OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM - LESSONS LEARNED

December 2004

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S.  Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site. 

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability. AU students and faculty can contact  AUL's  Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed December 10, 2004.


Internet Resources


Air War College Gateway to the Internet. Iraq - Post Saddam. DoD Military Lessons Learned - Joint, Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine, Coast Guard Lessons Learned, After Action Reviews (AAR)
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-lesn.htm#iraq3

Air War College Gateway to the Internet. Operation Iraqi Freedom. DoD Military Lessons Learned - Joint, Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine, Coast Guard Lessons Learned, After Action Reviews (AAR)
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-lesn.htm#iraq2

Brookings Institution Saban Center for Middle East Policy. Iraq Index
Available online at: http://www.brookings.edu/iraqindex
"The Iraq Index is a statistical compilation of economic and security data. This resource will provide updated information on various criteria, including crime, telephone and water service, troop fatalities, unemployment, Iraqi security forces, oil production, and coalition troop strength. The index is designed to quantify the rebuilding efforts and offer an objective set of criteria for benchmarking performance. It is the first in-depth, non-partisan assessment of American efforts in Iraq, and is based primarily on U.S. government information".

Burkle, Frederick M. and Noji, Eric K. Health and Politics in the 2003 War with Iraq: Lessons Learned. Lancet October 9, 2004.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=14672409
Discusses how the United States-led relief effort in Iraq was planned, its failures and successes, and the lessons learned. How scarcity of public utilities can have a substantial effect on the ability of health workers to provide necessary health services; Conclusion that the armed forces should be prevented from dominating humanitarian assistance as much as possible and should leave this task to agencies that have traditionally handled such crises.

Conflict Termination in the Iraqi War, compiled by Joan T. Phillips. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, April 2004.
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/iraqi/conflict.htm

Ellis, John. The Soft Stuff is the Hard Stuff, and Other Lessons From Iraq. Fast Company June 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=9715636
Focuses on the business lessons to be learned from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Problem with corporate incrementalism; Reason for the failure of corporate mergers; Benefits from information technology.

Franks, Tommy R. Lessons Learned From Operation Iraqi Freedom. FDCH Congressional Testimony July 7, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=32Y1791084936

Greppi, Michele. In the Wake of Iraq Conflict: Bills, Lessons and Questions. Television Week 22: April 28, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=9715475
Interviews several television news executives and other industry veterans in the U.S. Presents forecast on satellite phone and video phone bills; Discussion on the presence of TV news organizations in Baghdad, Iraq; Lessons learned from covering the war in Iraq.

Humanitarian Assistance in Iraq, prepared by Terry Kiss. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, July 2003.
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/humaniraq/humaniraq.htm

Leibstone, Marvin. Lessons Learned From War on Iraq. Naval Forces 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=11914339
Focuses on the turning point experiences for the U.S. military that will be serving as catalysts for future U.S. military policy and strategic, tactical and platform and equipment acquisition developments. Impact of globalization on the U.S. via trade with the growth of political relations; Coalition warfare requirements for the modernization of any U.S. military service; Need for "joint" strategic and tactical operations for engaging and prevailing against threats to peace.

Leibstone, Marvin. The US-Led Anti-Iraq War and Naval Combat Issues. Naval Forces 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=10308590
Discusses combat issues faced by the U.S. Navy in the 2003 Iraq War. Problems in land-basing rights; Expectations of enemy activity; Coping with different war scenarios; Lessons learned from the war.

Lessons Learned Process on Iraq War Explained. FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database June 4, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=32W3001563936

Mills, Greg. From Basra to Baghdad: Interim Military Lessons from Iraq. Defense & Security Analysis September 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11051941
Examines military lessons from the U.S.-Iraqi war in 2003. Failure of intelligence; Blur of conventional and guerilla warfare; Need to protect supply lines; Limits of air power; Discovery of weather as an equalizer; Limitations of embedded journalism; Number of deaths suffered by the coalition by the time of the fall of Baghdad; Lessons from the unexpected opposition encountered in Basra and Nasiriya, such as misunderstanding of Iraqi political and social culture and failure of human intelligence.

Nash, Gordon C. Major General Gordon C. Nash (USMC) Holds News Briefing on Lessons Learned From Iraq Conflict. FDCH Political Transcripts June 3, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=32V2496169184

Peacekeeping, compiled by Terry Kiss. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, July 2004.
Available online at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/peacekp03/peacekp03.htm

Rivers, Brendan P. Compass Calls Returning to Upgrades. Journal of Electronic Defense June 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=9926033
Discusses the upgrade of the EC-130H Compass Call fighter plane in the United States. Performance during the Operation Iraqi Freedom; Improvement of communications jammers on the planes; Automation enhancements.

Warner, John W. U.S. Senator John W. Warner (R-VA) Holds Hearing on Lessons Learned in Iraq and Afghanistan. FDCH Political Transcripts July 9, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=32V0579316634


Books
 


Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq's WMD . Washington, Central Intelligence Agency, 2004. 4 vols.
Also known as: Duelfer report. v. 1. Charles Duelfer's transmittal message -- Acknowledgements -- Scope note -- Regime strategic intent -- Regime finance and procurement. -- v. 2. Delivery systems -- Nuclear. -- v.3. Iraq's chemical warfare program -- Biological warfare -- Glossary and acronyms. -- v.4. Key findings.
Also available online at:http://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/iraq%5Fwmd%5F2004/index.html
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS54633
Book call no.: 358.309567 C737

Cordesman, Anthony H. The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons. Washington, CSIS Press, 2003. 572 p.
Provides an in-depth examination of the key issues swirling around the most significant U.S. war since Vietnam. Finding answers is essential if we are to understand the United States' awesome power and its place in a new age of international terror and regional conflict. Finding answers is also essential if we are to draw the proper lessons and understand the new challenges of conflict termination, peacemaking, and nation building."--BOOK JACKET.
Book call no.: 956.70443 C794i

Crane, Conrad C. and Terrill, W. Andrew. Reconstructing Iraq: Insights, Challenges, and Missions for Military Forces in a Post-Conflict Scenario. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003. 78 p.
"In October 2002, the U.S. Army War Colleges Strategic Studies Institute, in coordination with the Office of the Army Deputy Chief of Staff/G-3, initiated a study to analyze how American and coalition forces can best address the requirements that will necessarily follow operational victory in a war with Iraq. The objectives of the project were to determine and analyze probable missions for military forces in a post-Saddam Iraq; examine associated challenges; and formulate strategic recommendations for transferring responsibilities to coalition partners or civilian organizations, mitigating local animosity, and facilitating overall mission accomplishment in the war against terrorism. The study has much to offer planners and executors of operations to occupy and reconstruct Iraq, but also has many insights that will apply to achieving strategic objectives in any conflict after hostilities are concluded. The current war against terrorism has highlighted the danger posed by failed and struggling states. If this nation and its coalition partners decide to undertake the mission to remove Saddam Hussein, they will also have to be prepared to dedicate considerable time, manpower, and money to the effort to reconstruct Iraq after the fighting is over. Otherwise, the success of military operations will be ephemeral, and the problems they were designed to eliminate could return or be replaced by new and more virulent difficulties."--Summary from web site.
Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi/pdffiles/00175.pdf
Book call no.: 956.70443 C891r

Gordon, Philip H. and Shapiro, Jeremy. Allies at War: America, Europe, and the Crisis over Iraq. New York, McGraw Hill, Inc, 2004. 266 p.
Book call no.: 956.7044 G664a

Hamre, John. Iraq's Post-Conflict Reconstruction: A Field Review and Recommendations. Washington, CSIS, 2003. Computer text file.
A team of experts in the field of post-conflict reconstruction assessed conditions in Iraq during the period of June 26, 2003, to July 7, 2003. This report outlines the issues focused upon by the team during their 11 days in Iraq.
Also available online at: http://www.csis.org/isp/pcr/IraqTrip.pdf
Book call no.: 956.70443 I65

Hanson, Victor Davis. Between War and Peace: Lessons from Afghanistan to Iraq. New York, Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2004. 282 p.
Book call no.: 973.931 H251b

Israeli, Raphael. The Iraq War: Hidden Agendas and Babylonian Intrigue: The Regional Impact on Shi'ites, Kurds, Sunnis and Arabs. Portland, OR, Sussex Academic Press, 2004. 278 p.
Book call no.: 956.70443 I85i

Krepinevich, Andrew F. Operation Iraqi Freedom: A First-Blush Assessment. Washington, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 2003. 36 p.
Also available online at: http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/Archive/R.20030916.Operation_Iraqi_Fr/R.20030916.Operation_Iraqi_Fr.pdf
Book call no.: 956.7044 K92o

Pelletiere, Stephen. America's Oil Wars. Westport, CN, Praeger, 2004. 192 p.
Book call no.: 956.7044 P388a

Peters, Ralph. Beyond Baghdad: Postmodern War and Peace. Mechanicsburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 2003. 337 p.
Book call no.: 355.033073 P483b

Pickering, Thomas Reeve. Iraq One Year After Report of an Independent Task Force on Post-Conflict Iraq. New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2003. Computer text data.
The Task Force's third report, each of which has focused on what the administration should do to ensure that battlefield victory in Iraq would not be lost by possible post-war failures."--Press release.
Also available online at: http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6848
Book call no.: 956.70443 I655

Pollack, Kenneth M. After Saddam: Assessing the Reconstruction of Iraq. Washington, Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, 2004. 35 p.
Also available online at: http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/pollack/20040107.pdf
Book call no.: 956.70443 P771a

Venter, Al J. The Iraqi War Debrief: Why Saddam Hussein was Toppled. Havertown, PA, Casemate Publishers, 2004. 340 p.
Book call no.: 956.70443 V465i

Wong, Leonard. Developing Adaptive Leaders: The Crucible Experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, July 2004. 23 p.
The author examines the Operation IRAQI FREEDOM environment and concludes that the complexity, unpredictability, and ambiguity of postwar Iraq is producing a cohort of innovative, confident, and adaptable junior officers. They are learning to make decisions in chaotic conditions and to be mentally agile in executing counterinsurgency and nation-building operations simultaneously. As a result, the Army will soon have a cohort of company grade officers who are accustomed to operating independently, taking the initiative, and adapting to changes. The author warns that the Army must now acknowledge and encourage this newly developed adaptability in our junior officers or risk stifling the innovation critically needed in the Army's future leaders.
Also available online at: http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi/pdffiles/00375.pdf
Book call no.: 355.33041 W872d

Zizek, Slavoj. Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle. New York, Verso, 2004. 188 p.
Book call no.: 956.70443 Z82i


Documents


Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements

Reed, Deborah L. Post Conflict Operations Planning and Execution. Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004. 24 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 R3231p


Periodicals


Anderson, Charles A. Air and Missile Defense: Operation Iraqi Freedom. Army 54:40-47 January 2004.

Ankerson, Christopher and Tethong, Losel. Rapid Decisive Ops are Risky Business. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:52-55 October 2003.
Operation Iraqi Freedom saw the beginning of a new form of warfare. Two aspects of the campaign stand out, the speed with which the combat phase was conducted, and the low numbers of casualties on all sides. High technology allowed the U.S. armed forces to achieve startling effects without relying on mass. Rapid Decisive Operations doctrine concentrates on the use of special forces, air power and high technology so that conflicts can be won more swiftly and with fewer troops. By selecting the most critical targets, the attacker can pare down the total number of weapons, concentrating fires on key command-and-control nodes.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11049156

Atkeson, Edward B. Iraq Through the Prism of American Experience. Army 53:17-20+ December 2003.

Ayers, Cynthia E. Iraqi Resistance to Freedom: A Frommian Perspective. Parameters 33:68-84 Autumn 2003.
Focuses on the role of conformity and submission on the need for security in authority and power. Dependence on the type of economic and social structure in human individuals; Form of mental destruction.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=10905117

Barnes, Frederick. Iraq Lessons Accelerate Defense Restructuring. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 31:10 2003.

Berezkin, G. A. Lessons From the War in Iraq. Military Thought 12:139-183 2003.
Analyzes the military operations of U.S.-led coalition forces against Iraq in March-April 2003. Foreign policy of the U.S.; Military-political course of the U.S.; Weapons systems used against Iraq; Information warfare.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11280887

Bowes, Andrew W. and Daub, Kimberley J. A Corps Support Battalion's Experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Army Logistician 36:28-33 July-August 2004.
Chronicles the United States 87th Corps Support Battalion's deployment in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Lessons learned while providing support to the 3d Infantry Division; Fuel support; Lack of in-transit visibility of the theater trucks that were bringing rations from the Public Warehousing Co. in Kuwait; Issuance of two Movement Tracking Systems.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=13856167

Brancati, Dawn. Can Federalism Stabilize Iraq? Washington Quarterly 27:7-22 Spring 2004.
Reports on the establishment of federalism in Iraq to prevent ethnic conflict and secessionism. Demand for independence in the country; Utilization of institutionalized measures to prevent identity-based and regional parties from dominating the Iraqi government; Role of the U.S. in advising Iraqi leaders to adopt a federal system of government.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12492532

Brill, Arthur P. Marine Corps Plans to Revamp Outmoded Logistics System. Sea Power 47:12 April 2004.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=mth&an=12947168

Brill, Arthur P. Marine Corps Studies Lessons Learned in Iraq to Plan for Future Conflicts. Sea Power 46:9-10 June 2003.
Details the operations of the U.S. Marine Corps in the Iraq war. Preparation of the soldiers; Assessment of the logistics of the marines; Collection of information about Iraq.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=10026307

Brinkley, C. Mark. Failure to Communicate. Navy Times 52:24-26 July 7, 2003.
Reports on the challenges faced by U.S. Marine Corps casualty assistance calls officers, who are given the task of notifying the families of Marine officers involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom of wartime deaths and injuries. Problem with casualty information presented at television news and Internet news sites; Criticism on their service to the family of Private Nolen R. Hutchings, who died in a friendly fire; Inaccurate emergency contact information.

Brown, David. Commander Details War Problems: Communications, Targeting Info Needs Improvement, Admiral Says. Navy Times 52:20 September 15, 2003.
Reports on the assessment of U.S. Navy 5th Fleet commander Vice Admiral Timothy Keating on the outcome of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Problems encountered during the war in Iraq; Success of the logistic preparations; Lessons learned from the war.

Brown, David. U.S. Navy Relates Lessons Learned in Iraq. Defense News 18:28 September 8, 2003.

Byman, Daniel. Constructing a Democratic Iraq: Challenges and Opportunities. International Security 28:47-78 Summer 2003.
Discusses the establishment of democracy in Iraq after the U.S. ousted former president Saddam Hussein in 2003. Transition from dictatorship to democracy; Divisions among Iraq's various ethnic and religious communities; Improvement of security in Iraq.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=10969433

Byman, Daniel. Insecuring Iraq. National Interest 76:15-18 Summer 2004.
Deals with the security problems being faced in Iraq after the defeat of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Importance of security for the political and economical reconstruction of Iraq; Major security forces of Iraq; Challenges that will be faced by the new Iraqi government after June 30, 2004.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13670998

Caraccilo, Dominic J. and Rohling, Andrew M. Targeting in Postconflict Operations in Iraq. Military Review 84:11-19 January-February 2004.
Looks at the postconflict military operations of the U.S. 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry Regiment (2-503d) in Iraq. Definition of the term, rules of engagement, as defined in the Field Manual 101-5-1 "Operational Terms and Graphics"; Reason for the need of the commander's guidance to evolve; Elements involved in the interface of 2-503d delineated company sector with the Kirkuk community.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12455754

Chandler, David. Imposing the "Rule of Law": The Lessons of BiH for Peacebuilding in Iraq. International Peacekeeping 11:312-333 Summer 2004.

Collins, John M. 'You Can't Assume Nothin'. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:50-52 May 2003.
The U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, in concert with a few faithful allies, performed amazing feats during the first three weeks of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Those who did so in preparation for war with Iraq erred egregiously, according to skeptics who alleged that key suppositions began to clash with reality before the war was one week old. Lightly armed but elusive hit-and-run Iraqi raiders made U.S. Central Command divert substantial offensive combat power to defend vulnerable supply lines almost from the outset, and they continued to fight after Baghdad fell.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=9750329

Corera, Gordon. Iraq Provides Lessons in Nation Building. Jane's Intelligence Review 16:30-33 January 2004.
Presents information on the failure of U.S. post-war planning in Iraq headed by U.S. Lieutenant General Jay Garner. Reasons for the failure to plan and execute well in the security field; Overview of the inadequacy of governmental communications around Iraq; Cause of the failure to communicate more effectively with the Iraqi people; Lack of manpower to clamp down on the security situation; Issue of underestimating the impact of totalitarian rule in the country.

Cox, Matthew. Advanced Logistics Took the Fight Downtown--Fast. Army Times 63:20 June 2, 2003.
Reports on the credit given by the U.S. Army logistics on satellite technology as the key to resupplying soldiers faster during the Iraq war in 2003. One of the key challenges faced by the logistics team; Information on the Movement Tracking System that gives military commanders the ability to track the exact locations of their supply vehicles from miles away; Details on the other high-technology equipment used for the war.

Crawley, Vince. A Different Kind of War. Air Force Times 63:5-7 March 31, 2003.
Focuses on the second U.S. war against Iraq that started before dawn on March 20, 2003. Actions taken by thousands of U.S.-led ground troops a day before the full-scale aerial bombardment in the Iraqi capital began; Message of U.S. Air Force General Richard Myers to his Iraqi military counterparts; Iraqi cities where targets were hit.

Crawley, Vince. Joint Lessons Don't Include How to Win Peace in Iraq. Air Force Times 64:16 October 13, 2003.
Reports on the evaluation conducted by the U.S. Joint Forces Command on the lessons learned during the March 2003 war in Iraq. Observers sent by the command to the battlefield; Importance of the multi-service lessons-learned assessments; Benefits of the technological advancements on the sharing of information between major services.

Crawley, Vince. Less is More: Leaner Forces Contributed to 'Tactical Surprise,' Success in Iraq. Air Force Times 63:16 April 21, 2003.
Presents an interview with U.S. Air Force General Richard Myers on the 2003 U.S.-led war in Iraq. Size of a postwar security force; His opinion on the strategies employed concerning the war; Significance of joint war fighting.

Crawley, Vince. Logistics Lessons Aid Latest Iraq Rotations. Air Force Times 64:40 April 12, 2004.
Focuses on logistics issues in military rotations of the U.S. Air Force in Iraq. Shortage of humvees for the Air Force; Comment from Senator Jack Reed (D-R.I.) on bomb attacks on military convoys of the Air Force; Supply for body armor to troops in Iraq.

Crawley, Vince. Missing the Target: Report: Major Parts of War-Fighting Code were Not Effective. Air Force Times 64:22-23 April 19, 2004.
Provides information on the report prepared by the U.S. Joint Forces Command regarding the effectiveness of key components of the war fighting doctrine of the Department of Defense during the invasion of Iraq in 2003; Overview of the strategic problems assessed by the Joint Forces; Estimated number of U.S. military service members who died and were wounded in early April 2003.

Crawley, Vince. Pentagon Plan Calls for Peacekeeping Units. Air Force Times 64:30 December 15, 2003.
Reports on a proposal developed by the National Defense University to the U.S. Department of Defense concerning the creation of a stabilization and reconstruction units in Iraq. Details on the proposed peacekeeping units for postwar operations in Iraq; Factors to consider regarding the postwar operations; Role of the Joint Stabilization and Reconstruction Commands.

Crocker, Bathsheba. Reconstructing Iraq's Economy. Washington Quarterly 27:73-94 Autumn 2004.
Focuses on the reconstruction of Iraq's war-torn economy. Challenges facing the Coalition Provisional Authority in transforming Iraq into a market economy; Importance of economic diversification and debt reduction; Need for the United States to let Iraqis define their own priorities and make their own mistakes.

Curtis, Rob. Beating'em--and Joining 'em: Iraq's Black Market for Fuel has Created Conflict of Interest for U.S. Troops. Army Times 63:16+ May 12, 2003.
Reports on the problem faced by the soldiers from the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division concerning Iraq's black market refueling point as of May 12, 2003. Importance of fuel to the Iraqis; Use of fuel by the U.S. military troops; Implications of the high-cost of fuel.

Cushman, John H. President Bush Deserved Better. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:96 November 2003.
On September 8, the U.S. President George W. Bush told the nation that accomplishing his goals in Iraq would take a lot more money and a lot more time than the public had been led to believe. He deserved better from his military. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and the U.S. Central Command Commander General Tommy Franks had one chance to do it right and they failed to do so. Only in January 2003 did Secretary Rumsfeld appoint retired Army Lieutenant General Jay Garner as head of the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance to deal with postwar Iraq.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=11390412

Davies, Steve. Strike Eagles Over Iraq. Air Forces Monthly 191:64-70 February 2004.
Provides the inside story on how the Strike Eagle fared in the war against Saddam Hussein.

Debat, Alexis. Vivisecting the Jihad. National Interest 76:18-23 Summer 2004.
Discusses the dangers posed by the "foreign fighter" phenomenon on the potential of the U.S. to destabilize Iraq after the handover of sovereignty on June 30, 2004. Information on individuals carrying non-Iraqi passports who had been arrested by the U.S. forces and Iraqi police in the past months; Impact of the second wave of "foreign fighters on U.S. strategic goals in Iraq.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13671001

Diamond, Larry. What Went Wrong in Iraq? Foreign Affairs 83:34-57 September-October 2004.
The article discusses the problems the United States faced during and after the Iraq War of 2003. With the transfer of power to a new interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, the political phase of U.S. occupation came to an abrupt end. But it did not erase, the most pressing problems confronting that beleaguered country: endemic violence, a shattered state, a nonfunctioning economy, and a decimated society. As a result of a long chain of U.S. miscalculations, the coalition occupation has left Iraq in far worse shape than it need have and has diminished the long-term prospects of democracy there.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=14348324

Dodge, Toby. A Sovereign Iraq? Survival 46:39-58 Autumn 2004.
The passing of UN Resolution 1546 and the granting of sovereignty to the Interim Iraqi Government were heralded in June 2004 as marking a watershed in both international and national attitudes to Iraq. In spite of the protracted negotiations in New York, the delivery of international legal sovereignty back to Baghdad was the most straightforward aspect of the whole Iraqi problem. Domestic sovereignty, the ability of the new Iraqi government to rule its population, is a long way off. The United States and the international community, through choice or necessity, will continue to be intimately involved in the day-to-day domestic politics of Iraq for many years to come. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=14454009

Dodge, Toby. US Intervention and Possible Iraqi Futures. Survival 45:103-122 Autumn 2003.
Examines the American intervention in Iraq. Impact of the Ba'athist regime on Iraqi society; Danger of inadvertently using the networks of the shadow state created by the Ba'athist regime; Creation of the Coalition Provisional Authority; Persistence of a militant and aggressive Iraqi nationalism; Reasons for Iraqi distaste for the U.S. presence; Level of U.S. interest in sustaining post-war nation-building in Iraq; Importance of building political representation in the provinces.

Donahoe, Patrick J. Preparing Leaders for Nationbuilding. Military Review 84:224-26 May-June 2004.
Discusses how the U.S. can prepare leaders for nationbuilding. Characteristics of fictional character, Major Victor Joppolo, in the book "A Bell for Adano," by John Hershey; Training needed by soldiers before foreign deployment; Importance of knowing how to run a city in establishing safety and stability in an urban environment.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=13616019

Dowd, Alan W. Thirteen Years: The Causes and Consequences of the War in Iraq. Parameters 33:46-60 Autumn 2003.
Recalls events in causes and consequences of war in Iraq inthe August 1990. Presence of foreign troops in the Muslim holyland galvanized al Qaeda; Success of the military in its postwarmission; Effort of international aid workers to help withreconstruction.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=10905106

Dunn, Robert. Navy Cannot Rest on its Laurels. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:53-54 May 2003.
Task Force History, a group of historians and other professionals skilled in interview and collection, is gathering first-hand recollections, documents, photographs, and artifacts after the war against Iraq. As a result, the Iraq war may well turn out to be the best-documented naval conflict ever. While the bombs are exploding and the missiles are flying and the troops are advancing, money seldom is an overwhelming concern, but when quiet returns, the cries for cutbacks and economies take center stage.
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Ferguson, Niall. Recovering Our Nerve. National Interest 76:51-54 Summer 2004.
Discusses the mistakes made by U.S. President George W. Bush in trying to govern Iraq after the overthrow of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Allegations of Bush, U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney and Central Intelligence Agency Chief George Tenet against Hussein; Reason for stating that it was a mistake to set a deadline for the handover of power to an Iraqi government; Things that the U.S. must do to bolster its staggering morale.
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Ferrando, Stephen A. and Eckloff, Todd S. Ground Reconnaissance During OIF: A Perspective From Within 1st MarDiv. Marine Corps Gazette 87:22-27 July 2003.
Assesses the employment of ground reconnaissance during the Operation Iraqi Freedom. Description of the nature of a mechanized warfare; Effects of the downsizing of military men during the operation; Causes of the failure of various peace negotiations.

Fiorill, Joe. Blix: Iraq War was not Justified. National Journal 36:978-979 March 27, 2004.
Excerpts from an interview with Hans Blix, the former United Nations chief weapons inspector in Iraq.

Friedman, Norman. Both Gulf Wars Offer Lessons. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:60-63 May 2003.
The article focuses on the teachings from Gulf War in 1991 and U.S. war against Iraq in 2003. In the case of Iraq, the problem is that the primary U.S. war aim is the destruction of the Iraqi government. The aim of the initial shock and awe air strikes on Baghdad, Iraq was to reinforce the prewar impression that U.S. forces were unstoppable. Observers imagine that the 1991 cease-fire was ordered because former U.S. president George Bush was horrified by the destruction wrought by U.S. aircraft against thin-skinned Iraqi vehicles fleeing Kuwait along what was soon known as the highway of death.
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Friedman, Norman. How Did We Win the War? U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:4+ June 2003.

Gantert, Michael. Checkpoint and Traffic Control Point Operations. Armor 113:38-40 September-October 2004.
Discusses the checkpoint and traffic control point operations (TCP) employed by the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment (ACR) of the U.S. Army in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom in Baghdad, Iraq. Types of checkpoints executed by ACR; Equipment used by ACR for stationary checkpoints; Purpose of the establishment of TCP.

Gardels, Nathan. War Through the Back Door. NPQ: New Perspectives Quarterly 20:2-4 Summer 2003.
Comments on the implications of the war waged by the U.S. against Iraq in April 2003 as part of its campaign against terrorism. Factors that may hamper U.S. initiatives in creating a new world order after the post-Cold War era; Information on what undermines U.S. credibility in global public opinion regarding its reason on imposing military actions against Iraq; Lessons learned from the war by North Korea and Iran.

Gormley, Dennis M. The Limits of Intelligence: Iraq's Lessons. Survival 46:7-28 Autumn 2004.
In allocating blame for the intelligence failure over Iraq, critics of the Bush administration focus on former CIA Director George Tenet's bending to White House pressure or the administration's mishandling of intelligence. Supporters of the president downplay White House responsibility and focus instead on the failings of the intelligence community and the possible need for structural reforms. Neither side has it completely wrong — or right. There is substantial evidence that the Bush Administration — like many of its predecessors —oversold the threat to sell its preferred policy choice. But any quest to 'fix' intelligence merely through reorganisation will be futile insofar as it avoids the more prosaic but more critical matter of intelligence effectiveness. This depends far less on structural reform than on the quality of collected intelligence, the nature of the analytic process and, ultimately, the relationship between intelligence and policymaking officials. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Gormley, Dennis M. Missile Defence Myopia: Lessons From the Iraq War. Survival 45:61-86 Winter 2003-2004.
Warns that American missile defenses could become increasingly vulnerable to adversaries who combine ballistic and cruise missile attacks with flights of unmanned air vehicles. Little success of "Patriot" batteries against Iraqi cruise missiles and other low-flying threats; Iraq's use of non-ballistic missiles which contributed to a series of friendly fire accidents and the loss of two coalition aircraft and three crew members; Key lessons from the U.S.-Iraq war.

Gourley, Scott R. and Ridd, Grayden. Tactical Lessons for Urban Operations. Jane's Intelligence Review 15:38-41 July 2003.

Grinalds, Allen D. Cobras Rock in Iraqi Freedom. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:72-75 March 2004.
The article states that Operation Iraqi Freedom saw the first use since Operation Desert Storm, of attack helicopter AH-1W Super Cobra in sustained combat operations. During that time, the U.S. Marine Corps rotary-wing attack community experienced many successes that validated its tactics, techniques and procedures in support of ground forces during hightempo combat operations. Operations also highlighted specific concerns relating to rotary-wing close air support, command-and-control challenges of rotary-wing aircraft in general and the influence of prehostilities psychological operations during combat. As the U.S. Department of Defense and civilian policy centers begin to evaluate the utility and employment of attack helicopters on today's battlefield, it is important to define parameters of the Iraqi mission's success.
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Hafemeister, Rod. War Tests High-Tech Evac System. Air Force Times 63:12 April 28, 2003.
Reports on the testing of the Transcom Regulating and Command and Control Evacuation System of TRAC?2ES, the U.S. Air Force high-tech evacuation system. Description of the system; Remarks from Lieutenant Colonel James Patterson; Benefits given by TRAC?2ES to the U.S. Armed Forces.

Hanson, Victor Davis. Lessons of the War. Commentary 115:117-124 June 2003.
Comments on the success of the Operation Iraqi Freedom of the U.S. in 2003. Factors accounting for the victory of the U.S. over the military forces of Iraq; Discussion on the Arab way of war; Significance of the removal and humiliation of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
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Hegland, Corine. Iraqi Women Help Remake a Country. National Journal 36:2251-2252 July 17, 2004.
Discusses the role of a group of Iraqi women in nation building in 2004. Purposes of the group's visit to Washington, D.C.; Reaction of the women to the intervention of the U.S. in their country.
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Hillen, John. Strengthening the Fainthearts. National Interest 76:29-32 Summer 2004.
Deals with the possible reasons of the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush for ousting Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Potential mess of the U.S. takeover of Iraq; Competing dynamics that must be framed in the practical strategy of the U.S. over Iraq; Information on Bush Doctrine.
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Isby, David C. Getting Dirty: The Close Air Support Battle in Iraq, 2003. Air Forces Monthly 192:20-25 March 2004.

Isby, David C. The Smart Eye. Air Forces Monthly 194:78=82 May 1004.
An analysis of the operations in Iraq 2003 looks at manned intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance.

Johnson, Ralph. Guerrilla Tactics in Baghdad. Soldier of Fortune 29:36-39 February 2004.

Johnson, Ralph. Hearts and Minds in Iraq: The Bad News--the Good News. Soldier of Fortune 29:24-27 June 2004.

Jumper, John P. Exploiting the Vertical Dimension--100 Years of Airpower: Remarks to the Air Force Association National Symposium, Washington, DC, Sep 16, 2003. Air Force Speeches  September 16, 2003.

Katz, Lee Michael. Iraq and 'Borrowed Time.' National Journal 36:1955-1956 June 19, 2004.
Interview with Iraq expert Amatzia Baram, a senior fellow at the U.S. Institute of Peace discusses the incoming Iraqi government's chances for success.
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Kaufman, Gail. Iraq War Lessons Discussed at Annual Space Symposium. Defense News 19:46 April 5, 2004.

Kaufman, Gail. U.S. Air Force Reveals Iraq Air War Tactics. Defense News 18:23 September 1, 2003.

Keeter, Hunter C. Urban Operations Challenge Shows Limits of U.S., Allied ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) Capability. Sea Power 47:14-16 May 2004.
Discusses the limitations of the U.S. and coalition forces' intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities in supporting urban operations as seen in the violence which occurred at al Fallujah, Iraq in April 2004. Problems with ISR in urban settings; Difficulty of linking overhead sensors and precision ammunitions to warfighters; Huge investments needed for the command, control, communications, computers ISR service. INSET: ISR: Achilles' Heel of Urban Operations.
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Keith, J. D. 3d Squadron, 7th U.S. Cavalry Up Front: Operation Iraqi Freedom Lessons Learned. Armor 112:26-31 September-October 2003.
Presents the lessons learned by the 3d Squadron, 7th Cavalry of the U.S. Army during the war in Iraq in 2003. Organization of scouts and tankers into hunter-killer teams; Operation of two forward arming and refueling points in addition to providing cold gas in the squadron support areas; Evaluation of the need for kiowa warrior support for operations in built-up areas; Addition of an analysis control team.

Kemp, Geoffrey. Losing the Peace? National Interest 76:46-48 Summer 2004.
Deals with the consequences that will be faced by the U.S. if it will stay the course in Iraq. Information on the Israeli-Palestinian peace process; Focus of a speech delivered by U.S. President George W. Bush to the National Endowment for Democracy on November 3, 2003; Problems being faced by the U.S. with its people.
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Kime, Patricia. Speed, "Jointness" not Seen as Key Elements of U.S. Win. Sea Power 46:10+ December 2003.

Knights, Michael. Operations in Iraq Highlight the Need for Better Communications. Jane's Intelligence Review 16:21-23 May 2004.
Discusses the lessons learned by the U.S. Armed Forces since the start of the Operation Iraqi Freedom on the importance of better communications system to collect and disseminate battlefield intelligence. Success of the U.S. and its allies to understand the military capabilities and operational habits of Iraq; Asymmetric warfare employed by Iraqi military against the U.S.; Advances made by the U.S. and its allies in the detection and tracking of friendly and hostile forces during the war.

Korabelnikov, A. A. Lessons From the War in Iraq. Military Thought 12:205-214 2003.
Presents analyses of the operation of coalition forces in Iraq in March-April 2003. Details of the military operation; Structure of the coalition forces and task groups; Main feature of the offensive operation; Importance of air supremacy; High effectiveness of reconnaissance units; Decisiveness of a good infantry; Several features of the war; Moral and political preparations and conditionings for war; Application of moral and psychological conditioning; Impact of casualty reports on military units and the public; Observations on the success of the U.S. in the Iraq war.
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Kross, Walter. Iraqi Freedom: Triumph of Precision-Guided Logistics. Army Logistician 35:22-23 September-October 2003.
Comments on the role military logistics played in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Lessons learned from the 1991 Gulf War about transportation; Use of precision-guided technology in logistics operations; Degree of information, assurance and visibility.
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Lewis, Andrew L. Training Pays off in Iraqi Freedom. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:30-32 April 2004.
Following any conflict, naval aviation collects lessons learned and uses that information to refine its tactics and procedures. Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) will be no different. The result was much to the liking — few combat losses, a short campaign, and confirmation that the U.S. military is both capable and competent. U.S. Armies did well and can be proud of their combat performance. One must be careful, however, not to draw too many conclusions. OIF was fought under unique circumstances, against an enemy of questionable capability and motivation. Historically speaking, the lessons learned from the U.S. military's wartime experiences have been far reaching. The tactical innovations in maneuver warfare, amphibious operations and strategic bombing following World War I were in reaction to the blood bath experienced from 1914 to 1918.
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Limbaugh, David. Reality Check: A Phenomenal Job. Human Events 59:1-2 March 31, 2003.
Comments on the war of the U.S. against Iraq. Possible success of the war; Resistance of the Iraqis to the military actions of the U.S.; Opinion on the shock and awe air attack of the U.S. on Baghdad, Iraq; Lessons learned from the war.
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Lowe, Chruistian. Combat Operations Test High-Tech Ship's Versatility. Navy Times 52:34 June 16, 2003.
Reports on the tests conducted on the trimaran High Speed Vessel (HSV) by the United States Navy and Marines during the Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003. Role of the ship as an afloat forward-staging base for Marine Fleet Anti-Terrorism Security Teams and Navy SEAL commandos; Advantages offered by the ship; Logistics application of the ship.

MacDonald, Neil. Iraq: Insurgency Versus Elections. Middle East International 734:4-7 September 24, 2004.
Reports on Iraq's interim government's determination to go ahead with elections scheduled for January 2005 despite continued widespread violence.

MacKercher, John C. We Have More to Learn from Iraqi Freedom. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:74-77 August 2004.
The United States Navy's performance in Operation Iraqi Freedom and subsequent actions—in strike warfare, tactical aviation, and maritime interceptions—was highly successful. The author was commanding officer of the San Jacinto during the initial phases of OIF, when all hands had an excellent opportunity to observe the United States Navy in action. They began a scheduled deployment in December 2002 as part of the Harry S. Truman Carrier Strike Group, expecting the operations in the Mediterranean to be followed by an assignment in the Fifth Fleet. But events in Iraq soon changed the schedule and highlighted several areas—from technology to training—that require improvement.
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Maddox, Brian. "Checkmate on the Northern Front." Armor 112:6-11 September-October 2003.
Highlights the deployment of task force 1-63 in support of the 2003 Iraq war. Prevention of the planned deployment of a large coalition task force to open a second Northern Front in Iraq; Background and organization of the immediate ready task force; Bashur landing and operations in Northern Iraq; Lessons learned from the encounter.

Magan, Aaron P. Improving the Engineer Battalion's Combat Power: Lessons Learned in Iraq. Engineer 33:24-27 July-September 2003.
Examines the successes and challenges faced by the 326th Engineer Battalion of the U.S. Army based at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, based on the modified table of organization and equipment. Deployment exercise conducted by the 101st Airborne Division; Manpower limitations of explosive ordnance disposal teams; Diversity of missions given to engineers in stability and support operations.
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Manulet, Roger. Company Operations During the Establishment of Stability Operations in Baghdad. Armor 113:26-33 January-February 2004.
Outlines several tasks and lessons from the U.S. Army 2d Battalion, 37th Armor Regiment's assumption of mission in Baghdad, Iraq in May 2003. Information on deployment preparation; Task organization for the company; Establishment of a forward operating base and life support; Development of the neighborhood advisory council.

Matthews, William. Triumph of Jointness: Integrating Services, C41 Pays Off for U.S. in Iraq. Defense News 18:1+ April 14, 2003.

Matthews, William. War Reveals Shortcomings of Intelligence System. Army Times 64:20 April 19, 2004.
Announces that the war in Iraq has highlighted the U.S. military's shortcomings in intelligence systems, according to Keith Alexander, deputy chief of staff for intelligence. Factors that contribute to constraints in intelligence access; Areas of improvement needed in the intelligence system; Role of technologies in the Army's operations.

McCaffrey, Barry R. Looking Beyond Iraqi Freedom: Future Enemies Won't Roll Over So Easily. Armed Forces Journal 140:8-9 July 2003.
Comments on the U.S. invasion campaign against Iraq. Overview of the successful incursion of all land, sea and air force units in overwhelming the Iraqi military forces; Role of the Bush Administration and the U.S. Congress in correcting preconceived war agendas; Advocation for a broad agreement on fundamental conclusions from the war; Safety of the U.S. from terrorist activity; Elimination of the Iraqi military threat.
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Metz, Steven. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Iraq. Washington Quarterly 27:25-37 Winter 2004.
Understanding the factors leading to the failure in detecting the development of insurgencies is easy. Gone are the Cold War days when regimes could rely on a superpower patron for increased support against a rebellion. Although the most benevolent and stable government may face isolated violence, an organized insurgency reveals deep flaws in rule or administration. Today, even an unsuccessful insurrection can weaken or undercut a government, hinder economic development and access to global capital, or at least force national leaders to alter key policies.
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Morgan, Daniel. Deploying to Iraq? Lessons from an Infantry Company Commander. Infantry 93:28-32 January-February 2004.

Morgan, Daniel. Going to Fight in Iraq? Lessons From an Infantry Company Commander. Army 54:16-20+ April 2004.

Morse, Edward L. Fighting for Oil? National Interest 76:37-40 Summer 2004.
Deals with the possibility that U.S. President George W. Bush ousted former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein due to oil. Discussion on some dimensions that provide criteria for passing public statement; Oil concerns that have been raised after the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York; Factors that caused the increase in oil prices in the market.
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Mulholland, David. Luck or Good Judgement? Jane's Defence Weekly 39:21 April 16, 2003.

Muradian, Vago and Kahwaji, Riad. War Puts Transformation to Test: Iraq Campaign Showcases U.S. Speed, Precision. Defense News 18:1+ March 24, 2003.
 

Murray, Dale. Company-Level Cordon and Search Operations in Iraq. Armor 113:26-31 September-October 2004.
Focuses on the cordon and search operation of the U.S. Army in Iraq. Concept of the cordon and search operation; Consideration of the homes in and around Baghdad in the planning of the operation; Factors to consider in the preparation for the cordon and search operation.

Nalls, John B. A Company Commander's Thoughts on Iraq. Armor 113:13-16 January-February 2004.
Presents advice to help commanders and platoon leaders to prepare U.S. Army soldiers for a task in Iraq. Views on preparing soldiers and their equipment before deployment; Importance of route variation.

Nasr, Vali. Regional Implications of Shi'a Revival in Iraq. Washington Quarterly 27:7-24 Summer 2004.
Points out that competition between the Sunni minority and the Shi'a majority, after the disenfranchisment of the Sunni minority leadership under Saddam Hussein, has emerged as the single greatest determinant of peace and stability in Iraq. Effects of the change in the sectarian balance of power; Anti-Shi'a violence as a constituent part of the ideology of Sunni militancy; Effect beyond Iraq's borders from Lebanon to Pakistan.
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Naylor, Sean D. Logistics Still Tough Despite High-Tech Help. Defense News 18:1+ March 24, 2003.

O'Hanlon, Michael and de Albuquerque, Adriana Lins. Scoring the Iraq Aftermath. National Interest 74:31-36 Winter 2003-2004.
Assesses the progress being made by United States toward attaining its policy objectives in launching a war on Iraq in 2003 to oust Saddam Hussein from power. Criticism against U.S. President George W. Bush; Contradiction among political analysts in the U.S. who assess the facts in Iraq; Challenges facing the U.S. in Iraq; Suggestions on how to deal with insurgency problem in Iraq.
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Odom, William E. Retreating in Good Order. National Interest 76:33-36 Summer 2004.
Discusses some arguments on the strategic withdrawal of the U.S. from Iraq. U.S. war aims in Iraq according to U.S. President George W. Bush; Implications of continuing the fight in Iraq; Description of the U.S. military investment in Iraq.
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Peck, Fred. Somalia, Afghanistan: A Script for Reconstruction of Iraq. Sea Power 46:78-81 April 2003.
Focuses on the relevance of the experience of the U.S. in the war in Somalia and in Afghanistan to the post-war reconstruction of Iraq. Importance of the teamwork between military and civil agencies; Overview of the reconstruction program of the U.S. in the two wars; Challenges facing the reconstruction of Iraq.
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Pena, Charles V. After Saddam: Still No Good Options: A Wrong War. Mediterranean Quarterly 15:17-25 Spring 2004.
Discusses the implication of the capture of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein by U.S. forces in 2003. Violence caused by supporters of Hussein in Iraq after his capture; Criticism of the U.S. invasion of Iraq; Options for the U.S. in its intervention in Iraq.

"President Bush Deserved Better." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:20 February 2004.
Holding General Tommy Franks responsible for the failure of the postwar situation in Iraq is akin to blaming a construction site supervisor for the collapse of the structure when his superiors ordered the substandard materials. Expecting General Franks to tell Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld how he was going to run Iraq postwar would have accomplished only one thing, his dismissal. As for the title of General J. Cushman's commentary "President Bush Deserved Better," in the November 2003 issue of "Proceedings," President George W. Bush deserved what he got for ignoring the advice of the professionals from the military, the Department of State, and the CIA.
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Primakov, Yevgeny. Auditing Arrogance. National Interest 76:9-11 Summer 2004.
From Iraq at the Turn: A Symposium. Deals with the problems that might arise after the defeat of former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's regime. Information on some centers of resistance in Iraq; Main interests of the Kurds in Iraq; Reason of international terrorist groups for aspiring to keep the situation in Iraq extremely unstable.
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Rauch, Jonathan. Iraq is no Vietnam, but Vietnam Holds Lessons for Iraq. National Journal 36:2710-2711 September 11, 2004.
Compares the Vietnam war in the 1960s and the twentieth-century U.S.-Iraq war from a military point of view. Lessons of the Vietnam war for Iraq; Information on the Vietnam war; Description of Iraq.
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Rhodes, Matthew. Central Europe and Iraq: Balance, Bandwagon, or Bridge? Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs 48:423-436 Summer 2004.

Ripley, Tom. Guerrilla War in Iraq. Air Forces Monthly 196:50-54 July 2004.
Article looks at the role played by air power as U.S. troops are locked in a guerrilla campaign against Iraqi insurgents.

Rivkin, David B. Averting an Iraq Syndrome. National Interest 76:41-45 Summer 2004.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Air Power Unleashed. Armed Forces Journal International 140:30-33 June 2003.
Emphasizes the precise and quick targeting of the U.S. Central Command's air war during the Operation Iraqi Freedom. Significance of precision munitions during the first several nights of Iraqi Freedom; Increase use of dump bombs by the U.S. military troops; Details on the upgrades to the Coalition Air Operations Center for Iraqi Freedom.
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Rolfsen, Bruce. It's Effectiveness, not Size, that Counts: Over Iraq, Mighty Stratofortress, Tiny Predator Prove Their Worth. Air Force Times 63:20 April 28, 2003.
Deals with the successes of the U.S. Air Force aircraft the B-52H Stratofortress and the RQ-1 Predator during the U.S.-led war in Iraq in 2003. Use of the Predator as an attack plane; Number of cruise missiles that can be carried by the B-52 bombers; Comparison of the B-52 bomber and the Predator.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Lessons Learned in Iraq Mesh with New Officer Career Field. Air Force Times 63:29 June 9, 2003.
Focuses on the development of the U.S. Air Force logistics readiness officer career field based on a wing organizational plan implemented in October 2002. Training course for officers in the new career field; Schedule for changes in the current training course; Duties of mission support group commanders.

Rolfsen, Bruce. On Time & on Target: Aircrews, Controllers Scramble for Smarter Close-Air Support. Air Force Times 64:14-16 December 1, 2003.
Deals with the Air Warrior exercises conducted by the Air Ground Operations School in conjunction with Army training at Fort Irwin, California and Fort Polk, Louisiana. Importance of Air Warrior to air crews; Information on the Air Warrior exercise of the Pennsylvania Air National Guard A-10 Thunderbolts at the National Training Center of the Army; Changes and challenges faced by the close-air support community of the Air Force in the wake of operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

Rolfsen, Bruce. Praises, Changes: Foglesong Says AEF Rotations May Need Revision, but Army, Air Force Worked Well Together. Air Force Times 63:8 June 9, 2003.
Relates the views of U.S. Air Force Vice Chief of Staff Robert H. Foglesong on different issues. Personal background; Duty rotation of the Air Expeditionary Force; Coordination between the Army and the Air Force.

Roos, John G. Trained and Ready. Armed Forced Journal International 140:34-39 June 2003.
Focuses on the provision of U.S. Army troops for missions from peacekeeping operations. Details on the security of airports and critical facilities throughout the U.S.; Limitation of the responsibilities of Joint Forces Command; Capabilities of the U.S. forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
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Roos, John G. What has U.S. Learned? Early Lessons from 'Iraqi Freedom.' Armed Forces Journal International 140:23-27 May 2003.
Analyzes the deployment of American ground forces during the early phase of the 2003 Iraq War. Media coverage of the campaign; Encounters with enemy units; Political pitfalls of the military operations; Friendly fire incidents encountered by U.S. forces.
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Scales, Robert. Artillery's Failings in the Iraq War. Armed Forces Journal 141:44+ November 2003.
Discusses the U.S. artillery systems in the Iraq war. Sense and Destroy Armor Munition precision projectile; Effectiveness of mortars as urban fire-support systems; Range and precision of artillery systems.
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Schlesinger, James R. Transferring Sovereignty. National Interest 76:5-7 Summer 2004.
From Iraq at the Turn: A Symposium. Reports on the impact of the decision of the U.S. to transfer sovereignty to the Iraqis after June 30, 2004. Realities that should be embraced by the U.S. to be successful in bringing order in Iraq; Economic problems in Iraq; Suggestions on how the U.S. and coalition forces should communicate with the Iraqis.
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Schmidle, Robert E. and Hoffman, Frank G. Commanding the Contested Zones. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:50-52 September 2004.
U.S. military currently enjoys "command of the commons." This translates into an unparalleled capacity to leverage oceans, space and air and the corresponding ability to negate their use by its antagonists. It is a crucial element of the U.S. overwhelming military superiority. However, recent combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan suggest a shift toward more complex contested zones, including the dense urban jungles and congested littorals, where the majority of the world's population and economic activity are centered. Adversaries of the U.S. realize their relative impotence in conventional force-on-force operations and they are making an effort to draw forces of the U.S. into arenas where its conventional capabilities and technological edge are blunted. The U.S. military must develop more agile strategies and adaptive tactics if it is to succeed in this complex environment.
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Schofield, Julian and Zenco, Micah. Designing a Secure Iraq: A US Policy Prescription. Third World Quarterly 25:677-688 August 2004.
The third Western attempt at regime construction in Iraq is now underway. Western plans to rebuild the Iraqi state will fail again if they ignore the real roots of Iraqi insecurity: its geopolitical weakness. The preoccupation with designing a new constitution ignores the historical evidence of the 1930s and 1950s that it is bound to fail. Surrounded by far larger powers such as Turkey and Iran, Iraq desperately needs long-term commitments of arms and allies. While de-garrisoning is a vital part of the regional peace puzzle, an insecure Iraq destabilises politics in Baghdad and fuels arms competitions. Thus the USA and UK must intercede on Iraq's behalf and help to resolve the long-standing disputes over the unfair division of the Shatt al-Arab with Iran, and access to sea arrangements with Kuwait. If Iraq is permitted to drift away a decade after reconstruction, its regime will again fall. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Schwartz, Eric. 1-64 Armor's Rogue Gunnery Training Program. Armor 113:17-20 January-February 2004.
Focuses on the engagement of Task Force 1st Battalion, 64th Armor Regiment, 3d Infantry Division of the U.S. Army in a gunnery training program in Baghdad, Iraq in April 2003. Need for armored crewmen to fight under close combat conditions and in urban terrain; Modification of tank crew gunnery; Implementation of Operation Iraqi Freedom-related lessons learned in the gunnery program.

Scully, Megan. Coalition Data-Sharing Lagged During Iraq War. Defense News 19:18 March 29, 2004.

Scully, Megan. Communications Snags Plagued U.S. Troops: Iraq War Highlighted Flaws in Army's Land-Based System. Defense News 19:8 January 19, 2004.

Scully, Megan. Fledgling UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) Program Proved Itself in Iraq War. Army Times 64:32 February 23, 2004.
Focuses on the significant role played by U.S. unmanned aerial vehicles during the Iraq war in 2003. Use of the vehicles by special forces during the conflict; Views of several military officials on the significance of the vehicles.

Scully, Megan. Iraq War Proves Power of Net-Centric Vision. Defense News 19:1 January 26, 2004.

Scully, Megan. U.S. Special Operators Warmed to Technology. Defense News 9:16 February 9, 2004.

Shanahan, Rodger. Shi'a Political Development in Iraq: The Case of the Islamic Da'wa Party. Third World Quarterly 25:943-954 2004.

Sherman, Jason. Restock and Rethink: Next-Generation Arms Could Replace Those Fired in Iraq. Defense News 18:1+ Defense News.

Simes, Dimitri K. Rethinking the Strategy. National Interest 76:11-14 Summer 2004.
From Iraq at the Turn: A Symposium. Reports on the strategy that the U.S. forces must apply to establish a stable and non-hostile Iraq. Information on the regime change in Iraq under the administration of its former president, Saddam Hussein; Effects of importing democracy on the U.S.; Information on the "alliance of democracies."
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Sisco, Joseph J. The Challenge for the United States in the Post-11 September Era: An Overview. Mediterranean Quarterly 14:3-16 Fall 2003.
Discusses the possible challenges for the U.S. in the post September 11, 2001 era. Assessment of strategic framework against the threat of global terrorism; Goal of the U.S. to help ensure stability and security in the Middle East region; Role of United Nations in the delivery of humanitarian assistance to Iraq after the Saddam Hussein regime.
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Smith, Tony. Was Iraq a Fool's Errand? Foreign Affairs 83:130-134 November-December 2004.
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Stewart, Donald. Task Force Death Dealers: Dismounted Combat Tankers. Armor 113:9-12 January-February 2004.

Svitak, Amy. By the Numbers: Pentagon Study Details Extent of Air Effort Against Iraq. Air Force Times 63:30 May 26, 2003.

Svitak, Amy. War Gives Analysts View of Whether Transformation Works. Air Force Times 63:24 May 5, 2003.
Highlights the military issues during the 2003 Iraqi war discussed by defense strategy analysts on April 23, 2003 at a seminar at the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C. Superiority of the U.S. Armed Forces; Equipment of the forces with the best information technology; Lapses that should be addressed by the government.

Svitak, Amy and Matthews, William. Law-Enforcement Officials Sought to Help Restore Order (in Iraqi Cities). Air Force Times 63:10 May 5, 2003.
Reports on the efforts of the U.S. government to establish order in Iraq in the wake of postwar looting as of April 2003. Plan to hire former U.S. cops, prison operators and court officials interested in temporary duty in Iraq; Appointment of Dyncorp International to assist in the recruitment of the enforcers; Humanitarian organizations and government agencies that warned the Defense Department of the possible postwar looting.

Svitak, Amy and Neill, Alex. Iraq Divided into 3 Zones to Ease Postwar Efforts. Air Force Times 63:9 May 5, 2003.
Reports on the plan of the U.S. Central Command to divide Iraq into three military occupation zones to help orchestrate reconstruction of the country and dispersal of humanitarian aid. Plan to shift the 1st Marine Division from Baghdad to southeastern Iraq; Call for the National Guards and reserve members to get ready for deployment in the region; Kind of unit that will be deployed.

Taheri, Amir. Thinking Through Liberation. National Interest 76:26-29 Summer 2004.
Forecasts the future of Iraq after the U.S. handover of sovereignty to the country. Reasons for arguing that Iraq should not become a democracy; Brief history of Iraq; Democratic reforms implemented and announced by Iraq and Iran.
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Tanker Basing Limitations Posed Challenge During Operation Iraqi Freedon Air Campaign. Sea Power 46:37-40 July 2003.
Discusses the lack of basing for U.S. aerial tankers during the Operation Iraqi Freedom. Shortage of Air Force tankers; Refueling of strike aircraft; Number of bases used during the operation.
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Thomson, John and Hindawi, Hussain. Rescuing the Future. National Interest 76:48-51 Summer 2004.
Forecasts an independent Iraq government after the handover of its sovereignty by the U.S. Iraqi constituencies that the coalition will never win over; Importance of the petroleum wealth of Iraq to its citizens; Information on the Norwegian model of actual ownership of oil.
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Tiboni, Frank. War Game Stuns U.S. Strategists: Post-Iraq Exercise Raises Fear of Preemptive WMD Strikes. Defense News 18:1+ May 12, 2003.

Trowbridge, Gordon. Air Power Paves Way: Leaders Recount Success, Lessons Learned from Working with Ground Units. Air Force Times 63:8 April 28, 2003.
Discusses the combination of ground forces and air power seen during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Impact of precision guided munitions, according to Major General Dan Leaf; Iraqi forces in the field as the key focus for U.S. air commanders; Improvements made at the tactical level.

Trowbridge, Gordon. Do the Impossible (Preparing a Forward Air Base). Air Force Times 63:14-16 May 5, 2003.
Reports on the mission of the U.S. 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing in Iraq in 2003. Base population; Number of jet fighters in the base; Role that the base played in winning the Iraqi war.

Tuttle, Rich. New Tactics. Aviation Week & Space Technology 158:50-52 June 9, 2003.
The combination of satellites, precision weapons and up-to-the-minute intelligence helped bomber crews in the United States in Operation Iraqi Freedom perform such previously improbable feats as destroying only the fourth through seventh floors of a building and maneuvering aggressively right through the bomb release point to negate ground fire. The combination also confirmed the growing tenet of Special Operations Forces that technology with expert help on the ground can allow the maximum use of indigenous forces.
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Vandroff, Mark. There are Other Lessons from Iraqi Freedom. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:71 August 2003.
Operation Iraqi Freedom likely will be remembered as one of the most successful military engagements in U.S. history. Operational planners will study Iraqi Freedom to learn its lessons and apply them to future conflicts. There are others who could benefit as well. In particular, the acquisition community could learn that having a backup plan is not wasteful duplication. Early in the war, Army General Tommy Franks took criticism from the press that the "shock and awe" air campaign had not produced a swift surrender. The ground campaign that commenced alongside it, however, eventually achieved coalition goals. By prematurely removing the close-in weapon systems, the U.S. Navy bet on the "shock and awe" of the Evolved Sea Sparrow missile without having the tried-and-true "ground war" of the Phalanx system as a backup. Just because one does not see movement where one is, one should not assume nothing useful is happening. Today, some who do not see steel being fabricated into ships or aircraft assume the process is broken and in need of drastic intervention. Just as aerial preparation and logistics are hidden yet vital pieces of maneuver warfare, so are design, manufacturing development, contracting, and program management vital pieces of successful acquisition. It took six months of military build up and diplomatic pressure to position forces to be ready to strike Iraq. Once ready, combat operations were conducted with near blinding speed. Acquisition should work the same way.
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Vego, Milan. Learning from Victory. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129:32-36 August 2003.
The strategic objective of OIF was clearly expressed and militarily achievable. It included the end of the Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's regime; the elimination of weapons of mass destruction; the capture or driving out of terrorists who had found refuge in Iraq; and the securing of Iraqi oil fields and resources. New technological advances were integrated successfully with sound tactical and operational concepts. The coalition commanders displayed a high degree of operational flexibility and agility.
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West, F. J. Bing. Maneuver Warfare: It Worked in Iraq. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:36-38 February 2004.
In the Iraqi Freedom conflict, network-centric warfare concepts were not an option for the warriors at the front. Maneuver warfare techniques—as used by Major General James Mattis, defining for the First Marine Division each unit's role in the campaign—were what built success. The I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) was comprised of a logistics support group, an air wing, and three major ground maneuver units, the First Marine Division, a separate brigade-size force from the Second Marine Division called Task Force Tarawa, and British units totaling more than a division.
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