NATIONAL  SECURITY  ACT  OF  1947


August  2007

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on January 27, 2009.


Internet Resources


Federation of American Scientists.  The Evolution of the U.S. Intelligence Community-An Historical Overview.  February 23, 1996.  22 p.
Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int022.html
Discusses the influence of the Ferdinand Eberstadt study (recommending military unification of intelligence functions and the establishment of the NSC and CIA) on the content of the National Security Act signed into law by President Truman on July 27, 1947.

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs:  Issues for Congress,  by Richard A. Best.  February 22, 2005.  30 p.
Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL32508.pdf
On p 17 the report details the responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense in intelligence as defined by the National Security Act.  On p 18 are listed the NIP programs managed by the Defense department.

Legislative History of P.L. 109-163:  National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006.  Lexis-Nexis, January 6, 2006.  1 p.
Available online at:  http://lexis-nexis.com
"Amends the National Security Act of 1947 to authorize the Defense Intelligence Agency to exempt its operational files from statutory requirements for disclosure of Government information."  To access the article, place the phrase "National Security Act" or "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006" in the search box on the Lexis-Nexis database link of the Muir S. Fairchild Research and Information Center home page.

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues, by Richard A. Best.  February 15, 2007.  45 p.
Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/94-261.pdf
The report analyzes the provisions of the National Security Act of 1947 and its amendments to date which affect intelligence spending.

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004, by Richard A. Best.  September 24, 2004.  44 p.
Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32500.pdf
Discussion of the National Security Act of 1947 as it affects the intelligence community  throughout the report.  On p 5  "A fundamental intent of this legislation was to coordinate, and to a certain extent centralize, the nascent intelligence efforts of the United States as an emergent superpower in the face of a hostile Soviet Union".  A predecessor of the 2004 report is an "Appendix C  CRS Report:   Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization 1949-1996" that is included in a 44 page report to the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives 104th Congress entitled "IC21:   The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century" at http://ftp.fas.org/irp/congress/1996_rpt/ic21/ic21018.htm .

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Terrorism:  Section by Section Analysis of the USA Patriot Act, by Charles Doyle.  Washington, CRS, December 10, 2001.  62 p.
Available online at:  http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/7952.pdf
On p 53 details how the Act amends the National Security Act of 1947.

Toward a Revolution in Intelligence Affairs, by Deborah G. Barger.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corp, 2005.  162 p.
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR242.pdf
The author analyzes how the National Security Act of 1947 affects intelligence activities today.

U.S. Department of State Freedom of Information Act Annual Report Fiscal Year 2005.  17 p.
Available online at:  http://foia.state.gov/anrept05.pdf
On p 5, 50 USC 403- 3(c)(7) protects intelligence sources and methods under National Security Act.

United States.  Goldwater-Nichols:  The Next Evolution-Reorganizing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, by Charles A. Wilson.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 9, 2002.  27 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404408
The Goldwater-Nichols reorganization Act of 1986 made significant changes to the United States military since the establishment of the DoD by the National Security Act of 1947.  "Goldwater-Nichols was designed to increase civilian control of the military, improve the military's advice to senior civilian leaders, improve military effectiveness, and to increase attention to the formulation of strategy and contingency planning."  "In 1947, a permanent Joint Chiefs was established by act of Congress, and in 1949, the position of chairman was created."  The author discusses the slow implementation of Goldwater-Nichols and the specifics of the National Security Act.

United States.  Toward Independence:  The Emergence of the U.S. Air Force 1945-1947, by Herman S. Wolk.  Air Force History and Museums Program, 40 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433273
Beginning on p 26, the author discusses the passage of the National Security Act and how it affected the formation of the Department of the Air Force.

United States.  Transforming the National Security Council:  Interagency Authority, Organization, Doctrine, by Clay O. Runzi.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, February 27, 2007.  19 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA467251
"Enabled through the National Security Act of 1947, the National Security Council (NSC) is the primary organization entrusted with the responsibility of interagency coordination.  Subject to Presidential preference and administration turnover, the utilization of the National Security Advisor and structure of his/her Council Staff in managing interagency responsibilities are subject to change and varying degrees of authority and organization."  The author discusses ways to make the NSC more responsive and responsible.

United States.  Central Intelligence Agency.  Directors of Central Intelligence as Leaders of the U.S. Intelligence Community.  336 p.
Available online at:  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/directors-of-central-intelligence-as-leaders-of-the-u-s-intelligence-community/chapter_1.htm
Has a Chronology of events crucial to the intelligence community (which includes DoD) pre- and post- the passage of the National Security Act of 1947.

United States.  Central Intelligence Agency.  Center for the Study of Excellence.  US Intelligence Community Reform Studies since 1947, by Michael Warner and J. Kenneth McDonald.  April 2005.  52 p.
Available online at:  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/US%20Intelligence%20Community%20Reform%20Studies%20Since%201947.pdf
On pp iii, "We have examined the origins, context, and results of 14 significant official studies that have surveyed the American intelligence system since 1947".  Page 7 further details the influential Eberstadt report as a tasking of the Hoover Commission.

United States.  Department of Defense.  American Forces Information Service
Available online at:  http://www.defenselink.mil/home/news_products.html
Placing the subject National Security Act of 1947 in the search box will provide information on "Legislation and Reform Initiatives" related to the Act.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Office of the Secretary of Defense.  Historical Office.  The Department of Defense 1947-1997, Organization and Leaders, by Roger R. Trask and Alfred Goldberg.   Washington, OSD Historical Office, November 26, 1997.  192 p.
"The National Security Act of 1947 established the Department of Defense (named the National Military Establishment between 1947 and 1949) as part of a new national security structure for the United States. ... a half century after James V Forrestal took the oath of office as the first secretary of defense, the Department of Defense marked its 50th anniversary on 17 September 1997.  The report discusses organizational issues, civil-military relations, the roles and missions of the armed forces, the positions of the service secretaries, and the organization and duties of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, especially its chairman.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA330985

United States.  Department of State.  Foreign Relations of the United States 1945-1950 Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment:  National Security Act of 1947
Available online at:  http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/intel/201_214.html

United States.  Department of State.  National Security Act of 1947
Available online at:  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/cwr/17603.htm

United States.  Department of the Army.  Unification of the United States Armed Forces:  Implementing the 1986 Department of Defense Reorganization Act, by Douglas Lovelace.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, August 6, 1996.  79 p.
Available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=324
On p 10 the author describes the National Security Act as the first attempt at defense unification legislation, albeit ineffective.  He discusses the amendments to the act and their effect upon power within the DoD.

United States.  House.  Intelligence Authorization Act for the Fiscal Year 2008.  110th Congress Report 110-131.  May 7, 2007.  95 p.
Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2007_rpt/hrpt110-131.pdf
"Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed."  Section 513 details amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, including an annual report to Congress detailing foreign language proficiency in the intelligence community.

United States Intelligence Community.  Unclassified National Security Act of 1947 Act OF July 26, 1947 (As Amended).  November 22, 2002.
Available online at:  http://www.intelligence.gov/0-natsecact_1947.shtml
"An Act to promote the national security by providing for a Secretary of Defense; for a National Military Establishment; for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Navy, and a Department of the Air Force; and for the coordination of the activities of the National Military Establishment with other departments and agencies of the Government concerned with the national security".


Books


Bansemer, John D.  Intelligence Reform:  A Question of Balance.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, August 2006.  172 p.
"On 22 July 2004 the 9/11 Commission released its report on the events surrounding the attacks of 11 September 2001.  The 9/11 Report renewed calls for reform of the intelligence community (IC), continuing a long series of intelligence reform efforts that began shortly after the National Security Act of 1947 laid the foundation of the modern IC."  Discussion of the National Security Act as it impacts the DoD community begins on p 41.
Also available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/aupress///Walker_Papers/PDF_Bin/bansemer.pdf
Book call no.:  353.170973 B219i

Dorwart, Jeffery M.  Eberstadt and Forrestal:  A National Security Partnership, 1909-1949.  College Station, TX, Texas A & M University Press, 1991.  237 p.
The book traces the working history of Eberstadt and Forrestal and their legacy in planning the nation's first National Security Plan.
Book call no.:  355.260973 D721e

United States.  Report to Chief of Staff, United States Army on Army and Air Force Organizational Matters Under Unification.  Washington, War Department, 1947.  1 vol.
"Hall Board report"--Cover.  Includes Congressional House Bill (H.R.2319), establishing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the National Security Council, etc. (National Security Act of 1947).  Letter of transmittal from the War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, signed by William E. Hall, MajGen, Hugh J. Knerr, MajGen, Charles L. Bolte, MajGen, S. L. Scott, BrigGen, and H. I. Hodes, BrigGen.
Book call no.:  355.30973 R425

United States.  Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (1947-1949).  Committee on the National Security Organization.  Eberstadt Report. National Security Organization.   Washington, GPO, 1949.   3 vols.
Report tasked by the Hoover Commission.  Eberstadt was a businessman.
Book call no.:  355 U586n

United States.  Committee on National Security Organization.  Report to the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government by the Committee on the National Security Organization.  Washington, Dept. of the Defense, 1948.  3 vols.
F. Eberstadt, chairman.  The first Secretary of Defense (James V. Forrestal) was on the committee with Eberstadt.  The report is considered a precursor to the passage of the National Security Act of 1947.
Book call no.:  353 U581r

United States.  Congress.  National Security Act of 1947 (Public Law 253, 80th Congress, July 26, 1947, 61 Stat. 495) as Amended.  Washington, GPO, 1953.  38 p.
Book call no.:  355 U58na

United States.  Congress.  House.  Committee on Government Operations.  National Security Act of 1947:   Hearing Before the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, First Session, on H.R. 2319, a Bill to Promote the National Security by Providing for a National Defense Establishment Which Shall Be Administered by a Secretary of National Defense and for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Navy and a Department of the Air Force Within the National Defense Establishment and for the Coordination of the Activities of the National Defense Establishment with Other Departments and Agencies of the Government Concerned with the National Security, June 27, 1947.  Washington, GPO, 1982.  194 p.
Book call no.:  353.6 C7491nb

United States.  Congress. House.  Committee on Government Operations.  National Security Act of 1947.  Hearings Before the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress, First Session, on H. R. 2319, a Bill to Promote the National Security by Providing for a National Defense Establishment Which Shall Be Administered by a Secretary of National Defense and for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Navy and a Department of the Air Force Within the National Defense Establishment and for the Coordination of the Activities of the National Defense Establishment with Other Departments and Agencies of the Government Concerned with the National Security.  Washington, GPO, 1947.  746 p.
Clare E. Hoffman, chairman.  Hearings held Apr. 2-July 1, 1947.
Book call no.:  353.6 U586n 1947

United States.  Congress.  Senate.  Committee on Armed Services.  Implementation of Title IV, National Security Act of 1947, As Amended; Interim Report of the Preparedness Subcommittee No. 3 of the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Under Authority of S. Res. 86, 83d Congress.   Washington, GPO, 1954.  25 p.
At head of title:  Committee print. 83d Cong., 1st  Sess.. Senate.
Book call no.:  355 U582i

United States.  Department of the Navy.  The National Security Act of 1947 and the Functions of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1954.  57 p.
Book call no.:  343.01 N277

United States.  Office of the Federal Register.  National Archives and Records Service.  General Services Administration.  United States Government Manual.  Washington, GSA, 2006-2007.  690 p.
On p 90 "The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947, as amended, and was placed in the Executive Office of the President by Reorganization Plan number 4 of 1949.  It advises and assists the President in integrating all aspects of national security policy as it affects the nation, in conjunction with the National Economic Council".  A listing for the Central Intelligence Agency is on p 366.  Both created by the National Security Act of 1947.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=21033265&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv
Book call no.:  353 Un3g

United States.  War Department.  Army-Air Force Agreements as to the Initial Implementation of the National Security Act of 1947.  (Subject to Approval of the Secretary of Defense), compiled by the Offices of the Deputy Chief of Staff and the Deputy Commander Army Air Forces.  Washington, War Dept., 1947.  49 p.
" ... the basic policies which will govern the establishment of the Department of the Air Force separate from the Department of the Army".
Book call no.:  353.8 U58a


Documents


Air University (U. S.) Air War College.  A Concept for the Future Organization of the U. S. Armed Forces, by Joseph R. Reeves.  Maxwell AFB, AL, AWC, March 1957.  29 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 R332c

Air University (U. S.).  Air War College.  Industrial Security Policy:   A Case History Study of Implementation of Department of Defense Directive 5200.13, by Reuben Podonsky.  Maxwell AFB, AL, AWC, April 1964.  108 p.  (Thesis 2597)
Addresses the National Security Act of 1947.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 P742i

Air University (U.S.).  Air War College.  Service Roles and Missions in the Missile Era,  by Robert G. Moll.  Maxwell AFB, AL, AWC, April 1959.  87 p.  (Thesis 1641)
Addresses the National Security Act of 1947.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 M726s

Campbell, Albert W.  Initial Problems Relating to the Unification of the Armed Forces.  Montgomery, AL, Maxwell AFB, March 1952.  22 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 C187i

Eberstadt, Ferdinand.  Unification of the War and Navy Departments and Post War Organization for National Security.  Washington, DC, GPO, 1945.  251 p.
At head of title:   79th Congress, 1st session, Senate Committee print.  Report tasked by the Hoover Commission and influential in the passage of the National Security Act of 1947.
Doc. call no.:  355 E16u

Fay, Elvir A.  The National Security Act Amendments--Unnecessary Legislation?  Montgomery, AL, Maxwell AFB, June 1966.  75 p.
Thesis no. 0450-66.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 35582-7 F282n

Horn, Thomas C.  A Concept for the Reorganization of the USAF (the Legislative Requirement).  Montgomery, AL, Maxwell AFB, May 1957.
Student Report.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 H813c

Huggins, Henry A.  Unification Developments in the United States Armed Services 1940-1958.  Montgomery, AL, Maxwell AFB, June 1965.  42 p.
Thesis no. 0636-65.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 35582-7 H891u

Jones, Ernest B.  Where Are We in Unification?  Montgomery, AL, Maxwell AFB, April 1954.  28 p.
Student report.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 J761w

United States.  Department of Defense.  Office of the Secretary of Defense.  Present Trend in the Assumption of Additional Functional, by Jerome P. Dufour.  Montgomery, AL, Maxwell AFB, May 1957.  37 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 32983 D861p

United States.  Department of the Army.  Interagency Coordination:   Picking-up Where Goldwater-Nichols Ended, by Floyd A. McKinney.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 7, 2006.  22 p.
"The current interagency structure is framed by the National Security Act (NSA) of 1947, which mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. Government."  "... The author states that "many in academia and government suggest subsequent legislations have unintentionally weakened the interagency process."  The author examines the key factors which led to the National Security Act of 1947 and assesses the current strategic environment.  He discusses similarities in the challenges confronting the United States following World War II and today, and concludes that the National Security Council is ill-equipped to deal with the challenges of the 21st century.  The paper concludes with "recommendations to enhance interagency coordination and experience."
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449263
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 M1581i

Fiore, Uldric L.  The Road not Taken:   Defense Secretariat Reform.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U. S. Army War College, 1998.  43 p.
On p viv the author states that the National Security Act of 1947 began the still incomplete process of defense unification and argues for more reform of the defense and service secretariats.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA344369
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 F518r

United States.  Naval Postgraduate School.  Congressional Intelligence Oversight:   Evolution In Progress 1947-2005, by Edwina Clare Reid.  Monterey, CA, NPS.  Dept of National Security Affairs, September 1, 2005.  77 p.
"From the creation of the Intelligence Community as part of the National Security Act of 1947 to present day, congressional oversight has varied depending on popular interest generated by media reports of scandal or due to perceived failures". The study posits that there are recurring recommended reforms, particularly the recommendation for the creation of a Director of National Intelligence and the need for greater congressional involvement.  Discussion of National Security Act begins on p 2.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA439590
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 R354c


Periodicals


Bender, Bryan.  Panel May Call for Reform of National Security Act.  Defense Daily 197:1 Oct 10, 1997.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=17590119&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Byrd, Robert C.  National Security Act of 1947:  A Role Model for Government Organization?  FDCH Press Releases 1 p, September 3, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=32X3733758840&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Callander, Bruce D.  In the Beginning, There Was Memo No. 6.  Air Force Magazine 85:53 December 2002.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=253814121&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Clinton, William J.  Proclamation 7021--50th Anniversary of the National Security Act of 1947.  Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 33:1339 Sep 22, 1997.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=19597151&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Feingold, Russ.  Russ Feingold on the Full Senate Intelligence Committ Being Briefed on the NSA Warrantless Wiretapping Program.  FDCH Press Releases 1 May 16, 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=32X1978326115&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Glines, C. V.  The Long Road to an Independent Air Force.  Aviation History 18:30-33 September 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25552010&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Janeway, Michael C.  The Tower Commission's Oversight.  New York Times A31 Mar 4, 1987.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=956744331&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Jehl, Douglas.  Bush Order Extends C.I.A. Director's Reach.  New York Times A13 Aug 28, 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=684800041&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Jehl, Douglas and Shanker, Thom.  Congress Is Reviewing Pentagon on Intelligence Activities.  New York Times A4 Feb 4, 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=788646701&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

McConnell, Mike.  Overhauling Intelligence.  Foreign Affairs 86:49-58 August 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25610515&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Scott, Peter Dale.  The CIA's Secret Powers Afghanistan, 9/11, and America's Most Dangerous Enemy.  Critical Asian Studies 35:233 June 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10184076&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Stevens, Terry D.  Merge the Army and Air Force? In Some Ways, It's Already Happening.  Army Times 66:46 April 10, 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=20523303&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Stuart, Douglas T.  Ministry of Fear:  The 1947 National Security Act in Historical and Institutional Context.  International Studies Perspectives 4:293-313 August 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10193788&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Tower Report:  On the Separation Of Powers.  Wall Street Journal   p1 Mar 4, 1987.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=27335936&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Ullman, Harlan.  Another Revolt of the Admirals?  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 133:8 February 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1219639941&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Ullman, Harlan.  A Goldwater-Nichols Bill for Government-Part Two  Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute 133:10 June 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1296666351&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Wolk, Herman S.  James Forrestal and Defense.  The Washington Post, p B6 June 6, 1999.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=42162635&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Wolk, Herman S.  The Quiet Coup of 1949  Air Force Magazine 82:76 July 1999.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=44326812&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD


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