April 2001

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

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All sites last accessed July 11, 2012.

Internet Resources

U.S. Air Force.
Available online at:
Use "Southern Watch" as a search term to find articles concerning the operation.


Byman, Daniel L. and Waxman, Matthew C.  Confronting Iraq: U.S. Policy and the Use of Force since the Gulf War.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2000.  101 p.
Establishing a Southern No-Fly Zone (August 1992-Present), pp 48-52.
Responding to Inspection and No-Fly Zone Standoffs, pp 52-55.
Book call no.: 327.730567 B993c

Ramsbotham, Oliver and Woodhouse, Tom.  Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict: A Reconceptualization.  Cambridge, MA, Polity Press, 1996.  264 p.
Humanitarian Intervention in Iraq (includes the text of UN Security Council Resolution 688), pp 69-85.
Book call no.: 327.16 R181h

United States.  Congress.  House of Representatives.  Committee on Armed Services.  United States Policy Toward Iraq.  Hearing.  106th Congress,  1st Session.  Washington, GPO, March 1999.  53 p.
Appendix -- Opening Statement, pp 32-36.
Appendix -- The Use of Airpower in the US-Iraq Confrontation, by Thomas A. Keaney, pp 41-44.
Book call no.: 327.730567 U58ug


McKelvey, Michael V.  Air Power in MOOTW: A Critical Analysis of Using No-Fly Zones to Support National Objectives.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 1997.  35 p.
Uses Iraqi no-fly zones as a case study throughout the paper.
Doc call no.: M-U 43122 M1542a

Petersen, David E.  The No-Fly Zones in Iraq: Air Occupation.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  103 p.
Doc call no.: M-U 42022 P484n


Assignment Qatar.  Air Force Magazine  79:30-37  October 1996.
Captioned pictures describe the 4417th Air Expeditionary Force (Provisional)'s four month mission in Qatar in support of Operation Southern Watch.

Anderson, Jon R.  Air Support Team Aids Land Forces in Kuwait.  Air Force Times  53:18  March 15, 1993.

Anderson, Jon R.  Troop Strength in Kuwait Will Reach 30,000.  Air Force Times  57:3  September 30, 1996.

Arana-Barradas, Louis A.  Southern Watch Continues Despite Bombing (Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia).  Airman  40:18-20  August 1996.

Bender, Bryan.  Briefing: Iraq -- Poisoned Cigars, Perhaps?  (How long can air operations continue?).  Jane's Defence Weekly  33:21-25  April 12, 2000.

Bird, Julie.  Desert Strike: The Mission in the Gulf Widens.  Air Force Times  57:3-4  September 16, 1996.
Expansion of the no-fly zone in southern Iraq.

Bird, Julie.  The Mission (in Saudi Arabia).  Air Force Times  57:16+  June 30, 1997.

Bird, Julie.  Special Report: Southern Watch.  Air Force Times  53:16-18  September 28, 1992.

Blanche, Ed.  War of Attrition as Iraq Absorbs the Ongoing US Punishment.  Jane's Intelligence Review  11:27-33  June 1999.

Bruce, James.  Country Briefing: Saudi Arabia: Bombing Makes Hard Role Harder for USA.  Jane's Defence Weekly  26:23+  July 10, 1996.
The Khobar Towers bombing shattered the low profile of US presence in Saudi Arabia and Operation Southern Watch.

Chumley, Robin A.  Southern Watch.  Airman  37:2-7  January 1993.

Diamond, John.  Sending Mixed Signals: Pilots Exasperated over Retreat Order in No-fly Zone.  Air Force Times  58:8  May 18, 1998.
Airmen tell senators it is time to pack up and go home.

Dunn, Michael Collins.  Watch on the Gulf.  Air Force Magazine  78:60-64  April 1995.

Gertz, Bill.  Miracle in the Desert.  Air Force Magazine  80:60-64  January 1997.
Saudi Arabia's Prince Sultan Air Base is transformed into the new hub of Southern Watch operations.  Hailed a 'logistics miracle'.

Goebel, Brian.  Southern Watch: First Marine Corps Harriers Patrol Iraqi No-Fly Zone.  Marines  25:12-13  May 1996.

Gration, Scott.  Combat Smart, Inherently Safe.  Combat Edge  4:10-11  May 1996.
Reviews the operations and mission of the 4404th Operations Group.

Hayward, George.  Desert Relief.  Airman  43:40-41  June 1999.
'In a new program called Guarded Skies, the Air National Guard is giving active duty airmen additional relief from rotations to Southern Watch'.
Also available online at:

Hayward, George.  On the Borderline.  Airman  43:30-33  July 1999.
Describes the mission and operations at Ali Al Salem Air Base just 39 miles from Iraq and literally at the forefront of Operation Southern Watch.
Also available online at:

Hayward, George.  The Rescuers.  Airman  43:24-29  July 1999.
Details the search and rescue operations for Southern Watch.
Also available online at:

Hayward, George.  The Tip of the Spear (332nd Air Expeditionary Group).  Airman  43:2-7  June 1999.
At Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base the expeditionary aerospace force is taking shape with the 332nd Air Expeditionary Group as an operational example.
Also available online at:

Iraq: The Forgotten War.  Defense Monitor  28, no.4:5-7  1999.
Discusses the military confrontation, the shifting objectives, and views in the region concerning the operation.

Johnson, Ray.  On Watch.  Airman  42:46-48  May 1998.
Briefly mentions Al Jaber Air Base, number of sorties and fighter units of Southern Watch.
Also available online at:

Jumper, John P.  Ready to Answer the Call (Operation Southern Watch).  Combat Edge  4:4-6  May 1996.
Discusses safety factors and operations for Southern Watch.

Kane, Pamela and others.  Desert Calm Is Anything but...Idaho's (124th Fighter Group) Southern Watch over Saddam Hussein.  National Guard Magazine  47:22-24  September 1993.

Kitfield, James.  The Long Deployment (in Saudi Arabia).  Air Force Magazine  83:31-36  July 2000.

Ledford, Tranette.  N.C. (North Carolina) Guard Joins "Task Force Panther".  Army Times  59:22  September 28, 1998.
Mentions training before deployment to Kuwait, basis for call-up, etc.

Marston, Gregory and Regan, Mike.  Total Force Personified: First Guard Warthogs in Kuwait.  National Guard Magazine  50:60+  September 1996.
Discusses preparation and deployment, innovations, and the combat search and rescue missions.

Masko, David P.  Gulf Deterrence: A Show of Strength.  Airman  39:2-5  March 1995.

Matthews, William.  "Light and Lethal": From Austere Bases in the Jordanian Desert, Air Force People Keep Iraq in Check.  Air Force Times  56:14-17  July 1, 1996.
Discusses the airpower expeditionary force stationed near Azraq, Jordan for Southern Watch missions.

McAndrews, Kevin.  Iron Falcon '96 (District of Columbia ANG 121st Fighter Squadron).  National Guard Magazine  50:16-19  July 1996.

McKenna, Pat.  Air Jordan: Slammin' and Jammin' over the No-Fly Zone.  Airman  40:2-7  August 1996.
Reviews the 4417th Air Expeditionary Force operating from Shaheed Mwaffaq Air Base, Jordan.

McKenna, Pat.  Controlling the Air.  Airman  40:4-7  October 1996.
Describes a typical Southern Watch mission.

McMichael, William H.  Watch on the Desert.  Air Force Magazine  82:63-67  March 1999.
'Air Force U-2s, AWACS, and Rivet Joints have provided the eyes and ears of the no-fly zone'.

Nelson, Michael A. and Katz, Douglas J.  Unity of Control: Joint Air Operations in the Gulf -- Part Two.  Joint Force Quarterly  2:59-63  Summer 1994.
Reviews the mission, structure, effectiveness, and lessons learned for establishing and conducting Joint Task Force Southwest Asia and Operation Southern Watch (as of the two year mark).
Also available online at:

Newman, Richard J.  U.S. Pilots Hit the Strike Zone.  U.S. News & World Report  127:28-29  September 13, 1999.
Allied jets have attacked about 380 targets in Iraq in 1999.  However, the only result seems to be an intensified stalemate and confusion on what to do next.

Pexton, Patrick.  (SecDef) Perry: "We Are Not Playing Games"--More U. S. Planes Head to the Gulf after Iraqi Attack.  Air Force Times  57:4  September 23, 1996.
Iraq defies the expanded no-fly zone.

Pexton, Patrick.  Tensions with Iraq Ease: U. S. Buildup in the Region Quiets Saddam.  Air Force Times  57:3  September 30, 1996.

Powell, Douglas.  Iraq: 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit.  Marines  26:7-9  November 1997.
Briefly discusses their deployment to Operation Southern Watch.

Schwalier, Terryl J.  In the Arena: Challenge and Opportunity.  Combat Edge  4:28-30  May 1996.
Reviews the USAF's contribution to the operation through the 4404th Wing (Provisional).

Watkins, Steven.  No End in Sight: Troops in the Gulf Dig in for a Lengthy Assignment.  Air Force Times  55:12-15  December 19, 1994.

Weller, Marc.  The US, Iraq and the Use of Force in a Unipolar World.  Survival  41:81-100  Winter 1999-2000.
Especially note pages 94-97 discussion of the no-fly zones as an abuse of the doctrine of humanitarian action.

** Most official reports on Operation Southern Watch are classified material.

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