June 2011

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S.  Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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All sites listed were last accessed on May 2, 2011.

Internet Resources

Caffrey, Matthew.  Panama: Operational Lessons from a Successful Regime Change.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2005.  2 p. (ACSC Quick-Look 05-02)
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA431195
According to the author "it is relevant to study Operation Just Cause, the liberation of Panama, because the goal of that operation was essentially identical to that of the current operation in Iraq; namely to depose a dictator and to help the country become free, prosperous and secure.  It is also relevant because in Panama US forces achieved strategic and operational objectives at with relatively low costs in terms of time, blood and treasure." - Discussion.

Childress, Mark S.  Are Large Scale (Brigade Combat Team or Regimental Level and Above) United States Army Airborne Operations Effective in the Context of 21st Century Warfare?  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.  43 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA485509
"The use of large scale airborne operations in the context of 21st century warfare is examined with respect to: strategic mobility, the ability to seize the initiative, and massed effects." - Abstract.

Saylor, Ben.  The Weinberger Doctrine and the Invasion of Panama: Determining Just Cause for War.  Washington, National War College, 1997.  11 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443525

Scott, Paul J.  Your Turn to Run Your Country Just Ended: Global-Reach Regime Replacement.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.  52 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470900
"In the last twenty years, the United States has employed military means to force regime change in Panama, Haiti, Afghanistan, and Iraq.  Drawing upon analysis of these operations, the resulting primary recommendation is that the JSCP should task USSTRATCOM to develop GR3 into a supporting plan ready for implementation by the geographic combatant commanders." - Abstract.

Warden, Heather J.  'Winning the War': Planning for Integrated, Synchronized, and the Simultaneous Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  54 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA429416
"Examines the development of plans for Operation JUST CAUSE, the 1989 military operation conducted Panama to remove Manuel Noriega from power." - Abstract.
Panama (Operation Just Case/Promote Liberty), pp 7-16.

Whidden, Stanley J.  Twenty Years Since Operation Just Cause.  Officer Review Magazine 49:4-7 May 2010.
Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=50168055&site=ehost-live 


Association of the Bar of the City of New York.  Committee on International Arms Control and Security Affairs/Committee on International Law.  The Use of Armed Force in International Affairs: The Case of Panama.  Association of the Bar of the City of New York, New York, 1992.  113 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 A849u

Behar, David S. and Harris, Godfrey.  Invasion: The American Destruction of the Noriega Regime in Panama.  Los Angeles, Americas Group, 1990.  144 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 B419i

Briggs, Clarence E., III.  Operation Just Cause: Panama, December 1989: A Soldier's Eyewitness Account.  Harrisburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 1990.  155 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 B854o

Buckley, Kevin.  Panama: The Whole Story.  New York, Simon and Schuster, 1991.  304 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 B922p

Cole, Ronald H.  Operation Just Cause: The Planning and Execution of Joint Operations in Panama, February 1988-January 1990.  Washington, Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995.  88 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA313465
Book call no.: 972.87053 C689o

Conflict Resolution and Democratization in Panama: Implications for U.S.  Policy, edited by Eva Loser.  Washington, The Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1992.  95 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 C748

Dinges, John.  Our Man in Panama: How General Noriega Used the United States--And Made Millions in Drugs and Arms.  New York, Random House, 1990.  402 p.
Book call no.: 972.8705 D584o

Donnelly, Thomas and others.  Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama.  New York, Lexington Books, 1991.  453 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 D685o

Flanagan, Edward M., Jr.  Battle for Panama: Inside Operation Just Cause.  Washington, Brassey's, 1993.  251 p. (AUSA Institute of Land Warfare book)
Book call no.: 972.87053 F583b

Jones, Kenneth J.  The Enemy Within: Casting Out Panama's Demon.  El Dorado, Panama, Focus, 1990.  132 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 J77e

Kempe, Frederick.  Divorcing the Dictator.  New York, Putnam, 1990.  469 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 K31d

Lenahan, RodConfrontation Zone: The Story of the 1989 U.S. Intervention into Panama: Operation Just Cause.  Charleston, SC, Narwhal Press, 1990.  469 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 L563c

McConnell, Malcolm.  Just Cause: The Real Story of America's High-Tech Invasion of Panama.  New York, St.  Martin's Press, 1991.  307 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 M129j

Operation Just Cause: The Incursion into Panama.  Washington, The Center of Military History, 2004.  50 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 O611

Operation Just Cause: The U.S. Intervention in Panama, edited by Bruce W. Watson and Peter G. Tsouras.  Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1991.  245 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 O61

Quigley, John B.  The Ruses for War: American Interventionism since World War II.  Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2007.  433 p.
Panama: Slaying a Monster, pp 269-282.
Panama: Explaining Why, pp 283-292.
Book call no.: 973.92 Q6r 2007

Reynolds, Nicholas E.  Just Cause: Marine Operations in Panama, 1988-1990.  Washington, History and Museums Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1996.  50 p.
Book call no.: 972.87053 R464j

Scranton, Margaret E.  The Noriega Years: U.S.-Panamanian Relations, 1981-1990.  Boulder, CO, L. Rienner Pub, 1991.  246 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 S433n

Shultz, Richard H., Jr.  In the Aftermath of War: U.S. Support for Reconstruction and Nation-Building in Panama Following Just Cause.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 1993.  73 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA422008 
Book call no.: 972.87053 S562i

Taw, Jennifer M.  Operation Just Cause: Lessons for Operations Other Than War.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corporation, 1996.  40 p. 
Book Call No.: 972.87053 T234o

Tiberi, Paul and others.  Force Projection: Seeds for a New Doctrine.  Columbus, OH, Mershon Center, Ohio State University, May 1991.  137 p.
Book Call No.: 355.033573 T553

Transformation Concepts for National Security in the 21st Century, edited by Williamson Murray.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.  408 p.
Operation Just Cause: Concepts for Shaping Rapid Decisive Operations by James H. Embrey, pp 197-246.
Also available online at: http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi/pdffiles/00242.pdf
Book call no.: 355.033073 A741 2002

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Armed Services.  The Invasion of Panama: How Many Innocent Bystanders Perished?  Report of the Investigations Subcommittee, 102nd Congress, 2nd session,  July 7, 1992.  Washington, GPO, 1992.  221 p. 
Book call no.: 972.87053 I62

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Armed Services.  Investigations Subcommittee.  Night Vision Goggles in Operation Just Cause.  Hearing.  101st Congress, 2nd session, June 6, 1990.  Washington, GPO, 1990.  45 p.  (H.A.S.C. no.101-74)
Book call no.: 355.8 U58n

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Foreign Affairs.  Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere Affairs.  Post-Invasion Panama: Status of Democracy and the Civilian Casualties Controversy.  Hearings.  102nd Congress, 1st session, July 17 and 30, 1991.  Washington, GPO, 1991.  169 p.
Book call no.: 327.7307287 U58pa

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Government Operations.  Legislation and National Security Subcommittee.  U.S. Assistance Efforts in Panama.  Hearing.  102nd Congress, 1st session, April 17, 1991.  Washington, GPO, 1992.  316 p. 
Book call no.: 972.87053 U58u


Grant, Rebecca L.  Operation Just Cause and the U.S.  Policy Process.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 1990.  42 p. 
Doc. call no.: M-U 30352-53 no.3265
Also available online at: 

Leadership and Command on the Battlefield: Operations Just Cause and Desert Storm, edited by Susan Canedy.  Fort Monroe, VA, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1992.  54 p. (TRADOC pamphlet 525-100-1)
Doc. call no.: M-U 42934-13 no.525-100-1

Lowenthal, Mark M. and Goldich, Robert L.  Use of Force by the United States: Case Studies, 1950-1991.  Washington, Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, October 1992.  106 p.
Panama, 1989-1990, pp 89-92.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42953-1 no.92-757 F

United States.  Army.  Office of the Chief of Public Affairs.  Soldiers in Panama: Stories of Operation Just Cause.  Washington, 1990.  28 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 35062-62

United States.  General Accounting Office.  Foreign Assistance: Resettlement of Panama's Displaced El Chorrillo Residents.  Washington, GAO, December 1990.  20 p. (GAO/NSIAD-91-63BR)
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026-147 no.91-63BR

United States.  General Accounting Office.  Panama: Issues Relating to the U.S.  Invasion.  Washington, GAO, April 1991.  7 p. (GAO/NSIAD-91-174FS)
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026-147 no.91-174FS

United States Special Operations Command.  Directorate of Psychological Operations and Civil Affairs, J9.  Psychological Operations in Panama During Operations Just Cause and Promote Liberty.  MacDill AFB, FL, March 1994.  36 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43903-8

Documents (Student Research)

Anderson, David S.  Requiem for a Middleweight?  Mid-Intensity Conflict and the Army's Ability to Fight and Win the Nation's Operations Other Than War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1994.  56 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 18-24.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 A546r

Applegate, Melissa A.  Military Power in Operations Other Than War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, June 1994.  236 p.  (Thesis, M. A.)
Panama: Operation Just Cause and Promote Liberty, pp 110-183.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA284685
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 A648m

Baggott, Christopher L.  Achieving the Operational End-State: The Linkage of Military Operations with Regional Strategy.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1991.  52 p.
Panama - Operation "Just Cause", pp 25-29; Post-Conflict Operations-Panama, pp 30-35.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA240413
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 B144a

Barefield, Robert L.  Nation Assistance in National Security Strategy: The CINC's Role.  Fort  Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, June 1991.  49 p.
The Military Support Group - Panama is used as an example.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA240399
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 B248n

Bloechl, Timothy D.  Operation Just Cause: An Application of Operational Art?  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1993.  65 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA274367
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 B6521o

Bonham, Gordon C.  Airfield Seizure: The Modern "Key to the Country".  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1990.  56 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 27-36.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA233189
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 B714a

Boyle, John E.  Emerging News Media Communication Technologies in Future Military Conflicts.  Tempe, AZ, Arizona State University, 1991.  92 p. (Thesis, Master of Mass Communication,  Arizona State University)
Panama: The Media Pool in Action, pp 43-45.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA239189
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-483

Chowning, Scott D.  How to Fail at Post-Hostilities at the Operational Level.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2009.  21 p.
"Combatant commander leadership is THE critical factor in ensuring robust, operational planning is done for post-hostilities (Phase IV).  This can be seen by looking at the Phase IV failures in both Panama and Iraq.  Both these Phase IV planning failures followed successful combat operations in Phase III, but the combatant commanders failed to ensure as much effort was put into Phase IV planning as Phase III." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA513944
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 C552h

Conley, William J., Jr.  Operations "Just Cause" and" Promote Liberty": The Implications of Military Operations Other Than War.  Quantico, VA,  U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2002.  51 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401263
Doc. call no.:
M-U 41886-71 C752o

Crichton, Jane E.  The Department of Defense Press Pool: Did It Work in Panama?  Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona, 1990.  1 vol. (Thesis, M.A.  University of Arizona)
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA233148
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-445

Cronin, Robert M.  JRTC to Just Cause: A Case Study: Light Infantry Training.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, May 1991.  38 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA237294
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 C947j

Dolan, Thomas E.  Peace Operations: What a JTF Commander Can Expect.  Quantico, VA, U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2002.  39 p.
"This study examines peace operations (PO’s) conducted in conjunction with World War II, Operation Urgent Fury, Operation JUST CAUSE, and Operation DESERT STORM.  This study will show that peace operations fall into three types: (1) the restoration of law and order; (2) the provision of humanitarian assistance; and (3) the establishment and stabilization of politically acceptable governments." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401169
Doc. call no.: M-U 41886-71 D659p

Eliason, William T.  USAF Support to Low Intensity Conflict: Three Case Studies from the 1980s.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, June 1994.  76 p.
Case Study: Operation Just Cause, pp 50-62.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425578
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1 E42u

Evenson, Michael K.  United States National Strategy in Panama.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, March 1990.  102 p.
Offers a strategic appraisal of Panama, a chronology of crisis between U.S. and General Noriega, Operation Just Cause and the effects of economic sanctions.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA223089
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 E931u

Gaetjen, James T.  Early Entry Lethality and Survivability Contingency Force Operations Using Army Aviation.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and Staff College, 1993.  116 p. (Thesis)
Operation Just Cause, pp 41-53.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA272980
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 G129e

Graves, Joseph L., Jr.  Future of United States-Panamanian Relations.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, March 1990.  74 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA220644
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 G776f

Guadalupe, Fernando, Jr.  The Mosquito and the Colossus: Operation Just Cause Through the Eyes of General Manuel Antonio Noriega.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.  62 p.
According to the author "General Noriega’s interpretation of Operation Just Cause is a useful study in examining its contributions to the political landscape and the political culture that makes up semi-authoritarian regimes not just in Latin America but also others throughout the world." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA485608
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 G897m

Haight, David B.  Operation Just Cause: Foreshadowing Example of Joint Vision 2010 Concepts in Practice.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1998.  20 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA348438
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 H149o

Hicks, J. Marcus.  Fire in the City: Airpower in Urban, Smaller-Scale Contingencies.  Maxwell AFB, AL, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, 1999.  119 p.
Operation Just Cause, Panama, 1989, pp 45-69.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA391830 
Doc. call no.: M-U 43998-1 H631f

Hinojosa, Ernest A., III.  Panama: December 1988 to May 1991.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, May 1992.  1 vol.
Addresses women in combat and the media/military interface through a personal experience monograph.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA295950
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-14 H663p

Hood, Robert C.  Campaign Planning: Considerations for Attacking National Command and Control.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1994.  46 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 32-35.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA284186
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 H777c

Hutchison, David S.  The 3d Battalion 27th Infantry in Operation Just Cause.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, May 1992.  22 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA296093
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-14 H975t

Jackson, James T.  Just Cause: Some Lessons Learned.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, April 1992.  51 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA249764
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 J13j

Koenig, Lyle M.  Strategy in Operation Just Cause: A Framework for Analysis.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, March 1994.  30 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA280810
Doc. call no.: M-U 43117 K781s

Leaman, Gary R.  Media Considerations for the Operational Commander.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, June 1991.  37 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 15-17.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA250265
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 L436m

Lemire, Judith K.  Towards an Integrated Campaign Plan: The Use of Political, Economic, and Military Elements of National Power at the Operational Level of War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1993.  50 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 12-17.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA274109
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 L554t

Lund-Vaa, Louise M.  An Analysis of the Liberal/Negative Bias in Network News Coverage of the 1989-1990 Panama Invasion (Operation Just Cause).  Tempe, AZ,  Arizona State University, 1992.  72 p. (Thesis, Master of Mass Communication, Arizona State University)
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA252570
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-576

Lynch, Gregory R.  The Role of Non-Lethal Weapons in "Special Wars".  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 1995.  177 p. (Thesis, M.A.  Naval Postgraduate School)
Covers Operation Just Cause, pp 59-67; Military Diplomacy in the West, pp 67-76; Policing Panama City, pp 76-87.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA297651
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 L9871r

McLain, John M.  After Victory: The Commander's Tasks in Post-Conflict Operations.  New Port, RI, Naval War College, 2002.  24 p.
"This paper looks at current doctrine and literature, in an attempt to arrive at a working definition of post-conflict operations.  The paper will examine two historical case studies - OPERATION JUST CAUSE/ PROMOTE LIBERTY, in Panama, and OPERATION STABILISE in East Timor - in order to identify the unique challenges and characteristics of Post-conflict operations." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401491
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 M1612a

McCreedy, Kenneth O.  Winning the Peace: Postconflict Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, December 1994.  73 p.
Just Cause/Promote Liberty and the American Liberation of Panama, pp 22-31;  Winning the Peace: Reflections on Experiences in Germany and Panama, pp 32-37.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA293961 
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 M132w

Moon, James M.  Force Projection: C3 Planning Sets the Conditions for Follow-On Success.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1993.  58 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 21-28.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 M818f

Morales, Louis W.  Post-Conflicts Stability Operations and the 1989 United States Invasion of Panama.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.  125 p. (Thesis, Master of Military Art and Science)
"This study investigates the challenges of planning stability operations following major combat operations.  Post-conflict stability operations are difficult to plan and execute if military commanders and campaign planners do not take a comprehensive approach to this critical facet of a campaign." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471559
Doc. call no.:
M-U 42022 M828p

Mornston, Harry E.  Training Focus for the 1990s: Contingency Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, December 1991.  51 p.
"Examines the conditions that exist during the execution of contingency operations." - Abstract.
Uses Operation Just Cause as an example, pp 18-20.
Also available online at: 
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 M866t

Morris, James R.  Failure of the Department of Defense National Media Pool in Panama: Should We Have Been Surprised?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 1990.  30 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 M876f

Naquin, Douglas J.  U.S.-Panama Relations in the 1990's: Developing a Post-Noriega Strategy.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, March 1990.  38 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA219914
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 N217u

O'Connell, James W.  Is the United States Prepared to Conduct Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 1992.  53 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 018i

Pawlowski, Frederick D.  Coercive Strategies: Panama 1989: A Contrasting Template for Coercive Strategies.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, March 1994.  28 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 P339c

Piatt, Walter E.  Do the Principles of War Still Apply?  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1998.  61 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 P583d

Plato, Kenneth.  Military-Media Relations: First Impressions of Operation Desert Shield.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 1991.  27 p.
Operation Just Cause, pp 7-9.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 P718m

Preysler, Charles A.  Going Down Town: The Need for Precision MOUT.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, December 1994.  52 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 P944g

Rabe, Brian J.  Legal and Just Use of Armed Force: An Analysis of United States Involvement in Panama and Iraq.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, June 1994.  26 p.
Panama (Operation Just Cause), pp 9-13.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 R114L

Reider, Bruce J.  Joint Capabilities for Post-Conflict Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  1 vol.
"Examines what joint military capabilities are required for post-conflict operations in order to achieve the desired end state." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA429918
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 R359j

Robinson, Charles W.  Panama: Military Victory, Interagency Failure: A Case Study in Policy Implementation.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, December 1993.  53 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA284712
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 R658p

Royse, James C.  Gold Is the New Purple: Interagency Operations in Campaigns and Expeditions.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  54 p.
Operation Just Cause in Panama, pp 28-35.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA435851

Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 R892g

Samisch, Mark Hillel.  Comparison of the Media Coverage of the Vietnam War to the Media Coverage of the Invasions of Grenada and Panama: A Question of Legacies.  College Park, MD, University of Maryland, 1991.  115 p. (Thesis, M.A.  University of Maryland)
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA245458
Doc. call no.: M-U 43567-540

Senkovich, Steven W.  From Port Salines to Panama City: The Evolution of Command and Control in Contingency Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, May 1990.  67 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 S477f

Smith, Douglas I.  Army Aviation in Operation Just Cause.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, April 1992.  155 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA251409
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-83 S645a

Souchet, Brian E.  War Termination, Joint Planning and the Interagency Process.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2004.  23 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425975
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662

Thomas, Raymond A., III.  Just Cause Revisited: Paradigm for Future Operations.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 1995.  26 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 T461j

Will, Alan J. and Wheeler, William G.  The Logistics of Waging War 1982-1993.  Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology, September 1993.  259 p.  (Thesis, M.S.  Air Force Institute of Technology)
Operation Just Cause: Panama, pp 27-41.  Covers airlift, weather, theater support, enemy assets, lessons learned, and other logistics issues.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA276013
Doc. call no.: M-U 39567-4 W689L

Winters, Edward G. and Paro, Kent A.  The Misuse of Special Operations Forces.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 1994.  192 p. (Thesis, M.A.  Naval Postgraduate School)
Operation Just Cause, pp 41-67.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 W787m


ADA in Panama: Operation Just Cause.  Air Defense Artillery, pp 4-11, July-August 1990.

Adinolfi, Frank J.  and others.  Operation Just Cause: "This Is What We Train For".  National Guard 44:18-19+ March 1990.

Aitken, William S.  Combat Service Support During Operation Just Cause.  Marine Corps Gazette 74:24-25 December 1990.

Anderson, Casey.  (Gen) Russ Assumed Army Would Report Error in Panama Bombing.  Air Force Times 50:10 July 16, 1990.

Armbrister, Trevor.  Noriega Overthrow May Help Stabilize a Turbulent Region.  Sea Power 33:94-96+ January 1990.

Army Psywarriors: A History of U.S. Army Psychological Operations.  Special Warfare 5:18-25 October 1992.

Aronson, Bernard W.  Panama--Road to Recovery.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch 2:576-579 August 5, 1991.

Ballagh, Robert S., Jr. and Nabb, Robert A.  Red Devil Redlegs: Fire Support in Operation Just Cause.  Field Artillery, pp 40-42, October 1990.

Bennett, William C.  Just Cause and the Principles of War.  Military Review 71:2-13 March 1991.

Berry, F.  Clifton, Jr.  Massive Airlift Stabilized Situation.  National Defense 75:6-8 December 1990.

Bierman, John and others.  Noriega on Trial.  Maclean's 103:16-19 January 15, 1990.

Bird, Julie.  AF Women Filled Many Roles in Panama Mission.  Air Force Times 50:6+ January 29, 1990.

Bird, Julie.  DOD: "Friendly" Fire May Have Hurt 21 in Panama Action.  Air Force Times 50:7 July 2, 1990.

Bird, Julie.  Special Ops Wing (1st SOW from Hurlburt Field, FL) Led Attack on Panama, Flew Noriega to U.S.  Air Force Times 50:12 January 22, 1990.

Bond, David F.  Six F-117As Flown in Panama Invasion: Air Force Broadens Daytime Operations.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 132:30 March 5, 1990.

Boot, William.  Wading Around in the Panama Pool.  Columbia Journalism Review 28:18-20 March 1990.
Instead of being taken to cover combat stories, journalists in the war pool were led on tours of Manuel Noriega's secret hideouts.

Boyko, Robert G.  Just Cause MOUT Lessons Learned.  Infantry 81:28-32 May-June  1991.

Brock, David.  Washington's Long Tolerance Turns into a Day of Reckoning.  Insight 6:26-28 January 8, 1990.
The history of relations between Panama and the U.S. are discussed.

Brown, John S.  'Just Cause' at 20.  Army 59:78-79 December 2009.
December 20, 2009 marks the 20th anniversary of Operation Just Cause that brought down General Manuel Antonio Noriega's regime.
Also available online at: http://search.proquest.com/docview/237077574?accountid=4332

Brown, Robert K.  U.S. Warriors Topple Panamanian Thugs.  Soldier of Fortune 15:56-61+ April 1990.

Budahn, P. J.  War of Words.  Air Force Times 50:39+ February 5, 1990.
The press vs. the military in Panama.

Bush, George.  Panama--The Decision to Use Force.  Vital Speeches of the Day 56:194-195 January 15, 1990.

Calvert, Peter.  The U.S. Intervention in Panama.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 1:307-314 August 1990.

Cappaccio, Tony.  U.S. Commando Units Were Stars in Panama.  Defense Week 11:16 February 5, 1990.

Chavira, Ricardo.  Meanwhile, Back in Panama.  Time 136:38 November 26, 1990.
One year after the U.S. invasion in December 1989, Panama is still a mess.

Click, Robert L.  Combat Jump (in Operation Just Cause).  Army 42:24-28+ August 1992.

Cockburn, Alexander.  Beat the Devil: Beneath a Peak in Darien: The Conquest of Panama.  Nation 250:114-115 January 29, 1990.
The U.S. Invasion of Panama is discussed.

Cole, Ronald H.  Grenada, Panama, and Haiti: Joint Operation Reform.  Joint Force Quarterly No. 20:57-64 Autumn-Winter 1998-1999.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA422959

Collins, Steven N.  Just Cause Up Close: A Light Infantryman's View of LIC.  Parameters 22:55-65 Summer 1992.
Also available online athttp://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA528175

Combat Planning Dominates Panama's Communications.  Signal 44:95 March 1990.

Combelles, Pascale M.  Operation Just Cause: A Military-Media Fiasco.  Military Review 75:77-85 May-June 1995.

Cooper, Marc.  The Press and the Panama Invasion: Missing the Story.  Nation 250:850-854 June 18, 1990.

Correll, John T.  A Small War in Panama.  Air Force Magazine 92:56-60 December 2009.
Also available online at: http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2009/December 2009/1209panama.aspx

Cramer, Jane Kellett"Just Cause" or Just Politics?  Armed Forces & Society 32:178-201 January 2006.
"Investigates the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama using qualitative tests for diversionary war proposed by another researcher, Ryan C. Hendrickson.  The author finds that this use of force was likely a 'type' of diversionary war in that it was likely motivated by a need to solve 'domestic political problems' rather than to achieve strategic goals.  Several proposals to further develop qualitative tests for diversionary war are advanced." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=25324756&site=ehost-live

Cronin, R. Barry.  Sister Service Perspective on Military Police Operations.  Military Police, pp 22-23, June 1991.

Cronin, R.  Barry.  Military Police Operations in Panama.  Marine Corps Gazette 74:66-68 September 1990.  

D'Amato, Anthony.  Agora: U.S. Forces in Panama: Defenders, Aggressors or Human Rights Activists?  American Journal of International Law 84:494-524 April 1990.

Daniels, James B.  Mechanized Forces in MOUT: M113 Lessons from Operation Just Cause.  Infantry 86:8-11 May-June 1996.

DeFrancisco, Joseph E.  Bayonet Artillery in Operation Just Cause.  Field Artillery, pp 6-11, June 1990.

DeTreux, Kenneth M.  Infantry in Low-Intensity Conflict: Observations from Operation Just Cause.  Marine Corps Gazette 74:63-66 September 1990.

Dickson, Sandra H.  Understanding Media Bias: The Press and the U.S. Invasion of Panama.  Journalism Quarterly 71:809-819 Winter 1994.

Dorr, Robert F. and Archer, Bob.  The Invasion of Panama.  World Air Power Journal 1:12-15 Spring 1990.

Ender, Morten G.  G.I. Phone Home: The Use of Telecommunications by the Soldiers of Operation Just Cause.  Armed Forces and Society 21:435-453 Spring 1995.

Fact Sheet: Panama 2 Years after Operation Just Cause.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch 3:96-98 February 10, 1992.

Fact Sheet: Panama after Operation Just Cause.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch 2:78-79 February 4, 1991.

Fazio, Carlos.  The Invasion Before the Invasion: Latin America Looked the Other Way.  World Press Review 37:20+ February 1990.
Latin America condemned the U.S. invasion of Panama, but before it came, when the course of events was foreseeable, Latin America played the U.S. game.

Few Lessons Were Learned in Panama Invasion: Just Cause Victory Came Despite Ineptitude.  Armed Forces Journal International 130:54-56 June 1993.

Finnegan, Patrick.  Operational Law: Plan and Execute.  Military Review 76:29-37 March-April 1996.

Fire When Ready, Ma'am.  Time 135:29 January 15, 1990.
Women participated in modern combat for the first time in U.S. history in the invasion of Panama.

Fishel, John T.  The Murky World of Conflict Termination: Planning and Executing the 1989-90 Restoration of Panama.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 3:58-71 Spring 1992.

Fishel, John T. and Downie, Richard D.  Taking Responsibility for Our Actions?  Establishing Order and Stability in Panama.  Military Review 72:66-77 April 1992.

Foreign Affairs: Western Hemisphere.  Current Digest of the Soviet Press 41:22-23 January 17, 1990.
The U.S. December 20, 1989 invasion of Panama is discussed.

Fuentes, Carlos.  Some Lessons Learned from Panama: A Strong Latin Condemnation.  World Press Review 37:17-19 February 1990.

Fulghum, David.  EF-111 Crews Practicing the Art of Deception.  Air Force Times 50:14-15+ March 12, 1990.

Fulghum, David and others.  Operation Just Cause--The Air Force Role in Panama.  Air Force Times 50:14-19+ January 8, 1990.

Fulghum, David A.  Army Tells Congress That Aviators Rehearsed U.S. Invasion of Panama.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 132:23 June 11, 1990.
Aviators rehearsed the invasion of Panama by flying at night using night vision goggles.

Gan, V.  Foreign Affairs: Western Hemisphere.  Current Digest of the Soviet Press 42:25-26 February 7, 1990.
The capture of Manuel Noriega during Operation Just Cause is discussed.

Garrett, Kenneth C.  In Both Jungle and Urban Operations (534th MP Company, 92nd MP Battalion, Panama).  Military Police, pp 40-41, June 1992.

Gen. Myers Describes Panama Effort, Industry Forecast.  Signal 44:85-86 April 1990.

Gilboa, Eytan.  The Panama Invasion Revisited: Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era.  Political Science Quarterly 110:539-562 Winter 1995-1996.

Ginovsky, John and others.  Operation Just Cause.  Air Force Times 50:R1+ (supplement following p 30) January 1, 1990.

Ginovsky, John.  Operation Just Cause--300-Plus Airlift Missions Flown.  Air Force Times 50:60 January 8, 1990.

Gold, Philip.  A Forceful Policy of Human Rights.  Insight 6:22-23 January 15, 1990.

Goldman, Francisco.  What Price Panama?  Harper's 281:71-75+ September 1990.
The Panamanian barrio of El Chorrillo, effectively leveled during the U.S. invasion, is profiled.

Govern, Kevin H.  Sorting the Wolves From the Sheep.  Military Police, pp 35-39, October 2004.
"Recounts the issues encountered by the U.S. military during the short-lived conflict in Panama from 1989-1990; legal basis for Operation Just Cause; process of detaining displaced civilians; and care and feeding of enemy prisoners of war." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=14970702&site=ehost-live

Graham, Robert.  Grounds for Doubt.  World Press Review 37:18 February 1990.
The legal grounds used by the Bush administration to justify its intervention in Panama are being questioned by some international jurists.

Greenhut, Jeffrey and others.  Civil Affairs in Operation Just Cause.  Special Warfare 4:28-37 Winter 1991.

Gutierrez-Villalobos, Sonia and others.  Press Support for the U.S. Administration During the Panama Invasion: Analyses of Strategic and Tactical Critique in the Domestic Press.  Journalism Quarterly 71:618-627 Autumn 1994.

Hammond, Kevin J. and Sherman, Frank.  Sheridans in Panama.  Armor 99:8-15 March-April 1990.
Chronological account of the employment of armor in Operation Just Cause
is discussed.

Hasenauer, Heike.  Panama: The Wounded Come Home.  Soldiers 45:33-36 February 1990.

Hayes, James M.  Panama PROMOTE LIBERTY After Action Report.  Marine Corps Gazette 74:59-62 September 1990.

Hitchens, Christopher.  Minority Report.  Nation 251:722 December 10, 1990.
DoD maintains that only 202 civilians died during the December 1989 invasion, but a CBS "60 Minutes" investigation claims that as many as 4,000 may be buried in mass graves.

Hughes, David.  Night Drop in Panama Surprises Noriega's Forces.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 132:30-31 January 1, 1990.

Hughes, David.  Night Invasion of Panama Required Special Operations Aircraft, Training.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 132:61-64 February 19, 1990.

Hughes, David.  Panamanians Work to Restore Airline, Airport Services.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 132:70-71 January 29, 1990.

Jaco, Charles.  Missing the Action in Panama.  Quill 78:11 November 1990.
Reporters believe the restrictive relationship between the Pentagon and the press needs to be rethought.

Jamieson, Barbara.  Promises Broken, Illusions Lost.  Nation 56:336-339 March 15, 1993.
A reassessment by Panamanians of the U.S. invasion of Panama is presented.

Jenkins, Holman, Jr.  Now for the Tough Part: Sorting Out the Big Mess.  Insight 6:14-17 January 29, 1990.
An accurate estimate of the losses suffered by Panamanian businesses is not available.

Just Cause: How Well Did We Do?  National Review 42:14 January 22, 1990.

Just Cause Provides Lessons Learned in Combat Operations.  National Guard 45:26-28+ August 1991.

Kimberly, Jack L., Jr.  We Owned the Night.  Journal of Electronic Defense 13:33-34+ October 1990.
Describes the night mission capabilities during Operation Just Cause.

Kirkland, Faris R. and others.  Human Dimension in Force Projection: Discipline under Fire.  Military Review 76:57-64 March-April 1996.

Lambert, Geoffrey.  Major Combat and Restoration Operations: A Discussion.  Special Warfare 16:2-5 February 2004.
The author
"discusses the problems in planning the US Army's major combat and restoration operations.  It is time for military planners to become more holistic and to look well beyond major combat operations as they define success." - Abstract.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=652867201&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Lapham, Lewis H.  Notebook: Deja Vu.  Harper's 280:12-17 March 1990.
The U.S. invasion of Panama is discussed.

Leich, Marian Nash and Vassar, Lori Y.  Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law.  American Journal of International Law 84:536-549 April 1990.
Several cases that illustrate how the U.S. practices international law are examined, including the use of force in Panama.

The Logic of Intervention: "Plenty of Provocation".  World Press Review 37:19-20 February 1990.

Lopez, Ramon.  Baptism of Fire--New Units See Action in Panama.  International Defense Review 23:749-751 July 1990.

Maechling, Charles, Jr.  Washington's Illegal Invasion.  Foreign Policy 79:113-131 Summer 1990.

Magnuson, Ed and others.  Passing the Manhood Test.  Time 135:43 January 8, 1990.
Operation Just Cause was deemed a political and a tactical military success.

Magnuson, Ed and Moody, John.  A Guest Who Wore Out His Welcome.  Time 135:26-27 January 15, 1990.
Noriega's eleven-day stay at the papal embassy in Panama City, Panama is described.

Malcom, Joseph A.  LAO's Role in Just Cause: A CONUS Perspective.  Army Logistician, pp 6-9, July-August 1990.

Mauskapf, Robert P. and Powers, Earl W.  LAVs in action.  Marine Corps Gazette 74:50-53 September 1990.
"Officers of 2d LAI Battalion provide a summary of their deployment and some insights into the capabilities LAI units now provide the corps." - Article.

McConnell, Malcolm.  Measure of a Man.  Reader's Digest 137:61-66 October 1990.
John Connors, a Navy SEAL, is profiled as a hero.  He was killed as his unit attempted to secure an airport in the U.S. invasion of Panama.

Mermin, Jonathan.  Conflict in the Sphere of Concensus.  Political Communication 13:181-194 April 1996.
An analysis of critical reporting on three military interventions, including the Panama invasion, that won bipartisan support in Washington is presented.

Meyersohn, Jonathan.  A Pawn of War.  New York Times Magazine, p 23, January 21, 1990.
A chronology of events surrounding the author's coverage of the invasion of Panama.

Miles, Donna.  Panama: Operation Just Cause.  Soldiers 45:20-24 February 1990.

Miles, Donna.  Real-Life Mission Helping Real-Life People.  Soldiers 45:6-9 April 1990.
Describes how the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion from Fort Bragg, N.C. helped in restoring Panama to its pre-war condition.

Miles, Donna.  Women of Just Cause.  Soldiers 45:21-24 March 1990.

Miller, Timothy N.  Posthaste to Panama--"Just Cause" They Were Needed.  Officer 66:22-26 March 1990.

Millet, Richard L.  The Aftermath of Intervention: Panama 1990.  Journal of Interamerican Studies & World Affairs 32:1-15 Spring 1990.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9702025410&site=ehost-live

Ministry in Combat Operations.  Military Chaplains' Review, pp 1-96, Summer 1990.
Special issue on ministry during Operation Just Cause.

Morgan, Daniel K.  Operation Just Cause: A Medical Logistics Perspective.  Air Force Journal of Logistics 14:2-5 Summer 1990.

Morrocco, John D.  F-117A Fighter Used in Combat for First Time in Panama.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 132:32-33 January 1, 1990.

Morton, Brian.  And Just Why Did We Invade Panama?  Dissent 37:148-150 Spring 1990.

Nelson, Soraya S.  Special Report: Wounded.  Air Force Times 50:6-8+ January 22, 1990.
Describes how well the military medical teams performed in treating the wounded service members in Panama during the Operation Just Cause.

Oelrich, Frederick C.  200K Call-Up: Just Cause vs Desert Shield.  Special Warfare 5:18-24 March 1992.

Operation Just Cause.  Navy Times 39:6-8+ January 8, 1990.

Panama.  Marine Corps Gazette 74:53-54+ September 1990.

Panama: Learning to Crawl.  Economist 316:49-52 September 22, 1990.
The economic conditions in Panama nine months after the U.S. invasion are discussed.

Paparone, Christopher R. and Jeong, John C.  Operation Just Cause--Combat Service Support Soldiers under Fire.  Army Logistician, pp 8-9, May-June 1990.

Parker, John E., Jr.  United States Compliance with Humanitarian Law Respecting Civilians During Operation Just Cause.  Military Law Review 133:131-140 Summer 1991.

Peter, Lawrence T.  Defending Panama after Noriega.  U.S.  Naval Institute Proceedings 116:64-67 June 1990.

Pickering, Thomas R.  Democracy Finally Returns to Panama.  ROA National Security Report 8:1-6 February 1990.

Preston, Joseph W.  Just Cause--Intelligence Support to Special Operations Aviation.  Military Intelligence 16:16-18 July-September 1990.

Robinson Linda.  Dwindling Options in Panama.  Foreign Affairs 68:187-205 Winter 1989.

Roos, John G.  Did President Bush Jump the Gun in Ordering the Invasion of Panama?  Armed Forces Journal International 130:10+ September 1992.

Ropelewski, Robert R.  Planning, Precision, and Surprise Led to Panama Successes.  Armed Forces Journal International 127:26-28+ February 1990.

Ropp, Steve C.  Panama: The United States Invasion and Its Aftermath.  Current History 90:113-116+ March 1991.

Rosello, Victor M.  Operation Just Cause: The Divisional MI Battalion, the Nonlinear Battlefield, and AirLand Operations--Future.  Military Intelligence 17:28-31 July-September 1991.

Rui, Chang.  U.S. Invasion of Panama: A Glaring Act of Hegemonism.  Beijing Review 33:14 January 8, 1990.

Sabrosky, Alan N.  Panama 1989: Deposing a Dictator.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 1:303-306 August 1990.

Salisbury, Steve.  Pain and Panic in Panama: Searching for Justice after Just Cause.  Soldier of Fortune 16:28-33+ August 1991.

Scicchitano, J. Paul and others.  Operation Just Cause--Panama: Stories of Friends Made, of Friends Lost, of Friends Left Behind.  Army Times 50:6-18 January 8, 1990.

Serrill, Michael S. and others.  The Postinvasion Blues.  Time 135:28 January 29, 1990.
The souring relations since the U.S. invasion of Panama with several countries in Latin America are discussed.

Shuger, Scott.  New Weapons, Old Problems.  Washington Monthly 22:43-49 October 1990.
The F-117's poor performance in the U.S. invasion of Panama is recounted.

Shultz, Richard H., Jr.  The Post-Conflict Use of Military Forces: Lessons from Panama, 1989-91.  Journal of Strategic Studies 16:145-172 June 1993.

Siemens, Jochen.  Bush's Big Stick: It Drives Noriega Out but Raises Old Questions.  World Press Review 37:15-16 February 1990.

Siler, Stetson M.  Operation Just Cause: An Air Power Perspective.  Air Power History 55:34-45 Winter 2008.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=36024859&site=ehost-live

Social Science and the Citizen: Support from Panama for U.S. Invasion.  Society 27:2-3 March-April 1990.

Steele, Dennis.  Operation Just Cause.  Army 40:34-37+ February 1990.

Steele, Dennis.  The Special Forces Today: Few "Knuckledraggers", One Rambo.  Army 42:34-38 April 1992.
Covers Operation Just Cause.

Stein, M. L.  Panamanian Newspaper at Odds with CBS.  Editor & Publisher 123:18-19 October 20, 1990.
Two officials of Panama's leading newspaper, "La Prensa" dispute a CBS "60 Minutes" TV report that thousands of civilians were killed in the invasion of Panama.

Stiner, Carl W.  Special Operations Forces: Strategic Potential for the Future.  Special Warfare 6:2-9 May 1993.
General Stiner reports on Operation Just Cause.

Stiner, Carl W.  The Strategic Employment of Special Operations Forces.  Military Review 71:2-13 June 1991.
General Stiner reports on Operation Just Cause.

Supporting Just Cause.  Army Logistician, pp 2-5, July-August 1990.

Tacitus.  Few Lessons Were Learned in Panama Invasion.  Armed Forces Journal International 130:54-56 June 1993.
See also letters of rebuttal and rejoinder:
Scholes, Edison E.  Biased and Twisted.  130:3 August 1993
Needham, Thomas H.  The Just Cause Debate in Our Pages Continues.  131:4+ October 1993
Tacitus.  Dear Gen Scholes.  131:8 October 1993.

Taras, Gordon J.  Observations from Just Cause.  Engineer, pp 62-65, April 1992.

Terry, James P.  Law in Support of Policy in Panama.  Naval War College Review 43:110-118 Autumn 1990.

Thomas, Evan.  From Abyss to Brink.  Newsweek 115:26-27 January 8, 1990.
The U.S. invasion of Panama was the first time in 45 years that the U.S. sent troops into combat for a goal unrelated to communism.

Thurman, Maxwell R. and Hartzog, William.  Simultaniety: The Panama Case.  Army 43:16-20+ November 1993.

Tracy, Lawrence L.  "Yankee, Stay Here" Summarizes Aftermath of Operation Just Cause.  ROA National Security Report 8:1-5 March 1990.
Describes the events leading to the crisis.

Vasilyev, Gennady.  The View from Moscow: "Back to the Future".  World Press Review 37:22-23 February 1990.
The U.S. military intervention is a violation of international law and a throwback to previous eras.

Waller, Douglas.  The Force of the Future.  Newsweek 117:29 June 17, 1991.
The success of the special forces in the invasion of Panama followed by successes in the Persian Gulf war made believers of many skeptics in the Pentagon.

Waller, Douglas and Barry, John.  Inside the Invasion.  Newsweek 115:28-31 June 25, 1990.
An investigation into the invasion of Panama revealed that numerous failures took place alongside the successes.

Ward, William F., Jr.  Performance in Panama Underscores Readiness.  Army 40:104-107+ October 1990.

Welton, Courteney S.  Expertise in Reserve--Reservists Equal to the Task for Panama.  Officer 66:11-15 March 1990.

Wood, Samuel S., Jr.  Joint Fire Support in Low-Intensity Conflict.  Military Review 71:14-18 March 1991.

Yates, Lawrence.  Panama, 1988-1999: The Disconnect Between Combat and Stability Operations.  Military Review 85:46-52 May-June 2005.
"Presents information on Operation Just Cause, the U.S. invasion of Panama on December 20, 1989; overview of the crisis that culminated with Operations Just Cause and Promote Liberty in 1987; deployment of additional U.S. forces in May 1989 into Panama; consideration of Panamanian refugees during the invasion." - Abstract.
Also available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=18050027&site=ehost-live

Yates, Lawrence A.  Joint Task Force Panama: Just Cause--Before and After.  Military Review 71:58-71 October 1991.


Dickstein, Joseph and others.  Panama War.  Minneapolis, Quality Video, 1994.  1 videocassette, 35 min.
Produced in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense.
Video call no.: 972.87053 P1871

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