INTELLIGENCE:  HISTORY AND ROLE IN
AMERICAN SOCIETY


April 2001

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Air University Library
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site. All sites last accessed April 10, 2001.


Internet Resources


Air Force Intelligence and Security Doctrine.
Available at:
http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/usaf/
Offers access to the Air Force doctrine directives, mission directives, policy directives, Air Force Instructions, etc. that address intelligence.

Air Force Publications: Intelligence.
Available at: http://afpubs.hq.af.mil/pubs/publist.asp?puborg=AF&series=14
Offers the AF publications concerning intelligence (series number 14).

Central Intelligence Agency.
Available at: http://www.cia.gov/
Provides separate sections for publications, speeches and testimony, the intelligence community, and related links.

Defense Intelligence Agency.
Available at: http://www.dia.mil/History/index.html
Offers several statements and reports including a thirty-five year history of the agency, a Gulf War chronology, and reports to Congress.

FAS Intelligence Resource Program.
Available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/
Site maintained by the Federation of American Scientists offers information on intelligence reform analysis, systems and programs, budgets, Congressional related material and numerous related web sites.

National Counterintelligence Center.
Available at: http://www.nacic.gov/
This site by a multiagency United States government counterintelligence agency provides news, trends, and analysis on counterintelligence and security issues, the agency's annual reports to Congress, and related sites.

National Security Archive.
Available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/
Provides various declassified documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

The National Security Homepage.
Available at: http://www.nationalsecurity.org/
Access to publications, policy experts, and weblinks on a wide spectrum of national security issues.

Secrecy and Accountability in U.S. Intelligence.
Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/cipsecr.html
Paper by Steven Allgood prepared for a seminar on intelligence reform sponsored by the Center for International Policy in 1996.

United States Intelligence Community.
Available at: http://www.intelligence.gov/1-members.shtml
Home page for thirteen government intelligence agencies and organizations including the CIA, FBI, etc. Also available through: http://www.cia.gov/ic/index.html.

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Books


Check online catalog for availability of these books.

Andrew, Christopher M.  For the President's Eyes Only:  Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush.  New York, HarperCollins, 1995.  660 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 A562f

Bar-Joseph, Uri.  Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain.  University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.  392 p.
Examines the interference by intelligence agencies and individuals with the politics of their own governments in the modern democratic state.
Book call no.: 327.12091713 B223i

Clift, Arthur Denis.  Clift Notes:  Intelligence and the Nation's Security.  Washington, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2000.  219 p.
Offers essays examining the "origins, evolution, and structure of intelligence in America".
Book call no.: 327.1273 C639c

Finnegan, John P.  The Military Intelligence Story:  A Photo History.  Fort Belvoir, VA, History Office, Office of the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, 1997.  153 p.
Also available on CD-Rom.
Book call no.: 355.3432 F514m 1997

Gates, Robert Michael.  From the Shadows:  The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War.  New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996.  604 p.
Gates, a former Director of the CIA and member of the National Security Council staff, reveals how the Cold War was fought.
Book call no.: 327.73047 G259f

Herman, Michael.  Intelligence Power in Peace and War.  Cambridge, MA, Cambridge University Press, 1996.  414 p.
Describes intelligence activities, the purposes which the system serves, and the causes and effects of its secrecy.
Book call no.: 327.1241 H551i

Holt, Pat M.  Secret Intelligence and Public Policy:  A Dilemma of Democracy.  Washington, Congressional Quarterly Press, 1995.  269 p.
Offers information on the role of intelligence, the origins and evolution of American intelligence, the intelligence community, and mechanisms of public control.
Book call no.: 327.1273 H758s

Hulnick, Arthur.  Fixing the Spy Machine:  Preparing American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1999.  222 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 H915f

In from the Cold:  The Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on the Future of U.S. Intelligence, by Allan E. Goodman and others.  New York, Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1996.  274 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 I35

Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis, edited by James G. Blight and David A. Welch.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 1998.  234 p.
Book call no.: 973.922 I61

The Intelligence Revolution:  A Historical Perspective, edited by Walter T. Hitchcock.  Washington, U.S. Air Force Academy/Office of Air Force History, 1988.  366 p.
Provides information on the origins of modern intelligence, intelligence during World War II and the Korean War, impact on postwar diplomacy, etc.
Book call no.: 355.09 M644p v.13 1988

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri.  The CIA and American Democracy.  2nd ed.  New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1998.  340 p.
Book call no.: 327.1206073 J46c 1998

Johnson, Loch K.  Bombs, Bugs, Drugs, and Thugs:  Intelligence and America's Quest for Security.  New York, New York University Press, 2000.  298 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 J67b

Johnson, Loch K.  Secret Agencies:  U.S. Intelligence in a Hostile World.  New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1996.  262 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 J67s

Knowing Your Friends:  Intelligence Inside Alliances and Coalitions from 1914 to the Cold War, edited by Martin S. Alexander.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 1998.  304 p.
Book call no.: 327.1209 K731

Laqueur, Walter.  The Uses and Limits of Intelligence.  New Brunswick, NJ, Transactions Publishers, 1993.  404 p.
Book call no.: 327.12 L317w 1993

Lowenthal, Mark M.  Intelligence:  From Secrets to Policy.  Washington, CQ Press, 2000.  264 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 L917i

McCarthy, Shaun P.  The Function of Intelligence in Crisis Management.  Brookfield, VT, Ashgate, 1998.  311 p.
Book call no.: 352.3 M123f

National Insecurity:  U.S. Intelligence after the Cold War.  Philadelphia, PA, Temple University Press, 2000.  241 p.
Book call no.: 327.127309 N277

O'Toole, G. J. A.  The Encyclopedia of American Intelligence and Espionage:  From the Revolutionary War to the Present.  New York, Facts on File, 1988.  539 p.
Civil War, pp 117-123.
First World War, pp 185-193.
Korean War, pp 263-268.
Pearl Harbor Attack, pp 361-367.
Second World War, pp 406-412.
Vietnam War, pp 466-481.
Wiretapping and Communications Intelligence in the Civil War, pp 496-498.
Book call no.: 327.120973 O88e

Olmstead, Kathryn.  Challenging the Secret Government:  The Post-Watergate Investigations of the CIA and FBI.  Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1996.  255 p.
Book call no.: 320.973 O51c

Piercing the Fog:  Intelligence and Army Air Forces Operations in World War II.  Bolling AFB, Washington, Air Force History and Museums Program, 1996.  501 p.
Book call no.: 940.544973 P618

Prados, John.  Presidents' Secret Wars:  CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations since World War II.  New York, William Morrow, 1986.  480 p.
Book call no.: 327.1206073 P896p

Report of the Secretary of Defense to the President and the Congress 1999.  Washington, GPO, 1999.  1 vol.
Intelligence, pp 87-92.
Book call no.: 353.6 D419a 1999

Richelson, Jeffrey T.  The U.S. Intelligence Community.  4th ed.  Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1999.  526 p.
Offers separate chapters on the national, Dept of Defense, military service, unified command, and civilian intelligence organizations. Also contains sections on imagery collection, signals intelligence, exchange arrangements, counterintelligence, covert action, etc.
Book call no.: 327.120973 R528u 1999

Riebling, Mark.  Wedge:  The Secret War Between the FBI and CIA.  New York, Knopf, 1994.  563 p.
Book call no.: 327.120973 R548w

Rose, P. K.  The Founding Fathers of American Intelligence.  Washington, Central Intelligence Agency, Directorate of Operations, 1999.  25 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 R797f

Shulsky, Abram N.  Silent Warfare:  Understanding the World of Intelligence, revised by Gary J. Schmitt.  2nd ed.  New York, Brassey's, 1993.  285 p.
Provides separate chapters on the scope and elements of intelligence, collection, analysis, covert action, counterintelligence, management, etc.
Book call no.: 327.12 S562s 1993

Smist, Frank J.  Congress Oversees the United States Intelligence Community, 1947-1994.  2nd ed.  Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1994.  393 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 S641c 1994

Smith, Bradley F.  The Shadow Warriors:  The OSS and the Origins of the CIA.  New York, Basic Books, 1983.  507 p.
Book call no.: 940.548673 S643s

Steele, Robert D.  On Intelligence:  Spies and Secrecy in an Open World.  Fairfax, VA, AFCEA International Press, 2000.  495 p.
Divided into three sections covering from 1990 to 2000. Offers several overview chapters and discusses the National Security Act of 2001.
Book call no.: 327.120973 S814o

Strong, Kenneth.  Men of Intelligence:  A Study of the Roles and Decisions of Chiefs of Intelligence from World War I to the Present Day.  London, Cassell, 1970.  183 p.
Note pages 123-141 for the views and actions of three consecutive CIA Directors (Bedell Smith, Dulles, and McCone).
Book call no.: 355.341 S923m

United States.  Congress.  Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community.  Preparing for the 21st Century:  An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence.  Washington, GPO, March 1996.  1 vol.
Book call no.: 327.1273 U582p

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.  IC21:  The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century.  Hearing.  104th Congress, 1st session, May 22-December 19, 1995.  Washington, GPO, 1996.  39 p.
Book call no.: 327.120973 U58ic

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.  Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001.  Report.  106th Congress, 2nd session.  Washington, GPO, 52 p.
Book call no.: 353.170973 U58ia 2001

United States.  Congress.  Joint Economic Committee.  Terrorism and Intelligence Operations.  Hearing.  105th Congress, 2nd session, May 20, 1998.  Washington, GPO, 1998.  104 p.
Book call no.: 303.625 U582t

United States.  Congress.  Senate.  Select Committee on Intelligence.  Renewal and Reform:  U.S. Intelligence in a Changing World.  Hearings.  104th Congress, 1st and 2nd sessions, March/April 1996.  Washington, GPO, 1997.  260 p.
Book call no.: 327.1273 U583r

United States.  Office of Strategic Services.  History Project.  War Report of the OSS (Office of Strategic Services).  New York, Walker, 1976.  261 p.
Book call no.: 940.548673 W253w

Winton, John.  Ultra in the Pacific:  How Breaking Japanese Codes & Cyphers Affected Naval Operations Against Japan 1941-45.  Annapolis, MD, Naval Insitiute Press, 1993.  247 p.
Book call no.: 940.548673 W793u

Zegart, Amy B.  Flawed by Design:  The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, and NSC.  Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 1999.  317 p.
Book call no.: 327.127309 Z44f

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Documents


Documents are located across the lobby in the East Wing of the library.

Assessing the Soviet Threat:  The Early Cold War Years, edited by Woodrow J. Kuhns.  McLean, VA, Center for the Study of Intelligence.  Central Intelligence Agency.  466 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 29611-1168

Brand, Joseph H.  Economic Intelligence:  A Key to Economic Power.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1996.  28 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 B817e

Center for the Study of Intelligence.  "Our First Line of Defense":  Presidential Reflections on U.S. Intelligence.  Washington, 1996.  59 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 29611-1170

Center for the Study of Intelligence.  Sharing Secrets with Lawmakers:  Congress as a User of Intelligence, by L. Britt Snider.  Langley Park, VA, 1997.  62 p.
Also available online at: 
http://www.odci.gov/csi/monograph/lawmaker/toc.htm
Doc. call no.: M-U 29611-1131 no.97-10001

Green, John C.  Secret Intelligence and Covert Action:  Consensus in an Open Society.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 1993.  59 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 G796s

Swicker, Eileen Guerin.  Strategic Restructuring of the U.S. Intelligence Community:  A Civilian Intelligence Reserve.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1998.  36 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 S976s

United States.  Central Intelligence Agency.  Center for the Study of Intelligence.  CIA Cold War Records:  The CIA under Harry Truman.  Washington, 1994.  473 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 29611-1143

United States.  Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Intelligence Support to Military Operations.  Washington, November 1996.  1 vol.
Also available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp2_01.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 40592 no.2-01 (1996 Nov 20)

United States.  National Security Agency.  Volume I:  Allied Communication Intelligence and the Battle of the Atlantic.  Washington, 1977.  92 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43294-6

Urquhart, Martin I.  The Effectiveness of Human Intelligence in Operation Uphold Democracy.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  121 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 U79e


Periodicals


Periodicals 1997 and earlier are located in the Older Periodicals Section (take the elevator at Circulation Desk).  All other periodicals are located on the first floor in the Periodicals Section.

Aid, Matthew M.  The Time of Troubles:  The US National Security Agency in the Twenty-First Century.  Intelligence and National Security 15:1-32 Autumn 2000.

Alterman, Eric.  The CIA's Fifty Candles.  Nation 265:5-6 October 6, 1997.
Editorial about the CIA on it's fiftieth anniversary discusses its search for a reason to exist now that the cold war has ended.

Analysis.  Defense Intelligence Journal 6:entire issue Fall 1997.
Offers six articles by various authors on the subject.

Barrett, David M.  Glimpses of a Hidden History:  Sen. Richard Russell, Congress, and Oversight of the CIA.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 11:271-298 Fall 1998.
Discusses the agency's history and American society's dilemma with secrecy vs openness and dirty tricks vs fair play.

Betts, Richard K.  Intelligence Warning:  Old Problems, New Agendas.  Parameters 28:26-35 Spring 1998.
Focuses on two types of intelligence in the American warning system:  factual-technical warning and contingent-political warning
Also available online at: 
http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/parameters/98spring/betts.htm

Billigmeier, Scott D. and Glabus, Edmund M.  From World War II to Desert Storm:  Perspectives on Military Intelligence.  Officer Review 36:2-5 June 1998.

Castagna, Michael J.  Virtual Intelligence:  Reengineering Doctrine for the Information Age.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 10:180-195 Summer 1997.

Currie, James T.  Iran-Contra and Congressional Oversight of the CIA.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 11:185-210 Summer 1998.

Eternal Vigilance?  50 Years of the CIA.  Intelligence and National Security 12:entire issue January 1997.
Offers twelve articles by various authors including: The American Road to Central Intelligence, Why Was the CIA Established in 1947?, the CIA and the Question of Accountability, and several historical case study articles.

Friedman, Richard S.  Open Source Intelligence.  Parameters 28:159-165 Summer 1998.
Also available online at:  http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/parameters/98summer/sum-essa.htm#Friedm

Goodman, Allan E. and Berkowitz, Bruce D.  Intelligence Without the Cold War.  Intelligence and National Security 9:301-319 April 1994.

Goodman, Melvin A.  Ending the CIA's Cold War Legacy.  Foreign Policy No.106:128-143 Spring 1997.
Discusses the history of the CIA, the opportunity of returning it to the original concept of an independent and objective interpreter of foreign events, the process of politicization, etc.

Hayden, Michael V.  Background on NSA (National Security Agency): History, Oversight, Relevance for Today.  Defense Intelligence Journal 9:13-26 Summer 2000.

Hitz, Frederick P.  The Future of American Espionage.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 13:1-20 Spring 2000.

Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis.  Intelligence and National Security 13:entire issue Autumn 1998.
Offers seven articles by various authors on the topic.

Kober, Stanley.  Why Spy?  The Uses and Misuses of Intelligence.  USA Today Magazine 126:10-14 March 1998.
Focuses on intelligence agencies effort to combat economic espionage.

Laquer, Walter.  The Future of Intelligence.  Society 35:301-311 January-February 1998.
Discusses the future of intelligence in the United States including its functions and problems and the contradiction between free societies and secret services, etc.

Leading Intelligence in the 21st Century.  Defense Intelligence Journal 7:entire issue Spring 1998.
Offers seven articles by various authors on the subject.

Morris, John L.  Measurement and Signature Intelligence:  Role and Impact.  American Intelligence Journal 17, nos.1&2:24-28 1996.

Nolan, Cynthia M.  Seymour Hersh's Impact on the CIA.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 12:18-34 Spring 1999.
Reviews the impact of articles in the New York Times during December 1974 claiming that the CIA had violated its charter by conducting a massive, illegal domestic intelligence operation.

O'Malley, Edward.  Economic Espionage Act.  American Intelligence Journal 18, nos.1&2:51-56 1998.

Porteous, Samuel D.  Looking Out for Economic Interests:  An Increased Role for Intelligence.  Washington Quarterly 19:191-204 Autumn 1996.

Prina, L. Edgar.  Preparing for the 21st Century:  Brown/Rudman Panel Urges Reorganization of Intelligence Infrastructure.  Sea Power 39:63-64+ April 1996.

Rathmell, Andrew and Valeri, Lorenzo.  Implementing Open Source Intelligence.  Jane's Intelligence Review 9:523-527 November 1997.
Reviews the results of a study to discover "just how effective is the information revolution for intelligence purposes"?

Richelson, Jeffrey T.  From Monarch Eagle to Modern Age:  The Consolidation of U.S. Defense HUMINT.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 10:131-164 Summer 1997.

Richelson, Jeffrey T.  High Flyin' Spies (U.S. intelligence collection systems).  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 52:48-54 September-October 1996.
Discusses SIGINT, MASINT, FORTE, etc in general.

Riley, Patrick R.  CIA and Its Discontents.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 11:255-269 Fall 1998.
Reviews the agency's structure and current problems.

Royden, Barry G.  CIA and National HUMINT Preparing for the 21st Century.  Defense Intelligence Journal 6:15-22 Spring 1997.

Schorr, Daniel.  When Covert Is Overt.  Christian Science Monitor 90:15 April 10, 1998.
Comments on the role of the United States Congress in covert intelligence operations by the CIA.

Shelton, Paul A.  Frontline Intelligence for the 21st Century.  Marine Corps Gazette 80:30+ September 1996.

Shlykov, V.  Fatal Mistakes of U.S. and Soviet Intelligence.  International Affairs 42, no.5/6:159-178 1996.

Stack, Kevin.  The Cold War Intelligence Score.  American Intelligence Journal 18, nos.1&2:69-72 1998.
Reviews Cold War intelligence in terms of covert action, analysis, collection, and counterintelligence.

Stack, Kevin P.  Appreciating President Ford's Legacy to Intelligence.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 12:73-79 Spring 1999.

Stanton, John.  U.S. Wants Customer-Friendly Spies.  National Defense 83:22-23 March 1999.
Briefly discusses the intelligence community's information gathering priorities, budget, spending plan, and human assets and how these are affecting the community as it tries to accomodate new demands.

Steele, Robert D.  Open Source Intelligence:  What Is It?  Why Is It Important to the Military?  American Intelligence Journal 17, nos.1 & 2:35-41 1996.

Steele, Robert D.  Possible Presidential Intelligence Initiatives.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 13:409-423 Winter 2000-2001.

Stewart, John F.  Intelligence Strategy for the 21st Century.  Military Review 75:75-81 September-October 1995.

Tenet, George J.  The CIA and the Security Challenges of the New Century.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 13:133-143 Summer 2000.

Thomas, Stafford T.  Hidden in Plain Sight:  Searching for the CIA's "New Missions".  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 13:144-159 Summer 2000.

Thomas, Stafford T.  A Political Theory of the CIA.  International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 11:57-72 Spring 1998.

Weinrod, W. Bruce.  U.S. Intelligence Priorities in the Post-Cold War Era.  World Affairs 159:3-11 Summer 1996.

Williams, Robert H.  U.S. Intelligence Community in Throes of Reorganization.  National Defense 80:14-15 November 1995.


Authority Materials


Authority materials are located across the lobby in the East Wing of the library.
The following materials are also available online at: 
http://afpubs.hq.af.mil/pubs/publist.asp?puborg=AF&series=14 .

AFI 101 - AFI 303:  Intelligence Series 14.  October 1993 - April 1999.
Provides 18 separate Air Force Instructions related to intelligence.

AFPD 14-1:  Intelligence Applications and Requirements Planning.  June 1999. 1 vol.

AFPD 14-3:  Control, Protection, and Dissemination of Intelligence Information.  May 1998. 1 vol.


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