PUBLIC DIPLOMACY


September 2003

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents


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All sites listed were last accessed on September 23, 2003.

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Internet Resource


Freedom Promotion Act of 2002: Legislative Summary. Washington, House International Relations Committee, 2002. 4 p.
Available online at: http://wwwa.house.gov/international_relations/107/freedom.htm
Introduced by U.S. Rep. Henry J. Hyde, Chairman, House International Relations Committee, the legislation gives shape to the direction and manner in which public diplomacy is carried out by defining the statutory authorization and by defining the role of the Secretary of State in public diplomacy more specifically in terms of standards, technologies, and target audiences. For bill summary and status, go to: http://thomas.loc.gov/bss/d107query.html and enter H.R. 3969.

Hyde, Henry J. Speaking to Our Silent Allies: Public Diplomacy and U.S. Foreign Policy. U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda 7:23-27 December 2002.
Available online at: http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/1202/ijpe/pj7-4hyde.htm
and at: http://www.ciaonet.org/olj/fpa/fpa_dec02_hyde.pdf
"Public diplomacy--the collective name given to efforts by the U.S. government to explain its foreign policy to the world and encourage greater familiarity with the United States by the populations of other countries--embraces international broadcasting, exchange programs, and a range of public information services, along with many other programs and functions by a surprisingly large number of agencies. But in addition to this essentially passive approach, there is an additional capacity and a larger purpose which have never been fully recognized, namely the use of public diplomacy to speak directly to the peoples of the world and enlist them in our long-term efforts to promote freedom, prosperity, and stability throughout the world. If we are to achieve this ambitious goal, we must begin by reversing the long neglect that has consigned public diplomacy to the periphery of our foreign policy decision-making. Our initial focus must be on stripping away the encumbrance of misunderstanding and disinformation that has been allowed to distort the image of the United States abroad, distortions that now seriously threaten our influence and security. Only then can we begin to lay the foundation for a deep and lasting connection with the peoples of the world that is complementary to, but separate from, our relationships with their governments."

Independent Task Force on America's Response to Terrorism. Improving the U.S. Public Diplomacy Campaign in the War Against Terrorism. Richard C. Holbrooke, Carla A. Hills, co-chairs. New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2001. 11 p.
Available online at: http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=4215
The paper is intended to assist the U.S. Administration in its ongoing efforts to prevail in the crucial struggle against terrorism.

Independent Task Force on Public Diplomacy. Finding America's Voice: A Strategy for Reinvigorating U.S. Public Diplomacy. New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2003. 93 p.
Available online at: http://www.cfr.org/pdf/public_diplomacy.pdf
"The Task Force recommends the immediate integration of public diplomacy into the foreign policymaking process rather than just trying to explain policies after the fact--present at the "take offs, not just the crash landings." Failure to take this and other steps will make it more difficult for the United States to maintain the war against terror and other policy undertakings, the Task Force concludes" (Press release).

Independent Task Force on Public Diplomacy. Public Diplomacy: A Strategy for Reform. New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.cfr.org/PublicDiplomacy_TF.html
"While President Bush has sounded the right rhetorical notes about upgrading U.S. public diplomacy as a top priority to combat terrorism and America's shaky image abroad, and has taken initial steps to this end, he must do more and better urgently. This is the central finding of a newly released Independent Task Force sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. The report points to recent polls showing America's image problem is global-not just isolated to the Middle East. Negative attitudes about U.S. policy are also pervasive in front-line states in the war on terrorism and among our closest allies. To make U.S. foreign policy more effective, the task force urges the president to follow through on his pledge of a year and a half ago-months before the 9/11 attacks-to reorganize the U.S. public diplomacy machinery and improve America's messages to the world" (Press release).

Public Diplomacy. New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2003. 4 p. (Terrorism: Q & A).
Available online at: http://www.terrorismanswers.com/responses/diplomacy_print.html
Considers the questions: Does America have an image problem abroad? How has the United States used public diplomacy in the past? Why isn't U.S. public diplomacy more effective? What new public diplomacy initiatives have been tried since September 11? What else could the United States do to improve its image abroad?

Public Diplomacy Web Site. Washington, United States Information Agency Alumni Association, August 30, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.publicdiplomacy.org/
This web site is designed to inform anyone interested in U.S. foreign affairs regarding the important role public diplomacy has played, and is playing, in supporting U.S. foreign policy and in safeguarding and advancing U.S. interests. Contains links to public diplomacy and its conduct and about the debate over public diplomacy and its future.

Ross, Christopher. Pillars of Public Diplomacy; Grappling with International Public Opinion. Harvard International Review 25:22-27 Summer 2003.
Available online at: http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfile-english&y=2003&m=August&x=20030821141150snommis0.6690332&t=xarchives/xarchitem.html
and at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10260575&db=aph
Ambassador Ross, U.S. Department of State Special Coordinator for Public Diplomacy, details principles and practices--"the seven pillars of public diplomacy"--the public diplomacy and international communications of the United States must reflect in order to gain understanding and support of multiple foreign publics and other non-state actors.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for 2003. Part 7, Secretary of State.  Hearings before a subcommittee, 107th Cong, 2nd sess, Mar. 6-Apr 24, 2002. Washington, GPO, 2002. 531 p.
Available online at:  http://frwebgate5.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/waisgate.cgi?WAISdocID=418106476655+1+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve
Public Diplomacy, pp 405-531, especially testimony by Charlotte Beers and Shibley Telhami. Do a "find" on the date: April 24, 2002.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs and International Relations. Are We Listening to the Arab Street?  Hearing, 107th Cong, 2nd sess, Oct. 8, 2002. Washington, GPO, 2003. 1 vol. (Serial no. 107-235).
Available online at: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/useftp.cgi?IPaddress=162.140.64.21&filename=88885.wais&directory=/diskc/wais/data/107_house_hearings
"To discuss the effectiveness of efforts to understand and influence perception of the United States in the Arab world, we welcome distinguished witnesses from the State Department, academia, a noted public opinion survey firm, and the media."

United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. The Message Is America: Rethinking U.S. Public Diplomacy. Hearing, 107th Cong, 1st sess, November 14, 2001. Washington, GPO, 2001. 60 p. (Serial no.107-54).
Available online at: http://wwwa.house.gov/international_relations/107/76189.pdf
It is by now obvious to most observers that the role of public diplomacy in our foreign policy has been too long neglected. The problem is more than a simple lack of attention. ... I do not believe that piecemeal reforms are likely to produce major improvements. Nor do I believe that the problems we confront can be solved simply by spending more money on ineffective programs ...-- Committee chairman Henry J. Hyde.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. America's Global Dialog: Sharing American Values and the Way Ahead for Public Diplomacy. Hearing, 107th Cong, 2nd sess, June 11, 2002. Washington, GPO, 2002. 76 p. (S. hrg. 107-692).
Available online at: http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS24033
and at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=32V2118655385&db=f5h
As we consider public diplomacy in the 21st century, we are mindful that our voice competes amidst the cacophony of voices shaping global opinion. Today, with the Internet, satellite radio and TV networks providing instantaneous and often unfiltered information, public diplomacy is more important and more difficult than ever before. No matter how powerful our military, we will not be able to achieve all our foreign policy objectives if we lose the war of ideas. In public diplomacy, we must use our most powerful tools: Truth, credibility, and openness. We must reach out to people in their own language and in their own terms. And we must foster the free flow of ideas, even if it's critical of the United States -- Committee chairman, Joseph R. Biden, Jr.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. American Public Diplomacy and Islam. Hearing, 108th Cong, 1st sess, Feb. 27, 2003. Washington, GPO, 2003.
Available online at: http://foreign.senate.gov/hearings/2003/hrg030227a.html
and at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=32V0129898011&db=f5h
Senate address provides opening statements of the 5 witness appearing before the committee: Charlotte Beers, Undersecretary of State for Public Diplomacy, U.S. Dept. of State; Kenneth Y. Tomlinson, Chairman, Board of Broadcasting Governors; R.S. Zaharna, School of Communication, American University; Andrew Kohut, Director, Pew Research Center for the People and the Press; Kenton Keith, Senior Vice President, Meridian International Center. Epnet address provides transcript of the hearing (47 p.)

Weiser, Carl. Report Lists 'Public Diplomacy' Failures. USA Today, p 13A, September 15, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-09-15-public-diplomacy-fails_x.htm
and at:  http://www.usatoday.com/usatonline/20030916/5502475s.htm


Books


McEvoy-Levy, Siobhan. American Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy; Public Diplomacy at the End of the Cold War. New York, Palgrave, 2001. 256 p.
Revision of the author's thesis (doctoral)--University of Cambridge, 1999. "The book examines a critical time and place in recent world history (the end of the Cold War) and the strategies and values employed in the public diplomacy of the Bush and Clinton Administrations to build domestic and international consensus. It provides insight into the uses of Presidential power and provides a model and an illustration of how the role of rhetoric may be used to study the foreign policy of the United States" (Publisher).
Also available online at: http://www.netLibrary.com/ebook_info.asp?product_id=59947&piclist=19799,39781
Book call no.: 327.73 M142a

United States. President. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, President of the U.S., 2002. 31 p.
"As the United States Government relies on the armed forces to defend America's interests, it must rely on diplomacy to interact with other nations. ... Officials trained mainly in international politics must also extend their reach to understand complex issues of domestic governance around the world, including public health, education, law enforcement, the judiciary, and public diplomacy."
Also available online at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
and at:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html
Book call no.: 355.033073 U583n 2002


Documents


United States. General Accounting Office. U.S. Public Diplomacy: State Department Expands Efforts but Faces Significant Challenges. Washington, Government Accounting Office, 2003. 68 p. (GAO-03-951)
This report examines (1) changes in State's public diplomacy resources and programs since September 11, particularly in countries with significant Muslim populations; (2) whether State has an overall strategy for its public diplomacy programs; (3) how State measures their effectiveness; and (4) what other significant challenges State faces in executing their programs.
Also available online at: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03951.pdf
Doc. call no.: M-U 41026-173 no.03-951


Periodicals


Andoni, Lamis. Deeds Speak Louder than Words. Washington Quarterly 25:85-100 Spring 2002.
"Employing Madison Avenue spin doctors cannot ease resentment toward U.S. policies and actions. U.S. policy in the Arab and Muslim world has been an utter failure. Public diplomacy cannot change this perception; only changing policies can."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6316039&db=aph

Blinken, Antony J. Winning the War of Ideas. Washington Quarterly 25:101-114 Spring 2002.
"U.S. success in Afghanistan will count for little if the United States loses the global war of ideas. Many currents of anti-Americanism develop not because the United States is misguided, but because it is misunderstood. Here is a 12-point plan to help bridge the perception gap."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6316038&db=aph

Hoffman, David. Beyond Public Diplomacy. Foreign Affairs 81:83-95 March-April 2002.
"The United States has put legions of spokespersons on the airwaves at home and abroad in a campaign to 'win the hearts and minds' of the Muslim world. So far, however, the world's superpower is losing the propaganda war to a terrorist in hiding. This is not surprising, given the virulent anti-Western messages that repressive Middle Eastern regimes spread through state-run media. Washington should focus instead on bringing freedom of the press to those countries where oppression breeds terrorism."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6249403&db=aph

Improving U.S. Public Diplomacy. Middle East Quarterly 9:75-80 Summer 2002.
Excepts from the Independent Task Force on America's Response to Terrorism's Report (see Internet Resources) coupled with comments by several of the Middle East Quarterly's editors and editorial board members.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6841376&db=aph

Johnson, Stephen and Dale, Helle. How To Reinvigorate U.S. Public Diplomacy. Backgrounder No.1645:1-14 April 23, 2003.
"To reverse America's declining image abroad, both public diplomacy and related international broadcasting agencies need a clear chain of command as well as adequate personnel and financial resources. In addition, public diplomacy programs that once helped nurture positive long-term relations with foreign publics and opinion leaders must be restored."
Also available online at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/bg1645.cfm

Kaufman, Edward. A Broadcasting Strategy To Win Media Wars. Washington Quarterly 25:115-127 Spring 2002.
"How does one win media wars?" ... The author proposes "seven pillars of a strategy to make international broadcasting, a previously overlooked dimension of foreign conflict resolution, more effective."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6316037&db=aph

Muravchik, Joshua. Hearts, Minds, and the War Against Terror. Commentary 113:25-30 May 2002.
Military victory comes foremost, but there is a place for public diplomacy--only, not as presently practiced.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6571283&db=aph

Paden, John N. and Singer, Peter W. America Slams the Door (on Its Foot); Washington's Destructive New Visa Policies. Foreign Affairs 82:8-14 May-June 2003.
"Harsh new restrictions on Muslim visitors have told potential friends that the United States no longer wants them. Goodwill is being squandered; Americans will pay."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9514569&db=aph

Pappas, Charles. The Selling of America. Advertising Age 72:1+ December 17, 2001.
"Outside the official organs of government, branding experts, academics, business executives and even soldiers who have tried to win over other cultures have strong points of view on why the Internet, the lessons of Southeast Asia and even an old book by Donald Trump could hold the keys to Ms. Beers' success or failure [to craft and market a message that "sold" not just the U.S. response to terrorism, but our country's core beliefs and values]. ...It's going to be a tough sell."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5700742&db=aph

Peterson, Peter G. Public Diplomacy and the War on Terrorism. Foreign Affairs 81:74-94 September-October 2002.
To combat terrorism effectively, America must do more to communicate with the Muslim world... The United States should establish a coordinating structure for public diplomacy efforts, promote private-sector involvement through a "Corporation for Public Diplomacy," and increase government public-relations resources.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7215162&db=aph

Ross, Christopher. Public Diplomacy Comes of Age. Washington Quarterly 25:75-83 Spring 2002.
The author explains what this critical foreign policy tool is, how technology has changed it, and the new paradigm that the United States is considering to rebuild its capacity to conduct public diplomacy.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6316040&db=aph

Sharma, Amol. Congress Pushing for Renewal of U.S. Overseas Image Building. CQ Weekly 60:2187-2189 August 10, 2002.
"Fearful that America's image abroad has been left unattended for too long, the House passed legislation to add $255 million to international media and outreach programs. The Senate is expected to follow suit. But disagreements remain over whether a concerted effort to talk up the United States on the airwaves can really change international opinion."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7211720&db=aph

Stone, Peter H. The Softer War. National Journal 35:1686-1691 May 31, 2003.
"There's a side to President Bush's war against Islamic extremism that doesn't always get much attention--the side aimed at long-term change in the hearts and minds of Muslims worldwide, but particularly in the Middle East. This war is a diverse and sometimes-disorganized effort, involving economics, trade, human rights, education, diplomacy, and propaganda. Figuring out how best to sell American values is one big challenge."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10012317&db=aph

Telhami, Shibley. U.S. Policy and the Arab and Muslim World: The Need for Public Diplomacy. Brookings Review 20:47-48 Summer 2002.
"The primary source of the widespread Arab and Muslim resentment and anger toward the United States that is consistently found by recent public opinion surveys in the region is not, it should be said, American values--it is U.S. policy, particularly toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Although the United States cannot change its foreign policies solely on the basis of public attitudes abroad, the costs of our actions must be understood and factored into the policy assessment. The United States should also find a way to counter its negative image among Arabs and Muslims and to explain its policies to the people of the region."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6956853&db=buh

Waller, J. Michael. Losing a Battle for Hearts and Minds. Insight on the News 18:18-19 April 22, 2002.
"The same bureaucracy that is so deftly managing the military in the war on terrorism is severely mishandling information campaigns needed to discredit terrorists."
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6610149&db=f5h


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