NON-LETHAL WEAPONS


July 2005

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

For additional earlier information, see AUL bibliography NonLethal Weapons, June 1995.

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability. AU students and faculty can contact  AUL's  Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on August 17, 2005.


Internet Resources


Active Denial Technology. Air Force Research Laboratory,
Available online at: http://www.afrlhorizons.com/Briefs/Sept01/DE0101.html
AFRL scientists and sponsors from the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD) announced the existence of a revolutionary non-lethal directed energy technology called Active Denial Technology (ADT) at a Pentagon press conference in March 2001. The Marine Times said that ADT was potentially the biggest breakthrough in weapons technology since the atom bomb.

Allison, Graham and Kelley, Paul X. Nonlethal Weapons And Capabilities: Independent Task Force Report. Council on Foreign Relations, 2004.
Available online at: http://www.cfr.org/pdf/Nonlethal_TF.pdf
Report of an independent task force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations.

Amnesty International. Arming the Torturers: ElectroShock Torture and the Spread of Stun Technology..
Available online at: http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engACT400011997
Amnesty International has for many years opposed torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment of prisoners and detainees in all cases without reservation, and is therefore extremely concerned at reports indicating that the spread of hand-held electro-shock weapons amongst law enforcement officers is contributing to the incidence of torture and such ill-treatment.

Amnesty International. Cruelty in Control? The Stun Belt and Other Electro-Shock Equipment in Law Enforcement. 1999.
Available online at: http://www.amnestyusa.org/arms_trade/document.do?id=5E287F135521DB378025690000692C81
The use of electro-shock stun technology in law enforcement raises concern for the protection of human rights - not surprisingly, given that electricity has long been one of the favoured tools of the world's torturers. Portable, easy to use, and with the potential to inflict severe pain without leaving substantial visible marks on the human body, electro-shock stun equipment is particularly open to abuse by unscrupulous law enforcement officials. Of concern also is evidence which suggests that electro-shock devices may produce harmful or even fatal effects, particularly in the case of persons - diagnosed or undiagnosed - suffering from heart disease, neurological disorders or who are under the influence of drugs.

Bradford Non Lethal Weapons Research Project (BNLWRP). Bradford, United Kingdom, University of Bradford, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/
The Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project is based at the Centre for Conflict Resolution in the Department of Peace Studies.

European Working Group for Non Lethal Weapons. Non Lethal Weapons. Berghausen, Germany, Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie, 2004.
Available online at: http://www.non-lethal-weapons.com/

Heal, Sid. Non Lethal Options: Failures and Futures. RAND, 2002. 25 p.
Available online at: http://www.rand.org/publications/CF/CF148/CF148.appf.pdf
A paper presented by Sid Heal, Los Angeles Sheriff's Department at the The City's Many Faces: Proceedings of the Arroyo-MCWL-J8 UWG Urban Operations Conference.

INLDT Institute for NonLethal Defense Technologies. State College, PA, Applied Research Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.nldt.org/homepage.php
The Institute is dedicated to providing a base of multidisciplinary knowledge and technology that supports development and responsible application of non-lethal options for both military and civilian law enforcement. The Institute is administered by Penn State's Applied Research Laboratory (ARL), under the direction and support of The University's Office of the Vice President for Research.

Interview: Malcolm Davies Discusses the Non-Lethal Weapon Used by the Israeli Army to Disperse Palestinian Crowd Using Sound Waves.. NPR, Jun 13, 2005.
Available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=853298511&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
National Public Radio program: All Things Considered. Two weeks ago, the Israeli Army used a new non-lethal weapon to disperse a crowd of hundreds of Palestinians who were demonstrating against Israel's security barrier. The army calls the weapon the Scream. The device emits bursts of sound that cause an overwhelming sense of dizziness and nausea. According to a spokeswoman for the Israeli Army, soldiers used the Scream after Palestinians began throwing rocks at the soldiers. And, the army spokeswoman said, the Scream could potentially be used this summer against Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip if they resist evacuation orders. To find out more about the Scream and acoustic weapons, we're joined by Malcolm Davies. He studies future warfare technologies at the Joint Services Command and Staff College in Wiltshire, England.

Lack of Non-Lethal Weapons Capabilities Hindering U.S. Efforts in Post War Iraq: Experts Urge Department of Defense to Increase Spending Seven Fold. Washington, Council on Foreign Relations, February 24, 2004.
Available online at: http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6794
Press release. Nonlethal weapons are valuable for crowd control, minimizing infrastructure damage, sparing the lives of noncombatants, and reducing the long-term environmental impact of conventional weapons.

National Defense Industrial Association. NDIA Non Lethal Defense IV. March 20-22, 2000.
Available online at: http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/nld4/
Conference proceedings with full text of papers and presentations.

National Defense Industrial Association. Non Lethal Defense V: Non Lethal Weapons, Now More Than Ever. March 26-28, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2002nonlethdef/index.html
Conference proceedings with full text of papers and presentations.

Non Lethal Directed Energy Weapons. Defense Update: International Online Defense Magazine, 2005.
Available online at: http://www.defense-update.com/features/du-1-05/NLW-DEW.htm

Non Lethal Weapons On Line Documents Clearinghouse. Austin, TX, The Sunshine Project, 2004.
Available online at: http://www.sunshine-project.org/
The Sunshine projece is an international non-profit organization with offices in Hamburg, Germany and Austin, Texas, USA. They work against the hostile use of biotechnology in the post-Cold War era. They research and publish to strengthen the global consensus against biological warfare and to ensure that international treaties effectively prevent development and use of biological weapons.

Nonlethal Weapons. Alexandria, VA, GlobalSecurity.org, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/non-lethal.htm

Sautenet, Vincent.  Legal Issues Concerning Military Use on Non Lethal Weapons. E Law. Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law  June 2000 vol. 7,  Perth, Australia.
Available online at: http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v7n2/sautenet72.html

Sunshine Project. Non Lethal Weapons Research in the United States: Genetically Engineered Anti-Material Weapons. March 2002.
Available online at: http://www.sunshine-project.org
This non-profit organization's goals are to work against the hostile use of biotechnology in the post-Cold War era.
Click on the "publications" button at the top of the screen. Look down the list of publications to find "Backgrounder #9", March 2002.

Sunshine Project. Non Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Calmatives and Malordorants. July 2001.
Available online at: http://www.sunshine-project.org
This non-profit organization's goals are to work against the hostile use of biotechnology in the post-Cold War era.
Click on the "publications" button at the top of the screen. Look down the list of publications to find "Backgrounder #8", July 2001.

Team Investigates Active Denial System for Security Applications: Millimeter-Wave Device Puts the ‘Heat’ on Adversaries. Sandia National Laboratories, June 20, 2005.
Available online at: http://www.sandia.gov/news-center/news-releases/2005/def-nonprolif-sec/active-denial.html
ADS systems are a new class of nonlethal weaponry using 95 GHz-millimeter-wave directed energy. This technology is capable of rapidly heating a person’s skin to achieve a pain threshold that has been demonstrated by AFRL human subject testing to be very effective at repelling people, without burning the skin or causing other secondary effects.

Troops Get High Tech Noisemaker. CNN.com, March 3, 2004.
Available online at: http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/ptech/03/03/sonic.weapon.ap/index.html
U.S. soldiers in Iraq have new gear for dispersing hostile crowds and warding off potential enemy combatants. It blasts earsplitting noise in a directed beam.

U.S. Justice Department. National Institute of Justice. Justice Department Net. Less Than Lethal Incapacitation.
Available online at: http://www.nlectc.org/virlib/TopicList.asp?intTopicID=35
NLECTC virtual library site contains full text publications, articles and web sites relating to non lethal weapons.

U.S. Marine Corps. Joint Non Lethal Weapons Directorate.
Available online at: https://www.jnlwd.usmc.mil/mission.asp

University of New Hampshire. Non Lethal Technology Innovation Center. Durham, NH,
Available online at: http://www.unh.edu/ntic/
The mission of this organization is to effect the next generation of non lethal capabilities by identifying and promoting the development of innovative concepts, materials and technology.

University of New Hampshire. Non-Lethal Technology Innovation Center. Less Than Lethal Weapons and Crowd Control.. Durham, NH,
Available online at: http://www.justiceworks.unh.edu/Less-Than-Lethal%20Weapons%20and%20Crowd%20Control.htm

Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System (V-MADS). GlobalSecurity.org.
Available online at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/v-mads.htm
Active Denial Technology is a breakthrough non-lethal technology that uses millimeter-wave electromagnetic energy to stop, deter and turn back an advancing adversary from relatively long range. It is expected to save countless lives by providing a way to stop individuals without causing injury, before a deadly confrontation develops. The technology was developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Department of Defense's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate. Approximately $40 million has been spent on this technology over the past ten years.

Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems. Anderson, IN, 2005.
Available online at: http://www.xtremeads.com/
This is the website of Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems Ltd. XADS Ltd., a privately held Anderson, IN based company, is a pioneering producer of Non-Lethal Directed Energy Weapons (NLDEW). XADS is researching and engineering innovative solutions that seek change the nature of the use of force in the 21st century. With its series of NLDEW products XADS is offering viable alternatives of protective and defensive measures for military operations, law enforcement, site security, and peacekeeping endeavors.

ZARC International, Inc. Innovation In Non-Lethal Weapon Technology.
Available online at: http://www.zarc.com/
This is the web site for a leading manufacturer of non lethal incapacitating weaponry. The site provides product descriptions, general papers, reports and news bulletins relating to non lethal weapons. There is also a section on chemical agents and treaties.

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Books


Alexander, John B. Future War: Non-Lethal Weapons in Twenty-First-Century Warfare. New York, St. Martin's , 1999. 254 p.
Book call no.: 358.8 A376f

Alexander, John B. Winning the War: Advanced Weapons, Strategies, and concepts for the Post 9/11 World. New York, Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin's Press, 2003. 304 p.
Book call no.: 355.020973 A376w

Allison, Graham T., Kelley, P. X., and Garwin, Richard L. Nonlethal Weapons and Capabilities: Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. New York, Council on Foreign Relations Press; Distributed by the Brookings Institution Press, 2004. 63 p. (Task force report Council on Foreign Relations)
Also available online at: http://www.cfr.org/pdf/Nonlethal_TF.pdf
Book call no.: 355.82 N813

The Future of Non-Lethal Weapons: Technologies, Operations, Ethics and Law, edited by Nick Lewer. London, Frank Cass, 2002. 193 p.
The chapters in this book, by international experts, provide an up-to-date and thorough review of current key issues related to the development and deployment of non-lethal weapons. Topics include: An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons; Emerging non-lethal technologies; Military and police operational deployment of non-lethal weapons; A scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of non-lethal weapons; Changes in international law needed to take into account non-lethal technologies; Developments in genomics leading to new chemical incapacitants; Implications for arms control and proliferation; The role of non-lethal weapons in human rights abuses; Conceptual, theoretical and analytical perspectives on the nature of non-lethal weapons development.
Book call no.: 623.4 F996

Garwin, Richard L. Nonlethal Technologies: Progress and Prospects: Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. New York, Council on Foreign Relations; distributed by the Brookings Institution Press, 1999. 80 p. (working papers)
Also available online at: http://www.ciaonet.org/conf/gar01/
Book call no.: 355.0215 N813

Giri, D. V. High-Power Electromagnetic Radiators: Nonlethal Weapons and Other Applications. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2004. 198 p. (The electromagnetics library)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Book call no.: 623.043 G525h

Mandel, Robert. Security, Strategy, and the Quest for Bloodless War. Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 2004. 209 p.
Mandel seeks to enlighten scholars and national security policy makers as he examines the supposition that a bloodless war, given new technologies and attitudes, may be a possibility. He describes how casualty aversion can become a priority in military intervention, how it has both strengths and weaknesses, how precision and non-lethal weaponry has changed war, and how disrupting the flow of information compares to psychological operations. He offers advice on the dangers and conditional utility of seeking bloodless war, and closes with advice on the possible impact of bloodless war on security policies.
Book call no.: 355.033573 M271s

McCarthy, William J. Directed Energy and Fleet Defense: Implications for Naval Warfare. Maxwell AFB, AL, Center for Strategy and Technology. Air War College, May 2000. 81 p. (Occasional paper no. 10)
Also available online at: https://research.maxwell.af.mil/papers/ay2000/csat/csat10.pdf
Book call no.: 359.80973 M123d

National Research Council. Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. Naval Studies Board. Committee for an Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology. An Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology. Washington, National Academies Press, 2003. 179 p.
Also available online at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309082889/html/
Book call no.: 355.82 A534

Nutley, Eric L. Non Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Strategic Blessings and Curses Of Non Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University, 2003. 64 p. (Occasional paper Air University Center for Strategy and Technology; no. 34)
Also available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cst/csat34.pdf
Book call no.: 355.0215 N976n

Rappert, Brian. Non-Lethal Weapons as Legitimizing Forces?: Technology, Politics and the Management of Conflict. London, Frank Cass, 2003. 286 p.
Book call no.: 355.8 R221n

Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies. World Defence Systems. London, Sovereign Publications, April 2002. 138 p.
See section on Non-Lethal Weapons: "Non-Lethal Capabilities and the Road Ahead", pp.105-107. "Nonlethality and Homeworld Defence: Containing Barbarism-Nonlethally in the 21st Century", pp110-112. "Future War: Non-Lethal Alternatives", pp 113-115.
Book call no.: 355.8 W927 v. 4 no.1 2002

The Technological Arsenal: Emerging Defense Capabilities
, edited by William C. Martel. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. 284 p.
Book call no.: 355.80973 T255

Warfare in the 21st Century, edited by Jeremy K. Brown. New York, H.W. Wilson, 2003. 187 p. (The Reference Shelf.)
see chapter pp 119-134 "Non-lethal Weapons".
Book call no.: 808.5 R332 v.75, no. 3

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Documents


Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Barrett, Benjamin K. The Utility of Non-Lethal Weapons in Large-Scale Conflict. Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 2000. 19 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA379171
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 B274u

Bobb, Justin L. Non-Lethal Weaponry: Applications to AC-130 Gunship. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2002. 30 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420661
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 B6631n

Callihan, W. M. Non-Lethal Weapons in Conventional Combat Operations: Leveraging Capabilities or Violating the Rules of War? Newport, RI, Naval War College , 1999. 17 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA370617
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 C158n

Capstick, Paul R. Non-Lethal Weapons and Strategic Policy Implications For 21st Century Peace Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2001. 32 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA389780
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 C254n

Civil Disturbances: Incorporating Non-Lethal Technology: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures. Ft. Leavenworth, KS, Center for Army Lessons Learned, 2000, April 2000. 48 p. (CALL Newsletter 00-7)
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA397823
Doc. call no.: M-U 43127-21 2000 Apr

Durkin, Robert T. The Operational Use of Non-Lethal Weapons. Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 2000. 24 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA378495
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 D963o

Elder, R. Wyn. The Role of Non-Lethal Airpower in Future Peace Operations: Beyond Bombs on Target. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003. 32 p.
Also available online at: https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2003/acsc/03-1413.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 E373r

Fox, Jackson L. Urban Close Air Support and Non-Lethality. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2002. 28 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA400951
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 F786u

Gould, Michael J. Non-Lethal Operational Fires in Military Operations Other Than War. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1999. 17 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA363126
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 G697n

Grieger, Dion. An Overview of Crowd Control Theory And Considerations for the Employment of Non Lethal Weapons. Edinburgh, Australia, Systems Sciences Laboratory, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia , 2003. 43 p. (DSTO-GD / Defence Science and Technology Organisation Australia)
Doc. call no.: M-U 44192-1 no.0373

Hall, David B. Transforming How We Fight Through Effects Based Operations & Non-Lethal Capabilities. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2004. 33 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA426021
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 H175t

Hamilton, Charles A. Policy Implications of Non-Lethal Weapons. Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2002. 23 p. (USAWC strategy research project)
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404218
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 H217p

Henderson, Mark D. Non-Lethal Weapons: Applications in Maritime Interdiction Operations. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1999. 19 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA363076
Doc. call no.: M-U 41622 H497n

Kung, Jerry J. Non-Lethal Weapons in Noncombatant Evacuation Operations. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 22 March 2000. 140 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA374423
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 K531n

Matsumura, Goro. Conflict Prevention in the Information Age - Role of Military In Crisis. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2001. 24 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA391063
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 M434c

Meese, William R. Planning Factors For Non Lethal Weapons in Counter Narcotic Operations. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1999. 23 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA363094
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 M495p

Melampy, Ronald W. The Potential Role of Non-Lethal Weapons in the Maritime Environment. Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2000. 22 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA381634
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 M517p

Norbut, Gerald L. Non-Lethal Weapons: Force Enabler For the Operational Commander Conducting Peace Operations. Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 5, 2001. 28 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA389500
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 N825n

North Atlantic Council. NATO Air Force Armaments Group. Air Group II. NATO Policy on Non-Lethal Weapons. Brussels, Belgium, 1999. 2 p.
Also available online at: http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/1999/p991013e.htm
Doc. call no.: M-U 41723-71 no. 57

Pasco, Jonathan T. Operational Planning Considerations for the Deployment of Nonlethal Weapons: A Commander's Guide. Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 17, 1999. 21 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA370659
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 P281o

Rice, Charles R. An Analysis of the Strategic Application on Non-Lethal Weapons to Provide Force Protection. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2001. 24 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA390620
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 R4951a

Tartell, Donna. Tactics, Training and Procedures for the Warfighter Reacting to Crowd Dynamics. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Research Laboratory, June 2002. 290 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 44289-8 2002 no. 0141

Weilacher, Lester A. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003. 15 p.
The purpose of this issue paper is to analyze issues related to US military interest in weapons with a focus on non-lethal chemical weapons. After establishing a link between non-lethal chemical weapons and weapons of mass destruction (WMD), this paper will examine various reasons why states seek non-lethal weapons capabilities. Next, US military policy and organizational structure for non-lethal weapons development are reviewed with emphasis on recent DOD non-lethal chemical initiatives. Efforts will then shift to explaining what non-lethal chemical weapons are and describing their characteristics.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 W422n

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Periodicals


Adams, Eric. Shoot To Not Kill. Popular Science 262:89-93 May 2003.
Noxious smells, slippery foams, lasers that temporarily blind: the US military is developing a host of sci-fi like weapons that stun or deter instead of killing.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9473361&db=aph

Alexander, John B. Non-Lethal Weapons To Gain Relevancy in Future Conflicts. National Defense 86:30-31 March 2002.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115191095&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Alexander, John B. An Overview of the Future of Non-Lethal Weapons. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:180-193 July-September 2001.

Alexander, John B. and Heal, Charles. Non-Lethal and Hyper-Lethal Weaponry. Small Wars & Insurgencies 13:121-132 Summer 2002.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8967283&db=aph&tg=AN

Altman, Jurgen. Acoustic Weapons--A Prospective Assessment. Science & Global Security 9:165-234 2001.
This article sets out to provide basic information in the effects of large amplitude sound on humans, potential high power sources, and propagation of strong sound.

Altmann, J. Non-Lethal Weapons Technologies: The Case for Independent Scientific Analysis. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:234-247 July-September 2001.

Ames, Ben. Global War On Terrorism Spawns Rush to Develop Nonlethal Technologies. Military & Aerospace Electronics 14:6-7 December 2003.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=11698768&db=aph

Ames, Ben. Non-Lethal Weapons Give Soldiers More Options to Fight Terrorism. Military & Aerospace Electronics 14:3-5 August 2003.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10529670&db=aph

Anderson, George. Training With the Nonlethal Capability Set. Military Police62-63 March 2002.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6649670&db=f5h

Annati, Massimo and Bonsignore, Ezio. Non Lethal Weapons. Military Technology Vol. 27, no. 7:44-50 July 2003.
Focuses on the programs, perspectives and problems of using non-lethal weapons for Military Operations Other-Than-War. Demonstration of high possibilities for tragic misunderstanding between the military personnel and the civilians; Effectiveness of using NLW to fulfill MOOTW missions without risking to use too much and too little forces; Risk for errors and wrong assessment; Limitations in using NLW.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10594492&db=aph

Aragon, Arthur J. Nonlethal Capabilities of the Future. Military Police 3:16-18 April 2003.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9910143&db=f5h

Arms of the Corps. Marine Corps Gazette 83:A1-A14 June 1999.
A15 page section describing Marine Corps weaponry is inserted after page 52. The NLW Capability Set is described and pictured on page A13-A14.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=000000042351114&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Auer, Catherine. Killer 'Non-Lethals.' Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50:42-43 January-February 2003.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8794789&db=aph

Bailey, Laura. New Weapons Would Warn Vehicles at Checkpoints. Marine Corps Times 7:6 June 27, 2005.
The Corps is developing a non-lethal weapon that could reduce the number of tragedies occurring at Iraqi checkpoints when civilians do not understand the warnings Marines give. The Non-lethal Tube Launched Munition is a vehicle-mounted launching system that fires heavy volumes of flash-bang pyrotechnic rounds in the direction of approaching vehicles to warn drivers.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:MTMB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10B2F153161C4F10&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

Banker, Robert J. Non Lethal Weapons Conferences. Military Review 80:103-104 March-April 2000.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=3079224&db=aph

Bayles, William J. The Ethics of Computer Network Attack. Parameters 31:44-58 Spring 2001.
Also available online at: http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/01spring/bayles.htm

Bedard, E. R. Nonlethal Capabilities: Realizing the Opportunities. Defense Horizons no. 9:1-6 March 2002.
Also available online at: http://www.ndu.edu/inss/DefHor/DH9/DH09.pdf

Boyd, Kerry. Rumsfeld Wants to Use Riot control Agents in Combat. Arms Control Today 33:32 March 2003.
According to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld during a Feb 5, 2003 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, he will try to write rules of engagement that would allow the US military to use non-lethal riot agents without breaking the law. Rumsfeld was referring to the Chemical Weapons Convention, which bans the possession and use of chemical weapons but allows the use of toxic chemicals and their precursors in law enforcement including domestic riot control purposes.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000358244341&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Boyd, Kerry. U.S. Grapples With Use of Nonlethal Agents. Arms Control Today 33:44 April 2003.
Also available online at: http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2003_04/nonlethal_apr03.asp

Brinkley, C. Mark. Zapper Tactics (the Marine Corps' futuristic directed-energy weapon). Army Times 62:34+ August 6, 2001.

Broad, William J. Oh, What a Lovely War. If No One Dies. New York Times Section 4, p. 3 November 3, 2002.
For decades, nonlethal, or humane, weapons have been discussed, developed, disavowed, seldom used and often ridiculed as oxymoronic. While superficially attractive, critics say, the arms are dangerously misleading. They often kill people anyway, and their development can undermine global accords meant to eliminate chemical and biological weapons that are far more deadly.
The full text of this article can be found by using the AU Library subscription to the Lexis/Nexis Academic Universe database at the site below.
Also available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/firstsearch/au.htm

Brown, Nick. Briefing: Landmine Alternatives. Jane's Defence Weekly 36:22-27 December 5, 2001.

Buzan, Bob and Spain, Raymond. Nonlethal Weapons Protect the Force. Military Police 3:33-40 April 2003.
Presents a number of nonlethal weapons of the U.S. Army military police. Nonlethal bursting hand grenade; Sponge grenade and crowd-dispersal cartridge; MK19 grenade machine gun; Multisensory grenade; Mobile Detection Assessment Response System; Hand-emplaced nonlethal munition; Active Denial System.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9910344&db=f5h

Castellon, David and Brinkley, C. Mark. Zapping the Enemy (Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System). Air Force Times 62:14-15 December 24, 2001.
The "People Zapper" is turning into a political hot potato. The whole world is interested in the futuristic directed-energy weapon. Developed jointly by the Air Force and the Marine Corps, the zapper - officially called the Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System - is a powerful millimeter- wave generator. When pointed at a crowd, it would hit them with powerful pulses of energy, instantly heating up their skin, causing intense pain, fear and panic - but no permanent damage.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:AFTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=101AD119E42AE0EC&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

Coerr, Stanton S. For Those in Harm's Way. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128:42-45 April 2002.
Nonlethal weapons are the future of peacekeeping. Forces on the ground must be given all the tools to succeed, and nonlethal systems allow the commander to expand the continuum of force to obtain or retain the tactical initiative. This innovation is crucial. Nonlethal weapons must be pursued quickly and aggressively.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6441235&db=aph

Come Fry With Me. Economist 366:68-69 February 1, 2003.
Using different types of electromagnetic energy (the same stuff as radio waves, X-rays and light), electromagnetic weapons are able to destroy electronic systems and temporarily incapacitate people, all without the mess of explosions and gunfire.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9019961&db=aph

Coppernoll, Margaret. The Nonlethal Weapons Debate. Naval War College Review 52:112-131 Spring 1999.
Examines the issues debated on the development and employment of nonlethal weapons in the United States. Advantages of deploying NLW; Categories of weapons under the term NLW; Implications of NLW deployment for rules of engagement; Relevance to the US armed forces and national security policy makers.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=1786477

Coupland, Robin and others. No Nonlethal Chemical Weapons. Issues in Science and Technology 20:9-12 Fall 2003.
Presents several letters to the editor in response to the article "Nonlethal' Chemical Weapons: A Faustian Bargain," by Mark Wheelis in the Spring 2003 issue of "Issues in Science and Technology."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=11094674&db=aph

Davison, Edwin A. A Case for More Effective Non-Lethals. Marine Corps Gazette 84:27 June 2000.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000055161910&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Dupont, Daniel G. Storm Before the Calm: Can Knockout Gases Really be Nonlethal? Scientific American 288:17-18 February 2003.
On November 4, 2002, the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council issued a report calling on the U.S. to increase its research into "calmatives," drugs that could be used to control and sedate unruly or hostile groups of people. The report was especially timely: nine days before, Russian troops had used a gas to subdue Chechen rebels in an attempt to rescue the 700 hostages they were holding in a Moscow theater.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8877549&db=aph

Edwards, Rob. Rubber Bullets Miss More Than They Hit. New Scientist 168:4-5 December 16, 2000.

Eshel, David. Israel Investigates Non-Lethal Options. Jane's Intelligence Review 13:46-47 September 2001.

Fein, Geoff S. Non-Lethal Weapons Find Their Niche in Urban Combat. National Defense 88:14-17 March 2004.
Weapons that once were meant only for police use increasingly are finding their way into military units in Iraq and elsewhere. These so-called "non-lethal" weapons have seen their share of controversy, but experts predict that the challenges of urban combat will force US commanders to increase their reliance on devices that temporarily disable suspected enemies, but do not necessarily kill.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000580818611&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Fialka, John J. Group Urges Military to Revamp Nonlethal Weapons Research. Wall Street Journal section B-7 November 5, 2002.
The U.S. military must revamp efforts to develop "non-lethal" weapons to protect troops against terrorists and to increase their effectiveness in peacekeeping missions, government researchers say.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000232241351&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Fidler, David P. 'Non-Lethal' Weapons and International Law: Three Perspectives on the Future. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:194-206 July-September 2001.

Freedberg, Sydney J. Killing Me Softly. National Journal 34:1382 May 11, 2002.
Same article found in on-line version of Government Executive as "Non Lethal Weapons Raise Political, Ethical Questions".
Also available online at: http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0502/051302nj1.htm

Frolov, V. S. Non-Lethal Weapons: Purposes and Types. Military Thought vol.10, no 3:57-62 2001.
Good chart on page 60 classifying non lethal weapons as to type: personnel, equipment, or infrastructure, and the effects of the weapon.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5166282&db=aph

Fulghum, David A. Microwave Weapons Await a Future War. Aviation Week & Space Technology 150:30-31 June 1999.
DoD has reportedly developed a munition, delivered by glide bomb or cruise missile, capable of delivering a HPM (high-power microwave) pulse to incapacitate C3I equipment.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000072811804&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Fulghum, David A. Pentagon Reveals Mobile Pain Ray. Aviation Week & Space Technology 154:82-83 May 7, 2001.
Discusses the development of non-lethal mm-wave anti-personnel ray, which delivers a stinging burn to exposed skin.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000048165477&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

The Future of Crowd Control Economist 373:Special Section p. 11 December 4, 2004 .
This article discusses advances in non-lethal crowd control technology. When faced with rowdy protesters, police forces have a number of tools at their disposal with which to disperse crowds and quell violence, including batons, shields, rubber bullets and water cannons. But these antiquated devices are crude and rely on brute force, which can lead to further violence and can, in some situations, prove lethal. Between 1997 and 2003, America's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Programme, which co-ordinates the development of NLWs for the American military, had an annual budget of around $22m. Earlier this year, American soldiers in Iraq were equipped with a Long Range Acoustic Device to use in western Iraq. The system will be tested on the ground, mounted on Humvee armoured vehicles, during 2005, and the air force plans to award a $22m contract to develop technology to enable it to be used from the air.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=15263149

Glenn, Russell W. Letting God Rest: Use of Nonlethal Weapons in Peacekeeping Efforts. Armed Forces Journal International 140:49-52 May 2003.
Reports on the use of nonlethal weapons by international peacekeeping forces deployed in urban areas. Scope of nonlethal operations; Functions of nonlethal capabilities; Incidents involving the use of nonlethal weapons.

Gourley, Scott R. U.S. Army Evaluates 'Paint Ball' Weapon. Jane's Defence Weekly 35:30 January 10, 2001.
SM303 weapon uses compressed air to fire a variety of non-lethal incapacitants.

Graham-Rowe, Duncan. Short Sharp Shock Awaits Trespassers. New Scientist 178:12 April 26, 2003.
Discussion of the Taser Area Denial Device, a security system non-lethal landmine based on the Taser electrick shock weapon that delivers high voltage electrical pulses through darts.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000336697651&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Gregorac, Leopold. ADT/ADS - Weapons of the 21st Century? Military Technology 28:40 May 2004.
In 2001, a representative of the US Air Force announced the existence of a new weapon, or a class of weapons based on what was described as Active Denial Technology that triggers debate about the legal and humanitarian implications of the use of the weapon. Gregorac analyzes the technical details of ADT weapons based on a careful examination of all available open sources. Active Denial Systems are intended for crowd control and other applications requiring the use on non-lethal or less-than-lethal force, with the additional advantage of their action being totally invisible and inaudible.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=660139681&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Grossman, Lev and Thompson, Mark. Beyond the Rubber Bullet. Time 160:46-47 July 29, 2002.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7002345&db=aph

Hambling, David. Star Wars Hits the Streets. New Scientist 176:42-45 October 12, 2002.
Focuses on the use of non-lethal weapons by military and law enforcement authorities in the U.S. Creation of military Web sites; Severity of wounds caused by plastic bullets; Concept of the Pulsed Energy Projective laser.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=7666806

Hambling, David. Stun Weapons To Target Crowds. New Scientist 182:24 June 19, 2004.
Weapons that can incapacitate crowds of people by sweeping a lightning-like beam of electricity across them are being readied for sale to military and police forces in the United States and Europe. At present, commercial stun guns target one person at a time, and work only at close quarters. The new breed of non-lethal weapons can be used on many people at once and operate over far greater distances. But human rights groups are appalled by the fact that no independent safety tests have been carried out, and by their potential for indiscriminate use.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=13608745

Heal, Sid. Crowds, Mobs and Nonlethal Weapons. Military Review 80:45-50 March-April 2000.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=3079201&db=aph

Heines, Vivian. Shoot to.... Disable? Armed Forces Journal International 141:23-24 July 2004.
Reports on the development of nonlethal weapons for the war against smuggling and terrorism. Advantages of nonlethal weapons; Multifunction capabilities of the system, Benefits of the weapons for military and the Coast Guard.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:AFJB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=10404C40B66D367E&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

Herbert, Dennis B. Non-lethal Weaponry: From Tactical to Strategic Applications. Joint Force Quarterly issue 21:87-91 Spring 1999.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=2711949&db=aph

Hewish, Mark. Between Baton and Bullet (crowd control). Jane's International Defense Review 35:30-33+ December 2002.

Hogan, Jenny. Don't Mention the Gun. New Scientist 181:19 January 17, 2004.
This article focuses on sky marshals.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=12105121&db=aph

Hutton, Paul C. Weapons of Restraint: Emphasis on Limiting Non-Combatant Casualties is Good Reason For Developing New Non-Lethal Weapons. Armed Forces Journal International 137:52-55 May 10, 2000.

Iraq Offers Breakthrough Opportunity for DE Weapons, Army Official Says. Defense Daily 225:1 January 24, 2005.
The Pentagon has been working on directed energy weapons for several decades, but even the more advanced systems, like the Boeing  Airborne Laser and the Northrop Grumman  Mobile Tactile High Energy Laser are still under development. Lasers are commonly used in other military systems. For example, laser range finders are used to pinpoint targets.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=783317301&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Is This a Shock Tactic Too Far? New Scientist 182:3 June 19, 2004.
A protest that turns nasty is a tough challenge for law enforcers. Violent rioters sow confusion by mingling with peaceful protesters. The police are left with limited options, such as baton charges to capture ringleaders or indiscriminate tactics such as firing tear gas. Enter a new generation of non-lethal weapons—guns that send 50,000 volts through a person up to 100 metres away. It is already a scandal that there has been no large-scale, independent study of the health effects of the Tasers used by police forces today.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=13608720

Jackson, Alfred E. The Army's Nonlethal Weapons: An Overview. Infantry 90:18-20 May-June 2000.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=4740272&db=f5h

Jordan, Bryant. Scents and Sensibility. Navy Times 54:18 January 31, 2005.
Reports on the 1994 proposal of the U.S. Army to develop an aphrodisiac spray as a weapon. Information on other nonlethal weapons; Cost of developing the spray according to researchers.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:NVTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1083368470AD3678&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

Jussila, Jorma. Future Police Operations and Non-Lethal Weapons. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:248-259 July-September 2001.

Karp, Jonathan. Pentagon Backs Taser's Assertion Its Guns Are Safe. Wall Street Journal section B-2 January 13, 2005.
The Pentagon's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate commissioned the Air Force Research Laboratory to study the health effects of Taser's products. Yesterday, Capt. Dan McSweeney, spokesman for the directorate, upheld the findings and Taser's representation of them, noting that the Pentagon had reviewed the company's press release before it was issued. "We have stated that Tasers are generally safe and effective," Capt. McSweeney said. "If we didn't think that was the case, we wouldn't have recommended that the services purchase and field Tasers."
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=777968371&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Katz-Stone, Adam. Nonlethal Weapons on the Horizon: Service Leaders Looking at Rubber Bullets, Pepper Spray For Defense. Navy Times 50:24 December 4, 2000.

Kauchak, Marty. Dazzled by the Light: New Non-Lethal Weapon Has the US Military In Its Beam. Armed Forces Journal International 138:20-21 July 2001.

Kennedy, Floyd D. U.S. Naval Aircraft and Weapon Developments. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 125:112-120 May 1999.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=1849368&db=aph

Kennedy, Harold. U.S. Troops Find New Uses For Non-Lethal Weaponry. National Defense 86:26-27 March 2002.
As the war on terrorism grinds on, US military forces and civilian organizations are finding more and more uses for weapons that don't kill. The Defense Department established a Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate in Jul 1996 to develop and employ such weapons throughout the armed services.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115191093&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kenny, John M. Are You Sure It's Nonlethal? U.S. Naval Institute. Proceedings 127:70-72 April 2001.
This lack of knowledge about the human effects of nonlethal weapons could cause serious political consequences. Human rights groups increasingly are watching nonlethal weapons use. In the United States, the American Civil Liberties Union and Amnesty USA monitor police use of pepper spray and Tasers. The same is occurring overseas. The Helsinki-based Human Rights Watch quickly claimed that the Sabre 203 laser could blind soon after the weapon was deployed to Somalia.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=000000070976574&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kenny, John M. What's So Special about Non-Lethal Weapons' Human Effects--Everything. Marine Corps Gazette 84:28-29 June 2000.
Non-lethal weapons are not supposed to kill or permanently injure. The Department of Defense has recently sought an independent opinion on just what constitutes a non-lethal weapon.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000055161922&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kenyon, Henry S. Noisemakers Called to Arms: Cutting-Edge Sonic Equipment Offers Military Applications. Signal 56:43-45 July 2002.
The US Army may soon use high-intensity acoustics to disperse crowds, confuse enemy troops and covertly communicate. These experimental devices project highly focused beams of sound that can relay a message audible only to the individual singled out to receive it or can serve as a nonlethal weapon to disorient an adversary.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=135169041&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Knickerbocker, Brad and Campbell, Kim. Bang! You're Incapacitated: How Do Nonlethal Weapons Work and Why Aren't We Using Them? The Christian Science Monitor 95:11 December 12, 2002.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8650689&db=aph

Knickerbocker, Brad and Campbell, Kim. The Fuzzy Ethics of Nonlethal Weapons: Pentagon Wants to Use Riot-Control Agents in Iraq, But Critics Say It's Chemical Warfare. The Christian Science Monitor 95:2 February 14, 2003.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9089160&db=aph

Kucera, Joshua. US Speeds Development of Non-Lethal Weapons. Jane's Defence Weekly 42:8 April 13, 2005 .
Reports on the plan of the United States to launch vehicle-mounted non-lethal weapons, under the program Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle Non-Lethal Mission Payload Module. Design of the program to fit in on the U.S. Marine Corps' Gladiator TUGV; Terms under the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.

Lamb, Timothy J. Army Nonlethal Weapons/Scalable Effects Program: A Think Piece. Military Police 3:10-13 April 2003.
Points out that the U.S. Army's long-term strategy for the employment of nonlethal weapons requires true scalable-effects systems. Roles of NLWs according to the 1996 Department of Defense Directive 3000.3; Need for a future capability that goes far beyond the Nonlethal Capability Sets composed of predominantly legacy blunt-impact munitions and protective gear.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9909995&db=f5h

Lamb, Timothy J. Emerging Non Lethal Weapons Technology and Strategic Policy Implications for 21st Century Warfare. Military Police 3:6-10 April 2003.
Examines current and proposed nonlethal weapons policy at the strategic level while developing and exploring future strategy policy implications for the U.S. military police. Definition of NLW; Small-scale contingencies for peace operations; Nonlethal projectiles; Stinger grenades; Sticky foam; Barrier foam; Use of NLWs in major combat operations.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9909982&db=f5h&tg=AN

Leech, John. War Without Death: The Silent Strategies. Strategic Review 28:19-27 Spring 2000.

Levine, Susan D. and Montgomery, Noel. Non-Lethal Weapon Human Effects: Establishing a Process for DoD Program Managers. Program Manager 31:50-54 July-August 2002.
Also available online at: http://www.dau.mil/pubs/pm/pmpdf02/July2002/lev-ja2.pdf

Lewer, Nick. Non Lethal Weapons: Operational and Policy Developments. The Lancet 362:S20 December 2003.
The US Department of Defense defines a non-lethal weapon as a discriminate weapon that is explicitly designed and used so as to incapacitate personnel or material while minimising fatalities and undesired damage to property and environment. Over the past decade, interest has increased in the use of non-lethal weapons because of rapid advances in non-lethal technology (push factors) and changing operational requirements from military and police forces (pull factors). Alternatives to lethal methods are needed in peacekeeping and peace support operations, particularly in situations in which combatants and civilians are mixed together.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000521938261&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Lewer, Nick. Objections to Weapons of Less Destruction. Futurist 33:39-40 October 1999.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=2302378&db=aph

Lewer, Nick and Feakin, Tobias. Perspectives and Implications for the Proliferation of Non-Lethal Weapons in the Context of Contemporary Conflict, Security Interests and Arms Control. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:272-285 July-September 2001.

Lewer, Nick, Feakin, Tobias, and Dando, Malcolm. Non Lethal Weapons. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:175-179 July-September 2001.
Editorial.

Lowe, Christian. Iraq Spurs Interest in Non Lethal Weapons. Marine Corps Times 7:29 April 11, 2005.
The ability to disperse a crowd or peacefully deter an attack could lie in the realm of psychology as much as physics, say analysts at the U.S. Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate, who are studying new ways to control crowds in a complex urban environment.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:MTMB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=109945EA9352BFCE&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

Lowe, Christian. Nonlethal Weapons are Important, Too. Air Force Times 64:18 January 26, 2004.
The United States is in a lethal shooting war against terrorists, but the Pentagon's transformation chief said that fight makes nonlethal weapons more important than ever.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:AFTB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=101AD414DDEACC58&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

Lowe, Christian. U.S. Seeks Better Nonlethal Weapons. Defense News 20 :7 March 28, 2005.
The success of nonlethal weapons depends as much on its effects on bystanders as targets, so analysts at the U.S. Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate are studying how to get the desired effect on a crowd in a complex urban environment.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:DFNB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1094ACC2723087D6&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

MacKenzie, Debora. Behind the Smokescreen: Why is the US Trying to Keep Reports into Non Lethal Weapons Secret? New Scientist 174:4-5 May 11, 2002.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6728485&db=f5h

Mandel, Robert. Nonlethal Weaponry and Post-Cold War Deterrence. Armed Forces & Society 30:511-537 Summer 2004.
In recent years nonlethal weaponry has become increasingly available for widespread application as a means of promoting national security. Among the fascinating questions raised by this development, the deterrence impact of nonlethal weaponry seems particularly ripe for scrutiny. After a background discussion of definition, motives, history, and dangers surrounding this trend, this article develops a set of highly tentative propositions about the conditions under which nonlethal weaponry is most beneficial and detrimental as an instrument of deterrence. It is hoped that these propositions provide guidance for policymakers in using this coercive instrument to manage domestic and foreign turmoil.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=15198783

McKenna, Ted. Flash in the Plan: Directed-energy Weapons Remain More Experimental Than Available. Journal of Electronic Defense 26:46-52 May 2003.
Discusses the development of so-called directed-energy weapons. Ways in which militaries are turning to computerized battle-management, weapons-tracking and Internet-like communications systems; Possibility that the increasing reliance on computers could be a weakness for an enemy to exploit; Development of laser weapons for shooting down enemy aircraft or missiles.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=9723792

McKeon, Brian. Peace Ops Demand Non-Lethal Options. National Defense 83:23-24 April 1999.
The Defense Department plans to increase the use of non-lethal weapons by US forces conducting peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in Third World countries.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=000000040193929&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

McPhee, A. T. Stink Bomb. Current Science 88:10-11 January 17, 2003.
Government officials think a universal malodor, or offensive odor, might prove effective as a nonlethal weapon. It might also be a valuable crime-fighting tool or even be used one day as a protective barrier on ski slopes. McPhee discusses malodors in an article for children.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000275511921&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mesler, Bill. The Pentagon's 'Nonlethal' Gas. The Nation 276:19-22 February 17, 2003.
In recent years, the US military has become infatuated with a variety of "incapacitating" chemical weapons, including fentanyl, the opiate believed to have been used by Russian forces. And while the use of incapacitants in Russia might have been legal under international law because it was a police action, the Pentagon's development of what the military calls "nonlethal calmatives" appears to violate chemical weapons treaties prohibiting the military use of such agents.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9036831&db=aph

Metz, Steven. Non-Lethal Weapons: A Progress Report. Joint Force Quarterly no.28:18-22 Spring-Summer 2001.
Also available online at: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/0728.pdf

Mihm, Stephen. The Quest for Non Killer App. New York Times Magazine 38-43 July 25, 2004.
Stephen Mihm describes a new class of nonlethal weapons being developed by the Pentagon. The point of weapons such as the Active Denial System and the Mobility Denial System is to enforce and do battle without killing.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=668902791&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mihm, Stephen. Stench Warfare. New York Times Magazine 152:126 December 15, 2002.
Research into smells and odors that will cause enemies to vomit, become dizzy, or flee the battle arena; Efforts to establish stench warfare weapons under the aegis of the U.S. Defense Department's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=268855861&sid=2&Fmt=2&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Modular Crowd Control Munition. Marine Corps Gazette 83:6 April 1999.
The USMC is developing a ground emplaced version of the MCCM, a non lethal variant of the Claymore mine, firing 600 rubber balls in a 45 degree arc at a speed of 300 fps.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=000000040474532&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Morris, Janet, Moris, Chris, and Wilson, G. I. Nothing is So Strong as Gentleness. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:52-55 July 2004.
The recent rise of innovative and sophisticated nonlethal weapons, is giving military forces new options. Some of the newest systems in development or soon to be deployed include an airborne Active Denial System, a focused-energy weapon that emits a heat ray, the Mobility Denial System, which sprays a slippery gel and the pulsed energy projectile, a directed-energy weapon that flash-heats its target. U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld has stated that in many instances forces are allowed to shoot to kill, but they are not allowed to use a nonlethal riot-control agent.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=13699319&db=aph

Mullins, Justin. Moscow Drama Spurs Hunt for 'Non Lethals'. New Scientist 176:23 December 21-December 28, 2002.
The takeover of a Moscow theater by terrorists in October brought into sharp focus the role that so-called nonlethal weapons will play in future conflicts, and the very real risks they pose. About 130 hostages were killed by a "calmative gas" pumped into the theater to prevent terrorists blowing up the building.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000274605321&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

NATO Unveils NLW Policy. Jane's Defence Weekly 32:6 October 20, 1999.

Naylor, Sean D. A Higher Profile for the Big Guns. Army Times 63:8 October 14, 2002.
The chief of field artillery wants to improve his branch's image among both junior officers and senior Pentagon officials. But in the face of growing questions over artillery's future, Maj. Gen. Michael Maples knows it will take more than a makeover to keep the Redleg community relevant on tomorrow's battlefields. That's why he is working to give artillery — traditionally the biggest killer on the battlefield — a variety of non-lethal munitions, including "malodorant" rounds that will stink an enemy out of his positions.
Also available online at: http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:AFNB:ARMB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=101AD3D6987E2BD6&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=0F56A02D68496F45

No Such Thing as a Non-Lethal Weapon. New Scientist 185:3 March 5-March 11, 2005.
Researchers trying to relieve chronic pain have studied nociceptors, nerve cells that convey pain in the body. It emerged this week that a group working for the Pentagon is using that knowledge to turn the tables: to maximize the pain caused by a non-lethal weapon called a Pulsed Energy Projectile. However, there are grave concerns that PEPs will cause permanent nerve damage and psychologicla harm.

Non Lethal Weapons. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:175-285 July-September 2001.

Pappalardo, Joe. Homeland Defense Plan Favors Non-Lethal Technology National Defense 89:49-51 June 2005.
The Pentagon is paying increasing attention to non-lethal weapons programs, providing baseline requirements for future equipment, senior officials said. This most recent initiative is included in the first-ever homeland defense and civil support strategy guidelines the Defense Department will unveil later this year, according to Thomas Kuster, deputy assistant secretary for homeland defense.
Also available online at: http://find.galegroup.com/itx/infomark.do?&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=SPJ.SP00&docId=A133107253&source=gale&srcprod=SP00&userGroupName=maxw30823&version=1.0

Pasternak, Douglas. A Softer Touch. U.S. News and World Report 133:32 November 11, 2002.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7732001&db=aph

Powell, Corey S. War Without Death. Discover 20:29-30 April 1999.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=1663902&db=aph

Quille, Gerrard. The Revolution in Military Affairs Debate and Non-Lethal Weapons. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:207-220 July-September 2001.

Rappert, Brian. Assessing Technologies of Political Control. Journal of Peace Research vol. 36, no. 6:741-750 November 1999.
Examines some possible socio-political implications of developments in non-lethal weapons technologies, relating to the advance of authoritarian methods of political control.
Also available online at: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3433%28199911%2936%3A6%3C741%3AATOPC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C

Rappert, Brian. A Framework for the Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 20:35-54 January-March 2004.
See chart on page 39: Types of Non-Lethal Weapons,

Rappert, Brian. Shock Tactics. New Scientist 177:34-37 February 15, 2003.
Focuses on the Advanced taser, an electric device developed by Arizona-based company Taser International Inc. that temporarily incapacitates the human body. Possibility of frequent use of tasers by law enforcers; Concerns of people over the medical effects of such electric shocks; Doubts over the public acceptability of such shock weapons.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=9183423

Rappert, Brian. Toward an Understanding of Nonlethality. Peace & Change 26:31-54 January 2001.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=4325898&db=aph

Reppert, Barton. Force Without Fatalities. Government Executive 33:47-50 May 2001.
Also available online at: http://www.govexec.com/features/0501/0501s4.htm

Riot Control. Popular Mechanics 176:24 October 1999.
Discusses the use of non lethal weapons in prisons to control riots.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=2264939&db=aph

Ripley, Tim. Riot Control Equipment. Armada International 23, no. 2:40-42+ March-April 1999.
Also available online at: http://www.armada.ch/99-2/002.htm

Roos, John G. Arresting Development. Armed Forces Journal International 138:24 May 2001.
Discusses development of PVAB's: portable vehicle arresting barriers.

Roos, John G. Drug Busters: U.S. Coast Guard Unveils New Equipment and Tactics For Stopping Drug Runners in Their Own Wakes. Armed Forces Journal International 137:34-36+ October 1999.

Roos, John G. Shoot-Out 2002: Weapons Industry's Latest Offerings. Armed Forces Journal International 140:50+ August 2002.
A special report.

Scott, Richard. Briefing: Soft Kill Technology. Jane's Defence Weekly 35:22-27 February 7, 2001.

Sententia, Wyre. Your Mind is a Target: Weaponizing Psychoactive Drugs. Humanist 63:43-44 January-February 2003.
Discusses the use of neurochemical weapons calmatives in the U.S.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=8719901&db=aph

Shupe, Paul K. Nonlethal Force and Rules of Engagement. Military Police 3:43-48 April 2003.
Provides a frame of reference that may make the employment of nonlethal weapons and options more basic than sophisticated in the U.S. Armed Forces. Standing rules of engagement; Implementation of the right of self-defense; Provision of guidance governing the use of force; Relationship between hostile acts, hostile intent and no threat.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9910360&db=f5h

Siuru, William D. Changing Technologies. Marine Corps Gazette 84:31-35 January 2000.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=47923249&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Stanton, Martin T. The Impact of Non-Lethal Weapons Acquisitions, or 'There's One Born Every Minute'. Marine Corps Gazette 84:30-33 June 2000.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=000000055161926&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Stauffer, Don. Electronic Warfare: Battles Without Bloodshed. Futurist 34:23-26 January-February 2000.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=2629268&db=aph

Swofford, Tammy L. Force Protection in the Non-Lethal World. Marine Corps Gazette 89:50 July 2005.
Training for use of equipment and wearing of personal protective gear is imperative to avoid unnecessary exposure and subsequent secondary health risk in the Marines. Here, Swofford discusses the need for vigilance and warfighter protection with the additional weaponry of the 21st century battle space-lasers, millimeter waves, and non-ionizing electromagnetic energy.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=868173831&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Taser Troubles. New Scientist 186:23 April 30-May 6, 2005.

Tiron, Roxana. Stopping Intruders Can Be a Sticky Mess. National Defense 86:28 March 2002.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115191094&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Tiron, Roxana. Unconventional Weapons Can Help U.S. Troops Fight Insurgents in Iraq. National Defense 89:38 September 2004.
Despite spending more than a decade developing non-lethal weapon technology, the Defense Department is struggling to catch up with soldier's need in Iraq. Tiron details how the US is advancing the Army's non-lethal technology for peacekeeping and crowd-control operations.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=698208191&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

U.S. Pursues Non-Lethal High Power Microwaves. Jane's International Defense Review 35:6 April 4, 2002.
Short report on the ADT (active denial technology) program, using high power microwaves to keep enemy personnel up to 750m away from vehicles or aircraft.

US Developing Non-Lethal Weapons. Journal of Electronic Defense 28:19 July 2005.
In addition, the Pentagon already announced earlier this year the imminent use in Iraq of a low-energy ADS, dubbed the "Sheriff," development of which has been led by the DoD's Office of Force Transformation. Work on the system has been conducted at Kirtland AFB at the USAF's Active Denial Systems Laboratory, part of the service's Directed Energy Directorate, with Raytheon again serving as prime contractor.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=17630022

Wallace, V. J. Non-Lethal Weapons: R2IPE for Arms Control Measures. Defence Studies 1:83-108 Summer 2001.
Assesses the utility, effects and legality of non-lethal weapon systems, and questions whether they should be subject to specific arms control measures. Examination of the NLW policy and doctrinal developments in the context of the revolution in military affairs; Lessons identified by U.S. Marine Corps involvement in Somalia; Methods for evaluating NLW systems The R2IPE acronym is proposed as a method of highlighting areas peculiar to these weapon systems in their legal context.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7167009&db=aph

Wehrle, Robert A. Non-Lethal Weapons Design Criteria: A Proposal. Marine Corps Gazette 85:33-34 April 2001.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=000000071463323&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Wheelis, Mark. "Nonlethal" Chemical Weapons: A Faustian Bargain. Issues in Science and Technology 19:74-78 Spring 2003.
Assesses the legality of developing and using nonlethal chemical weapons for law enforcement purposes. Purposes of toxic chemicals under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention; Military use of incapacitants; Disadvantages of developing and using incapacitants.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9527320&db=aph

Willingham, Stephen. Non-Lethal Rounds Tough To Mass Produce. National Defense 85:36-37 February 2001.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=67429909&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Wollmann, Gerd. Directed Energy Weapons: Fact or Fiction? Military Technology vol. 27, no.4:80-85 2003.
Growing involvement by US military forces in humanitarian and peacekeeping missions around the world has fueled the demand for non-lethal munitions in recent years. Manufacturers, however, are struggling to adapt non-lethal ammunition to mass-production techniques.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=9790053

Wright, Steve. Killing Me Softly. New Scientist 171:10-13 August 11, 2001.

Wright, Steve. The Role of Sub-Lethal Weapons in Human Rights Abuse. Medicine, Conflict and Survival 17:221-233 July-September 2001.

Yagrich, Kenneth P. Nonlethal Weapons Requirements Definition--A Difficult Task Requires a True Team Effort. Military Police 3:14-15 April 2003.
Declares that nonlethal weapons seem to be the ideal solution to many of the difficult problems confronting U.S. military forces in a wide variety of engagements throughout the world. Role of the Advanced Energy Armaments Systems Center at the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center; Creation of the Target Behavioral Response Laboratory to obtain data on responses.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9910101&db=f5h

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