Peace and Stability Operations


November 2006

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site. 

Some articles listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed November 1, 2006.


General Information


Internet Resources

Bildt, Carl.  Hard Earned Lessons on Nation Building:  Seven Ways to Rebuild Iraq.  May 7, 2003.  (Op Eds by Rand Staff).
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/hot/op-eds/050703IHT.html
This opinion article appeared in The International Herald Tribune on May 7, 2003.  The writer is a former prime minister of Sweden.

Carstensen, Nils.  Military/Humanitarian Distinction Not Just Lofty Ideal.  Reuters Foundation Alert, April 4, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/carstenseniraq.htm

Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction:  Conflict and Development.  Washington, DC, World Bank.
Available online at:  http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/67ByDocName/ConflictPreventionandReconstruction
Through assessment of the causes, consequences and characteristics of conflict and the transfer of lessons learned, the Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit works to design development efforts specific to conflict-affected countries.  The Post-Conflict Fund provides financing for physical and social reconstruction initiatives in post-war societies.  The Bank is playing a significant role in Afghanistan, Africa's Great Lakes region, the Balkans, Iraq, Liberia, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Timor Leste, the West Bank and Gaza, and other war-torn areas.

Conflict Termination in the Iraqi War, compiled by Joan T. Phillips.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, April 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/iraqi/conflict.htm

Humanitarian Assistance in Iraq, compiled by Terry Kiss.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, July 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/humaniraq/humaniraq.htm

InterAction:  American Council for Voluntary International Action.  2003.
Available online at:  http://www.interaction.org/
InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international development and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations, with more than 160 members operating in every developing country.  The site has current information and news on humanitarian issues in Iraq and Afghanistan and many links to other organizations.

Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Interagency, Intergovernmental Organization, and Nongovernmental Organization Coordination During Joint Operations, JP 3-08.  Washington, 2006.
Available online at:  Vol One, 17 March 2006 - http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_08v1.pdf
Available online at:  Vol Two, 17 March 2006 - http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_08v2.pdf

Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Joint Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Peace Operations JP3-07.3.  Washington, February 1999.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_07_3.pdf

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  The Global Peace Operations Initiative:  Background and Issues for Congress.  Washington, February 8, 2006.
Available online at:  http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/62637.pdf

Peacekeeping, compiled by Terry Kiss.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, October 2005.  58 p.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/peacekp03/peacekp03.htm
Provides lists of books, documents, and magazine articles on the topic with many of the items available full-text online.

Ramsbotham, Alexander.  Peacekeeping Mission Updates:  August - October 2003.  International Peacekeeping Spring 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=13876432&site=ehost-live

Rebuilding Afghanistan.  Washington, The White House.
Available online at:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/nationalsecurity/rebuildingafghanistan.html

Refugees International
Available online at:  http://www.refugeesinternational.org/section/aboutus/
Refugees International (RI) generates life saving assistance and protection for displaced people around the world, and works to end the conditions that create displacement.  Numerous links to articles and information on this page.

United Nations.  Department of Peacekeeping Operations
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/index.asp
Fact sheet; Q&A; Timeline 1948-2006; List of operations; Mission statement; Links to operations.

United States.  Department of the Army.  Stability Operations and Support Operations, FM 3-07.  2003.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/fm3_07.pdf
Provides chapters on historical contexts, foreign internal defense, planning, peace operations, support operations, interagency coordination, the law for these operations, negotiations, etc..

United States Institute for Peace.
Available online at:  http://www.usip.org/
An independent, nonpartisan, national institution established and funded by Congress. Its goals are to help prevent and resolve violent international conflicts, promote post-conflict stability and democratic transformations, and increase peacebuilding capacity, tools, and intellectual capital worldwide.

von Carlowitz, Leopold.  Crossing the Boundary from the International to the Domestic Legal Realm:  UNMIK Lawmaking and Property Rights in Kosovo.   Global Governance  July-September 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14300315&site=ehost-live
Presents information on the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).  It is so far the only UN peace operation that took on the responsibility of regulating property rights.  Comparable governance missions in Cambodia, Eastern Slavonia and East Timor yielded to the democratically legitimated local authorities in matters relating to property although they were facing a similar property crisis during their administration.  In terms of substantive property-related lawmaking, UNMIK serves as an important precedent for future international territorial administrations that might be established in postconflict situations.


General - Books

Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2006.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006.  317 p.
Chapter 1:  Dilemmas of Robust Peace Operations, pp 1-18.
Chapter 2:  Kosovo:  In Search of a Public Order Strategy, pp 19-32.
Chapters 3 through 7 offer information on mission reviews, mission notes, and global statistics on UN and non-UN missions.
Book call no.:  341.584 A615 2006

Jeong, Ho-Won.  Peacebuilding in Postconflict Societies:  Strategy and Process.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005.  255 p.
Book call no.:  303.66 J54p

Williams, Garland H.  Engineering Peace:  The Military Role in Postconflict Reconstruction.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005.  317 p.
Book call no.:  355.028 W723e

General - Document

Brown, Rosalyn M.  Peace Operations in Failed States:  What Is the Appropriate Model to Employ?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2002.  31 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404294.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B8793p


NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION AND PEACE OPERATIONS
 


Internet Resources

Lyon, Alynna.  Beyond Rwanda and Kosovo:  The Interactive Dynamics of International Peacekeeping and Ethnic Mobilisation.  Global Society:  Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations.  July 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17535430&site=ehost-live
Synthesis conflict studies with work on social mobilisation theory and research on peacekeeping, offering both theoretical and policy-relevant contributions to understanding the nexus between effective peacekeeping and factors leading to violent mobilisation.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization 2006, compiled by Stephen B. T. Chun. Maxwell AFB, AL, Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center, September 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/nato2006.htm
This subject resource guide lists books, articles, defense documents and Internet resources on the topic, with a great many of them available full text online.  It also includes a lengthy section on Afghanistan operations.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  Washington, United States.  Department of State.
Web site of the U.S. State Department's Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs.
Available online at:  http://www.state.gov/p/eur/rt/nato

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Web site of NATO.
Available online at:  http://www.nato.int

United States.  Department of State.  Department of African Affairs - Sudan
Available online at:  http://www.state.gov/p/af/ci/su/
Provides links to the peace agreement, fact sheets and maps.


NATO -- Books

Allin, Dana H.  NATO's Balkan Interventions.  New York, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002.  112 p.
Book call no.:  909.82 I61a no. 347

Building Peace and Stability in Crisis Regions.  Brussels, NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2003.  6 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.nato.int/docu/briefing/crisis%5Fmanagement/html%5Fen/crisis01.html
Book call no.:  341.584 B932

Chomsky, Noam.  A New Generation Draws the Line:  Kosovo, the Standards of the West.  New York, VERSO, 2000.  154 p.
1999 saw two major international crises that, looked at side-by-side starkly illuminate the strategies of the Western powers in the new century.  East Timor is of little strategic interest to the US and its allies, and so they did nothing.  The situation in Kosovo was very different. In Yugoslavia, at the cessation of NATO bombing, hundreds of forensic experts were brought in to substantiate claims made by the State Department and the British Home Office concerning the thousands who reportedly had been massacred at the hands of the Serbs.  In fact numbers of this scale have not been corroborated.  The rich documentation produced by the US, NATO, and other Western sources reveals that the atrocities that did occur took place overwhelmingly in the wake of the NATO bombing, and were its consequence not its cause.  Humanitarianism was not the moving force behind military intervention in Yugoslavia.
Book call no.:  949.71 C548na

Keaney, Thomas A.  The UN-NATO Coalition:  Diplomatic and Military Interaction in Bosnia.  Washington, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 199?  23 p.
Book call no.:  355.357 K24n

O'Ballance, Edgar.  Civil War in Bosnia, 1992-94.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1995.  269 p.
In March 1994, when rival American and Russian initiatives brought about a ceasefire in Sarajevo, bombed continually for almost two years in full television spotlight, it was hoped it would spread and develop into a peace process.
Book call no.:  949.7024 O12c

Peace Operations after 11 September 2001, edited by Thierry Tardy.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2004.  204 p.
Explores the possible consequences of the events of 11 September 2001, and of the ’fight against terrorism’, on the way peace operations are perceived and conducted, and on the way that states, international organizations such as the UN, NATO or the EU and non-state actors consider these operations.
Book call no.:  341.584 P3557


NATO -- Periodicals

Bender, Bryan.  Changing Policy:  Recent Action over Kosovo Shows How NATO Is Modifying the Way It Operates.  Jane's Defence Weekly 30:24 November 18, 1998.

Cross, Sharyl.  Russia and NATO Toward the Twenty-First Century:  Conflicts and Peacekeeping in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.  Journal of Slavic Military Studies 15:1-58 June 2002.

Feith, Pieter.  Making Peace and Democracy - A New NATO Task.  NATO's Sixteen Nations 41:34-36 1996.

Fiorenza, Nicholas.  Changing of the Guard:  NATO Expands Ops in Afghanistan.  Armed Forces Journal 141:25-26 April 2004.

Fiorenza, Nicholas.  Peacekeeping Shift:  European Union Readies for Takeover from NATO in Bosnia.  Armed Forces Journal 141:14+ June 2004.

Fouskas, Vassilis.  The Balkans and the Enlargement of NATO:  A Skeptical View.  European Security 10:52-75 Autumn 2001.

Kenyon, Henry S.  NATO Forces Prepare for Global Operations.  Signal 60:37-40 November 2005.

NATO Took on Afghanistan Mission.  NATO's Nations and Partners for Peace 48:85-86 2003.

Ripley, Tim.  Briefing:  Kosovo - KFOR Lightens Up.  Jane's Defence Weekly 35:22-24+ May 9, 2001.

Shelton, Henry H.  Peace Operations:  The Forces Required.  NATO's Nations and Partners for Peace, pp. 61-62+, Special Issue Czech Republic 2000.

Tiron, Roxana.  NATO Units in Kosovo Predict Mission Could Last a Decade.  National Defense 87:26-28 March 2003.


Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)


Internet Resources

Breen, Claire.  Rationalising the Work of UN Human Rights Bodies or Reducing the Input of NGOs?  The Changing Role of Human Rights NGOs at the United Nations.  Non-State Actors & International Law 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17949135&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv
The contribution of NGOs to the development of human rights standards at the United Nations is rooted in the UN Charter.  In spite of NGO success in the creation of human rights norms, it appears that NGO input, particularly within the Human Rights Commission, is being scaled back for reasons of finance and efficiency.

Fagan, Adam.  Civil Society in Bosnia Ten Years after Dayton.  International Peacekeeping Autumn 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17132310&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv
Assesses what has emerged under the banner of ‘civil society’, considers the roles and functions of the various local and international NGOs, and assesses their relationship and contribution to the overall project of state-building.

Institute of World Affairs
Available online at:  http://www.iwa.org/
A non-profit, non-partisan, tax-exempt organization devoted to international understanding and the peaceful resolution of conflict.  In support of its mission, the Institute conducts a range of programs designed to prevent violent conflict and to advance post-conflict peacebuilding.

International Committee of the Red Cross
Available online at:  http://www.icrc.org/eng
An independent neutral organization ensuring humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of war and armed violence.  Site has links to humanitarian operations, both ongoing and historical.

International Rescue Committee (IRC).
Available online at:  http://www.theirc.org/
The IRC is a global leader in emergency relief, rehabilitation, protection of human rights, post-conflict development, resettlement services and advocacy for those uprooted or affected by conflict and oppression.  Site has links to ongoing operations.

Karajkov, Risto.  The Balkans:  Bridging the Gap.  Transitions Online March 14, 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16755888&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv
Discusses issues concerning non-governmental organizations (NGO) in the Balkan region.  Biases encountered by NGOs across the Balkans; Increase in the number of civil society groups when international NGOs set up operations in the region; Achievements of NGOs in various countries of the Balkans.

Peshkopia, Ridvan.  Asylum in the Balkans:  European Union and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Assistance to Balkan Countries for Establishing Asylum Systems.  Journal of Southeast European & Black Sea Studies May 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17210447&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Schloms, Michael.  Humanitarian NGOs in Peace Processes.  International Peacekeeping Spring 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10565968&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Permanent Mission of Sweden - Geneva.  Swedish Support to Improve International Humanitarian Operations.  July 1, 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.swedenabroad.com/pages/news____50988.asp&root=9864


Non-governmental Organizations -- Books

Adall, Pamela R.  Guide to IGOs, NGOs, and the Military in Peace and Relief Operations.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2000.  295 p.
Intended as a tool for field operations and developed specifically to dispel misconceptions and promote cooperation, this book gives readers the opportunity to develop a basic understanding of the leading players in peace and relief operations.
Book call no.:  327.17206 A112g

Beyond UN Subcontracting:  Task-Sharing with Regional Security Arrangements and Service Providing NGOs, edited by Thomas G. Weiss.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1998.  266 p.
Book call no.:  060 B573

Davidson, Lisa Witzig.  Humanitarian and Peace Operations:  NGOs and the Military in the Interagency Process:  Workshop Report.  Washington, National Defense University, 1996.  66 p.
Book call no.:  341.728 D252h

Forsythe, David P.  The Humanitarians:  The International Committee of the Red Cross.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2005.  356 p.
Examines the ICRC from its origins in the middle of the nineteenth century up to the present day. Explores how the ICRC exercises its independence, impartiality, and neutrality to try to protect prisoners in Iraq and displaced and starving civilians in Somalia.
Book call no.:  361.77 F735h

From Civil Strife to Civil Society:  Civil and Military Responsibilities in Disrupted States, edited by William Maley.  New York, United Nations University Press, 2003.  369 p.
The 1990s saw the United Nations, the militaries of key member states, and NGOs increasingly entangled in the complex affairs of disrupted states.  Whether as deliverers of humanitarian assistance or as agents of political, social, and civic reconstruction, whether in Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, or East Timor, these actors have had to learn ways of interacting with each other in order to optimize the benefits for the populations they seek to assist.
Book call no.:  341.5 F931

Mitigating Conflict:  The Role of NGOs, edited by Henry F. Carey and Oliver P. Richmond.  Portland, OR, F. Cass, 2003.  191 p.
Book call no.:  341.5 M684

NGOs at the Table:  Strategies for Influencing Policies in Areas of Conflict, edited by Mari Fitzduff and Cheyanne Church.  Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.  195 p.
Book call no.:  327.172 N576

NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance, edited by Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 1996.  250 p.
Book call no.:  361.77 N812

The Politics of Global Governance:  International Organizations in an Interdependent World, edited by Paul F. Diehl.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997.  421 p.
Book call no.:  341.2 P7692

Reframing the Agenda:  The Impact of NGO and Middle Power Cooperation in International Security Policy, edited by Ken Rutherford.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2003.  228 p.
Book call no.:  327.174 R332


Non-governmental Organizations -- Periodicals

Cooley, Alexander and Ron, James.  The NGO (Nongovernmental Organization) Scramble:  Organizational Insecurity and the Political Economy of Transnational Action.  International Security 27:5-39 Summer 2002.

Grodeland, Ase Berit.  Public Perceptions of Non-Governmental Organisations in Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, and Macedonia.  Communist & Post Communist Studies 39:221-246 June 2006.
Examines the relationship between NGOs and the general public in Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, and Macedonia.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21262801&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Mertus, Julie.  Improving International Peacebuilding Efforts:  The Example of Human Rights Culture in Kosovo.  Global Governance 10:333-351 July-September 2004.
Presents information on the international peace building efforts and also includes the example of human right culture in Kosova.  More than 250 well-intentioned non-governmental and governmental organizations have flooded into Kosovo offering a range of resources and promises.  Nonetheless, not one of the larger international goals that brought the international community to Kosovo in the first place has been reached.  Kosovo is decidedly not a multiethnic and secure society and equal access to basic human rights protections remains illusory.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=14300320

Winkelmann, Joseph C.  Establish an NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) Reception Center at Baghdad Airport?...What the Hell Is an NGO?  Field Artillery, pp 31-33 January-February 2004.


United Nations
 


Internet Resources

Acharya, Amitav.  Conclusion:  Asian Norms and Practices in UN Peace Operations.  International Peacekeeping Spring 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15313988&site=ehost-live
Asia has hosted some of the most complex new developments in peace operations, especially Cambodia where many of the post-Cold War concepts in peacekeeping and peacebuilding were tested. A more favorable political climate in Asia for humanitarian interventions, which is the emerging frontier for UN peace operations, is unlikely in the near future, given the continuing strength of state sovereignty in the region.

Adebajo, Adekeye and Landberg, Chris.  Back to the Future:  UN Peacekeeping in Africa.  International Peacekeeping Winter 2000.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7165505&site=ehost-live
Provides a historical overview of some important UN peacekeeping missions undertaken in Africa between 1960 and 2000 including those in Congo, Mozambique, Angola, Somalia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone.  All the conflicts examined are cases of civil war, reflecting the changing nature of post-Cold War peacekeeping.

Banerjee, Dipankar.  Current Trends in UN Peacekeeping:  A Perspective from Asia.  International Peacekeeping.  Spring 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15313984&site=ehost-live
Resurgence of peacekeeping after 1999 may represent another generation, where humanitarian aspects often dominate.

Berdal, Mats.  The United Nations, Peacebuilding, and the Genocide in Rwanda.  Global Governance January-March 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16757540&site=ehost-live
The experiences of Rwanda provide a necessary, if disheartening, perspective from which to examine the challenge of peacebuilding.

Breen, Claire.  Rationalising the Work of UN Human Rights Bodies or Reducing the Input of NGOs? The Changing Role of Human Rights NGOs at the United Nations.  Non-State Actors & International Law 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17949135&site=ehost-live
The contribution of NGOs to the development of human rights standards at the United Nations is rooted in the UN Charter.  In spite of NGO success in the creation of human rights norms, it appears that NGO input, particularly within the Human Rights Commission, is being scaled back for reasons of finance and efficiency.

Chesterman, Simon.  Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan:  The Future of UN State Building.  International Peace Academy, September 2002.  12 p.
Available online at:  http://www.ipacademy.org/PDF_Reports/afghanistan0902.pdf

Christoff, Joseph A.  Peacekeeping:  Cost Comparison of Actual UN and Hypothetical US Operations in Haiti.  February 21, 2006.  (GAO-06-331).
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=19902595&site=ehost-live

Coipuram, Tom.  Iraq:  United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations.  Washington, Congressional Research Service.  The Library of Congress, Updated April 16, 2003.  9 p.  (Report for Congress).
Available online at:  http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/19953.pdf

Dobbins, James.  The UN's Role in Nation Building:  From the Congo to Iraq.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2005.  318 p.
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/publications/MG/MG304/
Reviews UN efforts to transform eight unstable countries into democratic, peaceful, and prosperous partners, and compares those missions with U.S. nation-building operations.  The UN provides the most suitable institutional framework for nation-building missions that require fewer than 20,000 men — one with a comparatively low cost structure, a comparatively high success rate, and the greatest degree of international legitimacy.

Elagab, Omer Yousif.  The Special Court for Sierra Leone:  Some Constraints.  International Journal of Human Rights Autumn 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14572980&site=ehost-live
The government of Sierra Leone and the UN have concluded a bilateral agreement establishing an ad hoc special criminal court for prosecuting those most responsible for the commission of serious crimes during the civil war in Sierra Leone.  The new court differs in many respects from the two existing tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.  This article highlights these challenges with respect to the juridical status, funding and criminal jurisdiction, with special reference to sexual offences, genocide and the regime for dealing with child soldiers.

Fred-Mensah, Ben K.  Social Capital Building as Capacity for Postconflict Development:  The UNDP in Mozambique and Rwanda.  Global Governance.  October-December 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15529188&site=ehost-live
Conceptualizes two postconflict reconstruction projects supported by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) as efforts in social capital development in postconflict situations.  The focus is on the UNDP's support for the creation of focus groups within the Mozambican government and for the Rwandan government's reorganization of its policing system as reform measures in the countries' state systems.

Lawyer, Jared F.  Military Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency in Peacekeeping:  Public Versus Private.  Oxford Development Studies March 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17343189&site=ehost-live
Examines differences in military effectiveness and economic efficiency as evidenced from four major civil wars that occurred in the countries of Somalia, Sierra Leone, Angola and Liberia from 1993 to 2003. Two different methods of conflict cessation are contrasted:  Private Military Corporation forces (PMC) and United Nation Peacekeeping forces (UNPK).

Lyon, Alynna.  Beyond Rwanda and Kosovo:  The Interactive Dynamics of International Peacekeeping and Ethnic Mobilisation.  Global Society:  Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations.  July 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17535430&site=ehost-live
Synthesis conflict studies with work on social mobilisation theory and research on peacekeeping, offering both theoretical and policy-relevant contributions to understanding the nexus between effective peacekeeping and factors leading to violent mobilisation.

The New Imperialism:  Violence, Norms, and the "Rule of Law."  Michigan Law Review.  June 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12320995&site=ehost-live
Information on the Kosovo experience in promoting the rule of law; Discussion on Regulation Number 1 created by UNMIK or the international civilian administration in Kosovo, Serbia.

Schmidt, Brian C.  Rwanda on My Mind.  International Journal of Human Rights Winter 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15740578&site=ehost-live

Thompson, Larry.  Humanitarian Coordination for Iraq:  A Job For the United Nations.  Washington, Refugees International, April 9, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/853/
The Humanitarian Operations Center (HOC) in Kuwait was established about two months ago and is staffed by Kuwaiti government officials and U.S. and UK military officers.  The objective of the HOC is to facilitate humanitarian aid to the people of Iraq, especially in southern Iraq adjacent to Kuwait.

United Nations Humanitarian Coordination For Iraq. Health Coordination Group.  Selected Health Information on Iraq.  March 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.who.int/disasters/repo/10062.pdf

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. (OCHA).  ReliefWeb:  Serving the Information Needs of the Humanitarian Relief Community.  New York, United Nations, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf
This site has many links to information and articles dealing with humanitarian issues in Iraq and Afghanistan.


United Nations -- Books

After Rwanda:  The Coordination of United Nations Humanitarian Assistance, edited by Jim Whitman and David Pocock.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1996.  253 p.
Book call no.:  361.26 A258

Berman, Eric and Sams, Katie E.  Peacekeeping in Africa:  Capabilities and Culpabilities.  Geneva, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2000.  540 p.
Book call no.:  341.584096 B516p

Beyond Traditional Peacekeeping, edited by Donald C. Daniel and Bradd C. Hayes.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1995.  320 p.
Reviews the past and particularly the present status of UN peacekeeping and recommends how the organization and member states should proceed.
Book call no.:  341.58 B573

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros.  Unvanquished:  A U.S.-U.N. Saga.  New York, Random House, 1999.  352 p.
Book call no.:  341.2373 B781u

Caplan, Richard D.  Post-Mortem on UNPROFOR.  London, Brassey's for the Centre for Defence Studies, University of London, 1996.  64 p.
Book call no.:  949.7103 C244p

Center on International Cooperation.  Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2006.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rrienner Publishers, 2006.  317 p.
Presents the most detailed collection of data on peace operations, those launched by the UN, by regional organizations, by coalitions, and by individual nations. Includes:  an introduction on peace operations doctrine; analyses of all peacekeeping missions on the ground in 2005 and graphs, charts, tables and photographs.
Book call no.:  341.584 A615 2006

Chesterman, Simon.  You, the People:  The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building .  NY, Oxford University Press, 2004.  296 p.
The governance of post-conflict territories embodies a central contradiction:  how does one help a population prepare for democratic governance and the rule of law by imposing a form of benevolent autocracy?
Book call no.:  341.584 C525y

Doyle, Michael W.  UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia:  UNTAC's Civil Mandate.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.  117 p.
Book call no.:  341.58 D754u

Fiedler, Michael R.  UN Peace Operations, Conditions for Success.  Moscow, ID, University of Idaho, 2000.  135 p.
Book call no.:  341.584 F452u

Findlay, Trevor.  Cambodia:  The Legacy and Lessons of UNTAC.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1995.  238 p.
"...an account and analysis of the United Nations’ peacekeeping operation in Cambodia between 1991 and 1993. Although its mission was jeopardized by the non-co-operation of the Khmer Rouge, the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) successfully guided the country to democratic elections, constitutional government and international recognition.  The study reveals the successes of the operation and draws lessons for future UN peacekeeping operations."
Book call no.:  959.604 F494c

From Civil Strife to Civil Society:  Civil and Military Responsibilities in Disrupted States, edited by William Maley.  New York, United Nations University Press, 2003.  369 p.
The 1990s saw the United Nations, the militaries of key member states, and NGOs increasingly entangled in the complex affairs of disrupted states.  Whether as deliverers of humanitarian assistance or as agents of political, social, and civic reconstruction, whether in Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, or East Timor, these actors have had to learn ways of interacting with each other in order to optimize the benefits for the populations they seek to assist.
Book call no.:  341.5 F931

Heininger, Janet E.  Peacekeeping in Transition:  The United Nations in Cambodia.  New York, Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1994.  183 p.
Book call no.:  341.58 H468p

Hill, Stephen M.  United Nations Disarmament Processes in Intra-State Conflict.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.  303 p.
Seeks to identify the most important lessons taught by the UN’s previous attempts at disarmament. Provides an analysis of seven of the UN’s major disarmament processes, and constructs an original analytical framework in order to explain the variation in the UN’s success.
Book call no.:  341.584 H648u

Hillen, John.  Blue Helmets:  The Strategy of UN Military Operations.  Washington, Brassey's, 1998.  312 p.
Book call no.:  327.16 H651b

Keaney, Thomas A.  The UN-NATO Coalition:  Diplomatic and Military Interaction in Bosnia.  Washington, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 199?  23 p.
Book call no.:  355.357 K24n

Malik, Arslan.  The Beginning of a UN Army?, edited by Gayle Fraser and Michelle McAlear.  Toronto, Canada, Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1999.  14-17 p.  (Behind the Headlines)
Book call no.:  971.008 B419 v.56 no. 4

NGOs, the UN, and Global Governance, edited by Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner, 1996.  250 p.
Book call no.:  361.77 N812

O'Hanlon, Michael E.  Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention.  Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2003.  125 p.
Contends that individual countries rather than the United Nations should develop the aggregate capacity to address several crises of varying scale and severity, and that many more countries should share in the effort.  The United States’ role is twofold:  it must make slight redesigns in its own military and encourage other nations to join it in this type of intervention, including training and support of troops in countries that are willing to take the necessary steps to prevent humanitarian disaster but lack the resources.
Book call no.:  341.584 O36e

Peace Operations after 11 September 2001, edited by Thierry Tardy.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2004.  204 p.
Explores the possible consequences of the events of 11 September 2001, and of the ’fight against terrorism’, on the way peace operations are perceived and conducted, and on the way that states, international organizations such as the UN, NATO or the EU and non-state actors consider these operations.
Book call no.:  341.584 P3557

Peck, Connie.  Sustainable Peace:  The Role of the UN and Regional Organizations in Preventing Conflict.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.  297 p.  (Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict)
Book call no.:  341.73 P366s

Randall, Stephen J.  Peacekeeping in the Post-Cold War Era:  The United Nations and the 1993 Cambodian Elections.  Toronto, Canada, Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1994.  16 p.
Book call no.:  320.9596 R189p

Ratner, Steven R.  The New UN Peacekeeping:  Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War.  New York, St Martin's Press, 1995.  322 p.
Examines the Cambodia mission of 1991-1993.
Book call no.:  341.58 R232n

Sahnoun, Mohamed.  Somalia:  The Missed Opportunities.  Washington, U.S. Institute of Peace Press, 1994.  89 p.
Argues that if the international community - and specifically the United Nations - had intervened earlier and more effectively, much of the catastrophe in Somalia could have been avoided.
Book call no.:  967.7305 S131s

Soldiers for Peace:  Fifty Years of United Nations Peacekeeping, edited by Barbara Benton.  New York, Facts on File, 1996.  268 p.
An examination of all aspects of UN peacekeeping, its successes and failures past and present, and its prospects for the future.
Book call no.:  341.584 S684

Synge, Richard.  Mozambique:  UN Peacekeeping in Action, 1992-94.  Washington, United States Institute for Peace Press, 1997.  221 p.
Describes how ONUMOZ went about its tasks - assembling and demobilizing troops, providing humanitarian aid, demining, preparing for elections - and assesses how well each was accomplished and why.
Book call no.:  327.1 S993m

The United Nations and East Timor:  Self-Determination through Popular Consultation.  New York, Dept. of Public Information, United Nations, 2000.  97 p.
Presents a short history of the United Nations involvement in East Timor.  It describes the experiences of the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET), set up prior to the landmark referendum of 1999.  It also explains the establishment and early objectives of the United Nations Transitional Administration of East Timor (UNTAET).
Book call no.:  959.87 U58

The United Nations and Human Security, edited by Edward Newman and Oliver P. Richmond.  New York, Palgrave, 2001.  231 p.
Book call no.:  341.72 U581

United States.  Congress.  House.  Committee on International Relations.  Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere.  Haiti, the Situation after the Departure from UNMIH.  Hearing. 104th Congress, 2nd session, February 28, 1996.  Washington, GPO, 1996.  71 p.
Book call no.:  327.7307294 U581ha

Weiss, Thomas George.  The United Nations and Changing World Politics.  Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 2004.  392 p.
Explores the UN’s role in three core issues in international relations:  international peace and security; human rights and humanitarian affairs; and building peace through sustainable development.
Book call no.:  341.231 W429u 2004

Wesley, Michael.  Casualties of the New World Order:  The Causes of Failure of UN Missions to Civil Wars.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997.  200 p.
Examines not only the UN's failures in Bosnia, Somalia and Angola, but also the UN’s successes in El Salvador, Mozambique and Cambodia.
Book call no.:  341.584 W514c


United Nations -- Periodicals

Addison, Tony.  Conflict and Peace Building:  Interactions between Politics and Economics.  Round Table 94:405-411 September 2005.
Introduces the UNU-WIDER special issue of The Round Table on Conflict and Peace Building:  Interactions between Politics and Economics.  The issue assesses experiences in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and Uganda, as well as the potential for Africa's regional organizations to contribute to peace building and the role of constitution writing in conflict resolution across the world.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18333961&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Barth, Fritz J.  A System of Contradiction (United Nations Operations, Somalia).  Marine Corps Gazette 82:26-29 April 1998.

Bell, Udy.  Building on a Hard-Won Peace.  UN Chronicle 42:42-43 December 2005-February 2006.
Provides information regarding United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), a peace-building and political stability mission in West Africa.  The UNAMSIL had hosted its first International Music Festival in November 2005 as celebration for the mission's success.  The organization was launched during the civil war, which left the country devastated and unstable.  It also helped in the creation of Sierra Leone's new national government and regularization of its diamond mining.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20832644&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Bratt, Duane.  Peace over Justice:  Developing a Framework for UN Peacekeeping Operations in Internal Conflicts.  Global Governance:  A Review of Multilaterlism and International Organizations 5:63-82 January-March 1999.

Chesterman, Simon.  Bush, the United Nations and Nation-Building.  Survival 46:101-116 Spring 2004.

Chesterman, Simon.  Walking Softly in Afghanistan:  The Future of UN State-Building.  Survival 44:37-45 Autumn 2002.

Dallaire, Romeo A. and Poulin, Bruce.  Rwanda:  From Peace Agreement to Genocide.  Canadian Defence Quarterly 24:7-11 March-Spring 1995.

Deen, Thalif and Kemp, Ian.  Shoestring Peacekeeping:  Poor Organisation and Equipment Have Undermined UN Peacekeeping Operation in Sierra Leone.  Jane's Defence Weekly 33:20 May 17, 2000.

Dobbins, James.  The UN's Role In Nation Building:  From the Belgin Congo to Iraq.  Survival 46:  Winter 2004-2005.
Since the end of the Cold War, the United States and the United Nations have both been heavily engaged in nation-building and have developed their own distinct approaches to the conduct of such missions.  In the aftermath of its early and widely publicized failures in Somalia and Yugoslavia, the UN's reputation for competent nation- building was seriously damaged, and demand for its services fell off noticeably.  More recently, the US reputation for competence in the field has suffered as a result of setbacks in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=15863093

Fowler, Jerry.  Beyond Humanitarian Bandages -Confronting Genocide in Sudan.  New England Journal of Medicine 351:2574-2576 December 16, 2004.
Comments on the genocide in the Sudan. Health conditions in the country for the affected populations and in the refugee camps; Belief that failure to recognize and address the political causes of the humanitarian disaster can be catastrophic as it was in Rwanda; Reaction from the international community which has fallen short of ending the violence; Call for the United Nations Security Council to act.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15355463&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gordon, Stuart and Higgs, James.  Briefing:  UN Mission in Sierra Leone.  Jane's Defence Weekly 34:26-27+ September 27, 2000.

Grant, J. Andrew.  Diamonds, Foreign Aid and the Uncertain Prospects for Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Sierra Leone.  Round Table 94:443-457 September 2005.
Examines the external and internal dimensions of post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone.  The United Nations, bilateral donors such as the UK, and transnational non-governmental organizations and aid agencies have been instrumental in providing much-needed external assistance to Sierra Leone during the latter stages of its civil war and in the immediate post-war period.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18333963&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Grey-Johnson, Crispin.  Beyond Peacekeeping:  The Challenges of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Africa.  UN Chronicle 43:8-11 March-May 2006.
Focuses on the peacekeeping mission of the United Nation (UN) following the adoption of the Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations.  The Security Council's mandate is defined and limited to issues of global security, and it compasses interventions that derive from a development mandate. However, the UN mission would have to monitor and enforce ceasefire and organize discussion.  Peacekeeping missions objective include to protect the civilian population and organize elections.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22033374&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kitfield, James.  Reforming the Blue Helmets.  National Journal 32:3954-3957 December 23, 2000.
Focuses on the peacekeeping forces of the UN in Sierra Leone.  Weakness of the UN forces in Sierra Leone; Peacekeeping reforms proposed for the UN forces.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4070140&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Knigge, Timothy M.  LNOing (Liaison Officer) United Nations Style.  Field Artillery, pp. 26-28, August 1994.

McClure, Robert L. and Orlov Morton II.  Is the UN Peacekeeping Role in Eclipse?  Parameters 29:96-105 Autumn 1999.

Neack, Laura.  Peacekeeping, Bloody Peacekeeping.  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 60:40-47 July-August 2004.
Looks at the state of the peacekeeping missions initiated by the United Nations (UN) as of July 1, 2004. Reaction of the U.S. George W. Bush administration to the UN peacekeeping operations; Role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Iraq; Variety of tasks involved in the UN peacekeeping operations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=13521481&db=aph

Powell, Stewart M.  American (Peacekeeping) Troops -- American Command.  Air Force Magazine 77:46-49 January 1994.

Schabas, William A.  Preventing Genocide and Mass Killing from a Culture of Reaction to Prevention.  UN Chronicle 43:62-64 March-May 2006.
The article focuses on the responsibility of the United Nations (UN) Security Council to make preventive steps to stop genocide and mass killing of a certain racial group in various countries.  In response to the failure of the UN to respond the early warnings of genocide in Rwanda, it has created Human Rights Council, a body that address human rights violations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22033397&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Short, Clare.  The Lessons We Can Learn from Rwanda.  New Statesman 132:20-22 July 7, 2003.
Discusses the political and social implications of a failure to prevent incidents such as the 1994 Rwanda genocide.  Failure of United Nations members such as Great Britain to act to stop this genocide and other African atrocities, despite their international obligation to do so.  Reconstruction of Rwanda following the end of the conflict, including the adoption of a constitution that would prevent such atrocities; Importance of international intervention.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10196277&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv


United Nations -- Video

About the United Nations:  Peace-Keeping.  New York, United Nations Publications, 1989.  1 videocassette, 18 min.
Video call no.:  341.23 A156


Humanitarian Actions


Internet Resources

Breen, Claire.  Rationalising the Work of UN Human Rights Bodies or Reducing the Input of NGOs?  The Changing Role of Human Rights NGOs at the United Nations.  Non-State Actors & International Law 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17949135&site=ehost-live
The contribution of NGOs to the development of human rights standards at the United Nations is rooted in the UN Charter.  In spite of NGO success in the creation of human rights norms, it appears that NGO input, particularly within the Human Rights Commission, is being scaled back for reasons of finance and efficiency.

Carstensen, Nils.  Military/Humanitarian Distinction Not Just Lofty Ideal.  Reuters Foundation Alert, April 4, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/carstenseniraq.htm

Institute of World Affairs
Available online at:  http://www.iwa.org/
A non-profit, non-partisan, tax-exempt organization devoted to international understanding and the peaceful resolution of conflict.  In support of its mission, the Institute conducts a range of programs designed to prevent violent conflict and to advance post-conflict peacebuilding.

InterAction:  American Council for Voluntary International Action.  2003.
Available online at:  http://www.interaction.org/
InterAction is the largest alliance of U.S.-based international development and humanitarian nongovernmental organizations, with more than 160 members operating in every developing country.  The site has current information and news on humanitarian issues in Iraq and Afghanistan and many links to other organizations.

International Committee of the Red Cross
Available online at:  http://www.icrc.org/eng
An independent neutral organization ensuring humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of war and armed violence.  Site has links to humanitarian operations, both ongoing and historical.

International Rescue Committee (IRC) 
Available online at:  http://www.theirc.org/
The IRC is a global leader in emergency relief, rehabilitation, protection of human rights, post-conflict development, resettlement services and advocacy for those uprooted or affected by conflict and oppression.  Site has links to ongoing operations.

Karajkov, Risto.  The Balkans:  Bridging the Gap.  Transitions Online March 14, 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16755888&site=ehost-live
Discusses issues concerning non-governmental organizations (NGO) in the Balkan region.  Biases encountered by NGOs across the Balkans; Increase in the number of civil society groups when international NGOs set up operations in the region; Achievements of NGOs in various countries of the Balkans.

Permanent Mission of Sweden - Geneva.  Swedish Support to Improve International Humanitarian Operations  July 1, 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.swedenabroad.com/pages/news____50988.asp&root=9864

Peshkopia, Ridvan.  Asylum in the Balkans:  European Union and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Assistance to Balkan Countries for Establishing Asylum Systems.  Journal of Southeast European & Black Sea Studies May 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17210447&site=ehost-live

Refugees International
Available online at:  http://www.refugeesinternational.org/section/aboutus/
Refugees International (RI) generates life saving assistance and protection for displaced people around the world, and works to end the conditions that create displacement.  Numerous links to articles and information on this page.

Schloms, Michael.  Humanitarian NGOs in Peace Processes.  International Peacekeeping Spring 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10565968&site=ehost-live

Thompson, Larry.  Humanitarian Coordination for Iraq:  A Job For the United Nations.  Washington, Refugees International, April 9, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/853/
The Humanitarian Operations Center (HOC) in Kuwait was established about two months ago and is staffed by Kuwaiti government officials and U.S. and UK military officers.  The objective of the HOC is to facilitate humanitarian aid to the people of Iraq, especially in southern Iraq adjacent to Kuwait.

United States Institute of Peace.  Humanitarian Responses to a War in Iraq.  Washington, U.S. Institute of Peace, March 12, 2003 .  (Current Issues Briefing Summary).
Available online at:  http://www.usip.org/events/2003/0312_ESiraq_humanitarian.html


Humanitarian Operations -- Books

Alternative Approaches in Multilateral Decision Making:  Disarmament as Humanitarian Action, edited by John Borrie and Vanessa Martin Randin.  Geneva, UNIDIR, 2005.  142 p.
Analyzes and proposes practical ways in which humanitarian and human security approaches can benefit negotiators in multilateral disarmament and arms control.
Book call no.:  341.733 A466

Byman, Daniel and others.  Strengthening the Partnership:  Improving Military Coordination With Relief Agencies and Allies in Humanitarian Operations.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2000.  227 p.
Humanitarian organizations play an increasing important role in global affairs.  This book explores how the U.S. military can improve coordination with relief agencies, European allies, host nations, international organizations and other non-government organizations during these operations.
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1185/
Book call no.:  355.34 S915

Cahill, Kevin M.  Basics of International Humanitarian Missions.  New York, Fordham University Press, Center for International Health and Cooperation, 2003.  350 p.  (International Humanitarian Affairs, no. 2)
Book call no.:  363.348 B311

Chomsky, Noam.  A New Generation Draws the Line:  Kosovo, the Standards of the West.  New York, VERSO, 2000.  154 p.
1999 saw two major international crises that, looked at side-by-side starkly illuminate the strategies of the Western powers in the new century.  East Timor is of little strategic interest to the US and its allies, and so they did nothing.  The situation in Kosovo was very different. In Yugoslavia, at the cessation of NATO bombing, hundreds of forensic experts were brought in to substantiate claims made by the State Department and the British Home Office concerning the thousands who reportedly had been massacred at the hands of the Serbs. In fact numbers of this scale have not been corroborated.  The rich documentation produced by the US, NATO, and other Western sources reveals that the atrocities that did occur took place overwhelmingly in the wake of the NATO bombing, and were its consequence not its cause.  Humanitarianism was not the moving force behind military intervention in Yugoslavia.
Book call no.:  949.71 C548na

Hoffman, Peter J. and Weiss, Thomas G.  Sword & Salve:  Confronting New Wars and Humanitarian Crises.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.  260 p.
Traces the evolution of the international humanitarian system from its inception in the 1860s through the challenges of "new war" and non-state actors, including those of recent U.S. military action in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Book call no.:  363.34988 H711s

Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Terry Nardin.  New York, New York University Press, 2006.  308 p.
Explores the legal and moral issues that emerge when one state uses military force to protect innocent people from violence perpetrated or permitted by the government of another.
Book call no.:  341.584 H9184

Lu, Catherine.  Just and Unjust Interventions in World Politics:  Public and Private.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.  213 p.
Book call no.:  341.584 L926j

Matlary, Janne Haaland.  Values and Weapons:  From Humanitarian Intervention to Regime Change?.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.  201 p.
Looks at the determinants of legitimacy for the USA and Europe for using military force.  Arguing that the non-intervention norm is weakened by the advent of terror groups in failed states as well as by so-called humanitarian intervention, it looks at how legitimacy is constituted.  Examining the interventions in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq, the author shows that legitimacy varies in the different phases of war.
Book call no.:  327.117 M433v

Weiss, Thomas George.  The United Nations and Changing World Politics.  Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 2004.  392 p.
Explores the UN’s role in three core issues in international relations:  international peace and security; human rights and humanitarian affairs; and building peace through sustainable development.
Book call no.:  341.231 W429u 2004

Humanitarian Operations -- Periodicals

Challenging Times Ahead for Peacekeeping Operations.  UN Chronicle 41:42-44 June-August 2004.
Reports on the interrelated challenges of the United Nations (UN) peacekeeping and humanitarian operations.  Death of civilian police and military personnel from UN activities in peace and security focusing on the prevention and resolution of conflict; Monitoring of cross-border movements of armed elements and arms trafficking; Investigation of human rights violations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14272138&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Clarke, John N.  Revisiting the New Interventionism.  Peace Review 14:93-100 March 2002.
Since 1991, the norms and practices of humanitarian intervention have undergone rapid change, from a post-Cold-War renaissance, to a retrenchment following the difficult experiences of Somalia, Rwanda, and Bosnia-Herzegovina.  The issue of humanitarian intervention and therefore the need for reform are likely to remain on the international agenda for the foreseeable future.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6311485&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gerry, Alexander A. C.  In International Law:  Legality of Military Intervention to Protect Human Rights and Prevent Genocide.  Officer 75:34-35+ October 1999.

Ignatieff, Michael.  Intervention and State Failure.  Dissent 49:114-123 Winter 2002.
Ignatieff discusses what has happened to the interaction between sovereignty and human rights since 1945, and how the theory and practice of humanitarian intervention has developed in response to the epidemic of state failure since the end of the cold war.  Though some results are mixed, such as the cases in Bosnia and East Timor, an inchoate practice of nation building is showing that state order can rebuild if wealthy and powerful states are prepared to invest time and money.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5844164&db=aph

Magyar, Karl P.  Darkness in a Dark Landscape.  Defense & Foreign Affairs 17:24-28+ October 1989.

O'Hanlon, Michael and Singer, P. W.  The Humanitarian Transformation:  Expanding Global Intervention Capacity.  Survival 46:77-99 Spring 2004.
Also available online at:  http://thesius.ingentaselect.com/vl=1299670/cl=192/nw=1/rpsv/cw/routledg/00396338/contp1.htm

Seydel, Carrie A.  Humanitarian Re-Life:  Emergency Assistance Reveals the 'Breath' of this Peacetime Mission.  Airman 44:30-35 October 2000.

Venter, Al J.  Taking the Landmine Out of Africa.  Jane's International Defense Review 31:22-25 November 1998.


Nation-Building and Reconstruction


For additional materials on Nation-Building, see this guide's sections on specific operations including those for Afghanistan, Haiti, and Iraq.

Internet Resources

Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction:  Conflict and Development.  Washington, DC, World Bank,
Available online at:  http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/67ByDocName/ConflictPreventionandReconstruction
Through assessment of the causes, consequences and characteristics of conflict and the transfer of lessons learned, the Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit works to design development efforts specific to conflict-affected countries.  The Post-Conflict Fund provides financing for physical and social reconstruction initiatives in post-war societies.  The Bank is playing a significant role in Afghanistan, Africa's Great Lakes region, the Balkans, Iraq, Liberia, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Timor Leste, the West Bank and Gaza, and other war-torn areas.

Dobbins, James and others.  America's Role in Nation Building:  From Germany to Iraq.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2003.  244 p.
In Iraq, the United States is facing its most challenging nation-building project since the 1940s.  The authors draw lessons from seven case studies:  Germany, Japan, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan, then apply these to the Iraq case.  The results suggest that nation-building will be difficult but possible.

Dobbins, James.  Nation Building:  The Inescapable Responsibility of the World's Only Superpower.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, Summer 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/nation1.html
the RAND Corporation has compiled the most important lessons learned by the United States in its nation-building efforts since World War II.  Not all these hard-won lessons have yet been fully applied to America's most recent nation-building efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Dobbins, James.  The UN's Role in Nation Building:  From the Congo to Iraq.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2005.  318 p.
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/publications/MG/MG304/
Reviews UN efforts to transform eight unstable countries into democratic, peaceful, and prosperous partners, and compares those missions with U.S. nation-building operations.  The UN provides the most suitable institutional framework for nation-building missions that require fewer than 20,000 men — one with a comparatively low cost structure, a comparatively high success rate, and the greatest degree of international legitimacy.

Hukill, Tracy.  National Journal Congress Weighs Building a Nation Building Agency.  GovExec.com, May 3, 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0504/050304nj1.htm

Kennedy School Bulletin Nation Building:  Shedding its Global Stance the United States Begins Reaching Out to its Global Neighbors.  (Bulletin, Kennedy School of Government. Harvard University).
Available online at:  http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/ksgpress/bulletin/spring2002/features/nation_building.html

Pei, Minxin and Kaspar, Sara.  Lessons from the Past:  The American Record on Nation Building.  Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, May 24, 2003.  (Policy Brief).
Available online at:  http://www.ceip.org/files/pdf/Policybrief24.pdf
Of 16 efforts in nation building in the past democracy was sustained in only 4 cases, 10 years after the departure of US forces.

Robbins, Matthew J.  Investigating the Complexities of Nationbuilding:  A Sub-national Regional Perspective.  Wright Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2005.  168 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ada435214


Nation-Building and Reconstruction -- Books

After the Conflict:  Reconstruction and Development in the Aftermath of War, edited by Sultan Barakat.  New York, I.B. Tauris, 2005.  313 p.
Sets out the requirements necessary to successful long-term reconstruction.
Book call no.:  355.028 A2581

Chesterman, Simon.  You, the People:  The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building .  NY, Oxford University Press, 2004.  296 p.
The governance of post-conflict territories embodies a central contradiction:  how does one help a population prepare for democratic governance and the rule of law by imposing a form of benevolent autocracy?
Book call no.:  341.584 C525y

Dempsey, Gary T.  Old Folly in a New Disguise:  Nation Building to Combat Terrorism.  Washington, Cato Institute, 2002.  21 p.  (Policy analysis (Cato Institute) ; no. 429)
Book call no.:  363.320973 D389o

Dempsey, Gary T. and Fontain, Roger W.  Fool's Errands:  America's Recent Encounters with Nation Building.  Washington, Cato Institute, 2001.  224 p.
Book call no.:  327.7301724 D389f

Ikenberry, G. John.  After Victory:  Institutions, Strategic Restraint and Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2001.  293 p.  (Princeton studies in international history and politics)
Asks the question, what do states that win wars do with their newfound power and how do they use it to build order?  In examining the postwar settlements in modern history, he argues that powerful countries do seek to build stable and cooperative relations, but the type of order that emerges hinges on their ability to make commitments and restrain power.  The author explains that only with the spread of democracy in the twentieth century and the innovative use of international institutions--both linked to the emergence of the United States as a world power--has order been created that goes beyond balance of power politics to exhibit "constitutional" characteristics.
Book call no.:  327.1 I26a

Jennings, Ray Salvatore.  The Road Ahead:  Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace, 2003.  43 p.  (Peaceworks no. 49)
Also available online at:  http://www.usip.org/pubs/PeaceWorks/pwks49.pdf
Book call no.:  355.028 J54r

Morrison, Michael A. and Zook, Melinda S.  Revolutionary Currents:  Nation Building in the Transatlantic World.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & littlefield, 2004.  192 p.
Book call no.:  303.6409034 R454

A Nation at War in an Era of Strategic Change , edited by Williamson Murray.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  371 p.
A collection of essays written by students at U.S. Army War College's Advanced Strategic Arts Program. See chapter 3:  "...Post Conflict Security Operations" pp 43-68. See chapter 6:  "Waging Peace..." pp 125-172. See chapter 9:  "...Is it Time For a Reconstruction and Stabilization Command?" pp 227-254. See chapter 10:  "Nation Building:  A Bad Idea Whose Time Has Come" pp 255-276.
Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi/pdffiles/PUB580.pdf
Book call no.:  355.033573 N2774

Nation-Building:  Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq, edited by Francis Fukuyama.  Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.  262 p.
Book call no.:  327.730090511 N277

Political Armies:  The Military and Nation Building in the Age of Democracy, edited by Kees Koonings and Dirk Kruijt.  London, Zed Books, 2002.  398 p.
Book call no.:  322.5 P7692

Pugh, Michael C.  Regeneration of War-Torn Societies.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000.  249 p.  (Global issues series)
Book call no.:  363.3498526 R333

Recovering from Civil Conflict:  Reconciliation, Peace and Development, edited by Edward Newman and Albrecht Schnabel.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2002.  231 p.
Book call no.:  341.584 R311

Riley, Jonathon P.  Boots on the Ground:  The Impact of Stability Operations on the Armies that Must Conduct Them.  Washington, Heritage Foundation, 2005.  6 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.heritage.org/research/nationalsecurity/hl893.cfm
Book call no.:  355.028 r573b

Rosenberg, Jerry M.  Nation-Building:  A Middle East Recovery Program.  Lanham, MD, University Press of America, 2003.  235 p.
Proposes a practical model for a reinvented Marshall Plan for the entire region.  Following a careful review of the 1948 European Recovery Program (the Marshall Plan).  Illustrates the similarities and differences between a post World War II rebuilding and reconstruction effort and the present situation in the Middle East.
Book call no.:  337.73056 R813n

von Hippel, Karin.  Democracy by Force:  US Military Intervention in the Post Cold War World.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2000.  224 p.
Examines four US-sponsored interventions (Panama, Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia), focusing on the vital nation-building efforts which have followed military action.  The book seeks to provide a greater understanding of the successes and failures of US policy, to improve strategies for reconstruction, and to provide some insight into the conditions under which intervention and nation-building are likely to succeed.
Book call no.:  327.73 V946d

Watson, Cynthia Ann.  Nation-Building:  a Reference Handbook.  Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, 2004.  333 p.  (Contemporary world issues)
Also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0414/2004003048.html
Book call no.:  327.73009045 W337n

Williams, Garland H.  Engineering Peace:  The Military Role in Postconflict Reconstruction.  Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005.  317 p.
In practically all the peacekeeping operations of the 1990s, a postconflict reconstruction gap of almost one year separates the end of military peacekeepers' mission of halting mass violence from the start of removing mines as well as rebuilding and repairing the host country's physical infrastructure:  roads and bridges, public utilities, and buildings. Analyzes the postconflict reconstruction gap in three case studies—Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan—and shows how military engineering brigades accompanying peacekeeping contingents can be put to use immediately after the conflict ends to restore vital infrastructure and social institutions.
Book call no.:  355.028 W723e

Winning the Peace:  An American Strategy for Post-Conflict Reconstruction, edited by Robert C. Orr.  Washington, CSIS Press, 2004.  353 p.  (Significant issues series, v. 26, no. 7)
The 17 papers first explore different aspects of reconstruction capabilities including security operations, governance structures, providing social and economic well-being, and dealing with justice and reconciliation.  They then turn to the enhancement of "capacity enablers" such as interagency planning, civilian rapid response capability, training and education for personnel, and funding.  Finally five case studies, from Japan to Iraq, are presented.
Book call no.:  355.028 W776


Nation-Building and Reconstruction -- Periodicals

Addison, Tony.  Reconstructing and Reforming the Financial System in Conflict and 'Post-Conflict' Economies.  Journal of Development Studies 41:703-718 May 2005.
Reconstructing the financial system in countries affected by violent conflict is crucial to successful and broad-based recovery.  Particularly important tasks include:  currency reform, rebuilding (or creating) central banks, revitalising the banking sector, and strengthening prudential supervision and regulation.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=17472106

Boot, Max.  Liberal Imperialism.  American Heritage 53:62-68 June-July 2002.
At a time when it can offer answers to urgent questions, we have forgotten America's long history of "nation building".
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6738105&db=aph

Boot, Max.  The Struggle to Transform the Military.  Foreign Affairs 84:103-118 March-April 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=16292213

Bronson, Rachael.  Reconstructing the Middle East?  Brown Journal of World Affairs 10:271-280 Summer-Fall 2003.
Focuses on the need for nation-building projects by the U.S. government in the Middle East. Commitment of the U.S. to the solution of the conflict among Arab countries; Assessment of the nation-building capabilities of the U.S.; Recommendations for the promotion of law and order and stability.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10032652&db=aph

Chesterman, Simon.  Bush, the United Nations and Nation-Building.  Survival 46:101-116 Spring 2004.

Dobbins, James F.  America's Role in Nation Building:  From Germany to Iraq.  Survival vol. 45, no. 4:87-109 Winter 2003-2004.
Also available online at:  http://www.ingentaselect.com/rpsv/ij/oup/00396338/contp1.htm

Donahoe, Patrick J.  Preparing Leaders for Nationbuilding.  Military Review 84:24-26 May-June 2004.
Discusses how the U.S. can prepare leaders for nationbuilding. Characteristics of fictional character, Major Victor Joppolo, in the book "A Bell for Adano," by John Hershey; Training needed by soldiers before foreign deployment; Importance of knowing how to run a city in establishing safety and stability in an urban environment.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=13616019

Eizenstadt, Stuart E.  Rebuilding Weak States.  Foreign Affairs 84:134-146 January-February 2005.
Securing 50 weak or failing states may seem like a daunting, even overwhelming, task, but it is necessary.  In today's globalized world, weak states threaten the United States, regional stability, and international safety in a wide variety of ways.  The United States must not acquiesce at a time when its own security is threatened by the weakness of other states.  Washington must confront the development problems of faltering states now, before they fail and become unmanageable threats.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=15496776

Etzioni, Amitai.  A Self-Restrained Approach to Nation-Building by Foreign Powers.  International Affairs 80:1-17 January 2004.
Nation-building by foreign powers can rarely be accomplished and tends to be very costly, not merely in economic resources and those of political capital, but also in human lives.  Foreign powers often attempt to tackle numerous tasks with little discernible effect.  Therefore, whatever resources foreign powers are willing and able to commit should be focused on a modest agenda - what is termed in this article a 'restrained approach'.
Also available online at:  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/toc/inta/80/1

Fukuyama, Francis.  Nation Building 101.  Atlantic Monthly 293:159-162 January-February 2004.
Learning how to fix weak, collapsed, or failed states, and building necessary political support at home, will be a defining issue for the U.S. in the century ahead.  The transformation of U.S. President George W. Bush from a presidential candidate opposed to nation-building into a President committed to writing the history of an entire troubled part of the world is one of the most dramatic illustrations of how the September 11 terrorist attacks changed American politics. Before September 11, 2001, the United States felt it could safely ignore chaos in a far-off place like Afghanistan, but the intersection of religious terrorism and weapons of mass destruction has meant that formerly peripheral areas are now of central concern.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=11925974

Gilbert, Marc Jason.  Fatal Amnesia:  American Nation-Building in Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq.  Journal of Third World Studies 31:13-43 Fall 2004.
Offers views on the process that led U.S. foreign policy makers to pursue interventionist strategies that have ill-served its national interests and seriously compromise the interests of those communities that are the foci of American nation building efforts.  Typologies of U.S. nation building; Information on the nation-building efforts of the U.S. in Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq; Politics of anti-nation-building from 1980 to 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=16336808

Grey-Johnson, Crispin.  Beyond Peacekeeping:  The Challenges of Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding in Africa.  UN Chronicle 43:8-11 March-May 2006.
Focuses on the peacekeeping mission of the United Nation (UN) following the adoption of the Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations.  The Security Council's mandate is defined and limited to issues of global security, and it compasses interventions that derive from a development mandate.  However, the UN mission would have to monitor and enforce ceasefire and organize discussion.  Peacekeeping missions objective include to protect the civilian population and organize elections.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22033374&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Hamre, John J. and Sullivan, Gordon R.  Toward Postconflict Reconstruction.  Washington Quarterly 25:85-96 Autumn 2002.
Discusses how the United States and its allies should deal with failed states to reduce the threat to the national interests of the U.S. and to the stability of the entire regions.  Allowing the failed state to resolve its own problems without major action on the part of outsiders; Quarantining a failed state; Acknowledging that a failed state is no longer viable and recognized its dissolution into smaller pieces; Integrating or absorbing a failed state.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=7288177

Khalilzad, Zalmay.  How to Nation-Build.  National Interest 80:19-27 Summer 2005 .
For three and a half years, the United States has been engaged with the Afghan people in an ambitious program of state-building.  Afghans have a strong sense of national identity, despite their ethnic diversity.  The key task has been to establish a legitimate political process and rebuild state institutions.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=17468514

Kimmey, Mark L.  Transforming Civil Affairs.  Army 55:17-23 March 2005.
The US Army's primary asset in nation-building--its civil affairs component--will become ever more engaged as this century unfolds.  Discusses the importance of transforming civil affairs to better support the maneuver commander and the nation as a whole.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=804295881&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Nation Building.  CQ Researcher 13:634-635 July 25, 2003.
Comments on how the U.S. government shifted its power from establishing colonies to establishing a reputation as a nation that helps rebuild its vanquished enemies focusing on rebuilding Iraq after the war in 2003.

Ottaway, Marina.  Nation Building.  Foreign Policy 132:16-20 September-October 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=7296133&db=aph

Pei, Minxin.  Lessons of the Past.  Foreign Policy 137:52-54 July-August 2003.
Nation building--the restructuring of the governing institutions in foreign societies--is probably the most complex, costly, and, ultimately, frustrating foreign policy undertaking. Even for great powers endowed with unsurpassed military strength and wealth, most attempts to rebuild other nations in their own image have historically ended in disappointment, if not outright failure.  To make nation building work in Iraq, the United States must first and foremost recall its own experiences in other countries.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10048822&db=aph

Quynh-Nhu Vuong.  U.S. Peacekeeping and Nation Building:  The Evolution of Self Interested Multilateralism.  Berkley Journal of International Law 21:894-824 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10461012&db=aph

Schadlow, Nadia.  War and the Art of Governance.  Parameters 33:85-94 Autumn 2003.
Describes the concept of war and the art of governance in the U.S. Distinction between governance operation with peace operations and peacekeeping; Plan of the government to restore political and economic conditions; Implication of effective construction strategy for military planning, command arrangements and governance operation.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=10905121

Sorensen, Alan.  The Reluctant Nation Builders.  Current History 102:407-410 December 2003.

Toomey, Christopher J.  Winning the Economic Firefight:  Treanslating Reconstruction into Combat Power.  Engineer 36:20-22 April-June 2006.
The article focuses on the importance of infrastructure development and reconstruction in occupied Iraq and Afghanistan to the attainment of military objectives by the U.S. Armed Forces.  The development of physical infrastructure is necessary for economic revitalization, stability and security. It instills confidence in the ability of the legitimate government to deliver services.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21711288&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Walter, Barbara F.  Designing Transitions from Civil War:  Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace.  International Security 24:127-155 Summer 1999.


Peace Building and Stability Operations


For additional materials on Peace Building/Stability Operations, see this guide's sections on specific operations including those for Afghanistan, Rwanda, and Somalia.

Internet Resources

Epstein, David.  Safeguarding Human Rights and Preventing Conflict Through U.S. Peacekeeping.  Washington, U.S. Institute of Peace,
Available online at:  http://www.usip.org/ed/npec/winningessays/02winner.html
2001-2002 National Peace Essay contest winner. One of the important foreign policy/national security debates today concerns the role of the U.S. military in international peacekeeping operations.  Many conflicts that marked the 1990s, in Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Cambodia, Haiti, and Kuwait, involved the U.S. military and the international community in peacekeeping and peace enforcement missions.  This engagement required our military to take on new, unfamiliar tasks not traditionally part of its national defense and security mandate.

Lawyer, Jared F.  Military Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency in Peacekeeping:  Public Versus Private.  Oxford Development Studies March 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17343189&site=ehost-live
Examines differences in military effectiveness and economic efficiency as evidenced from four major civil wars that occurred in the countries of Somalia, Sierra Leone, Angola and Liberia from 1993 to 2003. Two different methods of conflict cessation are contrasted:  Private Military Corporation forces (PMC) and United Nation Peacekeeping forces (UNPK).

Lyon, Alynna.  Beyond Rwanda and Kosovo:  The Interactive Dynamics of International Peacekeeping and Ethnic Mobilisation.  Global Society:  Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations.  July 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17535430&site=ehost-live
Synthesis conflict studies with work on social mobilisation theory and research on peacekeeping, offering both theoretical and policy-relevant contributions to understanding the nexus between effective peacekeeping and factors leading to violent mobilisation.

Peacekeeping, compiled by Terry Kiss.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, July 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/peacekp03/peacekp03.htm

Ramsbotham, Alexander.  Peacekeeping Mission Updates:  August - October 2003.  International Peacekeeping Spring 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=13876432&site=ehost-live

Serafino, Nina M.  Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations:  Issues of U.S. Military Involvement.  Washington, Congressional Research Service, March 2005.  (CRS issue brief for Congress, IB94040).
Available online at:  http://www.usembassy.it/pdf/other/IB94040.pdf
See section "Debate over US military involvement in nation building" p. 6-7 See chart on DoD Incremental Costs of Peacekeeping and Security Contingency Operations FY1991-FY2005, p.16.

Serifino, Nina M.  Peacekeeping:  Issues of US Military Involvement.  Washington, Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, October 4, 2004.  (CIS Issue Brief For Congress).
Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB94040.pdf


Peace Building and Stability Operations -- Books

Adebajo, Adekeye.  Building Peace in West Africa:  Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002.  192 p.
Analysis of issues surrounding the creation of security and economic integration in West Africa.  The issues of past and continuing conflict, the role of internal and external actors, and the complexities of politics and ethnic divisions are examined in three case studies of recent events in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea-Bissau.
Book call no.:  327.1720966 A228b

Approaches to Peacebuilding, edited by Ho-Won Jeong.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan.  203 p.
Book call no.:  303.69 A652

Berger, Samuel R.  In the Wake of War:  Improving U.S. Post-Conflict Capabilities:  Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations.  New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2005.  53 p.
Points out that nation-building is not just a humanitarian concern, but a critical national security priority that should be on par with war-fighting and urges the United States to equalize the importance of the two.
Also available online at:  http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Post-Conflict_Capabilities_final.pdf
Book call no.:  355.028 I35

Caplan, Richard D.  International Governance of War-Torn Territories:  Rule and Reconstruction.  New York, Oxford University Press, 2005.  291 p.
Book call no.:  341.584 C244i

Center on International Cooperation.  Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2006.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rrienner Publishers, 2006.  317 p.
Presents the most detailed collection of data on peace operations, those launched by the UN, by regional organizations, by coalitions, and by individual nations. Includes:  an introduction on peace operations doctrine; analyses of all peacekeeping missions on the ground in 2005 and graphs, charts, tables and photographs.
Book call no.:  341.584 A615 2006

Chopra, Jarat.  Peace-Maintenance:  The Evolution of International Political Authority.  New York, Routledge, 1999.  261 p.  (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Politics)
Book call no.:  341.584 C549p

The False Divorce:  Retying the Knot of War and Peace.  Quantico, VA, Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities, Expeditionary Force Center, 2004.  17 p.
Argues that the U.S. must recognize that it is in our national security interest to perform stabilization operations as an integral part of military operations.  To accomplish this mission we will need additional capabilities, training, equipment, and military occupational specialties.  We must become as efficient and effective in performing stabilization operations as we are in warfighting.
Also available online at:  http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA433250&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
Book call no.:  355.34 F197

Fleitz, Frederick H.  Peacekeeping Fiascoes of the 1990's:  Causes, Solutions, and U.S. Interests.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2002.  224 p.
The book offers lessons and warnings for the U.S. mission in Afghanistan. Peacekeeping will work only within a narrow range of circumstances, and the only type that works is traditional peacekeeping, a mechanism to manage conflict and facilitate and supervise truces, marked by:  unarmed or lightly armed multilateral troops deployed with the consent of state-party disputants; impartiality; use of force only in self-defense.
Book call no.:  341.584 F596p

A Force for Peace:  U.S. Commanders' Views of the Military's Role in Peace Operations.  Washington, Peace Through Law Education Fund, June 1999.  51 p.
Book call no.:  355.3570973 F697

Hunt, Scott A.  The Future of Peace:  On the Front Lines With the World's Great Peacemakers.  San Francisco, CA, HarperSanFrancisco, 2002.  368 p.
Book call no.:  303.66 H943f

Jett, Dennis C.  Why Peacekeeping Fails.  New York, St. Martin's, 2000.  236 p.
Book call no.:  341.584 J58w

Lahneman, William J.  Military Intervention:  Cases in Context for the Twenty-First Century.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004.  224 p.
Presents seven case studies of international interventions in internal conflicts as part of a project, commissioned by the National Intelligence Council, seeking to evaluate the advisability of interventions and the characteristics of successful tactics and strategy.  Guided by a standard list of questions, the studies explore such considerations as the nature of the intervention force, the impact of the timing of the intervention, the relative necessity of military and nonmilitary aspects of intervention, and the importance of an exit strategy.  The studies discuss interventions in Somalia, Bosnia, Cambodia, Rwanda, Haiti (in the early 1990s), East Timor, and Sierra Leone.
Book call no.:  341.584 L183m

Maley, William.  From Civil Strife to Civil Society:  Civil and Military Responsibilities in Disrupted States.  New York, United Nations University Press, 2003.  369 p.
Civil and military actors have different organizational cultures and standard operating procedures and are confronted with the need to work together to perform tasks to which different actors may attach quite different priorities.
Book call no.:  341.5 F931

Mays, Terry M.  Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping.  2nd. ed.  Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 2004.  319 p.  (Historical dictionaries of international organizations series ; no. 22.)
Book call no.:  341.52 M474h 2004

Peace Operations after 11 September 2001, edited by Thierry Tardy.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2004.  204 p.
Explores the possible consequences of the events of 11 September 2001, and of the ’fight against terrorism’, on the way peace operations are perceived and conducted, and on the way that states, international organizations such as the UN, NATO or the EU and non-state actors consider these operations.
Book call no.:  341.584 P3557

Perito, Robert.  Building Civilian Capacity for U.S. Stability Operations:  The Rule of Law Component.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace, 2004.  15 pp.
Also available online at:  http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr118.pdf
Book call no.:  341.584 P446b

Perito, Robert.  Where is the Lone Ranger when We Need Him?  America's Search for a Postconflict Stability Force.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004.  397 p.
Examines the challenges of establishing sustainable security in postconflict environments in places like the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
Book call no.:  341.584 P446w

Politics of Peacekeeping in the Post-Cold War Era, edited by David S. Sorenson and Pia Christina Wood.  New York, Frank Cass, 2005.  219 p.
Book call no.:  341.584 p7692

The Psychology of the Peacekeeper:  Lessons from the Field, edited by Thomas W. Britt and Amy B. Adler.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2003.  332 p.
A multinational team of scientists catalogues the stressors and benefits for combat-trained soldiers deployed on missions where they are told to hold their fire and assume the role of peacekeeper.  Theory and direct research with peacekeepers is incorporated.  Missions covered include, but are not limited to, peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, and Lebanon.  The terminology of peacekeeping and military operations is listed.
Book call no.:  341.584 P974

The Quest for Viable Peace:  International Intervention and Strategies for Conflict Transformation, edited by Jock Covey.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005.  302 p.
Book call no.:  327.172 Q51

Toward Responsibility in the New World Disorder:  Challenges and Lessons of Peace Operations, edited by Max G. Manwaring and John T. Fishel.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass & Co, 1998.  215 p.
Book call no.:  327.117 T737

Zeman, Laurinda.  Making Peace While Staying Ready for War:  The Challenges of U.S. Military Participation in Peace Operations.  Washington, Congressional Budget Office, 1999.  69 p.  (CBO papers)
Also available online at:  http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=1809&sequence=0
Book call no.:  355.033273 Z53m


Peace Building and Stability Operations -- Periodicals

Bankus, Brent and Flavin, William R.  Training U.S. Army Peacekeepers.  Small Wars and Insurgencies 15:129-139 Spring 2004.

Bonsor, Nicholas.  Post Conflict Peace Making from Bosnia to Iraq:  Lessons Which Should Be Learnt.  Contemporary Review 284:129-138 March 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=12498729&db=aph

Bratt, Duane.  Peace over Justice:  Developing a Framework for UN Peacekeeping Operations in Internal Conflicts.  Global Governance:  A Review of Multilaterlism and International Organizations 5:63-82 January-March 1999.

Byman, Daniel and Seybolt, Taylor.  Humanitarian Intervention and Communal Civil Wars:  Problems and Alternative Approaches.  Security Studies 13:33-78 Autumn 2003.

Field, Kimberly C. and Perito, Robert M.  Creating a Force for Peace Operations:  Ensuring Stability.  Parameters 32:77-87 Winter 2002-2003.

Fortna, Virginia Page.  Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace after Civil War.  International Studies Quarterly269-292 June 2004.
Examines international interventions in the aftermath of civil wars to see whether peace lasts longer when peacekeepers are present than when they are absent.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=12967611

Ghia, Fabio.  Armed Intervention in UN Peacekeeping:  The Necessity for Change.  Naval War College Review 49:131-136 Summer 1996.

Grigg, William Norman.  Bring on the Peacekeepers?  The New American 19:25-27 July 28, 2003.
Discusses the proposal of the coalition forces to create a world peacekeeping army composed of multinationals and commanded by a multilateral organization.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=000000379343561&SrchMode=5&Fmt=4&retrieveGroup=0&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&x=-&VName=PQD&TS=1062877963&clientId=417

Muggah, Robert.  No Magic Bullet:  A Critical Perspective on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (Ddr) and Weapons Reduction in Post-Conflict Contexts.  Round Table 94:239-252 April 2005.
The end of war does not necessarily signal a return to security.  The introduction of a ceasefire, peace agreement or even discrete interventions seeking to disarm warring parties, does not necessarily guarantee improvements in the safety of either civilians or former combatants.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=17108331

Neack, Laura.  Peacekeeping, Bloody Peacekeeping.  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 60:40-47 July-August 2004.
Looks at the state of the peacekeeping missions initiated by the United Nations (UN) as of July 1, 2004. Reaction of the U.S. George W. Bush administration to the UN peacekeeping operations; Role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Iraq; Variety of tasks involved in the UN peacekeeping operations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=13521481&db=aph

Phelps, William G.  Training for War while Keeping the Peace.  Military Review 84:63-67 May-June 2004.
Discusses the balance the U.S. Army must maintain between its mandate to fight and the ramifications of conducting peace operations around the world. Military operations other than war principles; Stages of the U.S. involvement in Somalia; Rules of engagement in place during peace operations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=13616238

Powell, Stewart M.  American (Peacekeeping) Troops -- American Command.  Air Force Magazine 77:46-49 January 1994.

Ray, Collin S.  Stability Operations in Strategic Perspective:  A Skeptical View.  Parameters 36:4-14 Summer 2006.
Examines the policy decisions and strategies governing the involvement of the U.S. Armed Forces in stability operations as outlined in the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review Report (QDR).  It analyzes the QDR and noted that it endorses either the need for competence in irregular warfare and postwar stability operations or see it pushing toward countering irregular and asymmetric foes in developing skills to enhance social and political ability.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21101062&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Stepanova, Ekaterina.  War and Peace Building.  Washington Quarterly 27:127-136 Autumn 2004.
Focuses on the U.S.-led war on terrorism and the need to achieve peace in postwar Iraq.  Effect of turning rogue states into failed states; Russia's importance to the United States in Afghanistan compared to allies in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; Joint antiterrorist efforts.

Von Hippel, Karin.  Democracy by Force:  A Renewed Commitment to Nation Building.  Washington Quarterly 23:91-112 Winter 2000.
Examination of developments in nation-building after U.S.-sponsored military intervention in the last decade reveals the factors that put the U.S. government on the path to military action in the first place, the changes in peace-support operations, the advances in nation-building efforts and the recommendations for improving future operations.
Also available online at:  http://www.twq.com/winter00/231Hippel.pdf


Peacekeeping and Stability Operations -- Videos

About the United Nations Peace-Keeping.  New York, United Nations Publications, 1989.  1 videocassette, 18 min. 18 min.
Video call no.:   341.23 A156


Afghanistan


Internet Resources

Air University Library.  Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan), compiled by AUL staff.  March 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/endfreed.htm

Chesterman, Simon.  Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan:  The Future of UN State Building.  International Peace Academy, September 2002.  12 p.
Available online at:  http://www.ipacademy.org/PDF_Reports/afghanistan0902.pdf

Global Security.org.  Facts Regarding Reconstruction...
Available online at:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/index.html
Links to documents concerning reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center.  North Atlantic Treaty Organization 2006, compiled by Stephen B. T. Chun.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/nato2006.htm

Offers a separate section on the Afghanistan operations.

Ottaway, Marina and Lieven, Anatol.  Rebuilding Afghanistan:  Fantasy Versus Reality.  Washington, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,  (Policy brief 12).

Rebuilding Afghanistan.  Washington, The White House,
Available online at:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/nationalsecurity/rebuildingafghanistan.html


Afghanistan -- Books

Courtney, Morgan L.  In the Balance:  Measuring Progress in Afghanistan:  A Report of the CSIS Post-Reconstruction Project.  Washington, Center for Strategic and International Studies, CSIS Press, 2005.  122 p.
"...an effort to help international actors improve their understanding of and increase their effectiveness in Afghanistan and other post-conflict cases."
Book call no.:  958.1047 C865i

Ignatieff, Michael.  Empire Lite:  Nation Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan.  Toronto, Penguin Canada, 2003.  134 p.
Book call no.:  909.829 I24e

McKechnie, Alastair J.  Humanitarian Assistance, Reconstruction and Development in Afghanistan:  a Practitioner's View.  Washington, World Bank, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit, 2003.  14 p.  (CPR working paper; no. 3)
Country director for Afghanistan & Operations director, South Asia Region, World Bank, McKechnie describes Afghanistan's situation following the war as it moves from the need for emergency relief to reconstruction and development.
Also available online at:  http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/67ByDocName/HumanitarianAssistanceReconstructionandDevelopmentinAfghanistanAPractitionersView/$FILE/WP+3+text.pdf
Book call no.:  958.1046 M154h

Nation Building Unraveled?:  Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan, edited by Antonio Donini, Karin Wermester and Norah Niland.  Bloomfield, CT, Kumarian Press, 2004.  236 p.
Book call no.:  958.1046 N277

Working to Bring Peace and Stability to Afghanistan.  Brussels, NATO Public Diplomacy Division, 2004.  6 p.
"NATO has assumed a leadership role in providing security in and around Kabul in Afghanistan, in what is the Alliance’s first mission beyond the Euro-Atlantic area."
Also available online at:  http://www.nato.int/docu/briefing/afghanistan/html%5Fen/afghanistan01.html
Book call no.:  341.58409581 W926


Afghanistan -- Periodicals

Ambrose, Stephen E.  The Master (Nation) Builder.  National Review 54:30-32 March 11, 2002.
Argues that the United States should engage in so called nation building in Afghanistan.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6215915&db=aph

Cahlink, George.  Teamwork Helps Rebuild Afghanistan.  National Journal 35:3824-3825 December 20, 2003.
A look at how the US Army's rebuilding operation is working in one Afghan city.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=11847332&db=aph

Chesterman, Simon.  Walking Softly in Afghanistan:  The Future of UN State-Building.  Survival 44:37-45 Autumn 2002.

Clad, Katherine.  Aid Groups Bring Relief to Afghans.  World & I 21:9 February 2006.
Focuses on the strong presence of international aid groups in Afghanistan despite continued political instability and inadequate infrastructure in the country.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=21413883&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Field, Kimberly C. and Perito, Robert M.  Creating a Force for Peace Operations:  Ensuring Stability with Justice.  Parameters 32:77-87 Winter 2002-2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=8640761

Fiorenza, Nicholas.  Changing of the Guard:  NATO Expands Ops in Afghanistan.  Armed Forces Journal 141:25-26 April 2004.

McCaffrey, Barry R.  Overhauling an Off-Target Strategy:  Restoring Afghanistan Requires Patience, Resources.  Armed Forces Journal 142:8+ October 2004.

NATO Took on Afghanistan Mission.  NATO's Nations and Partners for Peace 48:85-86 2003.

Peck, Fred.  Somalia, Afghanistan:  A Script for Reconstruction of Iraq.  Sea Power 46:78-81 April 2003.
Focuses on the relevance of the experience of the U.S. in the war in Somalia and in Afghanistan to the post-war reconstruction of Iraq.  Importance of the teamwork between military and civil agencies; Overview of the reconstruction program of the U.S. in the two wars; Challenges facing the reconstruction of Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=9533191

Rubin, Barnette R.  (Re)Building Afghanistan:  The Folly of Stateless Democracy.  Current History 103:165-170 April 2004.
Reports on the transition towards democracy in Afghanistan.  Interrelationship between the patronage connections in Afghanistan and the international system; Barriers to the security and human rights implementation in the Muslin state; Framework for self-governance.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=12721280&db=aph

Stohl, Rachael.  What to Do with Afghanistan:  Prospects for Stability.  Defense Monitor 30:3-5 November 2001.
Focuses on the role of the U.S. in leading the process of developing a nation-building strategy after the military campaign in Afghanistan.  Creation of viable economy; Implementation of an immediate aid program; Delivery of food assistance clothes and blankets in advance of winter.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=6468730&db=f5h


Balkans
 


Internet Resources

Air University Library.  Operation Allied Force:  The Air Campaign, compiled by Sandhya Malladi.  July 2005.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/kosovo/kosovo.htm

Air University Library.  Operation Provide Promise (Bosnia), compiled by Melinda M. Mosley.  March 2000.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/opprom/opp.htm

Fagan, Adam.  Civil Society in Bosnia Ten Years after Dayton.  International Peacekeeping Autumn 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=17132310&site=ehost-live
Assesses what has emerged under the banner of ‘civil society’, considers the roles and functions of the various local and international NGOs, and assesses their relationship and contribution to the overall project of state-building.

The New Imperialism:  Violence, Norms, and the "Rule of Law."  Michigan Law Review.  June 2003.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12320995&site=ehost-live
Information on the Kosovo experience in promoting the rule of law; Discussion on Regulation Number 1 created by UNMIK or the international civilian administration in Kosovo, Serbia.

Simonsen, Sven Gunnar.  Nationbuilding as Peacebuilding:  Racing to Define the Kosovar.  International Peacekeeping Summer 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16669674&site=ehost-live
Nationbuilding – (re)building a sense of community within a polity – can contribute towards peacebuilding.  This article examines how the ambition to reduce the salience of ethnic identities and stimulate new integrative ones in Kosovo has figured in the international post-war reconstruction efforts.

United Nations.  United Nations Mission in Kosovo - UNMIK
Available online at:  http://www.unmikonline.org/

von Carlowitz, Leopold.  Crossing the Boundary from the International to the Domestic Legal Realm:  UNMIK Lawmaking and Property Rights in Kosovo.   Global Governance.  July-September 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14300315&site=ehost-live
Presents information on the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).  It is so far the only UN peace operation that took on the responsibility of regulating property rights.  Comparable governance missions in Cambodia, Eastern Slavonia and East Timor yielded to the democratically legitimated local authorities in matters relating to property although they were facing a similar property crisis during their administration. In terms of substantive property-related lawmaking, UNMIK serves as an important precedent for future international territorial administrations that might be established in postconflict situations.


Balkans -- Books

Allin, Dana H.  NATO's Balkan Interventions.  New York, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002.  112 p.
Book call no.:  909.82 I61a no. 347

Britain, NATO, and the Lessons of the Balkan Conflicts, 1991-1999, edited by Stephen Badsey and Paul C. Latawski.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2004.  261 p.
Book call no.:  949.703 B862

Caplan, Richard D.  Post-Mortem on UNPROFOR.  London, Brassey's for the Centre for Defence Studies, University of London, 1996.  64 p.
Book call no.:  949.7103 C244p

Farkas, Evelyn N.  US Policy Towards Secession in the Balkans and Effectiveness of de Facto Partition-Improving US Russian Relations Through Peacekeeping Operations.  Colorado Springs, CO, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, 2001.  88 p.
Book call no.:  341.58409497 F229u

Haass, Richard.  Intervention:  The Use of American Military Force in the Post Cold-War World.  Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 1999.  295 p.
Explains lessons drawn from the most important recent U.S. military interventions:  Bosnia, Haiti, the 1996 Taiwan Straits crisis, the summer 1998 bombing of a terrorist camp in Afghanistan and an alleged chemical weapons factory in Sudan, Operation Desert Fox (Iraq), and Kosovo.
Book call no.:  355.033573 H112i

Ignatieff, Michael.  Empire Lite:  Nation Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan.  Toronto, Penguin Canada, 2003.  134 p.
Book call no.:  909.829 I24e

Keaney, Thomas A.  The UN-NATO Coalition:  Diplomatic and Military Interaction in Bosnia.  Washington, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 199?    23 p.
Book call no.:  355.357 K24n

McQueen, Carol.  Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones:  Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.  230 p.
Explores why and how effectively safety zones were implemented as a way to protect civilians and displaced persons in three of the most important conflicts of the 1990s.  Also asks whether or not such zones could serve as precedents for possible future attempts to ensure the safety of civilians in complex humanitarian emergencies.
Book call no.:  341.584 M173h

O'Ballance, Edgar.  Civil War in Bosnia, 1992-94.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1995.  269 p.
In March 1994, when rival American and Russian initiatives brought about a ceasefire in Sarajevo, bombed continually for almost two years in full television spotlight, it was hoped it would spread and develop into a peace process.
Book call no.:  949.7024 O12c

Sloan, Elinor C.  Bosnia and the New Collective Security.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1998.  128 p.
Examines two timely, complex, and interrelated topics:  the role of peacekeeping and related operations in managing nontraditional crises, and the international community's response to the recent conflict in Bosnia.  The author explains the changing nature of international involvement and draws out lessons for the future.
Book call no.:  949.703 S634b

Warriors in Peacekeeping:  Points of Tension in Complex Cultural Encounters:  A Comparative Study Based on experiences in Bosnia, edited by Jean M. Calligan and Mathias Scholnborn.  Munster, Lit, 2004.  444 p.
Makes a contribution to broadening and deepening understanding of the complex range of relations in modern peacekeeping operations, including interactions between national contingents and their respective chains of command and their relations with other contingents in the field, as well as with regional authorities, scores of NGOs, and the media, the latter representing numerous countries of the world. Its findings help to identify "points of tension" in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where, for the first time, contingents from more than 35 countries had to cooperate, each of which had their own, quite different, constitutional, legal, cultural, social, and economic preconditions.
Book call no.:  355.357 W295

Wesley, Michael.  Casualties of the New World Order:  The Causes of Failure of UN Missions to Civil Wars.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997.  200 p.
Examines not only the UN's failures in Bosnia, Somalia and Angola, but also the UN’s successes in El Salvador, Mozambique and Cambodia.
Book call no.:  341.584 W514c


Balkans -- Periodicals

Abbott, Peter.  The Lesson of the 1990s - The Need for a Long-Term Strategy for the Balkans.  RUSI Journal 145:8-12 June 2000.

Bellamy, Alex J.  OSCE (Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe) Peacekeeping:  Lessons from the Kosovo Verification Mission  European Security 11:1-26 Spring 2002.

Bender, Bryan.  Changing Policy:  Recent Action over Kosovo Shows How NATO Is Modifying the Way It Operates.  Jane's Defence Weekly 30:24 November 18, 1998.

Caplan, Richard.  International Authority and State Building:  The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  Global Governance 10:53-65 January-March 2004.
State building refers to efforts to reconstruct or in some cases to establish for the first time, an effective indigenous government in a state or territory where no such capacity exists or where the capacity has been seriously eroded, as of March 10, 2004.  Third-party state building, as opposed to indigenous state building, is a relatively recent practice in international relations.  The distinctive feature of an international territorial administration is both the scope of its interest in the governmental functions of the relevant state or territory and its authority over these functions.  Third parties have been active before in areas of governance thought historically to be the exclusive domain of domestic jurisdiction for instance, as part of "complex" peacekeeping or peacebuilding arrangements that have granted the United Nations and its representatives intrusive powers, ranging from human rights monitoring and the supervision of elections to the demobilization of armed forces and the reorganization of police forces.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=12408509&db=aph

Carpenter, Ted G.  Jackboot Nation Building:  The West Brings "Democracy" to Bosnia.  Mediterranean Quarterly 11:1-22 Spring 2000.
Deals with the international nation-building mission in Bosnia.  Troubling aspect of the mission; Implication of the conduct of the international officials on media pluralism; Rationale of the nation builders.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9462671&db=aph

Crane, Conrad C.  Phase IV Operations:  Where Wars are Relly Won.  Military Review 85:27-36 May-June 2005.
Presents information on Phase IV U.S. military campaigns or stabilization operations after wars. Nature of stability operations and support operations in Bosnia.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18050012&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Cross, Sharyl.  Russia and NATO Toward the Twenty-First Century:  Conflicts and Peacekeeping in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.  Journal of Slavic Military Studies 15:1-58 June 2002.

Dateline:  Kosovo - reports from the 'Other' Balkan Peacekeeping Mission.  National Guard 54:31-33 June 2000.

Feith, Pieter.  Making Peace and Democracy - A New NATO Task.  NATO's Sixteen Nations 41:34-36 1996.

Fiorenza, Nicholas.  Peacekeeping Shift:  European Union Readies for Takeover from NATO in Bosnia.  Armed Forces Journal 141:14+ June 2004.

Fouskas, Vassilis.  The Balkans and the Enlargement of NATO:  A Sceptical View.  European Security 10:52-75 Autumn 2001.

Griffiths, Hugh.  Threat Assessment:  Militancy in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  Jane's Intelligence Review 18:16-19 August 2006.

Mcmahon, Patrice C.  Rebuilding Bosnia:  A Model to Emulate or to Avoid?  Political Science Quarterly 119:569-593 Winter 2004-2005.
Debates the issue of rebuilding of Bosnia and Hercegovina.  Based on interviews in Bosnia in 2000 and 2001 with officials from international organizations, private foundations, and representatives of local nongovernmental organizations, it assess international strategies for bringing Bosnia back.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=15445839

Mertus, Julie.  Improving International Peacebuilding Efforts:  The Example of Human Rights Culture in Kosovo.  Global Governance 10:333-351 July-September 2004.
Presents information on the international peace building efforts and also includes the example of human right culture in Kosovo.  More than 250 well-intentioned nongovernmental and governmental organizations have flooded into Kosovo offering a range of resources and promises.  Elections have been held, homes have been rebuilt, schools have reopened and roads have been repaved. Police and judges have been trained and the Ad Hoc Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia is well under way in its investigations into war crimes committed in Kosovo.  Nonetheless, not one of the larger international goals that brought the international community to Kosovo in the first place has been reached.  Kosovo is decidedly not a multiethnic and secure society and equal access to basic human rights protections remains illusory.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=14300320

Ripley, Tim.  Briefing:  Kosovo - KFOR Lightens Up.  Jane's Defence Weekly 35:22-24+ May 9, 2001.

Steele, Dennis.  The U.S. Army in the Balkans:  Keeping Watch on Kosovo.  Army 52:34-37 September 2002.

Tiron, Roxana.  NATO Units in Kosovo Predict Mission Could Last a Decade.  National Defense 87:26-28 March 2003.

Tiron, Roxana.  Peacekeeping in Kosovo:  No Tanks Required.  National Defense 87:46-47 February 2003.


Cambodia
 


Internet Resources

Mersiades, Michael.  Peacekeeping and Legitimacy:  Lessons from Cambodia and Somalia.  International Peacekeeping Summer 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16967873&site=ehost-live
Argues that the legitimacy of peacekeeping forces in the eyes of the local actors impacts significantly on the success of the peacekeeping operations.  Legitimacy not only provides the basis for consent, it has the additional benefit of generating support from local actors.  This article uses the 1993 Australian peacekeeping operation in Baidoa, Somalia, and the UNTAC operation in Cambodia as case studies to explore peacekeeper legitimacy and its effect on operational success.

Peou, Sorpong.  Collaborative Human Security? The UN and Other Actors in Cambodia.  International Peacekeeping Spring 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15313987&site=ehost-live

Thakur, Ramesh.  Cambodia, East Timor and the Brahimi Report.  international Peacekeeping Autumn 2001.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7217072&site=ehost-live
Reports the status of the international peacekeeping missions in Cambodia and East Timor.  Information on the war condition in both countries; Discussion on peacekeeping problems in the two countries; Details of the peacekeeping report of the Brahimi Panel.

United Nations.  United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC)
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamic.htm

United Nations.  United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/untac.htm

United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) - 1992-1993
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/untacbackgr1.html
The UN in Cambodia oversaw a transition that led to the restoration of civil rule after years of civil war and foreign intervention.


Cambodia -- Books

Doyle, Michael W.  UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia:  UNTAC's Civil Mandate.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.  117 p.
Book call no.:  341.58 D754u

Findlay, Trevor.  Cambodia:  The Legacy and Lessons of UNTAC.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1995.  238 p.
"...an account and analysis of the United Nations’ peacekeeping operation in Cambodia between 1991 and 1993.  Although its mission was jeopardized by the non-co-operation of the Khmer Rouge, the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) successfully guided the country to democratic elections, constitutional government and international recognition.  The study reveals the successes of the operation and draws lessons for future UN peacekeeping operations."
Book call no.:  959.604 F494c

Heininger, Janet E.  Peacekeeping in Transition:  The United Nations in Cambodia.  New York, Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1994.  183 p.
Book call no.:  341.58 H468p

Randall, Stephen J.  Peacekeeping in the Post-Cold War Era:  The United Nations and the 1993 Cambodian Elections.  Toronto, Canada, Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1994.  16 p.
Book call no.:  320.9596 R189p

Ratner, Steven R.  The New UN Peacekeeping:  Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War.  New York, St Martin's Press, 1995.  322 p.
Examines the Cambodia mission of 1991-1993.
Book call no.:  341.58 R232n

Wesley, Michael.  Casualties of the New World Order:  The Causes of Failure of UN Missions to Civil Wars.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997.  200 p.
Examines not only the UN's failures in Bosnia, Somalia and Angola, but also the UN’s successes in El Salvador, Mozambique and Cambodia.
Book call no.:  341.584 W514c


East Timor
 


Internet Resources

Thakur, Ramesh.  Cambodia, East Timor and the Brahimi Report.  international Peacekeeping Autumn 2001.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7217072&site=ehost-live
Reports the status of the international peacekeeping missions in Cambodia and East Timor.  Information on the war condition in both countries; Discussion on peacekeeping problems in the two countries; Details of the peacekeeping report of the Brahimi Panel.

United Nations.  UNMISET:  United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmiset/

United Nations.  UNTAET - United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor 
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/peace/etimor/etimor.htm

United States.  UNMIT:  United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmit/index.html


East Timor -- Books

Smith, Michael G., and Dee, Moreen.  Peacekeeping in East Timor:  The Path to Independence.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.  214 p.
Book call no.:  320.95987 S6755p

The United Nations and East Timor:  Self-Determination through Popular Consultation.  New York, Dept. of Public Information, United Nations, 2000.  97 p.
Presents a short history of the United Nations involvement in East Timor.  It describes the experiences of the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET), set up prior to the landmark referendum of 1999.  It also explains the establishment and early objectives of the United Nations Transitional Administration of East Timor (UNTAET).
Book call no.:  959.87 U58


East Timor -- Periodicals

Rippon, Thomas.  Leadership for a Sustainable Culture of Peace:  The UN Mission in East Timor.  Canadian Military Journal 5:57-62 Autumn 2004.

Schofield, Clive.  East Timor Implodes (Causes of the Crisis, Prospects for the Future).  Jane's Intelligence Review 18:16-20 July 2006.

Won, Erik.  Humanitarian Aid Mission in East Timor:  Experiences of U.S. Naval Medical Services.  Military Medicine 171:29-36 January 2006.
During the recent Western Pacific Deployment, the U.S. Navy was called on to provide assistance to the local population in East Timor in what is called a humanitarian assistance operation.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20223230&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv


Haiti
 


Internet Resources

Air University Library.  Operation Restore (Uphold) Democracy - Haiti, September 19, 1994 - March 31, 1995, compiled by Janet L. Seymour.  December 2001.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/haiti/haiti99.htm

Christoff, Joseph A.  Peacekeeping:  Cost Comparison of Actual UN and Hypothetical US Operations in Haiti.  February 21, 2006.  (GAO-06-331).
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=19902595&site=ehost-live

United Nations.  MINUSTAH:  United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/minustah/

United Nations.  MIPONUH - United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/miponuh.htm

United Nations.  United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unmih.htm

United Nations.  UNTMIH United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/untmih.htm


Haiti -- Books

Haass, Richard.  Intervention:  The Use of American Military Force in the Post Cold-War World.  Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 1999.  295 p.
Explains lessons drawn from the most important recent U.S. military interventions:  Bosnia, Haiti, the 1996 Taiwan Straits crisis, the summer 1998 bombing of a terrorist camp in Afghanistan and an alleged chemical weapons factory in Sudan, Operation Desert Fox (Iraq), and Kosovo.
Book call no.:  355.033573 H112i

United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations. Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere.  Haiti, the Situation after the Departure from UNMIH.  Hearing. 104th Congress, 2nd session, February 28, 1996.  Washington, GPO, 1996.  71 p.
Book call no.:  327.7307294 U581ha


Haiti --
Document

Gonzalez, Emilio T.  Intervention and Occupation in Haiti:  A Case Study in Irregular Warfare.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, June 1994. 30 p.
Document call no.:  M-U 41662 G643i


Haiti -- Periodicals

Esaquenazi, Patricia.  A Day of Dawning Peace in Haiti.  Americas 58:8-11 May-June 2006.
MINUSTAH was given two primary tasks:  the stabilization of the country, and support for the provisional government as it organized free elections.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20697459&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Fishel, John T.  Operation Uphold Democracy:  Old Principles, New Realities.  Military Review 77:22-30 July-August 1997.

Lindsay, Reed.  Peace Despite the Peacekeepers in Haiti.  NACLA Report on the Americas 39:31-37 May-June 2006.
Discusses the emergence of peace in Haiti following the victory of René Préval in presidential elections in February 2006.  The elections were declared a resounding success by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.  The role of the United Nations in promoting peace in the country is explored.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21326859&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Schellhammer, Michael W.  Lessons from Operation Restore Democracy.  Military Intelligence 22:18-20 January-March 1996.

US Occupation of Haiti Highlights Lack of Military Preparedness; Sends Signals to Potential Foes.  Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 22:20 September 30, 1994.


Iraq
 


Internet Resources 

Air University Library.  Operation Provide Comfort, compiled by Stephen B. T. Chun. 
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/opproco/oppc.htm

Bildt, Carl.  Hard Earned Lessons On Nation Building:  Seven Ways to Rebuild Iraq.  May 7, 2003.  (Op Eds by Rand Staff).
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/hot/op-eds/050703IHT.html
This opinion article appeared in The International Herald Tribune on May 7, 2003. The writer is a former prime minister of Sweden.

Coipuram, Tom.  Iraq:  United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations.  Washington, Congressional Research Service. The Library of Congress, Updated April 16, 2003.  9 p.  (Report for Congress).
Available online at:  http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/19953.pdf

Conflict Termination in the Iraqi War,  compiled by Joan T. Phillips.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, April 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/iraqi/conflict.htm

Cordesman, Anthony H.  Iraqi Force Development:  The Challenges of Partnership in Nation Building.  Washington, CSIS Press, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 7, 2005.  173 p.
Available online at:  http://www.csis.org/media/csis/congress/ts050314cordesman.pdf
This is a working draft of a CIS book manuscript.

Cordesman, Anthony H.  One Year on:  Nation Building in Iraq:  A Status Report.  Washington, CSIS Press, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 16, 2004.  39 p.
Available online at:  http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/iraq_oneyearon.pdf
Working Paper

ECHO:  European Community Humanitarian Office.  Assisting the Iraqi Population.  Brussels, Belgium, 2003.
Available online at:  http://europa.eu.int/comm/echo/field/iraq/index_en.htm
At the center of the EU's humanitarian aid program is the European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO).  Established in 1992 and operating under the European Commission, ECHO coordinates humanitarian efforts by the European Union to third countries.  Working in tandem with organizations such as the Red Cross and the United Nations, ECHO organizes the preparation, implementation, financing, follow-up, and evaluation of humanitarian aid decisions and activities.

Global Security.org.  Facts Regarding Reconstruction...
Available online at:  http://globalsecurity.insightful.com/search/jsp/rs.jsp
Links to documents concerning reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Humanitarian Assistance in Iraq,  prepared by Terry Kiss.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Library, July 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/humaniraq/humaniraq.htm

International Crisis Group.  War in Iraq:  Managing the Humanitarian Relief.  Brussels, Belgium, 27 March 2003.  (ICG Middle East Report no. 12).
Available online at:  http://www.crisisweb.org/home/index.cfm?id=1275&l=1
The International Crisis Group is an independent non-profit, multinational organization.  Based on assessments from the field, ICG produces analytical reports containing practical recommendations targeted to key international decision makers.

Kitfield, James.  In Iraq, Managing the Peace May Be More Difficult Than Winning the War.  National Journal Washington, GovExec.com, April 18, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0403/041803nj1.htm

Laville, Sandra, Blair, David, and Steele, John.  Military Restrictions and Lawlessness Shut Aid Agencies Out of Iraq.  London, Telegraph Group Limited/Telegraph.co.uk, April 14, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.dailytelegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/04/14/whosp14.xml&sSheet=/news/2003/04/14/ixnewstop.html

Mack, Alistair.  The Humanitarian Operations Centre, Kuwait:  Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003.  International Peacekeeping Winter 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15313972&site=ehost-live
Examines the work of the Humanitarian Operations Center (HOC) in Kuwait, the focal point for the planning and delivery of international humanitarian aid into southern Iraq in the immediate aftermath of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Open Society Institute.  Reconstructing Iraq:  A Guide to the Issues.  Washington, OSI, May 30, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.soros.org/initiatives/washington/articles_publications/publications/reconstructingiraq_20030530

Peters, Katherine McIntire.  Iraq Rebuilding Efforts Plagued by Persistent Failures.  GovExec.com, June 30, 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0604/063004kp1.htm
Newly released assessments by the General Accounting Office and the inspector general of the defunct Coalition Provisional Authority show ongoing problems in U.S. efforts to manage programs to rebuild Iraq.

Rebuilding Iraq:  Actions Needed to Improve the Use of Private Security Providers.  Washington, U. S. General Accounting Office, 2005.  70 p.  (GAO-05-737).
Available online at:  http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05737.pdf

Rebuilding Iraq:  Preliminary Observations on Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police.  Washington, U. S. General Accounting Office, 2005.  23 p.  (GAO-05-431T).
Available online at:  http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05431t.pdf

Rebuilding Iraq:  Resource, Security, Governance, Essential Services and Oversight Issues.  Washington, U. S. General Accounting Office, June 2004.  103 p.  (GAO-04-902R).
Available online at:  http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04902r.pdf

Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction.  Iraq Reconstruction Timeline.  April 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.sigir.mil/reports/QuarterlyReports/Apr06/pdf/Timeline_-_April_2006.pdf
Timeline shows key events and expenditures for oil and electricity sectors.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Gulf States Division.  Building a Foundation of Freedom
Available online at:  http://www.rebuilding-iraq.net/portal/page?_pageid=95,1&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
Contains link to Iraq Reconstruction Weekly and to The Iraq Challenge.

United Nations Humanitarian Coordination For Iraq. Health Coordination Group.  Selected Health Information on Iraq.  March 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.who.int/disasters/repo/10062.pdf

United States Agency for International Development.  Assistance for Iraq.  Washington, USAID, April 10, 2003.
Available online at:  http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/
USAID is an independent federal government agency that receives overall foreign policy guidance from the Secretary of State.  The agency works to support long-term and equitable economic growth and to advance U.S. foreign policy objectives.  The USAID is fully prepared to provide humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to the people of Iraq.  For the last several months, USAID, working in close coordination with the Department of State and other U.S. agencies, has planned for a possible humanitarian emergency.


Iraq -- Books

Braude, Joseph.  The New Iraq:  Rebuilding the Country for It's People, The Middle East, and the World.  New York, Basic Books, 2003.  211 p.
Book call no.:  956.7044 B825n

Feldman, Noah.  What We Owe Iraq:  War and the Ethics of Nation Building.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2004.  154 p.
America is up to its neck in nation building--but the public debate, focused on getting the troops home, devotes little attention to why we are building a new Iraqi nation, what success would look like, or what principles should guide us.  What We Owe Iraq sets out to shift the terms of the debate, acknowledging that we are nation building to protect ourselves while demanding that we put the interests of the people being governed--whether in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, or elsewhere--ahead of our own when we exercise power over them.
Book call no.:  956.704431 F312w

Hamre, John.  Iraq's Post-Conflict Reconstruction:  A Field Review and Recommendations July 17, 2003.  Washington, CSIS, 2003.  1 vol.
A team of experts in the field of post-conflict reconstruction assessed conditions in Iraq during the period of June 26, 2003, to July 7, 2003.  This report outlines the issues focused upon by the team during their 11 days in Iraq.
Book call no.:  956.70443 I65

Herd, Graeme P. and Howcroft, James R.  Iraqi Civil-Military Relations Progress, Pathologies & Prospects.  Surrey, UK, Conflict Studies Research Centre, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, August 2005.  18 p.
Book call no.:  322.509567 H541i

How to Build a New Iraq After Saddam, edited by Patrick Clawson.  Washington, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2002.  93 p.
Book call no.:  327.730567 H847

Kinsella, David.  Regime Change:  Origins, Execution, and Aftermath of the Iraq War.  Belmont, CA, Thomson Higher Education, 2007.  49 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 K56r

Krepinevich, Andrew F.  The War in Iraq:  An Interim Assessment.  Washington, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 2005.  136 p.
Also available online at:  http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA443514&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
Book call no.:  956.70443 K92w

McQueen, Carol.  Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones:  Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.  230 p.
Explores why and how effectively safety zones were implemented as a way to protect civilians and displaced persons in three of the most important conflicts of the 1990s.  Also asks whether or not such zones could serve as precedents for possible future attempts to ensure the safety of civilians in complex humanitarian emergencies.
Book call no.:  341.584 M173h

Phillips, Kate.  U.S. Military Operations in Iraq:  Planning, Combat, and Occupation.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2006.  23 p.
The debate continues about the adequacy of planning for and proficiency of execution of Phase IV operations in Iraq and elsewhere.  The debate most often surrounds three issues concerning this final operational phase:  the relationship to preceding operational phases; responsibility for planning; and responsibility for execution.
Also available online at:  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB653.pdf
Book call no.:  956.70443 P561u

Phillips, Kate.  U.S. Military Operations in Iraq:  Planning, Combat, and Occupation.  Carlisle, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, April 2006.  23 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 P561u

Pollack, Kenneth M.  After Saddam:  Assessing the Reconstruction of Iraq.  Washington, Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, January 2004.  35 p.  (Analysis Paper)
Also available online at:  http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/pollack/20040107.htm
Book call no.:  956.70443 P771a

Rathmell, Andrew.  Developing Iraq's Security Sector:  The Coalition Provisional Authority's Experience.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2005. 
Book call no.:  956.70443 D489

Schultheis, Rob.  Waging Peace:  A Special Operations Team's Battle to Rebuild Iraq.  New York, Gotham Books, 2005.  184 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 S386w

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations.  Building Iraqi Security Forces, Hearing. 109th Congress, 1st session March 14 2005.  Washington, GPO, 2005.  179 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 U58b

United States.  Congress.  House.  Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations.  Committee on Government Reform.  Iraq:  Perceptions, Realities and Cost to Complete.  Hearing. 109th Congress, 1st session, October 18, 2005.  Washington, GPO, 2006.  195 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 U58i

United States.  Congress.  Senate.  Committee on Foreign Relations.  Iraq - Post Transition.  Hearing. 108th Congress, 2nd session, July 22, 2004.  Washington, GPO, 2004.  33 p.
Book call no.:  956.70443 U581ia

White, Thomas E.  Reconstructing Eden:  A Comprehensive Plan for the Post War Political and Economic Development of Iraq.  Houston, TX, Country Watch, 2003.  380 p.
Book call no.:  338.9567 R311


Iraq -- Periodicals

Brancati, Dawn.  Can Federalism Stabilize Iraq?  Washington Quarterly 27:7-22 Spring 2004.
Reports on the establishment of federalism in Iraq to prevent ethnic conflict and secessionism.  Demand for independence in the country; Utilization of institutionalized measures to prevent identity-based and regional parties from dominating the Iraqi government; Role of the U.S. in advising Iraqi leaders to adopt a federal system of government.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=12492532

Byman, Daniel.  Constructing a Democratic Iraq:  Challenges and Opportunities.  International Security 28:47-78 Summer 2003.
Discusses the establishment of democracy in Iraq after the U.S. ousted former president Saddam Hussein in 2003.  Transition from dictatorship to democracy; Divisions among Iraq's various ethnic and religious communities; Improvement of security in Iraq.

Chandler, David.  Imposing the "Rule of Law":  The Lessons of BiH for Peacebuilding in Iraq.  International Peacekeeping 11:312-333 Summer 2004.

Chiarelli, Peter W. and Michaelis, Patrick R.  Winning the Peace:  The Requirement for Full-Spectrum Operations.  Military Review 85:4-17 July-August 2005.

Corera, Gordon.  Iraq Provides Lessons in Nation Building.  Jane's Intelligence Review 16:30-33 January 2004.
Presents information on the failure of U.S. post-war planning in Iraq headed by U.S. Lieutenant General Jay Garner.  Reasons for the failure to plan and execute well in the security field; Overview of the inadequacy of governmental communications around Iraq; Cause of the failure to communicate more effectively with the Iraqi people; Lack of manpower to clamp down on the security situation; Issue of underestimating the impact of totalitarian rule in the country.

Deen, Thalif.  Iraq:  A UN Role but not Rule.  Jane's Defence Weekly 39:22 April 9, 2003.

Diamond, Larry.  Lessons From Iraq.  Journal of Democracy 16:9-23 January 2005.
The US-led reconstruction effort has so far failed to establish democratic institutions in Iraq.  But as troubled as that effort has been, it provides valuable lessons for future nation-building endeavors.  Here, Diamond identifies these lessons and discusses each of them.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=782065081&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Diamond, Larry.  What Went Wrong in Iraq?  Foreign Affairs 83:34-57 September-October 2004.
The article discusses the problems the United States faced during and after the Iraq War of 2003.  With the transfer of power to a new interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, the political phase of U.S. occupation came to an abrupt end.  But it did not erase, the most pressing problems confronting that beleaguered country:  endemic violence, a shattered state, a nonfunctioning economy, and a decimated society.  As a result of a long chain of U.S. miscalculations, the coalition occupation has left Iraq in far worse shape than it need have and has diminished the long-term prospects of democracy there.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=aph&an=14348324

Ehrenman, Gayle.  Rebuilding Iraq.  Mechanical Engineering 125:48-51 June 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9917522&db=aph

Ismael, Tareq and Ismael, Jacqueline.  Whither Iraq?  Beyond Saddam, Sanctions and Occupation.  Third World Quarterly 26:609-629 October 2005.
The USA's policy of nation-building and state-building in Iraq are examined against two earlier models of political reconstruction the British and Baathist.  Using the guideposts revealed, four scenarios are posited based on different sets of assumptions about the state of state- and nation building.
Also available online at:  http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/ctwq/2005/00000026/F0020004/art00006

Kahwaji, Riad.  Iraqis Oppose Notion of Peacekeepers from Other Arab States.  Defense News 19:12 May 31, 2004.

Knights, Michael.  Short-Term Stabilisation in Iraq Could Have Long-Term Costs.  Jane's Intelligence Review 16:26-29 June 2004.

Koch, Andrew and Hill, Luke.  Stabilising Effect (Options to Bolster Stabilization Operations in Iraq).  Jane's Defence Weekly 40:23 December 10, 2003.

Lampe, John R.  The Lessons of Bosnia and Kosovo for Iraq.  Current History 103:113-118 March 2004.
Discusses the lessons Iraq can learn from the Bosnia and Kosovo's commitment with the US.  Stresses that the experience in Bosnia and Kosovo provides encouragement.  The largest postintervention lesson they offer is that the US and its international partners work effectively together once they are on the ground together.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=574977511&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Mackinlay, John.  Iraq campaign Failed to Plan for Peacekeeping.  Jane's Intelligence Review 15:36-37 June 20003.

Michael, Bryane.  Losing Iraq by Failing to Rebuild It.  World & I 18:38-43 October 2003.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=10928012&db=f5h

Special Issue:  Reconstructing Post-Saddam Iraq.  Third World Quarterly 26:559-852 June 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&bQuery=JN+%22Third+World+Quarterly%22+and+DT+20050601&db=aph

Synnott, Hilary.  State-Building in Southern Iraq.  Survival 47:33-55 Summer 2005.



Mozambique
 


Internet Resources

Fred-Mensah, Ben K.  Social Capital Building as Capacity for Postconflict Development:  The UNDP in Mozambique and Rwanda.  Global Governance.  October-December 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15529188&site=ehost-live
Conceptualizes two postconflict reconstruction projects supported by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) as efforts in social capital development in postconflict situations.  The focus is on the UNDP's support for the creation of focus groups within the Mozambican government and for the Rwandan government's reorganization of its policing system as reform measures in the countries' state systems.

United Nations.  United Nations Operation in Mozambique ONUMOZ
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/onumoz.htm


Mozambique -- Books

Synge, Richard.  Mozambique:  UN Peacekeeping in Action, 1992-94.  Washington, United States Institute for Peace Press, 1997.  221 p.
Describes how ONUMOZ went about its tasks - assembling and demobilizing troops, providing humanitarian aid, demining, preparing for elections - and assesses how well each was accomplished and why.
Book call no.:  327.1 S993m

Wesley, Michael.  Casualties of the New World Order:  The Causes of Failure of UN Missions to Civil Wars.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997.  200 p.
Examines not only the UN's failures in Bosnia, Somalia and Angola, but also the UN’s successes in El Salvador, Mozambique and Cambodia.
Book call no.:  341.584 W514c


Mozambique -- Periodicals

Castellon, David.  Airmen in Africa (Aiding Flood Victims in Mozambique).  Air Force Times 60:14-16 March 20, 2000.

Cottrell, David S.  Crisis in Mozambique.  Military Engineer 92:63-64 May-June 2000.

Isaacman, Allen.  Regional Security in Southern Africa:  Mozambique.  Survival 30:14-38 January-February 1988.

Magyar, Karl P.  Darkness in a Dark Landscape.  Defense & Foreign Affairs 17:24-28+ October 1989.

Serapiao, Luis Benjamin.  Mozambique's National Interest in the Regional Conflict of Southern Africa.  Conflict 9:341-356 1989.

Seydel, Carrie A.  Humanitarian Re-Life:  Emergency Assistance Reveals the 'Breath' of this Peacetime Mission.  Airman 44:30-35 October 2000.

Venter, Al J.  Taking the Landmine Out of Africa.  Jane's International Defense Review 31:22-25 November 1998.


Rwanda
 


Internet Resources

Berdal, Mats.  The United Nations, Peacebuilding, and the Genocide in Rwanda.  Global Governance January-March 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16757540&site=ehost-live
The experiences of Rwanda provide a necessary, if disheartening, perspective from which to examine the challenge of peacebuilding.

Schmidt, Brian C.  Rwanda on My Mind.  International Journal of Human Rights Winter 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15740578&site=ehost-live

United Nations.  UNAMIR United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda 
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unamir.htm

United Nations.  United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unomur.htm


Rwanda -- Books

After Rwanda:  The Coordination of United Nations Humanitarian Assistance, edited by Jim Whitman and David Pocock.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1996.  253 p.
Book call no.:  361.26 A258

McQueen, Carol.  Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones:  Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.  230 p.
Explores why and how effectively safety zones were implemented as a way to protect civilians and displaced persons in three of the most important conflicts of the 1990s.  Also asks whether or not such zones could serve as precedents for possible future attempts to ensure the safety of civilians in complex humanitarian emergencies.
Book call no.:  341.584 M173h

O'Hanlon, Michael E.  Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention.  Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2003.  125 p.
Contends that individual countries rather than the United Nations should develop the aggregate capacity to address several crises of varying scale and severity, and that many more countries should share in the effort.  The United States’ role is twofold:  it must make slight redesigns in its own military and encourage other nations to join it in this type of intervention, including training and support of troops in countries that are willing to take the necessary steps to prevent humanitarian disaster but lack the resources.
Book call no.:  341.584 O36e


Rwanda -- Periodicals

Dallaire, Romeo A. and Poulin, Bruce.  Rwanda:  From Peace Agreement to Genocide.  Canadian Defence Quarterly 24:7-11 March-Spring 1995.

Miskel, James.  Are We Learning the Right Lessons from Africa's Humanitarian Crises?  Naval War College Review 52:136-147 Summer 1999.

Schabas, William A.  Preventing Genocide and Mass Killing from a Culture of Reaction to Prevention.  UN Chronicle 43:62-64 March-May 2006.
The article focuses on the responsibility of the United Nations (UN) Security Council to make preventive steps to stop genocide and mass killing of a certain racial group in various countries.  In response to the failure of the UN to respond the early warnings of genocide in Rwanda, it has created Human Rights Council, a body that address human rights violations.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22033397&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Short, Clare.  The Lessons We Can Learn from Rwanda.  New Statesman 132:20-22 July 7, 2003.
Discusses the political and social implications of a failure to prevent incidents such as the 1994 Rwanda genocide.  Failure of United Nations members such as Great Britain to act to stop this genocide and other African atrocities, despite their international obligation to do so.  Reconstruction of Rwanda following the end of the conflict, including the adoption of a constitution that would prevent such atrocities; Importance of international intervention.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10196277&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv


Sierra Leone
 


Internet Resources

Bullion, Alan.  India in Sierra Leone:  A Case of Muscular Peacekeeping?  International Peacekeeping Winter 2001.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7165504&site=ehost-live
Examines the contemporary debate over the use of `robust peacekeeping', with particular reference to India's leadership of the UN mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).  While the effectiveness Of the mission took a decisive turn once UN troops intervened more `robustly', there are wider consequences and lessons from such action that need to be considered.

Elagab, Omer Yousif.  The Special Court for Sierra Leone:  Some Constraints.  International Journal of Human Rights Autumn 2004.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14572980&site=ehost-live
The government of Sierra Leone and the UN have concluded a bilateral agreement establishing an ad hoc special criminal court for prosecuting those most responsible for the commission of serious crimes during the civil war in Sierra Leone.  The new court differs in many respects from the two existing tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda.  This article highlights these challenges with respect to the juridical status, funding and criminal jurisdiction, with special reference to sexual offences, genocide and the regime for dealing with child soldiers.

United Nations.  UNAMSIL:  United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unamsil/


Sierra Leone -- Books

Bundu, Abass.  Democracy by Force?:  A Study of International Military Intervention in the Civil War in Sierra Leone from 1991-2000.  Parkland, FL, Universal Publishers, 2001.  317 p.
"Sierra Leone carries the unenviable status of playing host to the world’s largest peacekeeping force. Yet there is still no lasting peace in a conflict that has determined not so much who is right or wrong as who is left." "What went wrong?  What has been the role of regional and international actors?  What lessons are there for them?  What can foreign governments, international organisations, diplomats, lawyers, politicians and students learn from it?"
Book call no.:  341.584 B942b


Sierra Leone -- Periodicals

Addison, Tony.  Conflict and Peace Building:  Interactions between Politics and Economics.  Round Table 94:405-411 September 2005.
Introduces the UNU-WIDER special issue of The Round Table on Conflict and Peace Building:  Interactions between Politics and Economics. The issue assesses experiences in Burundi, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka and Uganda, as well as the potential for Africa's regional organizations to contribute to peace building and the role of constitution writing in conflict resolution across the world.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18333961&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Adeyemi, Segun.  UNAMSIL (UN Mission in Sierra Leone):  A Long Road to Peace.  Jane's Intelligence Review 12:40 April 2000.

Bell, Udy.  Building on a Hard-Won Peace.  UN Chronicle 42:42-43 December 2005-February 2006.
Provides information regarding United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), a peace-building and political stability mission in West Africa.  The UNAMSIL had hosted its first International Music Festival in November 2005 as celebration for the mission's success.  The organization was launched during the civil war, which left the country devastated and unstable.  It also helped in the creation of Sierra Leone's new national government and regularization of its diamond mining.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20832644&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Bretherton, Diane.  School-Based Peace Building in Sierra Leone.  Theory into Practice 44:355-362 Autumn 2005.
Describes the development of a peace education project, including the Peace Education Kit, in schools in Sierra Leone.  The program, initiated by the World Bank, has involved working partnerships between local and international agencies and provides a case study of how schools can work with the community to contribute to a national peace-building effort.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18649146&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Deen, Thalif and Kemp, Ian.  Shoestring Peacekeeping:  Poor Organisation and Equipment Have Undermined UN Peacekeeping Operation in Sierra Leone.  Jane's Defence Weekly 33:20 May 17, 2000.

Gordon, Stuart and Higgs, James.  Briefing:  UN Mission in Sierra Leone.  Jane's Defence Weekly 34:26-27+ September 27, 2000.

Grant, J. Andrew.  Diamonds, Foreign Aid and the Uncertain Prospects for Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Sierra Leone.  Round Table 94:443-457 September 2005.
Examines the external and internal dimensions of post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone.  The United Nations, bilateral donors such as the UK, and transnational non-governmental organizations and aid agencies have been instrumental in providing much-needed external assistance to Sierra Leone during the latter stages of its civil war and in the immediate post-war period.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=18333963&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kitfield, James.  Reforming the Blue Helmets.  National Journal 32:3954-3957 December 23, 2000.
Focuses on the peacekeeping forces of the UN in Sierra Leone.  Weakness of the UN forces in Sierra Leone; Peacekeeping reforms proposed for the UN forces.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4070140&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Venter, Al J.  Taking Control in Sierra Leone:  The Rules of the Limited Operation Have Been Imposed on the War.  Jane's International Defense Review 33:60-62 September 2000.


Somalia
 


Internet Resources

Mersiades, Michael.  Peacekeeping and Legitimacy:  Lessons from Cambodia and Somalia.  International Peacekeeping Summer 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=16967873&site=ehost-live
Argues that the legitimacy of peacekeeping forces in the eyes of the local actors impacts significantly on the success of the peacekeeping operations.  Legitimacy not only provides the basis for consent, it has the additional benefit of generating support from local actors.  This article uses the 1993 Australian peacekeeping operation in Baidoa, Somalia, and the UNTAC operation in Cambodia as case studies to explore peacekeeper legitimacy and its effect on operational success.

Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center.  Operation Restore Hope (Somalia), compiled by Joan T. Phillips.  July 2006.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/resthope.htm

United Nations.  Somalia - UNOSOM II
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosom2.htm

United Nations.  United Nations Operation in Somalia I - (UNOSOM I).  March 21, 1997.
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosomi.htm


Somalia -- Books

Cassidy, Robert M.  Peacekeeping in the Abyss:  British and American Peacekeeping Doctrine and Practice after the Cold War.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2004.  284 p.
The American Military in Somalia - into the Abyss, pp 149-173.
Book call no.:  355.35 C345p

Glenn, Russell W. and others.  Urban Battle Command in the 21st Century.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2005.  114 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG181.pdf
Book call no.:  355.33041 G558u

Hirsch, John L. and Oakley, Robert B.  Somalia and Operation Restore Hope:  Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995.  217 p.
Book call no.:  341.58 H669s

Razack, Sherene.  Dark Threats and White Knights:  The Somalia Affair, Peacekeeping, and the New Imperialism.  Buffalo, NY, University of Toronto Press, 2004.  236 p.
Book call no.:  327.172096 R278d

Sahnoun, Mohamed.  Somalia:  The Missed Opportunities.  Washington, U.S. Institute of Peace Press, 1994.  89 p.
Argues that if the international community - and specifically the United Nations - had intervened earlier and more effectively, much of the catastrophe in Somalia could have been avoided.
Book call no.:  967.7305 S131s

Wesley, Michael.  Casualties of the New World Order:  The Causes of Failure of UN Missions to Civil Wars.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1997.  200 p.
Examines not only the UN's failures in Bosnia, Somalia and Angola, but also the UN’s successes in El Salvador, Mozambique and Cambodia.
Book call no.:  341.584 W514c

United States Forces, Somalia:  After Action Report and Historical Overview:  The United States Army in Somalia, 1992-1994.  Washington, Center of Military History, U. S. Army, 2003.  276 p.
Book call no.:  967.73053 U58


Somalia -- Document

Frett, Darwin A.  U. S. Military in Humanitarian Interventions:  A Challenging Decision.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2003.  32 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 F888u


Somalia -- Periodicals

Barth, Fritz J.  A System of Contradiction (United Nations Operations, Somalia).  Marine Corps Gazette 82:26-29 April 1998.

Dauber, Cori.  Image as Argument:  The Impact of Mogadishu on U.S. Military Intervention.  Armed Forces & Society 27:205-229 Winter 2001.

Delaney, Douglas E.  Cutting, Running, or Otherwise?  The U.S. Decision to Withdraw from Somalia.  Small Wars and Insurgencies 15:28-46 Winter 2004.
Discusses the reasons for pulling out of Somalia.

Dworken, Jonathan T.  Restore Hope:  Coordinating Relief Operations.  Joint Force Quarterly 8:14-20 Summer 1995.

Kauffman, Sheldon S.  Operation Continue Hope:  An Update on the Sapper Effort in Somalia.  Engineer 24:2-7 February 1994.

Lorenz, F. M.  Law and Anarchy in Somalia.  Parameters 23:27-41 Winter 1993-1994.

Mersiades, Michael.  Peacekeeping and Legitimacy:  Lessons from Cambodia and Somalia.  International Peacekeeping 12:205-221 Summer 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=16967873

Peck, Fred.  Somalia, Afghanistan:  A Script for Reconstruction of Iraq.  Sea Power 46:78-81 April 2003.
Focuses on the relevance of the experience of the U.S. in the war in Somalia and in Afghanistan to the post-war reconstruction of Iraq.  Importance of the teamwork between military and civil agencies; Overview of the reconstruction program of the U.S. in the two wars; Challenges facing the reconstruction of Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,uid&db=f5h&an=9533191


Sudan Darfur
 


Internet Resources

Africa 2006, compiled by Joan Phillips.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center, August 2006. 1 vol.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/africa06/afr08.htm#sud
Offers a separate section on Sudan with lists of books, articles, defense documents and Internet resources on the current situation.  Many of the items listed are available full-text online.

African Union.  The Situation in the Darfur Region of the Sudan.  October 20, 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.africa-union.org/DARFUR/homedar.htm

Cnn.com.  U.N. Report:  Darfur not Genocide.  January 31, 2005.
Available online at:  http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/africa/01/31/sudan.report/

Human Rights Watch.  Africa:  Crisis in Darfur
Available online at:  http://www.hrw.org/doc?t=africa&c=darfur

U.S. Department of State.  Department of African Affairs - Sudan
Available online at:  http://www.state.gov/p/af/ci/su/
Provides links to the peace agreement, fact sheets and maps.

United Nations.  Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary General.  September 18, 2004.
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf#search=%22united%20nations%20darfur%22


Sudan Darfur -- Books

The EU/AU Partnership in Darfur not yet a Winning Combination.  Brussels, International Crisis Group, 2005.  22 p.
Also available online at:  http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=3766&l=1
Book call no.:  327.17096 E86

Prunier, G.  Darfur:  The Ambiguous Genocide.  Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2005.  212 p.
Book call no.:  962.7 P972d

United States. Congress. House. Committee on International Relations.  Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006.  Report. 109th Congress, 2nd session, 2006.  Washington, GPO, 2006.  3 vols.
Book call no.:  341.58409627 U58d


Sudan Dafur -- Documents

Block, Gregory O.  Alleged Genocide in Sudan:  Where Does the U. S. National Security Strategy Take Us in Light of the UN Genocide Convention and Lingering Memories of Failure to Intervene in Rwanda?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2005.  36 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432372
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B651a

DeMarais, Philip F. E.  Sudan:  A Country in Crisis:  U.S. Engagement Options to Foster Peace, Stability, Prosperity, and Health.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2005.  26 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA432499
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 D372s

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Sudan:  Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy, by Theodore S. Dagne.  Washington, Library of Congress, July 2005.  1 vol.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-8 no.98043


Sudan Darfur -- Periodicals

Beardsley, Brent.  Learning from the Rwandan Genocide of 1994 to Stop the Genocide in Darfur.  Canadian Military Journal 6:41-48 Summer 2005.

Bellamy, Alex J. and Williams, Paul D.  The UN Security Council and the Question of Humanitarian Intervention in Darfur.  Journal of Military Ethics 5:144-160 June 2006.
Explores the different moral and legal arguments used by protagonists in the debate about whether or not to conduct a humanitarian intervention in Darfur.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=20917319&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Fowler, Jerry.  Beyond Humanitarian Bandages -Confronting Genocide in Sudan.  New England Journal of Medicine 351:2574-2576 December 16, 2004.
Comments on the genocide in the Sudan.  Health conditions in the country for the affected populations and in the refugee camps; Belief that failure to recognize and address the political causes of the humanitarian disaster can be catastrophic as it was in Rwanda; Reaction from the international community which has fallen short of ending the violence; Call for the United Nations Security Council to act.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=15355463&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

McGhie, Stuart.  Briefing:  Peace-Support Operations in Central Sudan.  Jane's Defence Weekly 23:24-25+ April 23, 2003.

No End in Sight to Darfur's Misery.  Economist 380:40-41 July 8, 2006.
Discusses the meeting of the African Union concerning genocide in Darfur, Sudan. Despite a peace deal signed in Nigeria in May, 2006 between the Sudanese government and the Darfur rebels, hopes for an end to the continuing misery in Sudan were dampened at a summit meeting of Africa's leaders in the Gambia.  The Sudanese government refused, despite indications to the contrary, to allow a United Nations peacekeeping force to take over from the faltering African Union one in Darfur.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=21527912&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Stohl, Rachel and Stohl, Michael.  Fatally Flawed? U.S. Policy Toward Failed States.  Defense Monitor 30:1-3+ October 2001.


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