NON-LETHAL WEAPONS


June 2008

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on June 30, 2008.


Internet Resources


All Things Considered.  Malcolm Davies Discusses the Non-lethal Weapon Used by the Israeli Army to Disperse a Palestinian Crowd Using Sound Waves.  Washington, NPR, June 13, 2005.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=853298511&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Ames, Ben.  Global War on Terrorism Spawns Rush to Develop Nonlethal Technologies.  Military & Aerospace Electronics 14:6-8 December 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11698768&site=ehost-live

Ames, Ben.  Non-lethal Weapons Give Soldiers More Options to Fight Terrorism.  Military & Aerospace Electronics 14:3-5 August 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10529670&site=ehost-live

Amnesty International's Concerns about Taser® Use:  Statement to the U.S. Justice Department Inquiry into Deaths in Custody.  Amnesty International, October 2007.  7 p.
Available online at:  http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR51/151/2007/en/dom-AMR511512007en.pdf

Assistant Secretary of the Army.  Acquisition Logistics and Technology.  Force Protection Technologies for the 2010-2020 Timeframe, by Marygail K. Brauner and others.  Washington, Army Science Board, November 2003.  379 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433178

An Attribute Based Evaluation II (ABE-2) of Less-Lethal Impact Munitions.  Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies, January 29, 2007.
Available online at:  http://nldt2.arl.psu.edu/documents/ABE2_REPORT.pdf

Canada:  Excessive and Lethal Force?:  Amnesty International's Concerns about Deaths and Ill-treatment Involving Police Use of Tasers.  Amnesty International, November 30, 2004.  17 p.
Available online at:  http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR20/002/2004/en/dom-AMR200022004en.pdf

Canada:  Inappropriate and Excessive Use of Tasers.  Amnesty International, May 23, 2007.  20 p.
Available online at:  http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR20/002/2007/en/dom-AMR200022007en.pdf

Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Program.  The Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis:  Incapacitants and Chemical Warfare.
Available online at:  http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/week/02110b.htm

Craviso, Gale L. and Chatterjee, Indira.  Interdisciplinary Research Project to Explore the Potential for Developing Non-Lethal Weapons Based on Radiofrequency/Microwave Bioeffects.  Reno, NV, Nevada University, January 31, 2006.  15 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA443237

Craviso, Gale L. and Chatterjee, Indira.  Research on Non-Lethal Stunning/Immobilizing Weapons.  Reno, NV, Nevada University, April 2007.  13 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470768

Dando, Malcolm.  Scientific and Technological Change and the Future of the CWC:  The Problem of Non-Lethal Weapons.  Disarmament Forum 4:33-44 2002.
Available online at:  http://www.unidir.ch/pdf/articles/pdf-art1824.pdf

Davison, Neil.  The Contemporary Development of "Non-Lethal" Weapons.  University of Bradford, UK, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project, Department of Peace Studies, May 2007.  53 p.
Available online at:  http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/research_reports/docs/BNLWRP_OP3_May07.pdf

Davison, Neil.  The Development of "Non-Lethal" Weapons During the 1990's.  University of Bradford, UK, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project, Department of Peace Studies, March 2007.  44 p.
Available online at:  http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/research_reports/docs/BNLWRP_OP2_Mar07.pdf

Davison, Neil.  The Early History of "Non-Lethal" Weapons.  University of Bradford, UK, Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project, Department of Peace Studies, December 2006.  42 p.
Available online at:  http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/research_reports/docs/BNLWRP_OP1_Dec06.pdf

Davison, Neil.  'Off the Rocker' and 'On the Floor':  The Continued Development of Biochemical Incapacitating Weapons.  University of Bradford, UK, Bradford Disarmament Research Centre, Department of Peace Studies, August 2007.  63 p.
Available online at:  http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/research_reports/docs/BDRC_ST_Report_No_8.pdf

Davison, Neil and Lewer, Nick.  Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project.  University of Bradford, UK, Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, March 2006.  76 p.
Available online at:  http://www.bradford.ac.uk/acad/nlw/research_reports/docs/BNLWRPResearchReportNo8_Mar06.pdf

Defense Science Board.  Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons.  Washington, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, December 2007.  98 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA476320

Haberland, Bastian B.  Certain Controversies Concerning Non-Lethal Weapons.  New Zealand Armed Forces Law Review 6:20-45 December 2006.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=25268697&site=ehost-live

Hughes, Edward L.  Report on the Fifth International Law Enforcement Forum on Minimal Force Options and Less-Lethal Technologies.  Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies, November 2006.
Available online at:  http://nldt2.arl.psu.edu/documents/2006_ILEF_Report_FINAL.pdf

Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies.
Available online at:  http://nldt2.arl.psu.edu/
Located at Pennsylvania State University, the INLDT promotes interdisciplinary research and development of non-lethal concepts and technologies for conflict resolution; Efforts support various military and law enforcement agencies; Site offers an International Law Enforcement Forum, training and education, full-text publications, etc.

Jozefowicz, Chris.  Undue Force?  Current Science 91:10 March 3, 2006.
"Taser stun guns are designed to be nonlethal, but critics say the guns have killed some people.  The American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California issued a report suggesting that Tasers might have been involved in as many as 148 deaths in the US and Canada since 1999" - Abstract.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1000378541&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Karcher, David and Wertheim, Eric.  Safeguarding Peace, Safeguarding Life:  How Non-Lethal Directed Energy Weapons Promise Both.  Homeland Defense Journal Online
Available online at:  http://www.homelanddefensejournal.com/scoop_nlw.htm

Karp, Jonathan.  Pentagon Backs Taser's Assertion Its Guns Are Safe.  Wall Street Journal, p B-2, January 13, 2005.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=777968371&sid=3&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Knickerbocker, Brad and Campbell, Kim.  The Fuzzy Ethics of Nonlethal Weapons:  Pentagon Wants to Use Riot-Control Agents in Iraq, but Critics Say It's Chemical Warfare.  The Christian Science Monitor 95:2 February 14, 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9089160&site=ehost-live

Lack of Nonlethal Weapons Capabilities Hindering U.S. Efforts in Postwar Iraq; Experts Urge Department of Defense to Increase Spending Seven-Fold.  Council on Foreign Relations, February 26, 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.cfr.org/publication.html?id=6794

Lakoski, Joan M. and others.  The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique.  Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, October 3, 2000.  49 p.
Available online at:  http://www.sunshine-project.org/incapacitants/jnlwdpdf/psucalm.pdf

Less-Lethal Operational Scenarios for Law Enforcement, edited by Edward Hughes.  Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies, August 26, 2005.
Available online at:  http://nldt2.arl.psu.edu/documents/operational_scenarios_final_draft_report.pdf

Lewer, Nick.  Non Lethal Weapons:  Operational and Policy Developments.  The Lancet 362:S20 December 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11790970&site=ehost-live

Lobel, Hannah.  The Big Hurt.  Utne  No. 132:24+ November-December 2005.
The Pentagon has a new weapon, the Active Denial System, that "uses a 95-gigahertz microwave beam to rapidly heat skin and cause an unbearable burning sensation that will send rioters fleeing from its path within five seconds" but won't cause physical damage.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1038713591&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Lombardo, Ingrid.  Chemical Non-Lethal Weapons -- Why the Pentagon Wants Them and Why Others Don't.  James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, June 8, 2007.
Available online at:  http://cns.miis.edu/search97cgi/s97_cgi?action=View&VdkVgwKey=../../cnsweb/htdocs/pubs/week/070608.htm

Maier, Andrew and others.  Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device:  A Limited Analysis of the TASER, Part 1, Technical Report.  Brooks City-Base, TX, Air Force Research Lab, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Radiofrequency Radiation Branch, March 2005.  102 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA434044

Maier, Andrew and others.  Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device:  A Limited Analysis of the TASER, Part 2, Appendices.  Brooks City-Base, TX, Air Force Research Lab, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Radiofrequency Radiation Branch, March 2005.  31 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA434298

McPhee, A. T.  Stink Bomb.  Current Science 88:10-11 January 17, 2003.
"Government officials think a universal malodor—Stench Soup—might prove effective as a nonlethal weapon.  It might also be a valuable crime-fighting tool or even be used one day as a protective barrier on ski slopes".
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=8918658&site=ehost-live

Moreno, Jonathan D.  Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons.  American Journal of Bioethics 4:W1-W2 Fall 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15508577&site=ehost-live

Munavalli, Shekar and others.  Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of CS and Synthesis of Its Novel Analogs.  Abingdon, MD, Science Applications International Corp, October 2007.  29 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474594
"Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is the most popularly used non-lethal agent in riot control situations and military exercises.  With a view to improve its properties and enhance its effectiveness, 15 new CS analogs incorporating fluorine and fluorine-containing groups have been synthesized using microwave irradiation and novel catalysts."--Abstract from publication.

No Longer Science Fiction:  Less than Lethal and Directed Energy Weapons.  Defense Update No.1:1+  2005.
Available online at:  http://www.defense-update.com/features/du-1-05/feature-NLW.htm

Non-Lethal Weapons
Available online at:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/non-lethal.htm
Links to fact sheets on non-lethal weapons.

Nonlethal Weapons and Capabilities.  Council on Foreign Relations Press, February 2004.  63 p.
Available online at:  http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Nonlethal_TF.pdf
Report of an Independent Task Force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and Research and Technology Organisation.  The Human Effects of Non-Lethal Technologies.  August 2006.
Available online at:  http://ftp.rta.nato.int/public//PubFullText/RTO/TR/RTO-TR-HFM-073/$$TR-HFM-073-ALL.pdf

Pan, Esther.  Defense:  Non-lethal Weapons.  Council on Foreign Relations, February 27, 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.cfr.org/publication/7750/defense.html?breadcrumb=%2Fissue%2F61%2Fnonlethal_weapons
Background information on non-lethal weapons.

Picatinny:  Products and Services -- Non-Lethal Capabilities.
Available online at:  http://www.pica.army.mil/PicatinnyPublic/products_services/products17.asp

Raytheon Delivers Non-lethal Sheriff Active Denial System.  Microwave Journal 48:40 November 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18979083&site=ehost-live

Report of the Fourth International Law Enforcement Forum for Minimal Force Options and Less-Lethal Technologies.  Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies, December 2005.
Available online at:  http://nldt2.arl.psu.edu/documents/2005_ILEF_Report_FINAL.pdf

Team Investigates Active DenialSystem for Security Applications.  June 20, 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.sandia.gov/news-center/news-releases/2005/def-nonprolif-sec/active-denial.html

United States.  Air Force.  Personnel Halting and Stimulation Response (PHaSR).
Available online at:  http://www.kirtland.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070404-043.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Army.  Marine Corps.  Navy.  Air Force.  NLW:  Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Tactical Employment of Nonlethal Weapons, FM 3-22.40, MCWP 3-15.8, NTTP 3-007.3.2, AFTTP(I) 3-2.45.  October 2007.
Available online at:  https://wwwmil.alsa.mil/documents/current/NLW%20-%20Oct%202007.pdf

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Website.
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/
Official site for the "Department of Defense's central resource for information on non-lethal weapons."--Abstract from Web site.  Site offers information on the program's purpose, organizational structure, training and education courses, factsheets, news articles, publications, etc.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons.  July 9, 1996.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/300003p.pdf
Department of Defense Directive Number 3000.3, certified current as of November 21, 2003.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Acoustic Hailing Devices (AHD.
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/AHD%201%20Feb%2008.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Active Denial System (ADS).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/ADS%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%2013%20Feb%2008%20New%20Mast%20-%20FINAL.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Airburst Non-Lethal Munition (ANLM).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/ANLM%201%20Feb%2008.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Escalation of Force Options:  DoD Non-Lethal Weapons Program 2007.  Washington, 2007.  24 p.
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/publications/AR2007.pdf
Program's annual report for 2007 (latest available).

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Improved Flash Bang Grenade (IFBG).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/IFBG%201%20Feb%2008.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Individual Serviceman Non-Lethal System (ISNLS).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/ISNLS%20Oct%2006.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Joint Integration Program.
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/JIP%20Oct%2006.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Joint Non-Lethal Warning Munition (JNLWM).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/JNLWM%20Oct%2006.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Mission Payload Module-Non Lethal Weapon System (MPM - NLWS).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/MPM%20Oct06.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Mk19 Short Range Non-Lethal Munition (NLM).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/MK19Fact%20Sheet30APR07FINAL.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Non-Lethal Human Effects.
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/Fact%20Sheet_NL%20Human%20Effects_Mast%20Changed%2026%20Feb%2008.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Non-Lethal Optical Distractors.
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/NL%20Optical%20Distractor%2025%20OCT%202006.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.  Vehicle Lightweight Arresting Device (VLAD).
Available online at:  https://www.jnlwp.com/misc/fact_sheets/VLAD%20Oct%202006.pdf
Fact Sheet.

United States.  Department of Justice.  Office of Justice Programs.  National Institute of Justice.  The Effectiveness and Safety of Pepper Spray.  April 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/195739.pdf

USA:  Amnesty International's Continuing Concerns about Taser Use.  Amnesty International, March 28, 2006.  51 p.
Available online at:  http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR51/030/2006/en/dom-AMR510302006en.pdf

Wong, Yuna Huh.  Ignoring the Innocent:  Non-combatants in Urban Operations and in Military Models and Simulations.  Pardee Rand Graduate School, March 2006.  196 p.
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/rgs_dissertations/2006/RAND_RGSD201.pdf


Internet Resources (Student Research)

Bowe, Joseph.  Phases III and IV:  A Dangerous Overlap.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, May 17, 2005.  27 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463394

Nisbett, Donald A.  Airpower's Emasculation?:  Non-Lethal Weapons in Joint Urban Operations.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2005.  26 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA464450

Partin, Eric S.  It Is Called a Weapon for a Reason:  The Need for Non-Lethal Weapon Specific Rules of Engagement.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, May 10, 2007.  22 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470781

Scott, Richard L.  Conflict Without Casualties:  Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2007.  93 p.  (Thesis, M.A.).
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA474466

Shivery, Charles J.  The Ever-Changing Context of War and Power Toward the Rubicon.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2007.  20 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469605

Voetberg, Jeffrey W.  Non-Lethal Weapons:  Considerations for the Joint Force Commander.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, May 10, 2007.  25 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA470730

Wittwer, Larry N.  An Exploration of Equipping a Future Force Warrior Small Combat Unit with Non-Lethal Weapons.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 1, 2006.  134 p.  (Thesis, M.S.).
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457706


Books


Alexander, John B.  Future War:  Non-Lethal Weapons in Twenty-First-Century Warfare.  1st ed.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1999.  254 p.
"Explains exactly how non-lethal electromagnetic and pulsed-power weapons, the laser and tazer, chemical systems, computer viruses, ultrasound and infrasound, and even biological entities will be used to stop enemies."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.8 A376f

Alexander, John B.  Winning the War:  Advanced Weapons, Strategies, and Concepts for the Post-9/11 World.  1st ed.  New York, Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2003.  304 p.
Book call no.:  355.020973 A376w

Allison, Graham T. and others.  Nonlethal Weapons and Capabilities:  Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations.  New York, Council on Foreign Relations Press, February 2004.  63 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Nonlethal_TF.pdf
Book call no.:  355.82 N813

Beason, Doug.  The E-Bomb:  How America's New Directed Energy Weapons Will Change the Way Future Wars Will Be Fought.  1st Da Capo Press ed.  Cambridge, MA, Da Capo Press, 2005.  256 p.
Book call no.:  358.39 B368e

The Future of Non-Lethal Weapons:  Technologies, Operations, Ethics and Law, edited by Nick Lewer.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2002.  193 p.
Eleven essays.
Book call no.:  623.4 F996

Giri, D. V.  High-Power Electromagnetic Radiators:  Nonlethal Weapons and Other Applications.  Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2004.  198 p.
"Beginning with a brief survey of the history of warfare, D. V. Giri systematically examines various nonlethal weapons technologies, emphasizing those based on electromagnetics."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  623.043 G525h

Kenny, John M.  Crowd Behavior, Crowd Control, and the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons.  University Park, PA, Institute for Non-Lethal Technologies, Applied Research Laboratory, 2001.  42 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA446472
Book call no.:  363.323 C953

Koplow, David A.  Non-Lethal Weapons:  The Law and Policy of Revolutionary Technologies for the Military and Law Enforcement.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2006.  194 p.
"Explores the emerging world of non-lethal weapons by examining a series of case studies - recent real-world scenarios from five confrontations around the world in which the availability of a modern arsenal might have made a difference."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  363.232 K83n

Lewer, Nick and Schofield, Steven.  Non-Lethal Weapons--a Fatal Attraction?:  Military Strategies and Technologies for 21st-Century Conflict.  Atlantic Highlands, NJ, Zed Books, 1997.  158 p.
"Tells us what the new weapons are, how they work, and the burgeoning body of policy and doctrine relating to their deployment."--Abstract from publication.
Book call no.:  355.0215 L671n

Mandel, Robert.  Security, Strategy, and the Quest for Bloodless War.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 2004.  209 p.
Book call no.:  355.033573 M271s

Nutley, Erik L.  Non-Lethal Weapons:  Setting Our Phasers on Stun?  Potential Strategic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, Center for Strategy and Technology, 2003.  64 p.  (Occasional Paper No. 34)
Also available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cst/csat34.pdf
Book call no.:  355.0215 N976n

Rappert, Brian.  Non-Lethal Weapons as Legitimizing Forces?:  Technology, Politics, and the Management of Conflict.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2003.  286 p.
Book call no.:  355.8 R221n

Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies.  Rusi Defence Systems.  London, Method Publishing, Spring 2005.
See pp 82-83, "Non-Lethal:  Worse than Lethal?" by Peter Almond.
Also available online at:  http://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/Almond.pdf
Book call no.:  355.8 W927

Siniscalchi, Joseph.  Non-Lethal Technologies:  Implications for Military Strategy.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, Center for Strategy and Technology, 1998.  48 p.  (Occasional Paper No. 3)
Also available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cst/occppr03.htm
Book call no.:  355.0215 S617n

United States.  National Research Council.  Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences and others.  An Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology.  Washington, National Academies Press, 2003.  179 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.nap.edu/books/0309082889/html
Book call no.:  355.82 A534

Warfare in the 21st Century, edited by Jeremy K. Brown.  New York, H.W. Wilson, 2003.  187 p.
See pp 119-134, Non-lethal Weapons.
Book call no.:  808.5 R332 v.75 no.3

Whitbred, George N. T.  Offensive Use of Chemical Technologies by US Special Operations Forces in the Global War on Terrorism:  The Nonlethal Option.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2006.  41 p.  (Maxwell Paper No. 37)
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA455470
Book call no.:  358.3482 W579o


Documents


Grieger, Dion.  An Overview of Crowd Control Theory and Considerations for the Employment of Non-Lethal Weapons.  Edinburgh South Australia, Systems Sciences Laboratory, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, August 2003.  43 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 44192-1 no.0373

United States.  Congress.  House.  Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure.  Subcommittee on Aviation.  Aviation Security:  Further Study of Safety and Effectiveness and Better Management Controls Needed if Air Carriers Resume Interest in Deploying Less-than-Lethal Weapons.  Washington, GAO, 2006.  28 p.
Also available online at:  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS78852
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41026-173 no.06-475

United States.  Joint Forces Command.  Joint Warfighting Center.  Doctrinal Implications of Low Collateral Damage Capabilities.  Suffolk, VA, Joint Forces Command, Joint Warfighting Center, January 27, 2003.  1 v.  (Joint Doctrine Series Pamphlet 2)
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA423986
Doc. call no.:  M-U 44176-7 no.2


Documents (Student Research)

Bobb, Justin L.  Non-Lethal Weaponry:  Applications to AC-130 Gunship.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2002.  30 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420661
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 B6631n

Elder, R. Wyn.  The Role of Non-Lethal Airpower in Future Peace Operations:  Beyond Bombs on Target.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003.  32 p.
Also available online at: https://research.maxwell.af.mil/papers/ay2003/acsc/03-1413.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 E373r

Hall, David B.  Transforming How We Fight Through Effects Based Operations & Non-Lethal Capabilities.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2004.  33 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA426021
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 H175t

Hamilton, Charles A.  Policy Implications of Non-Lethal Weapons.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2002.  23 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404218
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 H217p

Harsha, Travis C.  Less Lethal Weapons:  Policing Innovation.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2005.  30 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 H3241L

Marsh, James.  Counterinsurgency, the Nonlethal Imperative and Airpower's Role.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 2007.  36 p.
Also available online at:  https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2007/awc/Marsh.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 M365c

Pittman, Lee T.  The Limited Utility of Non-Lethal Weapons in Decisive Combat:  War Still Means Fighting and Fighting Still Means Killing.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 2005.  21 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463625
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 P689L

Sickinger, Lisa R.  Effectiveness of Non-Lethal Capabilities in a Maritime Environment.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.  82 p.  (Thesis, M.S.)
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA457271
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 S566e

Underhill, Jeffrey L.  Are the Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapon Capabilities Adequate for the 21st Century?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2006.  16 p.  (USAWC Strategy Research Project)
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA448633
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 U55a

Weilacher, Lester A.  Non-lethal Chemical Weapons.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003.  15 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA476393
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 W422n

White, Stephen P.  Non-Lethal Weapons.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2005.  34 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 W5881n


Periodicals


Alexander, John B.  Non-lethal Weapons to Gain Relevancy in Future Conflicts.  National Defense 86:30-31 March 2002.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115191095&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Alexander, John B. and Heal, Charles.  Non-Lethal and Hyper-Lethal Weaponry.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 13:121-132 Summer 2002.
Also available online at:  http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&issn=0959-2318&volume=13&issue=2&spage=121 and at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09592310208559186.

Annati, Massimo.  Non-Lethal Weapons Revisited.  Military Technology 31:82-87 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24490959&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Annati, Massimo.  Non-Lethal Weapons:  Their Application in the Maritime World.  Naval Forces 27:45-53 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=20544084&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Annati, Massimo and Bonsignore, Ezio.  Non-Lethal Weapons:  Possibilities, Programmes, Perspectives and Problems.  Military Technology 27:44-50 July 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10594492&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Aragon, Arthur J.  Nonlethal Capabilities of the Future.  Military Police PB 19-03-1:16-18 April 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=9910143&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Army-Developed Non-Lethal Kit Shipped to Troops in Iraq, Afghanistan.  Defense Daily 228:1 October 20, 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=914334891&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Auer, Catherine.  Killer 'Non-Lethals'.  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50:42-43 January-February 2003.
Examines the Russian special forces' use of chemical gas to incapacitate Chechen rebels that held hostage the audience of a Moscow theater on October 26, 2002; Reaction of the U.S. to the incident; Information on the assessment by the National Academy of Sciences on non-lethal weapons.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=8794789&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Bedard, E. R.  Nonlethal Capabilities:  Realizing the Opportunities.  Defense Horizons 9:1 March 2002.
Also available online at:  http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/websites/nduedu/www.ndu.edu/inss/DefHor/dh9/dh09.pdf

Ben-David, Alon.  New Non-lethal Weapon Shouts a Warning to Rioters.  Jane's Defence Weekly 41:14 October 13, 2004.

Bishop, Shelley.  Alternative Arsenal.  Military Officer 1:54-60 April 2003.
Discusses the non-lethal weapons concept, the lessons from Somalia, the establishment of the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate, and provides a concise chart listing six categories of non-lethal weapons.
Also available online at:  http://www.moaa.org/Magazine/April2003/f_alternative.asp

Black, Kenneth L.  Future Options for Nonlethal Artillery.  Field Artillery March-April:4-9 2003.
Describes potential nonlethal technologies for artillery delivery which include the delivery of electrically conductive carbon fibers, thermobaric weapons, and engine disruption.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=348097241&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Boyd, Kerry.  U.S. Grapples with Use of Nonlethal Agents.  Arms Control Today 33:44 April 2003.
Discusses the dilemma of Pentagon officials on whether or not to use nonlethal chemical weapons as an effective riot control agent and whether or not their use could undermine compliance to the Chemical Weapons Convention.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=370677531&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Brooks, Michael.  Non-lethal Chemical Weapons.  New Scientist 196:50-53 October 20, 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=27439211&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Bruno, Michael.  Stunned Progression.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 166:55-56 June 25, 2007.
Discusses the U.S. Department of Defense's difficulties in moving forward its plan to develop nonlethal weapon technologies.  Funding gets denied because proponents have not shown whether the weapons had relevance or were worth the cost.  The ADS system is discussed.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25811157&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Come Fry with Me.  Economist 366:68-69 February 1, 2003.
Reviews the possible use of electromagnetic energy weapons to destroy electronic systems and temporarily incapacitate people.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=282258661&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Controlling Individuals.  Jane's Defence Weekly 40:9 November 12, 2003.
"Taser International's X26 taser has attracted the interest of DoD as a non-lethal means to control individuals in close proximity."--Abstract from publication.

Crowd Control.  Jane's Defence Weekly 40:9 November 12, 2003.
"Raytheon's Active Denial System will provide troops in the field with the ability to deny individuals or crowds access to an area from a standoff distance beyond the range of most small-arms fire."--Abstract from publication.

The Danger of "Nonlethal" Weapons.  Arms Control Today 34:8-9 July-August 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=681199181&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Deptula, David A.  Effects-Based Operations.  Air & Space Power Journal 20:4-5 Spring 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1008568681&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Duncan, James C.  A Primer on the Employment of Non-Lethal Weapons.  Naval Law Review 45:1-56 1998.

Dupont, Daniel G.  Storm Before the Calm.  Scientific American 288:17 February 2003.
Questions whether knockout gases can truly be non-lethal.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=8877549&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Erwin, Sandra I.  Aftereffect.  National Defense 92:16 January 2008.
Reviews the non-lethal weapons concept and the need to study the long-term consequences of their employment.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1431684511&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Eshel, David.  Non-Lethal Weapons in Counter-Insurgency Warfare.  Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 31:46,48 June 2005.

Fein, Geoff S.  Non-Lethal Weapons Find Their Niche in Urban Combat.  National Defense 88:14-17 March 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=580818611&sid=4&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Fenton, George P.  Diffusing Escalation of Force.  Marine Corps Gazette 91:10 December 2007.
Defusing escalation of force in urban settings using neuromuscular disruption (NMI) weapons.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1390867911&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Floroff, Stephen G.  Engineering the Nonlethal Artillery Projectile.  Field Artillery March-April:10-12 2003.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=348102031&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

The Future of Crowd Control.  Economist 373:11 December 4, 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15263149&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Galvan, Jesse and Kang, Theo.  The Future of the Army Nonlethal Scalable Effects Center.  Military Police April:4-7 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=20903591&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Glenn, Russell W.  Letting God Rest:  Use of Nonlethal Weapons Protects the Innocent in Urban Areas.  Armed Forces Journal 140:49-52 May 2003.

Gourley, Scott.  Interview with Major General David P. Valcourt, U.S. Army Chief of Field Artillery.  Jane's Defence Weekly 42:34 February 2, 2005.

Graham-Rowe, Duncan.  Short Sharp Shock Awaits Trespassers.  New Scientist 178:12 April 26, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9750194&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gregorac, Leopold.  ADT/ADS -- Weapons of the 21st Century?  Military Technology 28:40-44 May 2004.
Focuses on Active Denial Technology (ADT); Nature and functions of ADT weapons; Advantages of ADT; Structure and status of the ADT program; Effects of the weapons on human beings.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=13436608&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gross, Michael L.  The Second Lebanon War:  The Question of Proportionality and the Prospect of Non-Lethal Warfare.  Journal of Military Ethics 7:1-22 January 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=31730310&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Hambling, David.  Non-lethal Beams Target the Eyes.  New Scientist 198:38-40 May 10, 2008.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=32046581&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Hambling, David.  Stun Weapons to Target Crowds.  New Scientist 182:24 June 19, 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=13608745&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Hay, N. J.  Playing the 'Killing Fields' Without Killing:  To What Extent Should the RAF Incorporate the Use of Non-Lethal Technologies?  Royal Air Force Air Power Review 9:48-71 Spring 2006.
Also available online at:  https://cms.raf.mod.uk/rafcms/mediafiles/2BC43F33_1143_EC82_2E65D2BB483EB51B.pdf

Heines, Vivienne.  Shoot to...Disable?  Nonlethal Weapon Offers Flexibility, Accuracy.  Armed Forces Journal 141:23-24 July 2004.
"The latest weapon in the war against smuggling and terrorism is a nonlethal round that can be fired from a 76mm naval gun to disable suspicious boats without endangering their crew."--Abstract from publication.
Also available online at:  www.infoweb.newsbank.com

Hilburn, Matt.  The Right Repellant:  Nonlethals Increasingly Are Used to Warn or Repel Crowds and Vehicles.  Sea Power 50:46-47 March 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=24893453&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Hodge, Nathan.  US Commanders Seek Active Denial System for Use in Iraq.  Jane's Defence Weekly 44:9 October 31, 2007.

Hodge, Nathan.  US Force Protection.  Jane's Defence Weekly 45:19-20+ January 9, 2008.

Hogan, Jenny.  Don't Mention the Gun.  New Scientist 181:19 January 17, 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=12105121&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Iraq Offers Breakthrough Opportunity for DE Weapons, Army Official Says.  Defense Daily 225:1 January 24, 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=783317301&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Jackson, Richard B. and Hutchison, Jason Ray.  Lasers Are Lawful as Non-Lethal Weapons.  Army Lawyer No. 399:12-18 August 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=23010641&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Jauchem, James R. and Cook, Michael C.  High-Intensity Acoustics for Military Nonlethal Applications:  A Lack of Useful Systems.  Military Medicine 172:182-189 February 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24052515&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Jean, Grace V.  Coast Guard Searches for Better Ways to Cope with Protestors.  National Defense 92:46 January 2008.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1431684611&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Johnstone, Paul.  Non and Less-than-Lethal Weapons.  Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 31:58-60 March 2005.

Kargl, Reinhard.  Officer Gadget.  Popular Science 270:38-80 February 2007.
Discusses technological innovations in the field of law enforcement currently being used or reviewed by the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=23638765&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kemp, Ian.  Power to Burn:  The U.S. Army Intends to Soon Deploy a Laser in the Non-Lethal Anti-Personnel Role.  Armada International 30:18+ June-July 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=21472600&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kennedy, Harold.  U.S. Troops Find New Uses for Non-lethal Weaponry.  National Defense 86:26-27 March 2002.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=115191093&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Koch, Andrew.  Directed-Energy Weapons Emerge from Secrecy.  Jane's Defence Weekly 43:7 May 3, 2006.

Komarow, Steven.  DoD Seeks Alternatives to 'Brute Force'.  Defense News 20:18 September 5, 2005.

Kroll, Mark. W.  Crafting the Perfect Shock.  IEEE Spectrum 44:27-30 December 2007.
"The Taser Electronic Control Device, under microprocessor control, temporarily and relatively harmlessly, immobilizes a suspect with a carefully engineered electric signal that is specifically designed with human physiology in mind."--Abstract from publication.

Kucera, Joshua.  The Sheriff Will Show Up Late in Iraq.  Jane's Defence Weekly 42:10 July 13, 2005.
Discusses the Sheriff, a non-lethal directed energy weapon.

Kucera, Joshua.  U.S. Forces Augment Non-Lethal Ability.  Jane's Defence Weekly 41:10 February 4, 2004.

Kucera, Joshua.  US Speeds Development of Non-lethal Weapons.  Jane's Defence Weekly 42:8 April 13, 2005.

Lab, Timothy J.  Army Nonlethal Weapons/Scalable-Effects Program:  A Think Piece.  Military Police PB 19-03-1:10-13 April 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=9909995&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Lamb, Timothy J.  Emerging Nonlethal Weapons Technology and Strategic Policy Implications for 21st Century Warfare.  Military Police PB 19-03-1:6-9 April 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=9909982&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Levine, Susan D. and Montgomery, Noel.  Non-Lethal Weapon Human Effects.  Program Manager 31:50-54 July-August 2002.
Also available online at:  http://www.dau.mil/pubs/pm/pmpdf02/ja2.pdf

Looking for a Pulse.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 165:82 September 18, 2006.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22783482&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Lowe, Christian.  U.S. Seeks Better Nonlethal Weapons.  Defense News 20:7 March 28, 2005.

LRAD on Steroids.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 163:40 September 12, 2005.
Short article on the Long Range Acoustic Device.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18330321&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Magnuson, Stew.  Directed Energy Weapons Face Hurdles.  National Defense 90:36-38 March 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1003548831&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Magnuson, Stew.  High-Tech Weapons Mix Targets Urban Hazards.  National Defense 90:19-21 June 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1051278011&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Magnuson, Stew.  Lasers Seen as Solution to Checkpoint Safety.  National Defense 90:22-24 February 2006.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=996138831&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Magnuson, Stew.  Non-Lethal Weapon May Spark Controversy.  National Defense 90:36 March 2006.
Discussion of the Active Denial System, a non-lethal weapon that employs microwave millimeter technology to make human targets recoil from attack by causing debilitating pain.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1003549271&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Magnuson, Stew.  Non-Lethal Weapon Readied for Battlefield.  National Defense 90:18-19 January 2006.
Discusses the Active Denial System.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=966514551&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mandel, Robert.  Nonlethal Weaponry and Post-Cold War Deterrence.  Armed Forces & Society 30:511-537 Summer 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=15198783&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Marks, Paul.  A Lethal Imperative.  New Scientist 188:20 December 17, 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19304741&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Marshall, Jessica.  A Harmless Shock - if You're Healthy.  New Scientist 195:6 September 29-October 5, 2007.
Reviews safety concerns in using Tasers.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1361006851&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Matthews, William.  New Tools.  National Guard 61:36 October 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1407032701&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mayer, Chris.  Nonlethal Weapons and Noncombatant Immunity:  Is it Permissible to Target Noncombatants?  Journal of Military Ethics 6:221-231 September 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=26946336&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

McKenna, Ted.  Flash in the Plan:  Directed-energy Weapons Remain More Experimental than Available.   Journal of Electronic Defense 26:46-52 May 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=9723792&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Mesler, Bill.  The Pentagon's 'Nonlethal' Gas.  The Nation 276:19-22 February 17, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9036831&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Mihm, Stephen.  The Quest for Non Killer App.  New York Times Magazine, pp 38-43, July 25, 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=668902791&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Morris, Janet and others.  Nothing Is So Strong as Gentleness.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:52-55 July 2004.
Discusses the need for non-lethal weapons.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=661264791&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

No Such Thing as a Non-Lethal Weapon.  New Scientist 185:3 March 5, 2005.
Short article on the dangers of Pulsed Energy Projectiles (PEPs) designed to maximize pain through the body's nerve cell receptors.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16373120&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Nonlethal Weapons Protect the Force.  Military Police PB 19-03-1:33-40 April 2003.
Pictures of nonlethal weapons with descriptions.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=9910344&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Pappalardo, Joe.  Homeland Defense Plan Favors Non-Lethal Technology.  National Defense 89:49-51 June 2005.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=875056611&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Porges, Seth.  A Shock to the System.  PC Magazine 26:17-18 March 20, 2007.
Focuses on whether or not Tasers are safe to use.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24207049&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Prison of the Web.  Jane's Defence Weekly 40:9 November 12, 2003.
"Included in the myriad of non-lethal weapons concepts that DoD is exploring is using spider silk for entanglement devices."--Abstract from publication.

Rappert, Brian.  A Framework for the Assessment of Non-lethal Weapons.  Medicine, Conflict and Survival 20:35-54 2004.
Also available online at:  http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/13623690412331302284

Rappert, Brian.  Shock Tactics.  New Scientist 177:34-37 February 15, 2003.
Focuses on the Advanced Taser and its medical effects.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9183423&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Ripley, Tim.  USAF Receives Its Second Active Denial System.  Jane's Defence Weekly 44:11 September 19, 2007.
"Reports on Raytheon's delivery of a second non-lethal Active Denial System to the U.S. Air Force; The system emits a focused beam of millimeter-wave energy that produces an intolerable heating sensation."--Abstract from publication.

Rivers, Brendan P. and Sherman, Kenneth B.  US Developing Non-Lethal Weapons.  Journal of Electronic Defense 28:19-20 July 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17630022&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Schloeffel, Eric.  Air Force Tests Nonlethal Weapon System.  Infantry 96:3 January-February 2007.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1277310871&Fmt=7&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Schloeffel, Eric.  Moody Airmen Test New, Nonlethal Method of Repelling Enemy.  Defense & AT-L 36:61-62 May-June 2007.
Evaluation and testing of the Active Denial System.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=25179120&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Sententia, Wyre.  Your Mind Is a Target:  Weaponizing Psychoactive Drugs.  Humanist 63:43-44 January-February 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=8719901&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Shupe, Paul K.  Nonlethal Force and Rules of Engagement.  Military Police PB 19-03-1:43-48 April 2003.
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Siegel, Jonas.  Shoot to Not Kill.  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 62:9 January-February 2006.
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Sirak, Michael.  US Air Force, Navy Eye Non-lethal Weapon.  Jane's Defence Weekly 41:8 October 27, 2004.

Sirak, Michael.  US Looks to Build on Non-lethal Weapon Support.  Jane's Defence Weekly 40:9 November 12, 2003.
"DoD is moving to create greater advocacy and funding support for non-lethal capabilities."--Abstract from publication.

Sirak, Michael and Burger, Kim.  The Promise and the Peril of Non-Lethal Weapons.  Jane's Defence Weekly 40:23 August 6, 2003.

Stebbins, Michael.  Agents of Suspicion.  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 63:26 May-June 2007.
Author believes there should be a more thorough discussion as to whether incapcitating chemical weapons are justified.
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Sweetman, Bill.  High-Power Microwave Weapons.  Jane's Defence Weekly 43:22-24+ August 30, 2006.

Tchou, Patrick.  Find the Edge of Heart Safety.  IEEE Spectrum 44:30-31 December 2007.
"Author investigates whether Taser shocks can cause serious damage to a heart's normal function."--Abstract from publication.

Tiron, Roxana.  Stopping Intruders Can be a Sticky Mess.  National Defense 86:28 March 2002.
The Mobility Denial System uses a sticky gel to stop a vehicle or to prevent troublemakers from entering a building..
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Tiron, Roxana.  Unconventional Weapons Can Help U.S. Troops Fight Insurgents in Iraq.  National Defense 89:38-39 September 2004.
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Upson, Sandra.  How a Taser Works.  IEEE Spectrum 44:24 December 2007.

Upson, Sandra.  The Taser Gun.  IEEE Spectrum 44:26-27 December 2007.
"An electroshock weapon used by police departments worldwide, is no stranger to bad press."--Abstract from publication.

Vaisman, Daria.  Sounding Off.  Foreign Policy No. 158:100 January-February 2007.
Luxury cruise liners are using a Long-Rang Acoustic Device (LRAD) to ward off pirates in the dangerous waters off the coasts of Nigeria and Somalia.
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Wagner, Breanne.  Directed Energy:  Low Power Weapons on the Rise.  National Defense 92:22-23 February 2008.
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Weinberger, Sharon and Butler, Amy.  A Sea of Pain.  Aviation Week & Space Technology 164:54 April 3, 2006.
The Active Denial System.
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Wheelis, Mark.  "Nonlethal" Chemical Weapons:  A Faustian Bargain.  Issues in Science and Technology 19:74-78 Spring 2003.
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Wilkinson, Alec.  Non-Lethal Force.  New Yorker 64:26-33 June 6, 2008.
Discusses the use of non-lethal weapons by the U.S. police and military personnel; Profiles non-lethal weapons expert Charles "Sid" Heal; Describes several weapons including Tasers, the Active Denial System, and the Tiger Light pepper spray.
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Wollman, Gerd.  Directed Energy Weapons:  Fact or Fiction?  Military Technology 27:80-85 April 2003.
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Yagrich, Kenneth P.  Nonlethal Weapons Requirements Definition:  A Difficult Task Requires a True Team Effort.  Military Police PB 19-03-1:14-18 April 2003.
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