March 2008

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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All sites listed were last accessed on March 20, 2008.

Internet Resources

Alabarda, Yusuf and Lisowiec, Rafal.  The Private Military Firms:  Historical Evolution and Industry Analysis.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.  121 p.
Available online at:
The private military industry may be one of the most important, but little understood developments in security studies to have taken place over the last decade.  This study attempts to clarify and analyze the historical evolution of the private military industry, comparing different private military firms and their future impacts on military operations.

Boysen, Matthias.  Private Military Firms as Instruments of U.S. Foreign Policy:  The Case of Colombia.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.  87 p.
Available online at:
U.S. policy in Colombia is characterized by an enormous military and financial effort to combat the drug trade and the violence of terrorist groups, which are heavily involved in the drug business.  Private military firms (PMFs) play a major role in the fight against drugs, particularly in the U.S.-funded aerial eradication program.

Brown, Justin.  The Rise of the Private-Sector Military.  Christian Science Monitor, p 3, July 5, 2000.
Available online at:

Dunar, III Charles J. and others.  Private Military Industry Analysis:  Private and Public Companies.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.  144 p.
Available online at:
Since the end of the Cold War, the private military industry has skyrocketed.  This study examines demographic and financial information on 585 private and public companies, and reveals that an overwhelming majority are privately held and offer no financial information.

Fitzsimmons, Scott.  Dogs of Peace:  A Potential Role for Private Military Companies in Peace Implementation.  Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 8:1-26 Fall 2005.
Available online at:

Gibson, Stevyn D.  Regulated Private Security Companies versus a Professional Security Sector:  A Cautionary Tale.   Journal of Security Sector Management 5:1-10 May 2007.
Available online at:

Harris, Neil J.  Contractors and the Cost of War:  Research into Economic and Cost-Effectiveness Arguments.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.  109 p.
Available online at:
Highlights the key features of the private military industry from an economic perspective.  Revisits DoDís initial objectives for outsourcing many of their traditionally in-house roles, and assesses whether current efforts are based primarily on capability or financially-driven constraints.  Argues that contractors are cost effective given their inherent flexibility.  The argument becomes stronger after considering the militaryís relevant alternatives to using private military companies.

Herron, Jennifer F. and Santiago, Gregory.  Analysis of Security Contractors in Deployed Environments.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.  57 p.
Available online at:
Analyzes consequences of DoD's decision to outsource security contractors in Iraq.

Heskett, Jonathan D.  The Potential Scope for Use of Private Military Companies in Military Operations.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2005.  81 p.
Available online at:
Argues that the best types of operation in which to use PMCs are in support of security operations, in small-scale conflicts, and in situations where human rights violations are occurring, yet the rest of the world decides not to intervene.

Holmqvist, Caroline.  Private Security Companies:  The Case for Regulation.  Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, January 2005.  59 p.  (SIPRI Policy Paper, no. 9).
Available online at:

Isenberg, David.  A Fistful of Contractors:  The Case for a Pragmatic Assessment of Private Military Companies in Iraq.  Washington, British American Security Information Council, September 2004.  (BASIC Research Report, 2004.2)
Available online at:

Kornburger, Michael D. and Dobos, Jeremy R.  Private Military Companies:  Analyzing the Use of Armed Contractors.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.  87 p.
Available online at:

Moller, Bjorn.  Privatisation of Conflict, Security and War.  Copenhagen, Danish Institute for International Studies, December 2004.  34 p.  (DIIS Working Paper, no. 2005/2).
Available online at:

Private Military Companies:  Options for Regulation.  London, The Stationery Office, February 2002.
Available online at:,0.pdf
Issued by the UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, this Green Paper examines the regulation of private military companies within the existing framework of the EU code of conduct for arms exports.
Available online at:
From website:  " is a private, independent, and non-profit initiative that offers people interested in Private Military Companies (PMCs) and Private Security Companies (PSCs), as well as the growing phenomena of the privatization of security, military outsourcing, and the convergence of security and development, an expert directory of hyperlinks pointing at key documents, firms, organizations, stream media, and services related to these topics."

Schreier, Fred and Caparini, Marina.  Privatising Security:  Law, Practice and Governance of Private Military and Security Companies.  Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), March 2005.  168 p.  (Occasional paper, no. 6).
Available online at:

Sokmen, Ercan.  The Private Military Industry:  Economic Analysis, Uses and Considerations.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.  137 p.
Available online at:


Avant, Deborah D.  The Market for Force:  The Consequences of Privatizing Security.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2005.  310 p.
Book call no.:  363.289 A946m

Davis, James R.  Fortune's Warriors:  Private Armies and the New World Order.  Vancouver, Douglas & McIntyre, 2000.  228 p.
Book call no.:  355.354 D262f

Donald, Dominick.  After the Bubble:  British Private Security Companies After Iraq.  London, Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, 2006.  76 p.  (Whitehall paper series; no. 66)
Book call no.:  363.2890941 D675a

International Peacekeeping:  Managing Armed Conflicts in the 21st Century, edited by Adekeye Adebajo and Chandra Lekha Sriram.  Portland, OR , Frank Cass, 2001.  221 p.
First appeared in a special issue of International Peacekeeping, vol. 7, Winter, 2000.  Includes discussion of the role of non-traditional actors, ranging from predatory warlords and private security firms to mercenaries and militias.
Book call no.:  341.584 M2662

Kidwell, Deborah C.  Public War, Private Fight?:  The United States and Private Military Companies.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Combat Studies Institute Press, [2005].  79 p.
Addresses historical precedents and trends in American logistics, the current scope of contractor involvement in support of regular military forces, and the challenges posed as traditional military institutions integrate increasing numbers of civilian workers and privately owned assets into the battlespace.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  355.41 K46p

Mandel, Robert.  Armies Without States:  The Privatization of Security.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002.  169 p.
Book call no.:  327.17 M271a

Percy, Sarah V.  Regulating the Private Security Industry.  New York, Routledge, for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2006.  76 p.  (Adelphi papers, no. 384)
Book call no.:  909.82 I61a no. 384

Scahill, Jeremy.  Blackwater:  The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army.  New York, Nation Books, 2007.  452 p.
Book call no.:  355.3540973 S278b

Schumacher, Gerald.  A Bloody Business:  America's War Zone Contractors and the Occupation of Iraq.  St Paul, MN, Zenith, 2006.  304 p.
Book call no.:  355.354 S356b

Shearer, David.  Private Armies and Military Intervention.  New York, Oxford University Press, for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1998.  88 p.   (Adelphi paper, 316)
Book call no.:  909.82 I61a no.316

Singer, P. W.  Corporate Warriors:  The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry.  Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 2003.  330 p.   (Cornell studies in security affairs)
Book call no.:  338.47355 S617c

Small Wars & Insurgencies:  Non-State Threats and Future Wars, edited by Robert J. Bunker.  Portland, OR , Frank Cass, 2003.  208 p.
First appeared in a special issue of Small Wars & Insurgencies, volume 13, Summer 2002.
Book call no.:  355.033 N812

Turbiville, Graham Hall.  Private Security Infrastructure Abroad:  Criminal-Terrorist Agendas and the Operational Environment.  Hurlburt Field, FL, Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.  52 p.  (JSOU report, no. 07-9)
Focuses on the frequent role of private security firms in criminal and terrorist activities.
Book call no.:  363.389 T931p

United States.  Congress.  House.  Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.  Iraqi Reconstruction:  Reliance on Private Military Contractors and Status Report.  Hearing.  110th Congress, 1st session,  February 7, 2007.  Washington , GPO. 2007.  287 p.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  956.70443 U58ib

Wither, James.  Expeditionary Forces for Post Modern Europe:  Will European Military Weakness Provide an Opportunity for the New Condottieri?  [Camberley, Surrey], Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Conflict Studies Research Centre, 2005.  19 p.
Examines the extent to which the intervention capabilities called for by the EU's Headline Goal 2010 are likely to provide opportunities for private military companies.  Offers (1) some historical background on the role of such organizations in modern European history, notably the condottieri that operated in 15th century Italy; and (2) reasons why they might prove useful in future peacekeeping scenarios, despite current problems of legitimacy and practicality.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  355.354 W822e

Wulf, Herbert.  Internationalizing and Privatizing War and Peace.  New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.  263 p.
Case studies address UN peacekeeping, the emerging crisis reaction forces of the EU, the role of South Africa in African peace operations, the complex relationship between relief organizations and the military in humanitarian interventions, the use of the military in combating terrorism and the privatization of the military in the US and the UK.
Book call no.:  322.5 W962i


Butkus, Joseph J. and Howes, Matthew F.  A Critical Analysis of the Coordination, Command and Control of Contractors in Iraq. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.  99 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B9841c

Crofford, Clifford D. Jr.  Private Security Contractors on the Battlefield.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2006.  20 p.
Reviews existing policy concerning the control of private security contractors in Iraq; also analyzes the theater entry requirements for PSCs, legal issues arising from their use, and operational control of them in the area in which a joint force commander conducts military operations.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 C941p

Elsea, Jennifer and Serafino, Nina M.  Private Security Contractors in Iraq:  Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues.  Washington, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2007.  36 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no.07-RL32419

Goddard, Major S.  The Private Military Company:  A Legitimate International Entity Within Modern Conflict.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2001.  116 p.
Focuses on the contract operations conducted by Executive Outcomes (Republic of South Africa), Sandline International (United Kingdom), and Military Professional Resources Incorporated (United States of America) from 1988 to the present.  Concludes that at the international level, active military assistance operations conducted by private military companies are indeed legitimate, but that measurement of legitimacy can only be assessed as being de-facto and amoral.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 G578p

Grant, Bruce D.  U.S. Military Expertise for Sale:  Private Military Consultants as a Tool of Foreign Policy.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1998.  33 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 G761u

Jorgensen, Brent M.  Outsourcing Small Wars:  Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 2005.  86 p.
Argues that, under current domestic and international laws, and current military regulations and doctrine, the U.S. Army could, with only a few uniformed personnel, employ a force consisting of predominately private military companies to fight a non-vital interest U.S. small war.  Identifies a historical U.S. willingness to outsource operations that are traditionally conducted by its uniformed military; categorizes outsourcing as surrogate warfare and, therefore, manageable by U.S. Army Special Forces.  Addresses some of the risks involved with outsourcing, and analyzes the legal environment in which PMCs operate in today's environment. Includes an illustration of how a Special Forces-led private military force should be organized.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 J824o

Meserve, Deborah A.  Contractors on the Battlefield:  The Moral Dilemma.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2003.  23 p.
"Political sensitivities, the drive for cost savings, and a reduction in the size of the military has made contractor support an enticing alternative.  In just the last 10 years, the private military industry has grown from a handful of companies to hundreds, with its income rising from millions of dollars a year to an estimated $100 billion a year."
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 M5781c

Millard, Todd S.  Overcoming Post-Colonial Myopia:  A Call to Recognize and Regulate Private Military Companies.  Charlottesville, VA, Judge Advocate General's School, 2003.  105 p.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 35062-16 M654o

Risse, George A.  Patriotism for a Price.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2006.  20 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 R596p

Smith, Eugene B.  The New Condottieri and U.S. Policy:  The Privatization of Conflict and Its Implications.  Carlisle Barracks, PA , Army War College, 2002.  23 p.
Argues that the US should embrace the private military corporation as a means to further its strategic objectives.  Private military corporations offer potential solutions for the application of force in situations that have limited objectives, such as peacekeeping, humanitarian operations or combating transnational threats such as terrorism.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 S646n

Vaught, Donna Sload.  Modern Mercenaries of the Twenty First Century:  Professional Military Consultants, a Modern Tool of Foreign Policy.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1999.  [24] p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 V371m

Wallwork, Richard D.  Operational Implications of Private Military Companies in the Global War on Terror.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.  75 p.
Suggests that the rapid growth of the use of PMCs is largely unregulated and not under proper control.  With over 15,000 PMC employees in Iraq, too little is known about them and the implications of their presence.  A distinct lack of joint and single service doctrine on the subject is further exacerbating the problem.
Also available online at:
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 W215o


Adams, Thomas K.  The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflict.  Parameters 29 :103-116 Summer 1999.
Also available online at:

Avant, Deborah D.  The Privatization of Security:  Lessons from Iraq.  Orbis 50:327-342 Spring 2006.
Outlines the history of U.S. contractors on the battlefield, compares that with the use of private security in Iraq, discusses the benefits and risks associated with their use, and proposes some trade-offs that decision-makers in the United States should consider while contemplating their use in the future.

Berube, Claude.  Blackwaters for the Blue Waters:  The Promise of Private Naval Companies.  Orbis 51:601 Fall 2007.
Analyzes the potential of the 1000-ship Navy, and concludes with the argument that its goals will be best met by using a new version of the once-common privateers.  Analogous to the now-widespread phenomenon of Private Military Companies, these would be Private Naval Companies.

Bjork, Kjell and Jones, Richard.  Overcoming Dilemmas Created by the 21st Century Mercenaries:  Conceptualising the Use of Private Security Companies in Iraq.  Third World Quarterly 26, no. 4-5:777-796 2005.
In the past, private security companies have taken responsibility for protecting reconstruction and aid activities during and after conflict.  In Mozambique, Angola and Afghanistan, such companies have played various roles in providing security for the reconstruction effort and delivery of humanitarian aid.  However, the extensive private sector involvement in the reconstruction of Iraq, in addition to expanding aid activities, means that the use of private security companies is at an unprecedented level.  Consequently, the boundaries between civilian and military activities are becoming blurred, which creates new dangers for humanitarian assistance.
Also available online at:

Brooks, Doug.  Messiahs or Mercenaries?  The Future of International Private Military Services.  International Peacekeeping 7:129-144 Winter 2000.
Also available online at:

Brooks, Douglas J.  The Business End of Military Intelligence:  Private Military Companies.  Military Intelligence 25 :42-46 July-September 1999.
PMCs usually contract small numbers of highly skilled military personnel--trainers, pilots, technicians, and doctors--and use them to make marginally trained and disciplined state armies substantially more effective.  Brooks examines how PMCs have combined innovative intelligence with small but highly skilled forces.
Also available online at:

Bures, Oldrich.  Private Military Companies:  A Second-Best Peacekeeping Option?  International Peacekeeping 12:533-546 Winter 2005.
Various PMCs have a proven capacity to perform at least some peacekeeping functions.  Although experts have expressed serious doubts whether their capacity to do peacekeeping will always translate into the achievement of peace and security, the author contends that PMC peacekeeping should not be dismissed on ideological or moral grounds when the choice is either a PMC operation or none at all.
Also available online at:

Carbonnier, Gilles.  Privatisation and Outsourcing in Wartime:  The Humanitarian Challenges.  Disasters 30:402-416 December 2006.
Focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services.
Also available online at:

Fredland, J. Eric.  Outsourcing Military Force:  A Transactions Cost Perspective on the Role of Military Companies.  Defence & Peace Economics 15:205-219 June 2004.
Also available online at:

Gattuso, Joseph A.  Trading Places:  How and Why National Security Roles Are Changing.  Joint Force Quarterly No. 45:62-65 April 2007.
Also available online at:

Goulet, Yves.  DSL (Defence Systems Limited):  Serving States and Multinationals.  Jane's Intelligence Review 12:46-48 June 2000.

Goulet, Yves.  Executive Outcomes--Mixing Business with Bullets.  Jane's Intelligence Review 9:426-430 September 1997.

Hammes, T. X.  Fourth Generation Warfare Evolves, Fifth Emerges.  Military Review 87:14-23 May-June 2007.
Discusses the concept of Four Generations of War (4GW) and a possible model for the next generation of war, 5GW; says that the growth of the use of private military companies is a largely overlooked development in warfare.
Also available online at:

Hodge, Nathan.  Interview (with) David Seaton, CEO, Armorgroup.  Jane's Defence Weekly 44:34 May 30, 2007.

Jeffries, Ian D.  Private Military Companies:  A Positive Role to Play in Today's International System.  Connections:  The Quarterly Journal 1:103-125 December 2002.
Also available online at:

Jones, Clive.  Private Military Companies as "Epistemic Communities".  Civil Wars 8:355-372 September-December 2006.
Also available online at:

Kennedy, Harold.  Unconventional Wars:  Special Operators Gain Civilian Assistance.  National Defense 90:48-51 June 2006.
Also available online at:

Kinsey, Christopher.  Examining the Organisational Structure of UK Private Security Companies.  Defence Studies 5:188-212 Summer 2005.
Also available online at:

Kinsey, Christopher.  Problematising the Role of Private Security Companies in Small Wars.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 18:584-614 December 2007.
Investigates the impact of private security companies on civil wars, outlining the way the industry has developed from when it first emerged on the international stage in the late 1960s, to the present.
Also available online at:

Kinsey, Christopher.  Regulation and Control of Private Military Companies:  The Legislative Dimension.  Contemporary Security Policy 26:84-102 April 2005.
The demand for private military services is likely to increase in the near future, a point made in the United Kingdom's 2002 Green Paper on options for regulation.  Consequently, private military companies will continue to have an impact on international security and stability.  Author outlines the six regulatory options in the Green Paper and a seventh option not included, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each option.
Also available online at:

Klamper, Amy.  Hold Them Accountable:  Congress Seeks the Right Legal Framework for Gun-Toting Contractors in Iraq.  Sea Power 50:14-18 July 2007.
Also available online at:

Krahmann, Elke.  Private Military Services in the UK and Germany:  Between Partnership and Regulation.  European Security 14:277-295 Summer 2005.

Krahmann, Elke.  Regulating Private Military Companies:  What Role for the EU?   Contemporary Security Policy 26:103-125 April 2005.
Also available online at:

Marx, Paul.  Private Military Companies:  Handle with Care.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 131:30 February 2005.
Also available online at:

McCarthy, John.  Expanding Private Military Sector Faces Structural Change and Scrutiny.  Jane's Intelligence Review 18:26-33 February 2006.

McGhie, Stuart.  Briefing:  Private Military Companies.  Jane's Defence Weekly 37:22-26 May 22, 2002.

O'Brien, Kevin.  PMCs (Private Military Companies), Myths and Mercenaries:  The Debate on Private Military Companies.  RUSI Journal 145:59-64 February 2000.
Also available online at:

O'Brien, Kevin A.  What Future, Privatized Military and Security Activities?  The Need for Pragmatic Engagement.  RUSI Journal 152:54-60 April 2007.
Also available online at:

Shearer, David.  Outsourcing War.  Foreign Policy No. 112:68-81 Fall 1998.
Also available online at:

Simons, David.  Occupation for Hire:  Private Military Companies and Their Role in Iraq.  RUSI Journal 149:68-71 June 2004.
Also available online at:

Singer, P. W.  Corporate Warriors:  The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry and Its Ramifications for International Security.  International Security 26:186-220 Winter 2001-2002.

Skinner, Tony.  Regulating the Irregulars (private sector picking up roles traditionally covered by the military).  Jane's Defence Weekly 42:22-23 March 9 2005.

Smith, Eugene B.  The New Condottieri and US Policy:  The Privatization of Conflict and Its Implications.  Parameters 32:104-119 Winter 2002-2003.
Also available online at:

Spearin, Christopher.  SOF for Sale:  The Canadian Forces and the Challenge of Privatized Security.  Canadian Military Journal 8:27-34 Spring 2007.
Also available online at:

Spearin, Christopher.  Special Operations Forces a Strategic Resource:  Public and Private Divides.  Parameters 36:58-70 Winter 2006.
Describes the decline in SOF personnel and the related proclivity of many PSCs to rely on former SOF operators.  Suggests the rationale for US activism on the basis of increasing SOF demands, the nature of current SOF retention efforts, and consideration of how former SOF personnel are employed in the private sector.
Also available online at:

Steven, Graeme C. S.  Shield of Safety?  The Role of Private Security Companies.  Jane's Intelligence Review 19:44-47 December 2007.

Valero, Rafael E.  Hired Guns.  National Journal 40:22-28 January 5, 2008.
Focuses on the status of the U.S. private security contracting industry amid the controversy surrounding Blackwater Worldwide.  An interviewee notes that the Army cannot conduct nation building without the help from the State Department and private security contractors as well.
Also available online at:


Conflict, Incorporated:  Selling the Arts of War.  Washington, Center for Defense Information, 1997.  28 min, 30 sec.
Originally broadcast as episode #1113 of the television program America's Defense Monitor.  "Numerous private companies have stepped into the power vacuum created by the end of the Cold War who are willing to undertake military activities traditionally the realm of governments."
Video call no.:  355.354 C748

Private Warriors.  [Boston, MA], WGBH Educational Foundation, distributed by PBS Video, 2005.  56 min.
Originally broadcast on June 21, 2005 as a segment of the television program Frontline.  Correspondent Martin Smith travels throughout Kuwait and Iraq to give viewers a behind-the-scenes look at companies like Kellogg, Brown & Root, a Halliburton subsidiary, and its civilian army.  KBR has 50,000 employees in Iraq and Kuwait that run U.S. military supply lines and operate U.S. military bases.  KBR is also the largest contractor in Iraq, providing the Army with $11.84 billion dollars in services since 2002.
Also available online at:
Video call no.:  956.70443 P961

This page was last updated on 02/24/2014 04:01 PM

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