services and influencing public support.  The authors claim that to properly provide this advice, judge advocates not only must understand legal issues that impact IO, but must also be familiar with IO planning and execution and how they fit into the process."--Abstract from publication /--Article.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=640245941&sid=4&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Trent, Stoney and Doty, James L., III.  Marketing:  An Overlooked Aspect of Information Operations.  Military Review 85, no. 4:70-74 July-August 2005.
Trent and James discuss US Army's aspect of information operations (IO), actions taken to affect the adversary's and influence others' decision making processes, information, and information systems while protecting one's own information and information systems.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=902580171&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Wass de Czege, Huba.  Rethinking IO:  Complex Operations in the Information Age.  Military Review 88, no. 6:14-27 November-December 2008.
"Addresses expected questions like "How can we better achieve information superiority and enhanced information effects?", "What are the 'best practices' in the field?", and 'What is the best way to integrate core IO capabilities?' reveal inherent flaws in understanding how IO fits in a comprehensive theory of war."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1607951011&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Weiss, Geoffrey F.  Exposing the Information Domain Myth:  A New Concept for Air Force and Information Operations Doctrine.  Air & Space Power Journal 22, no. 1:49-62 Spring 2008.
"Within all military services, information remains mischaracterized as a "domain," and all services have difficulty quantifying and establishing doctrine to exploit the war-fighting advantages of information.  At least within the US Air Force, the author asserts that a poor doctrinal structure and inadequate definitions of information operations contribute to the problem.  He proposes a completely new doctrinal framework, along with recognition of cyberspace as the true domain, in order to begin solving these challenges."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1448219001&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD


Electronic Warfare Operations


"Electronic warfare operations are the integrated planning, employment, and assessment of military capabilities to achieve desired effects across the electromagnetic domain in support of operational objectives.... The military capabilities of electronic warfare operations are electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support" --AFDD 2.5.

Internet Resources

Association of Old Crows
Available online at:  http://www.crows.org
Site provides links to pages containing articles, fact sheets, issue briefs, and reports by country and subject that present the researcher with ideas that might benefit his research.  "Serves DOD, industry and academia through advocacy and education forums in Electronic Warfare and Information Operations."--taken from the web site.

InfoWar
Available online at:  http://www.infowar.com
This site is dedicated to tracking open source stories to the full-spectrum of information warfare, information security, and critical infrastructure protection.  Provides separate sections on  cybersecurity, cyberattack, cyberconflict, and cyberthreats.

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar:  Capabilities and Related Policy Issues, by Clay Wilson.  Washington, CRS, March 20, 2007.  18 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA466599

National Science and Technology Council.  Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development.  April 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/csia/csia_federal_plan.pdf  (If link does not open, paste into internet browser address box).

Thompson, Loren B.  Fading Signal:  The Neglect of Electronic Warfare.  Lexington Institute, February 12, 2008.
Available online at:  http://www.lexingtoninstitute.org/fading-signal-the-neglect-of-electronic-warfare
Presents an argument on which DOD service should be put in charge of all joint electronic warfare activities.

United States.  Department of the Air Force.  Electronic Warfare:  Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.1.  November 5, 2002.
Available online at:  http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/AFDD2-5.1.pdf
Clarifies electronic warfare's roles and place within the information operations construct.  This document complements related discussion found in Joint Publication (JP) 0-2,Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF); JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations; and JP 3-51, Joint Doctrine for Electronic Warfare.

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 3-13.1:  Electronic Warfare.  January 25, 2007.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_13_1.pdf
This publication provides joint doctrine for electronic warfare planning, preparation, execution, and assessment in support of joint operations across the range of military operations.


Books

Adamy, David L.  EW 102:  A Second Course in Electronic Warfare.  Boston, Artech House, 2004.  274 p.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 259-262) and index.  This book gives engineers, defense contractors, managers, and government procurers a basic working knowledge of the technologies and techniques deployed in today’s electronic warfare systems.
Book call no.:  623.043 A211e 2004

Jane's Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems 2007-2008.  Alexandria, VA, Jane's Information Group, 2007.  664 p.
"Open source reference to the world's military radars and electronic warfare systems."--Summary from publication.
Book call no.:  R 623.73 J33 19th ed. 2007/2008

Schleher, D. Curtis.  Electronic Warfare in the Information Age.  Boston, Artech House, 1999.  605 p.
A little dated, but provides well-structured sections covering ECCM countermeasure techniques, the impact of stealth technology on ESM and ECM requirements, jammer upgrading procedures, and much more.
Book call no.:  623.043 S339e

Stanek, Robert.  Stormjammers:  The Extraordinary Story of Electronic Warfare Operations in the Gulf War.  Olympia, WA, Reagent Press, 2006.  365 p.
Book call no.:  956.7044348 S785s


Document

United States.  General Accounting Office.  Electronic Warfare:  Comprehensive Strategy Needed for Suppressing Enemy Air Defenses:  Report to Congressional Requestors.  Washington, D.C., General Accounting Office, January 2001.  20 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41026-173 no.01-28


Documents (Student Research)

Arnold, John.  The Shoreline:  Where Electronic Warfare and Cyberspace Meet.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2009.  29 p.
Synopsis of EW and Cyber doctrine, definitions, and discussions where the two mission sets differ, are similar, and are supportive.  Informational without a recommendation.
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=c17f6a93-1d01-4a41-add8-c46ab5884522
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 A7561s

Parker, Brandon P.  Caught in a Jam: The U.S. Air Force’s Electronic Attack Conundrum.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2008.  26 p.
"An over reliance on stealth capability puts the entire composite force structure at risk, especially if electronic warfare assets are not sufficient to provide adequate protection.  As the Air Force moves forward, a comprehensive set of airborne electronic alternatives must be pursued to fill the EA capabilities gap staring Air Force leaders in the face.  This paper proposes feasible, fiscally attainable near to mid-term EA alternatives to resolve this dilemma."--from Abstract.
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=d318dd82-b749-4d0c-8c9f-3febd0f1ad55
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 P2382c


Periodicals

Adee, Sally.  The Hunt for the Kill Switch.  IEEE Spectrum 45:35-39 May 2008.
"Are chip makers building electronic trapdoors in key military hardware?"--Abstract from publication.

Also available online at:  http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/design/the-hunt-for-the-kill-switch

Dardine, Andrew and Knowles, John.  The Top 20 EW (electronic warfare) Programs.  Journal of Electronic Defense 32:34-36+ August 2009.

Donskov, Yu E. and Botnev, A. K.  Electronic Warfare and Heterogeneous Weapons:  Mission in Engagement.  Military Thought 14, no. 4:100-103 2005.

Fulghum, David A.  Old and Sneaky.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 164:50-52 January 23, 2006.
The article discusses issues related to information warfare with reference to the new plane Senior Scout.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19573508&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Huber, Arthur F., II and others.  Deconflicting Electronic Warfare in Joint Operations.  Joint Force Quarterly 45:89-95 Second Quarter 2007.
"The problem of electronic warfare fratricide is a growing issue.  Proliferating systems, rapidly procured and fielded, are making for an increasingly crowded spectrum.  Our freedom to operate is jeopardized."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1256206541&sid=3&Fmt=1&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kenyon, Henry S.  Army Readies for Electronic Warriors.  Signal 63, no. 12:31-34 August 2009.
"The U.S. Army's new electronic warfare (EW) military occupational specialty was launched by the need for EW specialists in Iraq.  U.S. forces used jammers (the large antennas on the backs of these high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles) to counter radio-detonated improvised explosive devices.  But the jammers interfered with communications equipment, prompting the need for trained personnel to operate the devices."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1835697271&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

 


Influence Operations


"The military capabilities of influence operations are psychological operations (PSYOP), military deception (MILDEC), operations security (OPSEC), counterintelligence (CI) operations, counterpropaganda operations and public affairs (PA) operations".--AFDD 2.5

Internet Resources

PSYOP and MILITARY
Available online at:  http://www.psywarrior.com/links.html
A collection of web sites related to topic areas such as:  units, employment operations, IO history, campaigns, and many more.

United States.  Department of the Air Force.  Information Operations:  Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.  January 11, 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/afdd2_5.pdf
Chapter Two:  Influence Operations, pp 9-18.

United States.  Department of the Air Force.  Public Affairs (PA) Operations:  Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.3.  June 25, 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/AFDD2-5.3.pdf
Establishes doctrinal guidance for Public Affairs (PA) Operations.

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 3-13.2:  Psychological Operations.  January 7, 2010.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_13_2.pdf

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 3-13.3:  Operations Security.  June 29, 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_13_3.pdf
Operations security is one of the military capabilities of influence operations.  Information operations are discussed throughout the publication.

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 3-13.4:  Military Deception.  July 13, 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_13_4.pdf

Military deception is one of the military capabilities of influence operations.

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Publication 3-61:  Public Affairs.  May 9, 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_61.pdf
This publication provides joint doctrine for public affairs support during joint operations and US military support to news media in conjunction with military operations.  It provides guidance to the joint force commander (JFC) when communicating with national, international, and internal audiences.


Books

Boyd, Curtis D.  Psychological Operations:  Learning Is Not a Defense Science Project.  Hurlburt Field, FL, JSOU Press, 2007.  34 p.
"This paper intends to demystify psychological operations by framing the analysis in terms of certain cultural biases, organizational challenges, and troubles with terminology."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  https://jsoupublic.socom.mil/publications/jsou/JSOU07-4boydPSYOP_final.pdf
Book call no.:  355.3434 B789p

Campen, Alan D. and Dearth, Douglas H.  Cyberwar 3.0:  Human Factors in Information Operations and Future Conflicts.  Fairfax, VA, AFCEA International Press, 2000.  309 p.
The issue of human factors is important and remains the same, in each of four aspects:  the human user of technology, the human target of technology, human communications, and human values.  Includes bibliographical references. Includes bibliographical references.
Book call no.:  355.343 C9942

Collings, Deirdre and Rohozinski, Rafal.  Bullets and Blogs:  New Media and the Warfighter:  An Analytical Synthesis and Workshop Report.  Carlisle, PA, Center for Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College, 2009.  97 p.
"Workshop ... was a collaboration between the War College’s Center for Strategic Leadership (CSL) and The SecDev Group (Canada).  In recent years, adversaries, armed with new media capabilities and an information-led warfighting strategy, have proven themselves capable of challenging the most powerful militaries in the world.  Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and blogs have arguably become as important to the strategic outcome of military operations as bullets, troops and air power."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://www.csl.army.mil/usacsl/publications/Bullets_Blogs_new_Media_warfighterWeb_20_Oct_09.pdf
Book call no.:  355.343 C711b

Connelly, Mark.  War and the Media:  Reportage and Propaganda, 1900-2003.  New York, I. B. Tauris, 2005.  304 p.
"This volume developed out of an international conference sponsored by the Centre for the Study of propaganda held at The University of Kent in September 2001.  All aspects are covered:  the Press, radio and television, state information services, ’virtual war’ and psychological operations.  The twentieth century has seen major shifts in the relationship between war and propaganda, fuelled by the huge technological advances making propaganda and censorship increasingly potent weapons."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  070.449355 W2531

Dauber, Cori Elizabeth.  YouTube War:  Fighting in a World of Cameras in Every Cell Phone and Photoshop on Every Computer.  Carlisle, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S.  Army War College , 2009.  123 p.
"In this radically new information environment, the enemy no longer depends on traditional media.  This is the "YouTube War."  This monograph methodically lays out the nature of this new environment in terms of its implications for a war against media-savvy insurgents, and then considers possible courses of action for the Army and the U.S. military as they seek to respond to an enemy that has proven enormously adaptive to this new environment and the new type of warfare it enables."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB951.pdf
Book call no.:  303.625 D235y

Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age, edited by James Waldo and others.  Washington, National Academies Press, 2007.  430 p.
Privacy Issues.
Available online at:  http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11896  (This is a free online version from the publisher advertising the book).
Table of contents also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0715/2007014433.html.
Book call no.:  005.8 E57

Influence Warfare:  How Terrorists and Governments Fight to Shape Perceptions in a War of Ideas, edited by James J. F. Forest.  Westport, CT, Praeger Security International, 2009.  392 p.
Includes bibliographical references (pp 357-373) and index.
Book call no.:  363.325 I43

Kodosky, Robert J.  Psychological Operations American Style:  The Joint United States Public Affairs Office, Vietnam and Beyond.  Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2007.  227 p.
Book call no.:  355.34340973 K76p

Larson, Eric V.  Foundations of Effective Influence Operations:  A Framework for Enhancing Army Capabilities.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand Arroyo Center, 2009.  201 p.
"Prepared for the United States Army.  Includes bibliographical references (pp 179-201).  Interest has increased regarding capabilities that may allow the United States to effectively influence the attitudes and behavior of particular foreign audiences while minimizing or avoiding combat.  The authors identify approaches, methodologies, and tools that may be useful in planning, executing, and assessing influence operations."--Rand web site.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503375
Book call no.:  355.41 F771

Larson, Eric V.  Understanding Commanders' Information Needs for Influence Operations.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand Arroyo Center, 2009.  133 p.
The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of commanders' information requirements pertaining to cultural and other "soft" factors (e. g. networks and hierarchies, cultural norms, attitudes) in order to improve the effectiveness of combined arms operations.
Book call no.:  355.343 U551

Libicki, Martin C. and others.  Byting Back:  Regaining Information Superiority Against 21st-Century Insurgents.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corporation, 2007.  159 p.
Discusses the information capabilities for counterinsurgency.  These rcollection requirements are different from conventional warfare for two reasons:  1) the community that conducts counterinsurgency crosses national and institutional boundaries, sharing information across these lines has a greater importance, and 2) the indigenous population plays a much greater role in determining the outcome of an insurgency so collecting information on them has a higher priority than it does in conventional warfare in which the enemy is the focus.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA472417.
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG595.1.pdf.  Scroll down to Free, downloadable PDF file(s) are available below.
Book call no.:  355.0218 B998

Lindley, Dan.  Promoting Peace with Information:  Transparency as a Tool of Security Regimes.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2007.  280 p.
Includes bibliographical references (pp 237-268) and index.
Book call no.:  352.88 L746p

MacDonald, Scot.  Propaganda and Information Warfare in the Twenty-First Century:  Altered Images and Deception Operations.  New York, Routledge, 2007.  204 p.
"Analyzes how the technology to alter images and rapidly distribute them can be used for propaganda and deception operations.  Using examples from history, outlines the principles of propaganda and deception, and presents a history of the use of altered images (both still and moving) in politics, diplomacy, espionage and war."--Abstract from publication.  Table of contents at:  http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0615/2006019793.html
Book call no.:  355.3434 M135p

United States.  Department of Defense.  Information Security Research:  New Methods for Protecting Against Cyber Threats, edited by Cliff Wang and others.  Indianapolis, IN, Wiley, 2007.  688 p.
"Collection of technical papers on information technology, cyber security, and information assurance."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  005.8 I434


Documents (Student Research)

Acosta, David A.  The Makara of Hizballah:  Deception in the 2006 Summer War.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.  77 p.
"Hizballah and Israel serve as the perfect backdrop to examine the effects of deception in current conflicts.  The use of information in supporting deception, which has been a key enabler for the weaker side, became one of the answers to redressing the military balance.  This paper will demonstrate that Hizballah, fighting an asymmetric conflict with Israel, used deception very effectively in their defense of southern Lebanon during the 2006 Summer War; this use of deception significantly offset many of Israel’s hard power advantages."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469918
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 A185m

Cothrel, Timothy J.  Air Force Public Affairs: Operating under the Influence.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air War College, 2007.  43 p.
"The Air Force should amend its doctrine to explicitly separate public affairs and influence operations, and ensure its operational concepts draw clear distinctions between these similar but separate spheres of military communication.  This paper argues in favor of this course of action by summarizing the changes in the global information and security environment that have prompted the need to reexamine operational concepts involved in public affairs and influence operations."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at: https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2007/awc/Cothrel.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 C843a

Edwards, Rem B., III.  Allies in the Shadows:  Why We Need Operational Deception.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2004.  24 p.
Presents the argument (historical) for the use of deception, thus why new doctrine is required.  "This paper is aimed at convincing the joint task force commander that deception offers distinct advantages to even today’s military that relies upon the idea of overwhelming combined arms force to achieve objectives.  Historical case studies indicate that deception is a tool that can create an exploitable imbalance in forces, to the theater commander’s advantage, by manipulating an adversary’s actions in time and space."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA426011
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 E263a

Jones, Jacqueline H.  The Power to "Influence":  Civil Affairs and Strategic Communication in 21st Century Warfare.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2007.  26 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 J773p

Jones, Raymond O.  The Role of U.S. Psychological Operations in the New Global Threat Environment.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2007.  25 p.
Also available online at:  https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2007/awc/Jones.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 J782r

King, Timothy R.  Finding Weakness in Jihadist Propaganda.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, 2007
"The Global War on Terror is an ideological war being fought in an environment indicative of Fourth Generation Warfare.  Propaganda bypasses traditional defenses and strikes right at the center of gravity:  popular support.  In the modern war of ideologies, communication is decisive; propaganda is cleverly designed and influential communication that compels associated populations to support the cause or leave the battlefield."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471796

Morris, Brett.  Why the Air Force Can’t Do Influence Operations:  Overcoming Cultural Barriers to Implementing a Non-Traditional Mission.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2007.  38 p.
"The Air Force has articulated a robust mission set for Information Operations to include the subset operations designated as Influence Operations (IO).  However, unlike the more developed elements of the IO triad - electronic Warfare Operations and Network Warfare Operations - it violates many cultural assumptions of the Air Force; thereby making its development as a functional operational area unlikely."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2007/awc/Morris.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 M8751w

O'Brien, Gregory J.  Information Operations and the Law of Perfidy.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2001.  26 p.
A little dated but good ideas on international law related to Influence Operations.  "The Department of Defense (DOD) Office of General Counsel concluded in an assessment of international law and information operations (IO) that using computer "morphing" techniques of an enemy leader to falsely broadcast that an armistice or cease-fire agreement had been signed would be a war crime under the law of perfidy."--Abstract from author.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA395074
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 O131i

Swentkokske, Virginia G.  Planning and Conducting Offensive Counterinformation Operations.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2002.  55 p.
The concerns/issues are still valid and provide insight on why doctrine needed to be revised.  "This paper examines the problems a joint force commander (JFC) faces when employing USAF OCI (Offensive Counterinformation) capabilities in his campaign plan."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  https://research.maxwell.af.mil/papers/ay2002/acsc/02-112.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 S974


Periodicals

Baines, P. R.  Evaluating the Effect of the Fear Appeal in Advertising:  Implications for Information Operations Campaigns.  Journal of Information Warfare 8:20-30 April 2009.

Boyd, Curtis D.  Army IO Is PSYOP:  Influencing More with Less.  Military Review 87:67-75 May-June 2007.
"Additionally, during this difficult developmental period, IO has generated a great deal of friction between itself and the various agents of influence, which have well-established, clearly defined, and fully integrated roles in force protection, information management, public communications, and so-called influence operations."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1288673451&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Breen, Tom.  Bad News:  Should Media Manipulation Be a Tool of War?  Armed Forces Journal 142:24-26+ February 2005.
Also available online at:   http://infoweb.newsbank.com/

Cullen, A. J. and Mann, I.  Hacking the Human:  Countering the Socially Engineered Attack.  Journal of Information Warfare 7:24-35 September 2008.
"The security model developed here suggests that a focus on systemic changes to an organization's processes can produce improved security."--Abstract from publication.

Darnton, G.  Information Warfare, Revolutions in Military Affairs, and International Law.  Journal of Information Warfare 4:1-20 March 2005.
Analyzes traditional laws of war or international humanitarian law, and human rights law, in terms of applicability to information warfare.

Dobrydney, John F.  Marine Tactical Psyop Teams.  Marine Corps Gazette 90:33-35 February 2006.
Lessons from the history and recent experiences in the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom point to the need for an increase in tactical PsyOp teams across the military.  Dobrydney stresses that it is time for the Marine Corps to develop its own tactical PsyOp capability in order to bridge the gap between the theater-level information operation plan and the tactical level where the Marine Corps operates.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=986754841&sid=5&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Emery, Norman E.  Irregular Warfare Information Operations:  Understanding the Role of People, Capabilities, and Effects.  Military Review 88:27-39 November-December 2008.
"While conventional warfare is direct military confrontation between states, irregular warfare focuses on the control and influence of populations, rather than the control of an adversary's forces or territory.  With irregular warfare, the problem is one of balancing operations against the enemy with operations to influence the population."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1607951021&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Ferris, John.  A New American Way of War?  C4ISR, Intelligence and Information Operations in Operation 'Iraqi Freedom':  A Provisional Assessment.  Intelligence and National Security  18, no. 4:155-174 Winter 2003.
"It assesses how far the Coalition side practiced deception, psychological warfare, and information operations during the 2003 Gulf War, and how far intelligence served the needs of military forces."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a713672636

Finch L. and Vaughan, R.  Towards Fit for Purpose Security in Military Systems.  Journal of Information Warfare 7:36-48 September 2008.
"Proposes 'fit for purpose' security which seeks to balance flexibility against high assurance through the Non-Persistent Capability Concept (NPC2)."--Abstract from publication.

Flaherty, Chris.  3D Tactics and Information Deception.  Journal of Information Warfare 7:10 September 2008.
"Information deception is a core component of three dimensional tactics (3D tactics).  3D tactics is a relatively new concept which seeks to develop spherical security, or 'look-around' tactical thinking in three dimensions.  However, the connection between information deception and 3D tactics is not well understood.  In both the 2005 London Underground attacks, and the 2007 Haymarket attempted attack factors such as information deception played a key operational frame of reference in the development of the attack methodology."--Abstract from publication.

Kamel, M. N. and others.  Automated Categorization of Profiles for Psychological Operations:  An Analysis of Data and Text Mining Approaches.  Journal of Information Warfare 5:30-45 August 2006.
Influencing one's adversary has always been an objective in warfare.  To date the majority of psychological influence operations have been geared toward the masses.  A tailored approach of individual targeting is preferred but requires unattainable resources.  This paper investigates whether state-of-the-art data and text mining tools can be used to automate the categorization/segmentation of individual profiles for psychological operations.  Five data and text mining software applications were tested and their results compared with those of a social psychologist.  Using statistical analysis, it was concluded that current data and text mining tools are not mature enough to produce results comparable with those produced by psychologists.

Keeton, Pamela and McCann, Mark.  Information Operations, STRATCOM, and Public Affairs.  Military Review 85:83-86 November-December 2005.
"Keeton and McCann talk about how WATERSHED events gave rise to a fledgling democracy in Afghanistan after more than 25 years of war and violence.  These events also signaled a change in military strategy in Afghanistan from combat operations and counter terrorism to counterinsurgency, reconstruction, and development."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=982471231&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Knapp, Kenneth J. and Boulton, William R.  Cyber-Warfare Threatens Corporations:  Expansion into Commercial Environments.  Information Systems Management 23:76-87 Spring 2006.
Review of information warfare literature from 1990 to mid-2005, presenting a framework of 12 important trends.  These trends demonstrate the transformation of information warfare from primarily a military issue into a major commercial issue as well.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=20025701&site=ehost-live

McCarthy, Patrick, Jr.  The 7 Deadly Sins of PSYOP.  Infantry 98:16-17 July 2009.
"The article discusses an adaptation of the "Divine Comedy," by Dante Alighieri as used in the observations made during a counterinsurgency (COIN) operation in Iraq.  The seven deadly sins of lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, envy and pride are defined using the observations and tactical shortcomings of the Psychological Operations (PSYOP) which include the lack of coordination between Information Operations (IO) and the PSYOP commanders."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=45345172&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Potter, Bob and Bosco, Alan.  Revised Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.3, Public Affairs Operations.  Air & Space Power Journal 20, no. 1:107-108 Spring 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1008568841&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Prevelakis, Vassilis and Spinellis, Diomidis.  The Athens Affair.  IEEE Spectrum 44:26-33 July 2007.
"Explains how the Greek prime minister's cell phone was illegally wiretapped during the 2004 Olympics."--Abstract from publication.  Demonstrates problems with operations security on a wireless network.
Also available online at:  http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/security/opensource-warfare

Rohm, Fredric W., Jr.  Merging Information Operations and Psychological Operations.  Military Review 88:108-111 January-February 2008.
"Consider this excerpt from Joint Publication (JP) 3-53, Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations: Strategic PSYOP are international information activities conducted by U.S. Government agencies to influence foreign attitudes, perceptions, and behavior in favor of U.S. goals and objectives during peacetime and in times of conflict."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1421827631&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Schleifer, Ron.  Democracies, Limited War and Psychological Operations.  Review of International Affairs 2:41-53 Spring 2003.
The struggle for the hearts and minds of the population is still valid.  "Democracies generally abstain from using psychological operations (PSYOP) as they perceive propaganda to be a totalitarian political tool.  In contrast, the insurgents make vast use of PSYOP as they realize that the media can be easily exploited through the public's thirst for information.  This essay outlines the weakness of democracies in their handling of the struggle over the hearts and minds of the public and proposes changes within democracies to employ effectively psychological warfare."--ABSTRACT from author.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12341745&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Sholtis, Tadd.  Public Affairs and Information Operations:  A Strategy for Success.  Air & Space Power Journal 19:97-107 Fall 2005.
Author is currently (March 23, 2009) assigned to the Secretary of the Air Force, Office of Public Affairs. 
The author observes that as the public face of our joint forces, PA cannot thrive unless it is integrated with all core operational capabilities, including Information Operations (IO).
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=918977811&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Silverburg, Daniel and Meimann, Joseph.  An Ever-Expanding War:  Legal Aspects of Online Strategic Communication.  Parameters 39:77-93 Summer 2009.
"The article discusses U.S. policy regarding online communication by the Department of Defense (DOD), focusing on the degree to which DOD strategic communications initiatives might conflict with the activities of the U.S. State Department.  The legal ramifications of psychological operations (PSYOP) tactics in the context of the internet are also addressed."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=44287818&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Sousan, W. L. and others.  Collecting Open Source Intelligence via Tailored Information Delivery Services.  Journal of Information Warfare 7:1-10 September 2008.
"Presents the results of an ongoing research in a Tailored Information Delivery Services (TIDS) system that aids users in retrieving relevant information through various open intelligence sources; The TIDS provides a semantics-based query constructor that operates in a "What You Get is What You Need fashion (WYGIWYN™)" and builds ontology based information tagging, theme extractor, and contextual model."--Abstract from publication.

Szeredy, J. Spyke.  Influence Operations:  Integrated PSYOP Planning.  Air & Space Power Journal 19:38-44 Spring 2005.
"Like commercials, a psychological operations (PSYOP) message might also produce both primary and secondary effects.  Although no statistical evidence exists, a classroom lesson on propaganda in the Air Force's Information Operations Integration Course has repeatedly tested the creation of these effects by showing that students grasped their significance in this particular commercial."---Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=834474241&sid=10&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Taylor, P. M. and Yin, J.  Information Operations from an Asian Perspective:  A Comparative Analysis.  Journal of Information Warfare 7:1-23 2008.
"A comparative study of the practice of state-sponsored influence activities, propaganda, public diplomacy, psychological operations, public affairs, cyber warfare, electronic warfare in China, Taiwan, Thailand and Japan."--Abstract summary.

Wilson, Clay.  Dominating the Electronic Spectrum.  Military Technology 31:92-97 2007.
"Control of information has always been part of military operations.  However, the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) now views information operations as a core military competency, with new emphasis on both the use of electromagnetic energy or "cyberattack" to control or disable an adversary's computers, and the use of psychological operations to manipulate an adversary's perceptions.  The Department of Defense's view is that information itself is now a realm, a weapon, and a target of warfare."--Abstract summary.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=27661799&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Yuill, Jim and others.  Using Deception to Hide Things from Hackers:  Processes, Principles, and Techniques.  Journal of Information Warfare 5:26-40 November 2006.
"Introduces a model for understanding, comparing, and developing methods of deceptive hiding."--Abstract from article.
 


Network Warfare Operations


"Network warfare operations are the integrated planning, employment, and assessment of military capabilities to achieve desired effects across the interconnected analog and digital network portion of the battlespace.  Network warfare operations are conducted in the information domain through the combination of hardware, software, data, and human interaction. .... The operational activities of network warfare operations are network attack (NetA), network defense (NetD) and network warfare support (NS)" --AFDD 2.5

Internet Resources

21st Century DefenseCross Talk:  The Journal of Defense Software Engineering  22:entire issue November-December 2009.
Available online at:  http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2009/11/0911CrossTalk.pdf
Offers several articles on DoD infrastructure for information assurance and virtual warfare.

Command and Control Research Program (CCRP).
Available online at:  http://www.dodccrp.org/html4/research_ncw.html
The documents on this page will provide the researcher with a solid understanding of the development of Network Centric Warfare (NCW), the tenets of NCW, and where the research is taking us in this field.

Enabling Technologies for Net-Centricity.  CrossTalk:  The Journal of Defense Software Engineering 20:entire issue July 2007.
Available online at:  http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2007/07/0707CrossTalk.pdf

Heickerö, Roland.  Some Thoughts on the Application of Military Theory to Information Operations and Network Centric Warfare.  Stockholm, Sweden, Swedish Defence Research Agency, 2006.  26 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA461536
"The paper first discusses the logic of networks in general terms and then considers different types of networks and their respective abilities to resist attacks of different kinds due to centre of gravity and critical vulnerabilities."--Abstract from publication.  Includes a slide presentation.

Information AssuranceCross Talk:  The Journal of Defense Software Engineering 21:entire issue July 2008.
Available online at:  http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2008/07/0807CrossTalk.pdf
Offers several articles including one on the newly created office of the Secretary of Defense for Information and Identity Assurance, the DoD information grid mission assurance, interagency partnering to protect our national security systems, and DoD solutions to manage risks at the network/systems level.

Internet Protocol Version 6:  Federal Government in Early Stages of Transition and Key Challenges Remain.  Washington, GAO, June 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06675.pdf
Report to the Chairman, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives.

Net-Centricity.  CrossTalk:  The Journal of Defense Software Engineering 19:entire issue July 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/crosstalk/2006/07/0607CrossTalk.pdf
Several articles on Netcentricity.

Stytz, Martin R. and Banks, Sheila B.  Issues and Requirements for Cybersecurity in Network Centric Warfare.  June 2004.  36 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA466069
Believe this argument is even more valid in the present day scenario.  "A central tenet of network centric warfare is that the information received is actionable i.e., the information is timely and correct.  However, the increasing sophistication of computer and network attack tools and technologies coupled with the increasing technical sophistication of potential adversaries calls this central tenet into question and raises the question of how to secure the network and software against the threat of attack and subversion."--Abstract from publication.

United States.  Department of the Air Force.  Information Operations:  Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.  January 11, 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/afdd2_5.pdf
Chapter Three:  Network Warfare Operations, pp 19-22.


Internet Resource (Student Research)

Cain, Scott.  The Net Is Down, Now What Do We Do?  Is the Air Force Prepared to Survive a Cyber Attack.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2009.  59 p.
"This study analyzes the Air Force’s defense of cyberspace.  The author assesses the cyber strategies and doctrine of the United States government, to include the joint military and Air Force specific documents.
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=b31c5c79-a6f9-4488-bccc-1ec2a4f1be65


Books

Amoroso, Edward G.  Cyber Security.  Summit, NJ, Silicon Press, 2007.  177 p.
Includes the following:  An introduction to cyber security -- Understanding cyber attack -- Effects of cyber attack -- Government issues in cyber security -- Cyber security vulnerabilities -- Cyber security safeguards.
Book call no.:  363.325 A524c

Blaker, James R.  Transforming Military Force:  The Legacy of Arthur Cebrowski and Network Centric Warfare.  Westport, CT, Praeger Security International, 2007.  248 p.
"The primary architect of transformation, Vice Admiral Arthur K. Cebrowski, conceived what is known as network-centric warfare, a concept designed to leverage advances in military technology."--Abstract from publication.  Table of contents at:  http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip077/2007000073.html
Book call no.:  355.30973 B636t

Cammons, Dave.  Network Centric Warfare Case Study:  U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (March to April 2003).  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, Center for Strategic Leadership, 2006.  3 vols.
Volumes 2 and 3 available online at:  http://www.csl.army.mil/usacsl/publications/NCWCSVol2.pdf and http://www.csl.army.mil/usacsl/publications/NCWCSVol3.pdf
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA464742
Book call no.:  956.7044342 N476

Collmer, Sabine.  Information as a Key Resource:  The Influence of RMA and Network-Centric Operations on the Transformation of the German Armed Forces.  Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, 2007.  25 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479039
Book call no.:  355.00943 C713i

Croser, Caroline.  Organising Complexity:  Modes of Behaviour in a Networked Battlespace.  Duntroon, ACT, Land Warfare Studies Centre, 2007.  46 p.  (Working Paper, No. 133)
Also available online at:  http://www.defence.gov.au/army/LWSC/docs/WP_133.pdf  (If link does not open, paste into internet browser address box).
Book call no.:  355.02 C949o

English, Allan D. and others.  Networked Operations and Transformation:  Context and Canadian Contributions.  Montreal, QC, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007.  186 p.
"Examines theoretical and historical origins of the concept of Network-Centric Warfare and related networked operations to more fully understand the nature of Networked-Enabled Operations today and how it might evolve in the future."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.33041 E581n

Gansler, Jacques S. and Binnendijk, Hans.  Information Assurance: Trends in Valnerablilities, Threats, and Technologies.  Washington, D.C., National Defense University, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, 2004.  146 p.
A discussion of the downside of Network Centric Warfare, with chapters on the vulnerabilities of information systems and current and future means of attack.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA455418
Book call no.:  005.8 I433

Goldsmith, Jack L. and Wu, Tim.  Who Controls the Internet?:  Illusions of a Borderless World.  New York, Oxford University Press, 2006.  226 p.
Table of contents only at:  http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0519/2005027404.html
Book call no.:  303.4833 G624w

Gompert, David C. and others.  Battle-Wise:  Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare.  Washington, National Defense University Press, 2006.  174 p.
Book call no.:  355.330410973 G634b

Information as Power:  An Anthology of Selected United States Army War College Student Papers, edited by Dennis M. Murphy and others.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S.  Army War College, Information in Warfare Group, 2006.  243 p.
Volume 3 - Section 2, Information Effects in the Physical Domain offers several essays on net-centric warfare.
Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/dime/documents/Information%20as%20Power%203%20.pdf
Book call no.:  355.02 I43

Mitchell, Paul T.  Network Centric Warfare:  Coalition Operations in the Age of US Military Primacy.  London, International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2006.  90 p.
“Examines how the current military dominance of the US means that only it has the capacity to sustain military activity on a global scale and that other states participating in US-led coalitions must be prepared to work in an ‘interoperable’ fashion.  It explores the application of computer networks to military operations in conjunction with the need to secure a network’s information and to assure that it accurately represents situational reality.”--Abstract from publication Web site.
Book call no.:  909.82 I61a no.385

National Research Council (U.S.).  Committee on Strategies for Network Science, Technology and Experimentation.  Strategy for an Army Center for Network Science, Technology, and Experimentation.  Washington, National Academies Press, 2007.  79 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11904#toc
Book call no.:  355.070973 S898

The Technical Cooperation Program.  Command Intent:  International Perspectives and Challenges, edited by Jeff Stouffer and Kelly Farley.  Kingston, Ontario, Canadian Defence Academy Press, 2008.  154 p.
See Chapter 4, Fostering Trust Within Network-Enabled Operations:  Challenges and Initial Recommendations and Chapter 6, Designing Net-Centric Interfaces to Capture Commander's Intent.
Book call no.:  355.33041 C7345

Thomas, Timothy L.  Cyber Silhouettes:  Shadows over Information Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Foreign Military Studies Office, 2005.  334 p.
"Explores the impact of the Cyber Age on military thinking and operations worldwide.  Four issues are examined:  the contrast between the concept of "cyber operations" used by civilians, including criminals and terrorists, and the concept of "information operations" used by armed forces; the differences in information operations theory among the US, Russian, and Chinese militaries; the manner in which militaries use information operations in peace and in war; and the impact of cyber and information processes on the mind, the military machine, and their interface."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.343 T462c

Turnley, Jessica Glicken.  Implications for Network-Centric Warfare.  Hurlburt Field, FL, JSOU Press, 2006.  27 p.  (JSOU report; 06-3)
Considers the challenge of how a bureaucratically organized force might assess a network-centric enemy and develop appropriate strategies.
Book call no.:  355.33041 T955i


Document

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Network Centric Operations:  Background and Oversight Issues for Congress, by Clay Wilson.  Washington, CRS, March 15, 2007.  51 p.
"Describes technologies that support Network Centric Operations (NCO), and includes (1) questions about possible vulnerabilities associated with NCO; (2) a description of electronic weapons, and other technologies that could be used as asymmetric countermeasures against NCO systems; (3) descriptions of several key military programs for implementing NCO; (4) a list of other nations with NCO capabilities; and, (5) a description of experiences using NCO systems in recent operations involving joint and coalition forces."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/dime/documents/RL32411.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no.07-RL3241


Documents (Student Research)

Courville, Shane P.  Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission:  Defending the Air Force's Computer Networks in the Future.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air War College, 2007.  53 p.
This paper recommends the Air Force pursue research in quantum encryption and security and continue to examine computer security techniques for the mid-term and beyond.  The Air Force should continue future planning efforts to anticipate and develop countermeasures to emerging threats in order to proactively protect and dominate the cyberspace domain of the future.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474828

Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 C866a

Scherrer, Joseph H. and Grund, William C.  A Cyberspace Command and Control Model.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2009.  69 p.
"The central thesis of this paper is that any approach to cyberspace command and control must be founded on the nature of the cyberspace domain itself.  To investigate this thesis, this study examines possible alternatives for cyberspace C2 that are based on the nature of the strategic environment, the nature of the cyberspace domain itself, and the way in which conflict must be approached in this domain in order to improve the Armed Forces’ ability to successfully compete in cyberspace."--from Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508535
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 S3261c

Spalding, Robert S., III.  Net-Centric Warfare 2.0: Cloud Computing and the New Age of War.  Maxwell Air Force Base, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2009.  53 p.
"The rapid evolution of cyber technologies demands a new concept of Network-Centric Warfare - a new construct built on the foundation of the new interactive web.  The rapid advancement of information technologies and the development of cloud computing by large commercial information technology trendsetter organizations like Google, should lead the Department of Defense to ask: does cloud computing represent the future of network-centric operations and warfare for the United States military?"--from Abstract
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=a0cca9b8-8318-4753-993f-f76860863a64
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 S734n

Wilshusen, Gregory C. and Power, David A.  Cybersecurity:  Continued Efforts Are Needed to Protect Information Systems from Evolving Threats:   Statement for the Record to the Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland Security, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate.  Washington, D.C., GAO, 2009.  24 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10230t.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41026-173 no.10-230T


Periodicals

Alex Wathen.  Joint Airspace Management and Deconfliction:  A Chance to Trade in a Stovepipe for Network-Centric Warfare.  Air & Space Power Journal 20:26-34 Fall 2006.
"Represents an opportunity to reduce or eliminate stovepipe mentalities that continue to thwart true interservice interoperability."--Abstract from Web site.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1261925621&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Baddeley, Adam.  Briefing:  NCW (network centric warfare) - Part One:  Airborne Communications.  Jane's Defence Weekly 46:26-28+ March 25, 2009.
Part Two:  Operationally Responsive Space is in the October 28, 2009 issue.

Blank, Stephen.  Web War I:  Is Europe's First Information War a New Kind of War?  Comparative Strategy 27:227-247 May-June 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=33190125&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Boland, Rita.  The Web in Space.  Signal 62:63-65 September 2007.
"The IRIS enterprise solution will leverage commercial industry participation to develop and provide a first-generation Internet protocol (IP) (layer 3) packet routing capability onboard a geostationary satellite, which will enhance network-centric operations through information access, collaboration and dissemination."--Abstract from Web site.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1341053561&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Duczynski, G.  Getting to Purposeful Information Operations:  The Tracking and Monitoring E-mail Traffic Activities of Criminal and Terrorist Organizations Using Visualization Tools.  Journal of Information Warfare 4:1-25 December 2005.
This system approach of evaluating informational operations domain effectiveness and understanding still might provide planners valuable information.  "The literature on Effects-Based Operations (EBO) continues to be dominated by theory, with limited evidence of (successful) practical application reported.  This situation is entirely acceptable in the early formative stages of any new concept, as first hesitant steps are taken and the authority of a shared idea gradually develops.  EBO is now a global phenomenon.  "The effects must have primacy in shaping the actions that are taken.  EBO practitioners, particularly those within the information operations domain, need those hands-on executable actions that can be taken to solve problems in the real world.  Furthermore, these executable actions can only be enabled through the possession of specific capabilities.  The paper offers a systems approach that includes a problem space, a solution space and a design space that may bring the necessary totality to the subject, guarding against premature use of means that appear to fit well with the context - a fixation with efficiency rather than effectiveness.  The paper argues that an examination of the systemic interactions amongst factors may deepen planners' or policy-makers' understanding of why a region or area of interest behaves the way it does, before they attempt to change it.  A method is detailed that couples effects statements and means and highlights capability requirements.  A case study example is provided using North Korea."--Abstract from publication.

Europe, U.S. Leaders Examine Information Advances.  Signal 60:55-59 January 2006.
"To transform from a force-driven to a network-centric environment, militaries worldwide are calling on industry for capabilities that allow information to be accessible to the warfigfhter yet secure from attackers.  To cultivate ideas and better understand the lessons already learned by the industry, leaders from NATO and the European countries met in Lisbon, Portugal, for "E.Combat:  Strategies for Success," TechNet Europe's annual symposium and exhibition."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=974633321&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Ferris, John.  Netcentric Warfare, C4ISR and Information Operations:  Towards a Revolution.  Intelligence & National Security 19:199-225 Summer 2004.
No other military has ever placed such faith in intelligence as today's U.S. military forces.  The idea of a revolution in military affairs assumes that information and the information age will transform the knowledge available to armed forces, and thus the nature of war.

Friedman, Norman.  Network-Centric Warfare:  Space Style.  United States Naval Institute Proceedings 134:90-91 April 2008.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1464314141&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Fulghum, David A. and Norris, Guy.  Cyber Realities.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 168:62-63 April 21, 2008.
"The article reports that the U.S. military networking intends to leap legal boundaries and technological limitations.  Fear of both known and unknown vulnerabilities of the expanding U.S. military's network has given the military's quest for cyber security a new sense of urgency.  Beyond the next decade, the most important task for network-centric operations will be to develop immunity against potentially devastating attacks on civil areas of the Internet and not just that used by the military."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=32105908&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gorbachev, Yu. E.  Network Centric War:  Myth or Reality?  Military Thought 15, no.1:143-154 2006.
Discusses network centric warfare (NCW), a military concept formulated to enhance command and control of the armed forces during military operations.  NCW evolved due to the progress in combat management as information technology rapidly advanced.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1372484611&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kreisher, Otto.  Insatiable Appetite.  Sea Power 51:20-22 July 2008.
Kreisher reports that the Navy is preparing to field a new constellation of communication satellites, called the Mobile User Objective System, in order to help meet the ever-growing demand for rapid, global communications--and to accommodate the larger amounts of intelligence data and imagery being sent.

Kumble, Stephen.  The Force Multiplier of Network Centric Warfare.  Asian Defence Journal, pp 40-45, January-February 2006.

Lim, M. J. and others.  Tracking and Monitoring E-mail Traffic Activities of Criminal and Terrorist Organisations Using Visualisation Tools.  Journal of Information Warfare 5:46-60 August 2006.
"In defensive information operations, knowing about the actions or behaviour of the adversary is important for countering any attacks posed by the adversary.   Obtaining information about the activities and behaviour of criminal or terrorist groups from electronic communication sources, such as e-mail, will be useful given that criminal or terrorists may utilise different electronic communication mediums to contact each of their agents or members.  In this paper the development of an e-mail traffic analyser system for analysing the interactions between different e-mail clients in the e-mail system is described.  The different visualisation tools used and how the information provided by such tools would be useful to an intelligence analyst are discussed.  The use of decision trees for locating 'unusual' e-mail traffic interactions and the type of information revealed via the technique is also described."--Abstract from publication.

Lok, Joris Janssen.  Linked In.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 163:60-63 April 21, 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=32105907&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Magnuson, Stew.  Cyber-Attack.  National Defense 93:22-23 July 2009.
The article criticizes the U.S. Air Force's decision to attack computer networks of U.S. enemies, known as cyber-attacks.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1797232131&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Moon, Terry.  Net-centric or Networked Military Operations?  Defense & Security Analysis 23:55-67 March 2007.
"The author discusses the difference between "networked" and "net-centric" military operations.  Although the terms are often used interchangeably, there is a significant difference between the two terms."--Abstract from Web site.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25192197&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Pattee, Phillip G.  Network-Centric Operations:  A Need for Adaptation.  Air & Space Power Journal 22:24-30 Spring 2008.
"[...] the authors noted that three themes governed the path that the military would take to change the way it conducted operations:  1) The shift in focus from the platform to the network, 2)  The shift from viewing actors as independent to viewing them as part of a continuously adapting ecosystem, 3) The importance of making strategic choices to adapt or even survive in such changing ecosystems."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1448219041&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Pitching Future Combat Systems.  Government Executive 39:10 January 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1196168551&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

A Preliminary Investigation into Malware Propagation on Australian ISP Networks Using the Mwcollect Malware Collector Daemon.  Journal of Information Warfare 5:1-9 2006.
Describes an initial investigation into the propagation of malicious software (malware) that allows for remote command and control of Internet connected machines using the Windows platform in the Australian ISP address space.

Samad, T. and others.  Network-Centric Systems for Military Operations in Urban Terrain.  Proceedings of the IEEE 95:92-105 January 2007.
"Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can operate autonomously, in coordinated groups, are being designed to provide surveillance and reconnaissance for fighting wars in urban areas."--Abstract from publication.

Skinner, Tony.  Briefing:  NCW (network centric warfare) - Part Two:  Operationally Responsive Space.  Jane's Defence Weekly 46:25-26+ October 28, 2009.
Part One:  Airborne Communications is in the March 25, 2009 issue.

Strassmann, Paul A.  The Internet's Vulnerabilities Are Built into Its Infrastructure.  Signal 64:55-58 November 2009.
"The reasons for the intrinsic vulnerability of the Internet can be found in the engineering of its switches, routers and network connections, which are owned by the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and by the communication carriers.  The attack scenarios on the Internet infrastructure concentrate on its switches and routers."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1903086301&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Technology of Networked Control Systems.  Proceedings of the IEEE 95:entire issue  January 2007.
Special issue dedicated to the technology of networked control systems.

Valli, C.  A Preliminary Investigation into Malware Propagation on Australian ISP Networks Using the Mwcollect Malware Collector Daemon.  Journal of Information Warfare 5:1-9  May 2006.
Describes an initial investigation into the propagation of malicious software (malware) that allows for remote command and control of Internet connected machines using the Windows platform.

Weiss, Geoffrey F.  Exposing the Information Domain Myth:  A New Concept for Air Force and Information Operations Doctrine.  Air & Space Power Journal 22:49-64 Spring 2008.
"Within all military services, information remains mischaracterized as a "domain," and all services have difficulty quantifying and establishing doctrine to exploit the war-fighting advantages of information.  At least within the US Air Force, the author asserts that a poor doctrinal structure and inadequate definitions of information operations contribute to the problem.  He proposes a completely new doctrinal framework, along with recognition of cyberspace as the true domain, in order to begin solving these challenges."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1448219001&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

 


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