Operation Iraqi Freedom:  Special Operations
ACSC Research Topic


March 2005

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents 


Internet Resources


ABCNEWS.com. Special Ops Well-Prepped for U.S. Needs.
Available online at: http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=97679&page=1

ABCNEWS.com.  White House Asks for Study on CIA Forces:  White House Asks for Study on Whether to Transfer CIA Forces to Pentagon.  November 2004.
Available online:  http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory?id=275069

Air Force Doctrine Document AFDD 2-7 Special Operations.
Available online: https://www.doctrine.af.mil/Library/Doctrine/afdd2-7.pdf

Air Force Special Operations Command.  Website.
Available online:  https://www.afsoc.af.mil/

Special Operations, Air University Library Bibliography, compiled by Janet Seymour, September 1997.
Available online:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/special/sof97toc.htm

Special Operations - Airpower Aspects, OTS Current Military Topic, Air University Library Bibliography compiled by Glenda Armstrong, February 2005.
Available online:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/spops/sofair99.htm

CENTCOM Leaflet Gallery.
Available online at: http://www.centcom.mil/Galleries/leaflets/showleaflets.asp
Shows examples of actual leaflets that have been dropped both in English and Arabic, plus the dates the leaflets were dropped.

CNN.com. Pentagon Officials: Special Forces in Northern Iraq. Jan. 30, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/01/29/sprj.irq.us.troops/index.html

CNN.com. Special Operations Forces in Iraq. Apr. 8, 2003.
Available online at: http://edition.cnn.com/2003/US/04/07/hln.terror.int/

Coughlin, Kevin. The Star-Ledger War - It's Not Just Firing Guns - By Leaflet, TV, Radio and Loudspeaker, U.S. Wages Information Campaign.. April 11, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/org/news/2003/030411-iraq01.htm

DefenseLINK News. Iraqi Freedom Largest Special Ops Effort Since Vietnam.
Available online at: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Apr2003/n04042003_200304045.html

Federal Computer Week. DOD Aims Psy-Ops at Iraqi Officers. March 24, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.fcw.com/fcw/articles/2003/0317/web-psyops-03-21-03.asp

Federation of American Scientists. Special Operations Command (SOCOM).
Available online at: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/socom/
Describes the organization and missions of SOCOM.

Global Security.org. Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Available online at: http://globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraqi_freedom.htm
Discusses special operations forces operations that cover the entire country of Iraq.

IWS - The Information Warfare Site. Psychological Operations.
Available online at: http://www.iwar.org.uk/psyops/
Documents, news articles and links to relevant sites.

Jane's Defence News. Iraq's Western Desert: A 'Special Forces Playground'.
Available online at: http://www.janes.com/defence/news/jdw/jdw030403_1_n.shtml
Discusses the U.S., British and Australian special forces operations in Northern Iraq.

Kelley, Jack. Covert Troops Fight Shadow War Off-Camera. USA Today April 7, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=J0E304482219203&db=f5h
Covert forces target Iraq's technology and leaders. Article describes the efforts conducted behind the scenes to pave the way for convention ground forces into the heart of Iraq.

San Diego Union Tribune, Associated Press. When Bombs Fall Silent, the Psychological Warfare is Still at Full Scale. March 21, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/iraq/20030321-2321-war-thepauses.html

United States. Marine Corps Press Release. Iraqi Freedom Largest Special Ops Effort Since Vietnam.
Available online at: http://www.usmc.mil/marinelink/mcn2000.nsf/ac95bc775efc34c685256ab50049d458/882d3568d415d1d885256d01004ad2d0?OpenDocument

United States Special Operations Command.  Website.
Available online:  http://www.socom.mil/

USNews.com. Psychological Operations: Getting the Message to Iraqis. March 21, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/iraq/articles/qatar030321.htm

VOA News. Carrier Constellation Prints Leaflets for Fighter Jet Distribution. March 24, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.voanews.com/article.cfm?objectID=AE772DEA-3023-4EDB-B6DA7413AC243C35


Books


Allen, Patrick D. Special Operations Aviation: The Men and Machines of the Elite Units. Osceola, WI, MBI Publishing, 1999. 128 p.
Book call no.: 355.31 A428s

Allen, Patrick H. F. US Special Operations Command in Action. Shrewsbury, Airlife, 2002. 144 p.
Covers United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy special operations personnel, tactics and equipment.
Book call no.: 356.1670973 A428u

Dunnigan, James F.  The Perfect Soldier:  Special Operations, Commandos, and the Future of U.S. Warfare.  New York, Citadel Press, 2004.  308 p.
Book call no.:  356.167 D924p

The Mammoth Book of Elite Forces, edited by Jon E. Lewis. New York, Carroll & Graf, 2001. 616 p.
Book call no.: 356.167 M265

Moore, Robin.  Hunting Down Saddam:  The Inside Story of the Search and Capture.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 2004.  283 p.
956.70443 M823h

Mullin, T. J. Special Operations: Weapons & Tactics. Mechanicsburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 2003. 175 p.
Book call no.: 356.16 M959s

Pushies, Fred J. U.S. Air Force Special Ops. Osceola, WI, MBI Publishing Company, 2000. 128 p.
Book call no.: 358.4 P9871u

Pushies, Fred J.  The Complete Book of U.S. Special Operations Forces.  St. Paul, MN MBI Pub. Co., 2004.  176 p.
Book call no.:  356.160973 P987c

Walter, John. The World's Elite Forces: Small Arms & Accessories. Mechanicsburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 2002. 144 p.
An illustrated guide to the weapons of the world's special forces. Covers the range of purpose-built guns, grenades, ammunition and observation tools.
Book call no.: 355.824 W232w


Documents


Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Franco, George H. Insurgency in Urban Areas: Implications for SOF. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2000. 130 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 F8251i

Hester, Johnny L.  Integration of of Special Operations Forces into the Joint Targeting Process.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, United States Army Command and general Staff College, 2003.  84 p.
"Technological and political changes are taking place today that require that the United States Army be prepared to fight in every conceivable environment and under any conceivable conditions and restraints. Recent events in Afghanistan and Iraq testify to the fact that Special Operations Force, with the proper integration into and the support of the joint targeting process, are truly indispensable on the battlefield as well as before and after the conflict. "
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA416890
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 H5881i

LeMire, Guy A. Employing Special Operations Forces to Conduct Deception in Support of Shaping and Decisive Operations: A Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, KS, United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2002. 53 p.
Examines the art of deception and analyzes the potential use of employing U.S. Special Operations Forces to conduct deception in support of conventional operations.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 L5541e

Ramirez, Armando J.  From Bosnia to Baghdad:  The Evolution of US Army Special Forces from 1995-2004.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 R173f

U.S. Special Operations Command.  Acquisition and Logistics Center.  Special Operations Technology Execution Plan:  Fiscal Year 2004.  MacDill AFB, FL, U.S. Special Operations Command, 2004.  229 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43903-23


Periodicals


Bacon, Lance M.  Awesome Airmen:  Special-Operations Troops Honored for Heroic Acts in Afghanistan and Iraq.  Air Force Times 63:26-28 July 14, 2003.

Barnes, Frederick.  Iraq Lessons Accelerate Defense RestructuringDefense & Foreign  Affairs Strategic Policy 31:10 2003.

Braganca, Eric.  The Evolution of Special Operations Joint Forces.  JFQ:  Joint Force Quarterly 35:64-69 Autumn 2004.
This article focuses on special operations joint forces. A familiar complaint about Special Operations Forces (SOF) is that they are not integrated with conventional forces. However, SOF leaders recognize that they support other forces, land, sea, air, and space, just as those forces support special operations and one another. This reality has led to the improvement of special operations joint forces in Iraq, which is largely based on experiences in Afghanistan. Prior to Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, Special Operations Forces understood the need to integrate joint force. Doctrine indicates that SOF headquarters should include joint forces expertise in mission planning and execution.
Also available online:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=15248331

Dao, James. War Plan Drew U.S. Commandos from Shadows. New York Times April 28, 2003.
Also available online at: http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/04/28/nyt.dao/

Dehghanpisheh, Babak. Now We Have America. Newsweek 141:35 April 7, 2003.
Focuses on the combined military efforts of Kurdish peshmerga guerrillas and U.S. Special Operations Forces in Iraq, and how the close cooperation between U.S. Special Forces and the peshmerga has led to a sense of camaraderie.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9406938&db=aph

Hebert, Adam J.  The Air Commandos.  Air Force Magazine 88:32-38 March 2005.
Discusses the rise in the demand for U.S. Air Force's special operations forces. War on terrorism; Increases in manpower, responsibilities and equipment; Standards of the special operations forces. 

Hoffman, Bruce.  Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Iraq Special Warfare 17:6-17 December 2004.

Muradian, Vago.  Allied Special Forces Took Western IraqDefense News 18:1+ May 19, 2003.

Robinson, Linda.  A Few Good Men.  U.S. News & World Report 138:26-28 February 14, 2005.
This article reports that "U.S. News & World Report" was given exclusive access to this counterterrorist unit, modeled on the Delta Force, and another elite unit, the 36th Commando Battalion, which make up the Iraqi Special Operations Forces Brigade, as well as to the Americans grooming them since last year. In an unpublicized action in mid-January, Operation Trojan Roundup, both units of the ISOF carried out a massive raid in Baghdad in search of those who attacked a Kellogg Brown & Root convoy and captured American soldier Keith Maupin last year.

Robinson, Linda and Fang, Bay. The Silent Warriors. U.S. News & World Report 134:28-30 April 14, 2003.
Reports that an estimated 10,000 special operations forces (SOF) are fighting in Iraq. Discusses the various operations that are underway.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9460483&db=aph

Rolfsen, Bruce.  SPEC OPS:  Special job, Special Pay.  Air Force Times 65:8-10 March 14, 2005.

Schmitt, Eric.  Commandos See Duty on U.S. Soil in New Role in Terrorism FightNew York Times 1,Op January 23, 2005.
Focuses on a small group of super-secret U.S. commandos with state-of-the-art weaponry who protect the presidency in ways that have never been fully revealed before. Deployment of these elite forces after the September 11, 2001 attacks; Secret counterterrorism program under which these commandos operate; Mention of the commandos in William M. Arkin's "Code Names: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs and Operations in the 9/11 World"; Observation that the precise number of these Special Operations forces in Washington, D.C. is highly classified; Information on the special-missions units; Why the role of the armed forces in the U.S. has been a contentious issue.

Schmitt, Eric.  Pentagon Sends Its Spies to Join Fight on TerrorNew York Times A1, Op January 24, 2005.
Reports that the Pentagon has created battlefield intelligence units that for the first time have been assigned to work directly with Special Operations forces on secret counterterrorism missions, tasks that until now were largely the province of the Central Intelligence Agency. Use of the small clandestine teams to provide the military's elite Special Operations units with battlefield intelligence using advanced technology, to recruit spies in foreign countries, and to scout potential targets; Example of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's desire to expand the Pentagon's ability to gather human intelligence (information gathered by spies rather than technological means) both within the military services and the Defense Intelligence Agency, whose focus is on intelligence used in the battlefield.

Scully, Megan.  Fledgling UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) Program Proved Itself in Iraq WarArmy Times 64:32 February 23, 2004.

The Secret War. Newsweek 141:24-31 April 21, 2003.
Discusses how psychological warfare operators used cultural stereotypes to defeat the undisciplined Fedayeen. Examines the role of U.S. special forces in looking for leadership targets and gathering intelligence data.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9515790&db=aph

Shanker, Thom.  Pentagon Sets Bonuses to Retain Members of Special Operations.  New York Times 10 February 6, 2005.
Reports that the U.S. Defense Department has approve a series of incentives for members of Special Operations Forces who remain the military. Bonus given to experienced and trained combat personnel who promise to extend their military service for a number of years; Design of the pay and incentives package to reduce the number of officers transferring to higher-paying civilian security jobs in Iraq and elsewhere.

Some Iraqi Soldiers Train with the Best of the Best.  Army Times 65:16 February 14, 2005.
Reports on the training of Iraqi Army soldiers with the help of the U.S. Army Special Forces. Mission of the U.S. Green Berets for the Iraqi Army; Views of a Special Forces soldier on the improvement of the Iraqi army; Role of the Iraqis' chain of command in their soldiers' equipment.

Thomas, Evan. The War Room. Newsweek 141:22-32 March 31, 2003.
Describes the use of mind games by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in their propaganda campaign against leaders of the Iraqi regime; Role of psychological warfare and U.S. Special Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9359035&db=aph

Ware, Michael. Battling Terrorists in the Hills. Time 161:54-55 April 7, 2003.
Describes the artillery being used by U.S. special forces in northern Iraq against the Ansar al-Islam.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9394776&db=aph


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