JUST WAR THEORY


April 2009

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites last accessed April 10, 2009.


Internet Resources


Air War College.  Gateway to the Internet.  Just War Theory.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-law.htm#justwar

Links and related information may be found on this page.

Barnes, David M.  Intervention and the Just War Tradition.  Department of English, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY.
Available online at:  http://www.usafa.edu/isme/JSCOPE00/Barnes00.html

Beach, Hugh.  Secessions, Interventions and Just War Theory:  The Case of KosovoPugwash Online.  February 2000.
Available online at:  http://www.pugwash.org/reports/rc/beach.htm

Bell, Daniel M., Jr.  Can a War Against Terror Be Just?  Cross Currents 56:34-45 Spring 2006.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20942178&site=ehost-live

Bishop Wilton D. Gregory, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Office of Social Development & World Peace,  Letter to President Bush on Iraq, September 13, 2002.
Available online at:  http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/bishops.htm

Carter, Jimmy.  Just War or Just a War?  Atlanta, GA, The Carter Center, March 9, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.cartercenter.org/news/documents/doc1249.html
This op-ed (opinion/editorial) piece originally appeared in the New York Times.

Catholic Answers:  Just War Doctrine.
Catholic laity answer questions about church doctrine.
Available online at:  http://www.catholic.com/library/Just_War_Doctrine_1.asp

Dinstein, Yoram.  Comments on War.  Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 27:877-892 Summer 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15267801&site=ehost-live
In the first section considers the use of just war theory.

D'vila, Maria Teresa.  The Contribution of Reinhold Niebuhr's 'Moral Ambiguity' to Contemporary Discussions on the Morality of Intervention and the Use of Force in a Post-Cold War World.  Political Theology, April 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12615644&site=ehost-live
Argues that moral ambiguity should be added as a criteria to determine if a military action is just.

Grant, Kaplan.  What Has Ethics to Do with the Rhetoric?  Prolegomena to Any Future Just War Theory.  Political Theology 6:31-49 January 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15375230&site=ehost-live

International Committee of the Red Cross.  War in Iraq, Special Page:  Origin of the Twin Terms "Jus ad Bellum/Jus in Bello."  Geneva, Switzerland, ICRC, October 31, 1997.
Available online at:  http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList163/D9DAD4EE8533DAEFC1256B66005AFFEF
From the International Review of the Red Cross, no. 320, p. 553-562, by Robert Kolb.

Johnson, James T.  Jihad and Just War.  First Things 124:12-14 June-July 2002.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6691802&site=ehost-live

Johnson, James T.  Just War, As It Was and Is.  First Things 149:14-24 January 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15375754&site=ehost-live

Kraft, James E., Jr.  Afghanistan:  A War That Must Be Won Via the Concentration of United States Elements of National Power.  Norfolk, VA, Joint Forces Staff College, National Defense University, April 2008.  93 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA487223
"This paper first demonstrates the moral and legal legitimacy of the United States' decision to wage war in Afghanistan using the Just War Theory (JWT), and how critical it is in light of the pillars of its National Security Strategy.  Next, the paper addresses the grave threat posed by the Islamic Revolutionary Movement (IRM).  JWT, coupled with the severity of the IRM, require the concentration of U.S. elements of national power to achieve victory.  The remainder of the paper addresses current DIME initiatives and offers a way ahead to better set conditions for success." - Abstract

The Law of Armed Conflict in Air and Space Operations
, compiled by Joan Phillips.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, May 2006.  19 p.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/loac/loac.htm
This bibliography provides a list of resources on the companion topic of the Law of Armed Conflict.

Meyers, C. D.  Why (Most) Rational People Must Disapprove of the Invasion of Iraq.  Social Theory & Practice 32:249-268 April 2006.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20998593&site=ehost-live

Moseley, Alexander.  The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  Just War Theory.  2009.
Available online at:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/j/justwar.htm

NPR, National Public Radio.  A Just War?  Asking the Age Old Question about the Pursuit of Terrorism.  January 25, 2002.
Available online at:  http://www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2002/jan/justwar/020125.justwar.html
In a report for Morning Edition, NPR's Jacki Lyden looks at whether the pursuit of terrorists in Afghanistan, and possibly other countries, represents a "just war," under religious teachings.  At the end of the article, under "Other Resources" links to sources on just war theory are listed.

Persian Gulf War:  Desert Shield/Desert Storm:  Just War Theory, compiled by Sue Goodman.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, September 1994.  210 p.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/pgwar/pgwr10.htm
To find earlier materials on the Just War Theory, see this section of the 1994 Center's  bibliography on the Persian Gulf War Desert Shield/Desert Storm.

Religion & Ethics - The Ethical Issues:  Ethics of War.  BBC Homepage.
Available online at:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/index.shtml


Rigstad, Mark.  Just War War Theory.Com.  Oakland University.
Available online at:  http://www.justwartheory.com/
"JustWarTheory.com is a free, non-profit, critically annotated aid to philosophical studies of warfare.  It is owned and maintained by Mark Rigstad, Associate Professor of Philosophy at Oakland University." - from the website.  It includes an exhaustive study of just war theory (with many links) but also includes related topics such as:  terrorism, pacifism, invasion and occupation of Iraq, rights of enemy combatants, civil war, and war criminals and trials.

Saddam's Capture May Bring Peace, Doesn't Excuse War, Cardinal SaysCatholic News Service, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.americancatholic.org/News/JustWar/Iraq/
The Vatican's position on the Iraqi war, post war Iraq, Saddam's capture, and future trial.

Weigel, George.  Moral Clarity in a Time of WarFirst Things 129:20-27 January 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=426 and
Also at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=8697760&site=ehost-live
Essay discusses the just war tradition.

Words of War:  Challenges to the Just War Theory.  Harvard International Review, 26:36-38 Spring 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12751521&site=ehost-live
Interviews Michael Walzer, professor of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University and author of several books on just war theory.


Internet Resource (Student Research)

Mattox, John Mark.  The Clausewitzian Trinity in the Information Age:  A Just War Approach.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, May 2007.  28 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471540
"This study takes as its task to propose a model which accommodates both military realist and just war concerns.  It examines two popular interpretations of Clausewitz’s 'remarkable trinity.'  It then examines two much older trinitarian social models, which it uses as guides to discover what a model of the convergence of military realist and just war thought might look like.  It then proposes a revised model of the "remarkable trinity" which accommodates just war concerns." - Abstract


Books


Barry, James A.  The Sword of Justice:  Ethics and Coercion in International Politics.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1998.  215 p.
"Barry (international politics, George Mason U.), who once served as the director of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, the CIA's think tank, argues that the just-war framework provides a viable middle ground between Kantian idealism and realism for resolving international conflicts.  To explore the relationship between ethical argumentation and the coercive measures that nation-states employ, the author presents historical case studies comparing the US espousal of the just-war standard against its actual practices (Reagan vs. the American Catholic Bishops re: nuclear deterrence, the Persian Gulf War, Burundi, Chile, Cuba, and the North Korean Nuclear Program)." - Summary
Book call no.:  172.4 B279s

Bell, Daniel.  Beyond Liberal Democracy:  Political Thinking for an East Asian Context.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2006.  379 p.
Chapter 2:  Just War and Confucianism:  Implications for the Contemporary World.
Book call no.:  321.8095 B433b

Bellamy, Alex J.  Just Wars:  From Cicero to Iraq.  Malden, MA, Polity, 2006.  280 p.
"In what circumstances is it legitimate to use force?  How should force be used?  These are two of the most crucial questions confronting world politics today." - Annotation
Book call no.:  172.42 B435j

Bess, Michael.  Choices under Fire:  Moral Dimensions of World War II.  New York, A. A. Knopf, 2006.  395 p.
"In this new accounting of World War II, a Vanderbilt University history professor boldly challenges the historically held belief of the lack of moral ambiguity attached to the conflict in this provocative study of the choices made by nations and individuals during the war, and how these choices determined its course." - Annotation
Book call no.:  172.42  B557c

Bonner, Michael David.  Jihad in Islamic History:  Doctrines and Practices.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2006.  197 p.
Introduction:  Just War and Holy War.
Book call no.:  297.7209 B716j

Brown, Davis.  The Sword, the Cross, and the Eagle:  The American Christian Just War Tradition.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.  291 p.
"In this book, Davis Brown argues that the just war tradition drives the contemporary military ethos and statecraft of the United States.  As the world's only superpower and the world's standard-bearer for democracy, the United States has more armed forces stationed or deployed outside its borders than all other countries combined.  Because of this, the conduct of the United States - for good or ill - has enormous ramifications on the development of norms in international law and statecraft.  It therefore behooves the international community to appreciate what values the United States seeks to advance when it resorts to military force." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  241.6242 B877s

Burke, Anthony.  Beyond Security, Ethics and Violence:  War Against the Other.  New York, Routledge, 2007.  284 p.
"Anthony Burke offers an analysis of the historical roots of sovereignty and security, his critique of just war theory, and new essays on strategy, the concept of freedom and US exceptionalism.  He pursues searching critical engagements with thinkers such as Giorgio Agamben, Hardt and Negri, Emmanuel Levinas, Carl von Clausewitz, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Michael Walzer, Michel Foucault and William Connolly.  Combining a diversity of critical thought with analyses of the war on terror, Iraq, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the Vietnam war, the Indonesian crisis, globalisation and the new drive for empire, Burke refuses easy answers, or to abandon hope." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  355.033  B959b

Bzostek, Rachel.  Why Not Preempt?  Security, Law, Norms and Anticipatory Military Activities.  Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2008.  258 p. (Justice, International Law and Global Security)
"Anticipatory military activities, which include both preemptive and preventive military actions, are at the center of American strategic doctrine.  At the same time, states rarely use these activities.  Bzostek puts forward an integrated analysis to help understand why states have or have not undertaken such activities in the past.  By exploring what kinds of strategic or structural elements compel states or leaders to take anticipatory military action, as well as how these concepts are viewed in both international law and the just war tradition, this book uses case studies to explore those elements that have played an influential role in the decision-making process." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 B999w

Caner, Ergun Mehmet and Caner, Emir Fethi.  Christian Jihad:  Two Former Moslems Look at the Crusades and Killing in the Name of Christ.  Grand Rapids, MI, Kregel Publications, 2004.  240 p.
Appendix A:  The Just War Criteria, pp 216-227.
Book call no.:  270 C221c

Chesterman, Simon.  Just War or Just Peace?  Humanitarian Intervention and International Law.  Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 2002.  295 p.
"This book asks whether states have the right to intervene in foreign civil conflicts for humanitarian reasons.  The UN Charter prohibits state aggression, but many argue that such a right exists as an exception to this rule.  Offering a thorough analysis of this issue, the book puts NATO's action in Kosovo in its proper legal perspective." -  Annotation
Book call no.:  341.584 C525j

Christian Political Ethics, edited by John A. Coleman.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2008.  289 p. (The Ethikon Series in Comparative Ethics)
Chapter 11:   Just War Thinking in Catholic Natural Law, by Joseph Boyle.
Book call no.:  241.62 C555

Christopher, Paul.  The Ethics of War and Peace:  An Introduction to Legal and Moral Issues.  3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2004.  278 p.
"This classic introduction to the ethics of war and peace explores in depth the legal and moral issues of when and how to use force to achieve political objectives.  A detailed overview and critical, philosophical analysis -- written by a professional soldier with over 25 years of commissioned service -- it surveys the historical development of just war reasoning, its incorporation into the international laws concerning when and how to wage war, and the specific shortcomings with existing laws and practices concerning the conduct of modern-day hostilities." - Summary
Book call no.:  172.42 C556e 2004

Close Calls:  Intervention, Terrorism, Missile Defense, and 'Just War' Today, edited by Elliott Abrams.  Washington, Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1998.  389 p.
Book call no.:  172.42 C645

Clough, David and Stillner, Brian.  Faith and Force:  A Christian Debate about War.  Washington, Georgetown University Press, 2007.  304 p.
"Aggressors and defenders alike have claimed the mantle of righteousness and termed their actions just.  But can the carnage of war ever be morally grounded? And if so, how?"  "These are the questions that David L. Clough, a Methodist proponent of pacifism, and Brian Stiltner, a Catholic theologian and just war adherent, have vowed to answer together.  With one voice, Clough and Stiltner outline and clarify issues of humanitarian intervention, weapons proliferation, and preventative war against rogue states." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  241.6242 C647f

Dolan, Chris J.  In War We Trust:  The Bush Doctrine and the Pursuit of Just War.  Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2005.  229 p.
"The consistent theme throughout this book is that significant ethical issues and moral dilemmas have been raised as they pertain to the forceful expression of American power via the Bush Doctrine’s assertion of the right to engage in first strikes against states and non-states in the wake of the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 D659i

Egan, Eileen.  Peace Be with You:  Justified Warfare or the Way of Nonviolence.  Maryknoll, NY, Orbis Books, 1999.  237 p.
"In Part One, Egan traces the history of "justified warfare" up to our present century when peacemakers were finally heard in their call to return to the teaching of gospel nonviolence." - Annotation
Book call no.:  261.873 E28p

Elshtain, Jean Bethke.  Just War Against Terror:  The Burden of American Power in a Violent World.  New York, Basic Books, 2003.  240 p.
"The text begins with an analysis of the meanings embedded in the different ways in which the terrorist attacks of September 11 have been described.  Other topics include the requirements for a 'just war,' the responses of academics and clerics to terrorism, and the responsibility of the United States to defend its ideals." - Annotation
Book call no.:  363.32 E49j

Empire's Law:  The American Imperial Project and the 'War to Remake the World'
edited by Amy Bartholomew.  Ann Arbor, MI, Pluto, 2006.  381 p.
Chapter 14:  "A 'Just War', or Just Another of Tony Blair's Wars?"  by David Coates.
Book call no.:  327.73 E55

Enemy Combatants, Terrorism, and Armed Conflict Law:  A Guide to the Issues,
edited by David K. Linnan.  Westport, CT, Praeger Security International, 2008.  400 p.
Chapter 12:  Jesus and Mars:  A Brief Introduction to the Christian Just War Tradition, by Michael Skerker.
Book call no.:  343.7301 E56

Ethics and Foreign Intervention,
edited by Deen K. Chatterjee and Don E. Scheid.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2003.  301 p.
"This collection of original essays on the ethical and legal implications of humanitarian military intervention presents a variety of normative perspectives.  It considers topics such as the just-war theory and its limits, secession and international law, and new approaches toward the moral adequacy of intervention.  Written by well-known contemporary philosophers, the essays form a challenging and timely volume." - Summary
Book call no.:  327.117 E84

Ethics and the Future of Conflict:  Lesson from the 1990s
, edited by Anthony F. Land, Jr. and others.  Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004.  192 p.
Book call no.:  172.42 E843

Ethics for Military Leaders, edited by Aine Donovan and others.  2nd ed. Needham Heights, MA, Pearson Custom Publishing, 1999.  501 p.
Book call no.:  174.9355 E841

Ethics, Nationalism, and Just War:  Medieval and Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Heinrik Syse and Gregory M. Reichberg.  Washington, Catholic University of America Press, 2007.  405 p.
"Though recent publications on military ethics abound, this work adds to the debate by considering the historical background of just war theory in the Middle Ages, before going on to elucidate its contemporary challenges." - Annotation.
Book call no.:  172.42 E8412

Ethics of Spying:  A Reader for the Intelligence Professional,
edited by Jan Goldman.  Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 2006.  413 p.
Chapter 16:  Managing Covert Political Action:  Guideposts from Just War Theory, by James A. Barry.
Book call no.:  172.4 E848

The Ethics of War:  Classic and Contemporary Readings
, edited by Gregory M. Reichberg and others.  Malden, MA, Blackwell Publishing, 2006.  731 p.
"This collection gathers 58 readings on the ethics of war, which for the editors (of the International Peace Research Institute in Norway and the U. of Pittsburgh in the US) concerns four fundamental questions:  whether humans can ever morally take part in war, the proper conditions under which war can rightly be initiated, how war is morally fought, and what can be done to ensure peace following the cessation of hostilities.  The reader contains writings from ancient times through the 20th century, but is exclusively western in orientation." - Summary
Book call no.:  172.4 E8410

Ethics of War in a Time of Terror,
edited by Christian Enemark.  Canberra, Australia, Strategic and Defense Studies Center, Australian National University, 2006.  120 p. (Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defense, no. 163)
"A collection of papers originally presented at a workshop entitled 'After Nine Eleven:  Ethics in a Time of Terror’ hosted by Monash University on 24 June 2005." - Abstract
Book call no.:  303.625 E84

The Ethics of War:  Shared Problems in Different Traditions, 
edited by Richard Sorabji and David Rodin.  Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2006.  253 p.
"Mostly British scholars of religion, philosophy, history, and politics consider the Islamic, Jewish, and Indian traditions regarding ethics and war, and the Graeco-Roman antecedents of Christian ideas, which are deemed too well covered elsewhere to considered here.  They also apply principles to such contemporary problems as asymmetric war, preventive war and the killing of the innocent, and humanitarian intervention.  The rationale for the study is that parties or interveners in a dispute should understand the traditions of all parties involved." - Summary
Book call no.:  172.4 E8411

Falk, Richard A.  The Costs of War:  International Law, the UN, and World Order after Iraq.  New York, Routledge, 2008.  203 p.
Chapter 2:  The Surprising Revival of the Just War Framework.
Book call no.:  341 F191c

Flynn, Eileen P.  How Just Is the War on Terror?  A Question of Morality.  New York, Paulist Press, 2007.  121 p.
"Individuals must live with the Ethical choices they make.  Thus, argues Eileen P. Flynn, the importance of the ethical training of those who join the military cannot be overestimated.  Beginning by tracing the development of the just war tradition, Flynn then goes on to consider:  Is the individual soldier free to act according to his or her own conscience in a war, or is the soldier required to show unconditional obedience to the commanding officers?  How do the rules of engagement governing the conduct of war measure up to the criteria of the just war tradition?  How should we evaluate the war on terror and the conduct of individual soldiers in the light of just war criteria?" - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 F648h

Fotion, Nicholas.  War and Ethics:  A New Just War Theory.  New York, Continuum, 2007.  178 p. (Think Now)
"The ethics of military action are at the heart of political debate in the West today - this book explores the philosophical implications of and for this hugely topical contemporary debate." - Annotation
Book call no.:  172.42 F761w

Frame, T. R.  Living by the Sword?  The Ethics of Armed Intervention.  Sydney, Australia, UNSW Press, 2004.  278 p. (New College Lecturers)
"Living by the Sword?  is the first critique of the Australian military experience from a Christian ethical perspective.  It surveys attitudes toward war and warfare from ancient to modern times, considers the moral status of the nation-state and international sovereignty, asks whether the just war tradition was relevant to campaigns against Iraq, assesses the recent emphasis on collective security, and suggests some difficulties associated with recognizing conscientious objection.  As intra-state conflicts increase, this book considers when and where humanitarian intervention is justified and whether the creation of 'international constabulary' might avoid the need for pre-emptive military strikes." - Annotation
Book call no.:  172.42 F813L

Humanitarian Intervention
edited by Terry Nardin and Melissa S. Williams.  New York, York University Press, 2006.  308 p.  (Nomos, no. 47)
Chapter 1:  Traditional Just War Theory and Humanitarian Intervention, by Joseph Boyle.
Book call no.:  341.584 H9184

Israel, Palestine and Terror
, edited by Stephen Law.  New York, Continuum, 2008.  226 p.
Chapter 12:  Talk and Terror:  The Value of Just-War Arguments in the Context of Terror, by Patrick Riordan.
Book call no.:  363.325095694 I85

Johnson, James Turner.  Morality and Contemporary Warfare.  New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1999.  259 p.
Johnson sets out a moral basis for understanding when armed force can be justified.  He analyzes specific problems posed by contemporary warfare:  the question of military intervention to ameliorate or end conflicts, the question of warfare against noncombatants, the problem of cultural differences inflaming conflict, and the tension between those who would punish war crimes and those hoping to reconcile adversaries.  The author concludes with a discussion of how to reshape and renew an international consensus on the proper purposes and limits to war. - Summary
Book call no.:  172.42 J67m

Johnson, James Turner.  The War to Oust Saddam Hussein:  Just War in the New Face of Conflict.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005.  159 p.
"This is the first and only book to provide a moral analysis of the war in Iraq and its implications for the future of war and peacemaking.  'The War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict' addresses the key questions most people are asking today.  What should be the standard for pre-emptive uses of military force?" - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  956.70443 J67w

Jones, Laurence W.  The Persian Gulf War:  A Case Study in Just War.  Duke University, NC, Duke University Divinity School, 1998.  138 p. (Masters Thesis)
Book call no.:  956.70442 J778p

Just War and Jihad:  Violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, edited by R. Joseph Hoffman.   Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2006.  303 p.
"
The papers collected in this volume represent the independent and considered thinking of internationally known scholars from a variety of disciplines concerning the relationship between religion and violence, with special reference to the theories of "'just war' and 'jihad,' technical terms that arise in connection with the theology of early medieval Christianity and early Islam, respectively." - Product Description
Book call no.:  201.7273 J96

Just War in Comparative Perspective,
edited by Paul Robinson.  Aldershot, England, Ashgate, 2003.  233 p.
"The contributors to this book analyse how the different cultures, religions, and nations of the world justify war, and the limits which these groups place on the conduct of wars." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 J961

Just War Theory:  A Reprisal, edited by Mark Evans.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.  237 p.
"This book addresses the criticisms and explores new angles to just war thinking, analysing its practical adequacy in the face of modern-day realities.  It is written with the aim of stimulating debate and recasting or revivifying critical reservations, but also powerfully demonstrating how just war theory cannot be ignored if we take seriously the moral questions that warfare forces upon us." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 J964

Kane, Brian M.  Just War and the Common Good:  Jus Ad Bellum Principles in Twentieth Century Papal Thought.  San Francisco, Catholic Scholars Press, 1997.  224 p.
"This important work is an examination and documentation of the 20th century papal tradition on war.  Professor Kane argues that the papacy believes in a limited self-defense, and promote a just society based on a natural law understanding of the common good." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  241.6242 K16j

Kelsay, John.  Arguing the Just War in Islam.  Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2007.  263 p.
"This book provides a systematic account of how Islam's central texts interpret jihad, guiding us through the historical precedents and Qur'anic sources upon which today's claims to doctrinal truth and legitimate authority are made.  In illuminating the broad spectrum of Islam's moral considerations of the just war, Kelsay helps Muslims and non-Muslims alike make sense of the possibilities for future war and peace." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  297.5 K29a

Kinsella, David Todd.  Regime Change:  Origins, Execution, and Aftermath of the Iraq War. 2nd ed.  Delmont, CA, Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007.  49 p.
Was This a Just War?  pp 26-35.
Book call no.:  956.70443 K56r

Kosovo-Serbia:  A Just War?  Commack, NY, Nova Science, 1999.  275 p.
Chapter 14:  Kosovo and NATO:  Selected Issues of International Law, by David M. Ackerman.
Book call no.:  949.7103 K862

The Legitimate Use of Military Force:  The Just War Tradition and the Customary Law of Armed Conflict, edited by Howard M. Hensel.  Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2008.  300 p. (Justice, International Law and Global Security)
"When is it appropriate to resort to the use of armed force in the resolution of disputes within and between states?  If the use of force is, indeed, deemed to be legitimate, what constraints, if any, should govern its actual use?  The purpose of this volume is to attempt to provide some perspective as we attempt to address these timeless and vexing questions." - Introduction
Book call no.:  172.42 L514

MacDonald, David R.  Padre E. C. Crosse & "The Devonshire Epitaph:"  The Astonishing Story of One Man at the Battle of the Somme.  South Bend, IN, Cloverdale Books, 2007.  100 p.
"This work uncovers the war diaries of British Army Chaplain E. C. Crosse who was assigned to the 8th & 9th Devonshire Regiments at the Battle of the Somme in 1916.  It offers new insights into the history of the period and highlights some antecedents to today’s Just War Dialogue. It includes previously unpublished photographs from the Somme" - Abstract
Book call no.:  940.4272 M1351p

Mastnak, Tomaz.  Crusading Peace:  Christendom, the Muslim World, and Western Political Order.  Berkeley, CA, 2002.  406 p.
"Mastnak traces the ways that eleventh-century peace movements, seeking to end violence among Christians, shaped not only power structures within Christendom but also the relationship of the Western Christian world to the world outside." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  909.07 M423c

May, Larry.  War Crimes and Just War.  Cambridge, NY, Cambridge University Press, 2007.  343 p.
"
Throughout, May demonstrates that the principle of humaneness in the cornerstone of international humanitarian law and is itself the basis of the traditional principles of discrimination, necessity, and proportionality.  He draws extensively on the older Just War tradition to assess recent cases from the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia as well as examples of atrocities from the archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross." - Book Jacket
Book call no.: 172.42 M466w

Moral Constraints on War:  Principles and Cases
, edited by Bruno Coppieters and Nick Fotion.  2nd ed.   Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2008.  328 p.
"Offers a principle-by-principle presentation of the transcultural roots of the ethics of war in an age defined by the increasingly international nature of military intervention.  Parts I and II trace the evolution of Just War Theory, analyzing the principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello:  the principles that determine under what conditions a war may be started and then conducted." - Annotation
Book call no.: 172.42 M828 2008

Nazir-Ali, Michael.  Conviction and Conflict:  Islam, Christianity and World Order.  New York, Continuum, 2006.  186 p.
Chapter 6:  Some Issues in Dialogue Today II:  The Relationship of Religion to Law, Shari'a, Jihad, Just War and Fundamental Freedoms.
Book call no.: 261.27 N335c

Neo-Conned!  Just War Principles:  A Condemnation of War in Iraq.
 Vienna, VA, Light in the Darkness Publications, 2005.  447 p.
"The essays and interviews in Neo-Conned! dissect the moral aspects of the war in Iraq with unparalleled precision and candor, while the appendices explain just-war doctrine and conscientious objection in absolutely orthodox terms.  Together they represent the best in contemporary political analysis." - Summary
Book call no.:  956.704431 N438a

O'Driscoll, Cian.  The Renegotiation of the Just War Tradition and the Right to War in the Twenty-First Century.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.  232 p.
"This book examines the manner by which the just war tradition has been invoked, engaged, and developed in the context of the war on terror.  In particular, it directs our attention to the questions of anticipatory war, humanitarian intervention, and punitive war, and looks to compare current thinking on these issues to classical ideas about when and how war might be justified.  In doing so, it challenges us to reflect upon the renegotiation of the right to war that is taking place in the post-9/11 world, while also illuminating the stories of change, continuity, and contestation that underpin the ongoing development of the just war tradition." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 O27r

Orend, Brian.  Michael Walzer on War and Justice.  Montreal, Canada, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2000.  226 p.
In Michael Walzer on War and Justice Brian Orend offers the first clear and comprehensive look at Walzer's entire body of work.  He deals with controversial subjects -- from bullets, blood, and bombs to the distribution of money, political power, and health care -- and surveys both the national and the international fields of justice. - Annotation
Book call no.:  172.42 O66m

Orend, Brian.  The Morality of War.  Orchard Park, NY, Broadview Press, 2006.  289 p.
Book call no.:  172.42 O66ma

Patterson, Eric.  Just War Thinking:  Morality and Pragmatism in the Struggle Against Contemporary Threats.  Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2007.  131 p.
"This book argues that a political ethic of responsibility should motivate the contemporary application of military force by states in order to protect international security and human life.  Just War Thinking criticizes the quasi-pacifism of most formal just war scholarship, reconceptualizes a minimal, realistic 'just war thinking' framework for exploring foreign and military policy options, and evaluates the usefulness of this approach by investigating contemporary cases such as the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq, the call for assassination of political leaders, and military humanitarian intervention." - Summary
Book call no.:  172.42 P317j

Pfaff, Tony.  Peacekeeping and the Just War Tradition.  Carlisle Barracks, PA,  Army War College. Strategic Studies Institute, 2000.  33 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA386144
Book call no.:  172.42 P523p

The Price of Peace:  Just War in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Charles Reed and David Ryall.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007.  340 p.
"A re-examination of the Just War tradition in the context of the twenty-first century. " - Summary
Book call no.:  172.42 P946

Ramsey, Paul.  The Just War:  Force and Political Responsibility.  Updated ed.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.  554 p.
"
The Just War begins with the assumption that force is a fact in political life which must either be reckoned with or succumbed to.  It then grapples with modern challenges to traditional moral principles of just conduct in war, the morality of deterrence, and a just war theory of statecraft." - Summary
Book call no.:  261.63 R183j 2002

Responding to Terrorism:  Political, Philosophical and Legal Perspectives,
edited by Robert Imre and others.  Burlington, VT, Ashgate, 2008.  239 p.
Offers "a series of 'meditations' on some of the key issues related to contemporary terrorism from their respective disciplinary perspectives of politics, philosophy, and law.  With the exception of the first section, on terrorism's causes and cures, to which only Imre and Clarke contribute, each of the remaining sections contain three separate essays from each of them.  These sections address whether torture is an effective response to terrorism; whether international terrorism is an inevitable consequence of globalization; and public/social policy, social engineering, and just war aspects of counter-terrorism." - Summary
Book call no.:  363.325  I34r

Rethinking the Just War Tradition,
edited by Michael W. Brough and others.  Albany, NY, New York Press, 2007.  265 p.
"The diverse topics considered include war and the environment, justice in the ending of war, U.S. military hegemony, a general theory of just armed-conflict principles, supreme emergencies, the distinction between combatants and noncombatants, child soldiers, the moral equality of all soldiers, targeted assassination, preventive war, right authority, and armed humanitarian intervention. This book illustrates how the just war tradition can be rethought and applied today." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42  R438

Rockwood, Lawrence.  Walking Away from Nuremberg:  Just War and the Doctrine of Command Responsibility.  Amherst, MA, University of Massachusetts Press, 2007.  223 p.
Chapter 1:  Just War Doctrine and General Order No. 100.
Book call no.:  172.42 R684w

Ryan, David.  Frustrated Empire:  US Foreign Policy, 9/11 to Iraq.  Ann Arbor, MI, Pluto Press, 2007.  208 p.
Chapter 4:  War and Just War: Terrorism and Afghanistan.
Book call no.:  956.70443 R988f

The Sacred and the Sovereign:  Religion and International Politics,
edited by John D. Carlson and Erik C. Owens.  Washington, Georgetown University Press, 2003.  290 p.
Chapter 4:  Just War, Realism, and Humanitarian Intervention, by Jean Bethke Elshtain.
Book call no.:  201.727 S123

Security and the War on Terror, edited by Alex J. Bellamy and others.  New York, Rutledge, 2008.  235 p.
"This edited volume provides new dimensions to the debate on global terrorism by opening up interdisciplinary conversations between hitherto unexplored strategic, economic, ethical and legal approaches, which offer important and practically relevant opportunities to rethink how states can respond to terrorist threats.  The book uses these sources of insight to examine the nature and meaning of security in a rapidly changing world." - Annotation
Book call no.:  909.831 S446

Steffan, Lloyd H.  Holy War, Just War:  Exploring the Moral Meaning of Religious Violence. Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.  301 p.
"Holy War, Just War explores the dark side in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism by examining how the concept of ultimate value contributes to religious violence." - Annotation
Book call no.:  201.72 S817h

Stout, Harry S.  Upon the Altar of the Nation:  A Moral History of the American Civil War.  New York, Viking, 2006.  552 p.
"When the nation tore itself apart during the Civil War, both sides marched under the banner of God. The nation's great internal test required not only a war of troops but also a war of ideas, as the Union and Confederacy each strained to establish a legitimate identity as a moral nation.  In this bold and original book, Harry Stout looks at the words and deeds of both sides, asking how their actual conduct can be judged against the enduring rules of society." - Annotation
Book call no.:  973.71 S889u

Temes, Peter S.  The Just War:  An American Reflection on the Morality of War in Our Time.  Chicago, Ivan R. Dee, 2003.  217 p.
"The Just War offers a critical history of Just War thinking, beginning with ancient epics and extending through American responses to the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the war against Iraq.  More than a challenging new appraisal of the history of Just War, Peter Temes’s book proposes a radically new vision of Just War thinking, one that respects the received tradition but takes account of the moral experience of today’s world." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 T279j

Terrorism and International Relations, edited by Daniel S. Hamilton.  Lisbon, Portugal, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and Washington, Center for Transatlantic Relations, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2006.  239 p.
Papers from an international conference held 25 and 26 October 2005, Lisbon, Portugal.
Book call no.:  303 .625 T32822

Terrorism and Justice:  Moral Argument in a Threatened World,
edited by C.A.J. Coady and Michael P. O'Keefe.  Carlton South, Victoria, Australia, Melbourne University Press.  2002.  144 p.
Terrorism, Just War and Supreme Emergency by C.A.J. Coady, pp 8-21.
Book call no.:  303.625 T32821

Varzi, Roxanne.  Warring Souls:  Youth, Media, and Martyrdom in Post-Revolution Iran.  Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 2006.  290 p.
Chapter 7:  "The Ghost in the Machine:  (Just War?) Remainders and Reminders of War." - Annotation
Book call no.:  302.2308350955 V327w

 Walzer, Michael.  Arguing about War.  New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2004.  208 p.
"The essays in the book are divided into three sections.  The first deals with issues such as nuclear deterrence, humanitarian intervention, and terrorism.  The second consists of Walzer’s responses to particular wars, including the first Gulf War and the wars in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq.  And in the third Walzer imagines a future in which war might play a less significant part in our lives.  In his introduction to the book, Walzer explains that his thinking has changed over time."  "Written during a period of intense debates over the proper use of armed force, this book gets to the heart of difficult problems and argues persuasively for a moral perspective on war." - Books Jacket
Book call no.:  172.42 W242a

Walzer, Michael.  Just and Unjust Wars:  A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations.  4th ed.  New York, Basic Books, 2006.  361 p.
"Michael Walzer examines the moral issues surrounding military theory, war crimes, and the spoils of war.  He studies a variety of conflicts over the course of history, as well as the testimony of those who have been most directly involved-participants, decision makers, and victims.  In his new introduction, he specifically addresses the moral issues surrounding the war in and occupation of Iraq.  In this new edition, Walzer reminds us that "the argument about war and justice is still a political and moral necessity." - Book Jacket
Book call no.:  355.02 W242j 2006

War and Morality:  Proceedings of a RUSI Conference:  'Morality in Asymmetric War and Intervention Operations', edited by Patrick Mileham.  London, Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies, 2004.  172 p. (Whitehall Paper)
Conference held on 19-20 September 2002.  Includes a new section on the Iraq war and its aftermath.
Book call no.:  172.42 W2531

The West at War, edited by Bradley C. S. Watson.  Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2006.  222 p.
Chapter 7:  The Christian Just War Tradition:  Neither Niebuhr nor Yoder, by David D. Corey.
Book call no.:  909.09821 W516

Zawati, Hilmi. Is Jihad a Just War?  War, Peace and Human Rights under Islamic and Public International Law.  Lewiston, NY, E. Mellen Press, 2001.  218 p. (Studies in Religion and Society, v. 53)
"Zawati's treatise on the meaning of jihad may find a readership beyond the anticipated academic audience.  The West's misunderstanding of the term is described before Zawati (Islamic studies, Bishop's U.) delves into his meticulous analysis of the definition and traditional interpretation of jihad.  The sources for the study are the author's extensive research of primary documents of Islamic theology as well as secondary sources." - Annotation
Book call no.:  297.72 Z39i

Zupan, Daniel S.  War, Morality, and Autonomy:  An Investigation in Just War Theory.  Burlington, VT, Ashgate Publishing, 2004.  165 p.
"Contributes to the ongoing project to impose constraints on the use of force, that is, to delineate the character of just war and just conduct in war.  Though taking the existing just war tradition and the assumptions embodied within it as a starting point, he also challenges some of those assumptions, points out some of the tensions within the tradition, and tries to resolve them." - Annotation
Book Call no.:  172.42 Z95v


Documents


Huggins, Peter Watson.  Trans-State Actors and the Law of War:  A Just War Argument.  Washington, 2003.  283 p. (Thesis, PhD. Georgetown University)
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415358
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43567-991

Roblyer, Dwight A.   Beyond Precision:  Issues of Morality and Decision Making in Minimizing Collateral Casualties.  Maxwell, AFB, AL, Air University Press, April 2003.  40 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA424627
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42252-91 R666b


Documents (Student Research)

Ahrens, David A.  Christianity's Contribution to Just War Tradition.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1999.  30 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA363087
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 A287c

Al Buainin, Ali A.  Just War Tenets and Economic Sanctions.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2002.  22 p.
"It is the purpose of this paper to show that for thousands of year and in every corner of the global warriors have clashed and for over two centuries they have had clear order to apply, as well as maintain various rules.  It is also to illustrate that religious leader in Islamic and Christian societies influenced jus ad bellum (just war) and jus in bello (conduct In war)." - Summary
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 A345j

Arantz, Christopher A.  "Just War" Case Study:  Israeli Invasion of Lebanon in 1982.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2002.  54 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA403595
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 A662j

Blaher, J. Andrew.  Preemption:  Making America More Secure?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2004.  22 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA423375
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B633p

Braun, Jamieson D.  Explorations on Just War:  Has It Ever Existed?  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2006.  35 p.
"Because Just War Doctrine decrees that for a war to exist justly all tenets must be followed, the thesis provides considerable evidence that for the last 100 years Just War Doctrine has not been adhered to.  With the changing dimensions of warfare by terrorists, state and rogue actors, and increased interconnectedness through globalization, Just War may never be as relevant as it was in the early years of its existence." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA451301
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B8252e

Chester, Kemp L.  Rights and Wrongs:  Adopting Legitimacy as the Tenth Principle of War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS,  School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2000.  59 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA391149
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 C525r

Chiarenza, David C.  Moral Warfare in Counterinsurgency Operations.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, May 2007.  43 p.
"Explores the moral level of war in the context of Operation Iraqi Freedom and the larger framework of counterinsurgency operations." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470669
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 C532m

Dahl, Lawrence O.  Just War and Preemption Strategic Legitimacies.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, November 2004.  20 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA431803
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 D131j

Davis, Charles E., III.  Preemptive Attack:  Just War and the United States Role in Protecting the World from Rogue States' Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2000.  29 p.
"In light of the concept of Just War and the moral traditions and ethical history of the West how likely is it that the United States would execute a preemptive strike on known stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction?" - Summary 
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 D2612p

Davis, Maxie Y.  Ethical Considerations of Computer Network Attack in Information Warfare.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2001.  43 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401168
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 D263e

Howell, Abigail S.  Operational Ethics in Coalition Warfare:  Whose Ethics Will Prevail?  A Philosophical/Theological Conundrum.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2002.  1 vol.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA405892
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 H859o

Hughes, Johnathan B.  Choosing a Moral Framework for the War on Terror.  Maxwell AFB, AL, School of Advanced Airpower Studies.  June 2002.  85 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420584
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43998-1 H893c

Johnson, Michael W.  Clausewitz on Kosovo.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2000.  79 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA390468
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 J68c

Johnson, Michael W.  Just-War Theory and Future Warfare.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 1999.  147 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA383941
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 J684j

Lang, Kenneth M.  Advanced Military Technologies and the Morality of Modern Warfare.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2003.  22 p.
"Despite the emergence of these technologies and their refinement over the past decades the employment of these capabilities raise serious moral issues by those mandating a type of ’just warfare.’  Specifically, do advanced military technologies contribute to fighting a more moral war?  Second, what should the rules be for using advanced military technologies in fighting modern wars?  Last, and perhaps the most important question is, are those countries in possession of advanced military technologies obligated to fight on the ’moral high-ground?’" - Abstract.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 L269a

Lee, Guy M.  Ethical Considerations for Islamic Insurgency Movements:  A Case Study of the Algerian Civil War, 1992-1998.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, April 2001.  56 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401435
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 L478e

McInnis, Joseph M.  Operation Iraqi Freedom:  An Unjust War.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, February 2004.  24 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA424250
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 M152o

Mangum, Kevin W.  Maintaining the Legal High Ground:  The Legal Implications of Using Armed Force to Combat Terrorism.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2003.  43 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415820
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 M277m

Mattox, John Mark.  The Ethics of Military Deception.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 1998.  117 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA350010
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 M444e

Murray, Scott F.  The Moral and Ethical Implications of Precision-Guided Munitions.  Maxwell AFB, AL, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, March 2007.  88 p.
"This work explores the relationship between one of the most significant military developments to emerge in the past century, namely, aerial precision guided munitions and their relationship with the just-war tradition." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488535
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43998-1 M984m

Pitts, Teresa M.  Cultural, Religious, and Ideological Perspectives on the Just War Doctrine and the Customary Laws of Armed Conflict:  Western (Catholic) and Islam (Shiite).  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, February 2007.  26 p.
"This paper informs “western” military forces about the Islamic environment in the Middle East. It articulates similarities and differences between the Western and the Islamic perspectives of war and peace.  It defines to what degree Shiite leaders reflect these religious perspectives and then makes recommendations for strategic decision makers regarding the same." - Abstract
Also available online at:  https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2007/awc/Pitts.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 P688c

Soller, Daniel, E.  Operational Ethics:  Just War and Implications for Contemporary American Warfare.   Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, May 2003.  46 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA416030
Doc. call no. M-U  42022-2 S688o

Swift, Jerry.  The Teaching of Morality in Warfighting and Today's Officer Corps.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2001.  21 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA407876
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 S977t

Thyne, Kari. A.  America's Moral Heritage:  Implications for Detainees at Camp Delta.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2003.  41 p.
"After a brief overview that highlights how moral theories are inextricably part of the moral foundation of America because of their influence on the Founding Fathers, the focus of this paper will be on an emerging body of literature that is forging an expansion of the just war tradition. - Abstract
Doc. call no.:  M-U  43122 T5491a

Townsend, Bruce C.  Space Weaponization in the 21st Century:  A Global Protection Shield.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2002.  30 p.
"The U.S., and the rest of the world, has become irreversibly dependent on space and this dependency has become a critical vulnerability. Several of the threats to our space assets are discussed along with some current and near-term capabilities to counter them.  The ethical and legal justifications of using these technologies are critically examined through the filters of Just War Theory and the constraints of international treaties." - Abstract
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 T747s

Vasta, Robert J.  Are Preemptive Attacks Morally Bankrupt?  Carlisle Barracks, PA. Army War College. March 2004.  24 p.
"This project considered the moral/ethical implications of the US National Security Strategy policy of preemptive military actions.  Using the just war framework as a basis, this project examined both the policy and the specific military action in Iraq by considering the just cause, proportionality, and legitimate authority criteria." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA424251
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 V341a

Zajac, Daniel L.  The Best Defense Is a Good Offense:  Preemption, Ramifications for the Department of Defense.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2003.  38 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415796
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 Z211b


Periodicals


Alkopher, Tal D.  The Social Open (and Religious) Meanings That Constitute War:  The Crusades as Realpolitik vs. Socialpolitik.  International Studies Quarterly 49:715-738 December 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18785286&site=ehost-live

Bell, Daniel M., Jr.  In War and in Peace.  Christian Century 122:26-33 September 6, 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18147129&site=ehost-live

Benbaji, Yitzhak.  A Defense of the Traditional War Convention.  Ethics 118:464-495 April 2008.
"Examines the concept of a just war and traditional war convention, as articulated by Michael Walzer.  This idea is referred to as Hobbesian and criticized by many including Jeff McMahan.  The author counters his arguments and defends the moral equity of soldiers and the collectivized morality of war." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=33608277&site=ehost-live

Bosco, David.  Reconciling Two U.S. Tacks.  Christian Science Monitor, p O-9, February 11, 2003.
"Those on the lookout for hypocrisy in U.S. foreign policy have found ample material in the divergent approaches to today's twin foreign policy crises, Iraq and North Korea." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9063652&site=ehost-live

Bouchet-Saulnier, Francoise.  Just War, Unjust Means?  World Today 58:26-28 August-September 2002.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=147487011&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD  

Brown, Gary D.  Proportionality and Just War.  Journal of Military Ethics 2:117-185 November 2003.
Studies proportionality as an important factor in the just war theory.
Also also online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11426400&site=ehost-live

Butler, Michael J.  U.S. Military Intervention in Crisis, 1945-1994:  An Empirical Inquiry of Just War TheoryJournal of Conflict Resolution 47:226-248 April 2003.
Reports the conclusions of an investigation of the just war theory.
Also available online at:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3176168

Calhoun, Laurie.  Injustice of 'Just Wars,'  Peace Review 12:449-455 September 2000.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=3711662&site=ehost-live

Calhoun, Laurie.  Legitimate Authority and "Just War" in the Modern World.  Peace and Change 27:37-62 January 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5854678&site=ehost-live

Casebeer, William D.  Just War Theory and the Purposes of Intelligence.  Defense Intelligence Journal 16, no.1:49-60 2007.
"The article focuses on the "just war theory" as a guide in formulating a philosophy of ethics for intelligence work.  There are generally accepted principles for moral reasoning on when a society may justly go to war and what means it can pursue in waging war.  These principles can serve as a guide for intelligence officers in their work.  The secrecy that must accompany espionage and intelligence in general make the creation of such a moral framework essential." - Abstract

Ceulemans, Carl.  The Moral Equality of Combatants.  Parameters 37:99-109 Winter 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=28334223&site=ehost-live

Christiansen, Drew.  Whither the 'Just War'?  America 188:7-11 March 24, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9327655&site=ehost-live

Colson, Charles.  Just War in Iraq.  Christianity Today 46:72 December 9, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=8596148&site=ehost-live

Cook, Martin L.  Michael Walzer's Concept of 'Supreme Emergency.'  Journal of Military Ethics 6:138-151 June 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25729095&site=ehost-live

Cook, Martin L.  Terrorism and 'Just War':  Moral Challenges.  Christian Century 118:22-23 November 14, 2001.
Part of a special section on the just use of military force against terrorism.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5534540&site=ehost-live

Crawford, Neta C.  Principia Leviathan:  The Moral Duties of American Hegemony.  Naval War College Review 57:67-90 Summer-Autumn 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15287965&site=ehost-live

Crawley, Vince.  Would War with Iraq Be Ethical?  Air Force Times 63:21 November 4, 2002.

Cresswell, M. J.  Legitimizing Force:  A Lockean Account.  Armed Forces & Society 30:629-648 Summer 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15200964&site=ehost-live

Daryl, Charles J.  Presumption Against War or Presumption Against Injustice?  The Just War Tradition Reconsidered.  Journal of Church & State 47:335-369 Spring 2005.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17396528&site=ehost-live

DeCamp, William T.  The Big Picture:  A Moral Analysis of Allied Force in Kosovo.  Marine Corps Gazette 84:42-44 February 2000.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=49723355&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Decosse, David E.   Authority, Lies, and War:  Democracy in the Development of Just War Theory.  Theological Studies 67:378-394 June 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20961474&site=ehost-live

Dipert, Randall.  Preventive War and the Epistemological Dimension of the Morality of War.  Journal of Military Ethics 5:32-54 January 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20189706&site=ehost-live

Douglas, Mark.  Changing the Rules:  Just War Theory in the Twenty-First Century.  Theology Today 59:529-546 January 2003.
"Discusses the tradition and theory  underlying the notion of a just war in Western civilization." - Summary
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=334490121&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Dowd, Chris.  Unjust & IndefensibleCommonweal 133:16-21 October 6, 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22697858&site=ehost-live

Downes, Alexander B.  Desperate Times, Desperate Measures:  The Causes of Civilian Victimization in War.  International Security 30:152-195 Spring 2006.

Elshtain, Jean B.  Terrorism and 'Just War':  Seeking Justice.  Christian Century 118:26-27 November 14, 2001.
Part of a special section on the just use of military force against terrorism.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5534546&site=ehost-live

Elshtain, Jean B.  Tightly Tied to the New Iraq.  Foreign Policy 148:66-68 May-June 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16808870&site=ehost-live

Evans, Gareth.  When Is It Right to Fight?  Survival 46:59-81 Autumn 2004.

Falk, Richard.  Ends and Means:  Defining a Just War.  Nation 273:11-14 October 29, 2001.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5408720&site=ehost-live

Falk, Richard.  In Defense of 'Just War' Thinking.  Nation 273:23-26 December 24, 2001.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5806472&site=ehost-live

Farer, Tom.  Un-Just War Against Terrorism and the Struggle to Appropriate Human RightsHuman Rights Quarterly 30:356-403 May 2008.

Fink, Susan D.  The Trouble with Mixed Motives:  Debating the Political, Legal, and Moral Dimensions of Intervention.  Naval War College Review 57:19-32 Summer-Autumn 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15287934&site=ehost-live

Foster, Gregory D.  Just War Doctrine in an Age of Hyperpower Politics.  Humanist 64:23-25 March-April 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12336037&site=ehost-live

Foster, Gregory D.  Just-War Doctrine:  Lessons from Iraq.  Commonweal 130:11-12 August 15, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10652240&site=ehost-live

Franco, Massimo.  Papal Rebuke:  The Vatican vs. Pre-Emptive War.  Survival 46:38-39 Spring 2004.

George, Robert P.  A Just War in Iraq.  Wall Street Journal, p A-14, December 6, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000254313391&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Gingras, Jeffrey L. and Ruby, Tomislav Z.  Morality and Modern Air War.  Joint Force Quarterly 25:107-111 Summer 2000.
Also available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/1725.pdf

Gushee, David P.  Just War Divide.  Christian Century 119:26-28 August 14, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7215672&site=ehost-live

Hall, Mitchell.  Why Leaders Need a Morality CheckU. S. Naval Institute Proceedings 132:68-70 April 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=20412283&site=ehost-live

Hassner, Ron E.  Islamic Just War Theory and the Challenge of Sacred Space in IraqJournal of International Affairs 61:131-152 Fall-Winter 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=28057539&site=ehost-live

Hennenberger, Melinda.  The Vatican on Just Wars.  New York Times 151:(Section 4 p.3) September 30, 2001.
Features the stand of Pope John Paul II and the Vatican regarding the campaign of the United States against terrorism.

Himes, Kenneth R.  Intervention, Just War, and U.S. National Security.  Theological Studies 65:141-157 March 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12326197&site=ehost-live

Hoffman, Michael H.  Rescuing the Law of War:  A Way Forward in an Era of Global Terrorism.  Parameters 35:18-35 Summer 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=17207761&site=ehost-live

Holbrooke, Richard.  Just and Unjust Wars:  A Diplomat's Perspective.  Social Research 69:915-924 Winter 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9033488&site=ehost-live

Hunsinger, George.  Iraq:  Don't Go There.  Christian Century 119:10-11 August 14, 2002.
Examines just war theories concerning a preemptive strike by the U.S. against Iraq.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7215596&site=ehost-live

Iasiello, Louis V.  Jus Post Bellum:  The Moral Responsibilities of Victors in War.  Naval War College Review 57:33-52 Summer-Autumn 2004.
"Examines a relatively undeveloped aspect of just war theory, jus post bellum, or the post-battle considerations of war." - Summary
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15287944&site=ehost-live

Ignatieff, Michael.  The Challenges of American Imperial Power.  Naval War College Review 56:53-63 Spring 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=9619547&site=ehost-live

Johnson, James T.  Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq:  Just War in International Law Perspectives.  Journal of Military Ethics 5:114-127 June 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20917317&site=ehost-live

Johnson, James T.  Terrorism and 'Just War':  Authority and Intention.  Christian Century 118:27-29 November 14, 2001.
Part of a special section on the just use of military force against terrorism.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5534552&site=ehost-live

Kamm, F. M.  Failures of Just War Theory: Terror, Harm, and Justice.  Ethics 114:650-692 July 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14360330&site=ehost-live

Kasher, Asa.  The Principle of DistinctionJournal of Military Ethics 6:152-167 June 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25729094&site=ehost-live

Kavanaugh, John R.  Propagandizing War.  America 187:19 September 9, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7333466&site=ehost-live

Kellogg, Davida E.  Jus Post Bellum:  The Importance of War Crimes Trials.  Parameters 32:87-99 Fall 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=7355258&site=ehost-live

Kibble, David G.  Finding the Moral High Ground in Iraq and Beyond.  US Naval Institute Proceedings 128:62-65 December 2002.
"Focuses on the opinion of various international communities on the appropriateness of military action by the US against Iraq to counter Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's buildup of weapons of mass destruction." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=8750702&site=ehost-live

Lampman, Jane.  Morality and War.  Christian Science Monitor 93:14 October 11, 2001.
"Discusses how the just war theory in the West, which originated in Christian teachings before its adoption by secular governments, has much in common with Islamic teaching on jihad of the sword." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5317410&site=ehost-live

Lango, John W.  Collective Security and the Goals of IntelligenceDefense Intelligence Journal 16, no.1:19-31 2007.

Levite, Ariel E. and Sherwood-Randall, Elizabeth.  The Case for Discriminate Force.  Survival 44:81-97 Winter 2002-2003.

Lopez, George A.  Iraq and Just War Thinking.  Commonweal 129:14-15 September 27, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7486164&site=ehost-live

Lucas, George R., Jr.  The Morality of 'Military Anthropology.'  Journal of Military Ethics 7:165-185 November 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34011175&site=ehost-live

Lucas, George R., Jr.  The Role of the 'International Community' in Just War Tradition - Confronting the Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention and Preventive War.  Journal of Military Ethics 2:122-144 June 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=10724890&site=ehost-live

McCormick, Patrick T.  Violence:  Religion, Terror, War.  Theological Studies 67:143-162 March 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19906964&site=ehost-live

McGinty, Michael.  That Was the War That Was:  International Law, Pre-Emption and the Invasion of Iraq.  RUSI Journal 148:20-25 June 2003.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=508011981&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

McMahan, Jeff.  War as Self-Defense.  Ethics & International Affairs 18, no.1:75-80 2004.
Argues that the traditional just war theory should be revised.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12078560&site=ehost-live

McPherson, Lionel K.  Is Terrorism Distinctively Wrong?  Ethics 117:524-546 April 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25481930&site=ehost-live

Martinelli-Fernandez, Susan.  Educating Honorable Warriors Journal of Military Ethics 5:55-66 January 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20189705&site=ehost-live

Mattox, John M.  The Clausewitzian Trinity in the Information Age:  A Just War ApproachJournal of Military Ethics 7:202-214 November 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=34011173&site=ehost-live

Miller, Richard B.  Aquinas and the Presumption Against Killing and War.  Journal of Religion 82:173-204 April 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6579893&site=ehost-live

Minami, Wayde.  World Left with Brutal Decision on Possible Invasion of Iraq.  Air Force Times 63:54 November 18, 2002.

The Moral Imperative.  Economist 366:54 March 1, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9201378&site=ehost-live

Muldoon, James.  Francisco De Vitoria and Humanitarian Intervention.  Journal of Military Ethics 5:128-143 June 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20917322&site=ehost-live

Nichols, Thomas M.  Just War, Not Prevention.  Ethics & International Affairs 17, no.1: 25-29 2003.
Discusses just war theory as applied to the preemptive war in Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9448567&site=ehost-live

Oberleitner, Gerd.  A Just War Against Terror?  Peace Review 16:263-268 September 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14622390&site=ehost-live

Orend, Brian.  When Is War Justifiable?  Military History 24:18-19 October 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=26504113&site=ehost-live

Rauert, Tyler.  The Influence of Just War Perspectives:  Implications for U. S. Central CommandJoint Force Quarterly 50, no.3:73-78 2008.
Also available online at:  http://www.ndu.edu/inss/Press/jfq_pages/editions/i50/18.pdf

Record, Jeffrey.  The Use and Abuse of History:  Munich, Vietnam and IraqSurvival 49:163-180 Spring 2007.

Reichberg, Gregory.  Preemptive War.  Commonweal 131:9-10 January 30, 2004.
Discusses just war theory as applied to preemptive war.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12092967&site=ehost-live

Rengger, Nicholas.  On the Just War Tradition in the Twenty-First Century.  International Affairs 78:353-363 April 2002.
This article argues that the rebirth of interest in the just war tradition, both academically and practically, over the last few years rests on a shaky foundation.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6374395&site=ehost-live

Rodin, David.  Beyond National Defense.   Ethics & International Affairs 18, no.1:93-97 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12078565&site=ehost-live

Rodin, David.  Terrorism Without IntentionEthics 114:752-771 July 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14360691&site=ehost-live

Savoy, Paul.  The Moral Case Against the Iraq War.  Nation 278:16-19 May 31, 2004.
In the author's opinion the war in Iraq is unjust.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=13128694&site=ehost-live

Silverman, Adam L.  Just War, Jihad, and Terrorism:  A Comparison of Western and Islamic Norms for the Use of Political Violence.  Journal of Church and State 44:73-92 Winter 2002.
"Discusses just war theory, Islamic norms including shahadat (martyrdom), and the etiology of terrorism, focusing on Western and Islamic examples of recontextualization of just war and jihad in order to justify terrorism." - Abstract
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6532682&site=ehost-live

Skelly, James M.  On the Obsolescence of Just War and Military Neutrality.  Peace Review 13:115-120 March 2001.
"Focuses on the impact of the military actions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on the social and political conditions in Yugoslavia." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4363751&site=ehost-live

Stassen, Glen.  Terrorism and 'Just War':  Hearts and Minds.  Christian Century 118:24-25 November 14, 2001.
Part of a special section on the just use of military force against terrorism.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5534544&site=ehost-live

Sullivan, Andrew.  Yes, a War Would Be Moral.  Time 161:44 March 3, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=9161239&site=ehost-live

Terry, James P.  A Legal Appraisal of Military Action in Iraq.  Naval War College Review 57:53-66 Summer-Autumn 2004.
"Examines the right of states to enforce mandates issued by the Security Council and to redress violations of the edicts when the Council, as the body, refuses to do so." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15287955&site=ehost-live

War, Schemas, and Legitimation:  Analyzing the National Discourse about War.
  Harvard Law Review 119:2099-2120 May 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20881621&site=ehost-live 

Wester, Franklin E.  Preemption and Just War:  Considering the Case of Iraq.   Parameters 34:20-39 Winter 2004-2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15248462&site=ehost-live

When There Is No Peace.
 National Review 55:15-16 March 10, 2003.
Argues that war in Iraq would comply with the just war tradition.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9152151&site=ehost-live

Zinn, Howard.  A Just Cause, Not a Just War.  Progressive 65:16-19 December 2001.
Also available online at:   http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=5549803&site=ehost-live
 


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