POSSE COMITATUS


May 2009

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


The Posse Comitatus Act -- Prohibits search, seizure, or arrest powers to U.S. military personnel.  Amended in 1981 under Public Law 97-86 to permit increased Department of Defense support of drug interdiction and other law enforcement activities.  (Title 18, "Use of Army and Air Force as Posse Comitatus" - United States Code, Section 1385).
DoD Dictionary of Military Terms, 2008


Contents

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of target web sites or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at those locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Center's Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on May 1, 2009.


Internet Resources


Addicott, Jeffrey.  Drafting the Military:  The Posse Comitatus Act and the Hunt for the D.C. Sniper.  Jurist October 17, 2002.
Available online at:  http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forum/forumnew62.php

Brinkerhoff, John R.  The Posse Comitatus Act and Homeland Security.  Journal of Homeland Security February 2002.
Available online at:  http://www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/Articles/brinkerhoffpossecomitatus.htm
Publication of the Homeland Security Institute in Arlington, VA.

Center for Strategic and International Studies.  Posse Comitatus - Has the Posse Comitatus Act Outlived Its Usefulness?,  by Craig T. Trebilcock.  Washington, CSIS, April 1, 2000.  5 p.
Available online at:  http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/trebilcock.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Grove, Gregory D.  The U.S. Military and Civil Infrastructure Protection:  Restrictions and Direction under the Posse Comitatus Act.  Stanford, CA, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, October 1999.  77 p.
Available online at:  http://www.ciaonet.org/wps/grg02/GrovePosseComitatus99.pdf
  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Border Security and Military Support:  Legal Authorizations and Restrictions, by Stephen R. Vina.  Washington, CRS, May 2006.  6 p.
Available online at:  http://opencrs.com/document/RS22443/2006-05-23

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters:  A Sketch, by Jennifer Elsea and others.  Washington, CRS, June 2005.  6 p.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rs20590.pdf

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Terrorism:  Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack, by Charles Doyle and Jennifer Elsea.  Washington, CRS, May 2005.  1 vol.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA444788

Military Law and Legal Links:  Posse Comitatus & Aiding Civilians.
 Air War College Gateway to Internet Resources.  Maxwell AFB, AL.
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-law.htm#posse
Provides access to sections applicable to the subject of Posse Comitatus in Tiles 10, 18 and 42 of the United States Code.

Neary, Lynn.  Analysis:  Disasters and the Role of the Military.  Talk of the Nation (NPR) September 26, 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=tsh&AN=6XN200509261401&site=ehost-live

Scully, Megan.  Pentagon Begins Review of Law on Military's Domestic Role.  CongressDaily, pp 6-8, September 27, 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=18391870&site=ehost-live

Scully, Megan.  Rumsfeld Demurs When Asked about Changing Posse Comitatus.  CongressDaily, pp 5-7, September 21, 2005.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=18340380&site=ehost-live

Schmidt, Christopher J. and Klinger, David A.  Altering the Posse Comitatus Act:  Letting the Military Address Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Soil.  Creighton Law Review 39:667-693 April 2006.
Available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=22511265&site=ehost-live

Trebilcock, Craig T.  The Myth of Posse Comitatus.  Journal of Homeland Security October 2000.
Publication of the Homeland Security Institute in Arlington, VA.
Available online at:  http://www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/articles/Trebilcock.htm

United States.  Department of Defense.  Military Assistance for Civil Disturbances (MACDIS).  Washington, February 4, 1994.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/302512.htm
DOD Directive 3025.12.

United States.  Department of Defense.  Military Assistance to Civil Authorities.  Washington, February 18, 1997.
Available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/302515.htm
DOD Directive 3025.15.

United States.  Northern Command.  The Posse Comitatus Act.
Available online at:  http://www.northcom.mil/About/history_education/posse.html


Internet Resources (Student Research)


Cook, Thomas D.  The Posse Comitatus Act:  An Act in Need of a Regulatory Update.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2008.  35 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479065

Deforge, Robert D.  Time to Put the Military on the Border.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2006.  18 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA463486
Seeks "to discover through a discussion of the relevance of the Posse Comitatus Act, analysis of the growing threat on our southwestern border, the impact of placing the military on the border, and current counterargument, just how serious an issue the security of our southwestern border has become." - Abstract

Glebocki, Joseph, Jr.  DoD Computer Network Operations:  Time to Hit the Send Button.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, July 2008.  42 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA478337
Advocates amending or rescinding the Posse Comitatus Act so that DoD can fully defend and fight in cyberspace.

Jensen, Garrett P.  DoD Disaster Response:  "Unity of Effort Versus Unity of Command."  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, May 2007.  29 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471714
Discusses changes to federal law in response the Hurricane Katrina disaster.

Sausville, Paul J.  DoD Response to Natural Disasters:  Why the National Guard Is Off Limits.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2008.  37 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA480193

Discusses posse comitatus as part of the problem.

Thurston, Timothy W., II.  The Military's Role in Domestic Terrorism.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2007.  67 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA475777
Argues that military and civilian law enforcement should work together to combat domestic terrorism; briefly addresses posse comitatus in these situations.

Weiger, Rusty L.  Military Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Support of Homeland Security.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2007.  20 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469646

Examines posse comitatus requirements for using unmanned aircraft for surveillance within the U.S.
 


Books


Baker, Bonnie and others.  The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters:  Current Issues and Background.  New York, Hauppauge, 2004.  76 p.
Book call no.:  343.01 B167p

Bunch, Jason Michael.  United States Military Law Enforcement Use and Narcotics Interdiction:  A Test of the Posse Comitatus Law.  Vermillion, SD, University of South Dakota, 1995.  135 p.
Book call no.:  363.45 B942u

Coakley, Robert W. The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1789-1878.  Washington, Center of Military History, 1988.  372 p.
Book call no.:  355.00973 C652r

Currier, Donald J.  The Posse Comitatus Act:  A Harmless Relic from the Post-Reconstruction Era or a Legal Impediment to Transformation?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, 2003.  24 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA417183 
Book call no.:  322.50973 C976p

Harvey, James P.  Not in Our Own Backyard:  Posse Comitatus and the Challenge of Government Reorganization.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University, USAF Counterproliferation Center, 2007.  66 p.  (Counterproliferation Papers, Future Warfare Series, no. 42)
Also available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cpc-pubs/harvey.pdf
Book call no.:  322.50973 H341n

Laurie, Clayton D. and Cole, Ronald H.  The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1877-1945.  Washington, Center of Military History, 1997.  475 p.
Book call no.:  355.00973 C652r 1997

Matthews, Matt.  The Posse Comitatus Act and the United States Army:  A Historical Perspective.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006.  85 p. (Global War on Terrorism, Occasional Paper, no. 14).
Also available online at:  http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/matthews.pdf
Book call no.:  343.0154  M441p

Military Intervention in Democratic Societies, edited by Peter J. Rowe and Christopher J. Whelan.  London, Croom Helm, 1985.  312 p.
Contemporary Challenges to Traditional Limits on the Role of the Military in American Society, by Edward F. Sherman, pp 216-263.
Book call no.:  342.730418 M644

The Statutes at Large of the United States of America, Volume 20.  Washington, GPO, 1879.  955 p.
Army as Posse Comitatus, p 152.  This is the original Posse Comitatus Act.
Book call no.:  345.11 U58s

Stevens, Paul S.  U.S. Armed Forces and Homeland Defense:  The Legal Framework.  Washington, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001.  29 p.
Posse Comitatus Act, pp 22-28.
Book call no.:  342.73062 S845u

United States.  Congress.  Senate.  Committee on Armed Services.  The Role of the Department of Defense in Homeland Security.  Hearing.  107th Congress, 1st session, October 25, 2001.  Washington, GPO, 2002.  1 vol.
Also available online at:  http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_senate_hearings&docid=f:78817.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)
Book call no.:  363.32516 U582ra


Documents


Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  The Posse Comitatus Act & Related Matters:  The Use of Military to Execute Civilian Law, by Charles Doyle.  Washington, CRS, June 2000.  55 p.
Available online at:  https://www.policyarchive.org/bitstream/handle/10207/286/95-964_20000601.pdf?sequence=1  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no. 95-9645

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Terrorism:  Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack, by Charles Doyle and Jennifer Elsea.  Washington, CRS, May 2005.  1 vol.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA444788
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no.RS21012

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Unauthorized Militia:  A Brief Sketch of State and Federal Laws Proscribing or Regulating Paramilitary Activities, by Charles Doyle.  Washington, CRS, 1995.  20 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no.95-683 S

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance:  Legal Issues, by Jennifer K. Elsea and R. Chuck Mason.  Washington, CRS, November 2008.  1 vol.
Also available online at:  http://opencrs.com/document/RS22266
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no.RS22266

Nance, Ronald D. R.  The Posse Comitatus Act:  A Study of Restrictions on Military Enforcement of Civil Law.  Sacramento, CA, California State University, 1984.  125 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43567-99


Documents (Student Research)

Allen, Charles B.  Tightening America's Borders:  An Increased Drug Interdiction Role for the U.S. Military.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1998.  27 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA346283
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 A425t

Baranzini, Richard D.  Military Support to Law Enforcement and Posse Comitatus:  Is the Search for Nontraditional Missions on a Collision Course with Operational Readiness?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, June 1993.  33 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 B225m

Benson, Nolon J.  The Posse Comitatus Act:  Is There Need for Change?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1998.  41 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA350972
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B474p

Bray, Gary D.  Countering Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction:  A Future Role for the National Guard.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 1998.  36 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B827c

Brown, Timothy D.  The Role of Special Operation Forces in U.S. Homeland Security and Homeland Defense.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2005.  25 p.
Discussion includes a review of the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878 as a possible obstacle to the use of military force in homeland security.
Also available online at: 
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433677
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 B8811r

Burnett, Paul C.  A Historical Analysis of the Posse Comitatus Act and Its Implications for the Future.  Columbia, SC, University of South Carolina, 1996.  51 p. (Thesis, Master of Criminal Justice)
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43567-861

Carper, Christopher F.  USNORTHCOM from Crisis to Consequence Management:  In Support of Whom?  Maxwell AFB, AL Air Command and Staff College, April 2003.  40 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 C297u

Chase, David W.  Posse Comitatus:  A Nineteenth Century Law Worthy of Review for the Future?  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Command and General Staff College, May 2001.  54 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401359
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 C487p

Chipman, Dana K.  Countering Terrorism in the Heartland:  Can We Afford Posse Comitatus Any Longer?  Carlisle Barracks, Pa, Army War College, April 2003.  31p. 
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA415647
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 C541c

Deaile, Melvin G.  Crossing the Line:  A Study of the Legal Permissibility of Using Federalized Troops to Protect the Nation's Borders.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, June 2003.  52 p. 
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA416373
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 D278c

DeVane, John C.  Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2006.  85 p.
Examination of the use of unmanned aerial systems in homeland defense missions includes legal restrictions for their use.
Also available online at: 
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA462422
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 D488a

Diehl, James G.  The Cop and the Soldier:  An Entangling Alliance?  The Posse Comitatus Act and the National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1997.  1 vol.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA327944
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 D5591c

Ebbighausen, John H.  Unity of Command for Homeland Security:  Title 32, Title 10, or a Combination.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.  101 p.
"This study examines laws and policies, such as the Posse Comitatus Act, the Stafford Act, the Insurrection Act, the National Response Plan, the National Defense Authorization Act of 2004, and the Emergency Management Assistance Compact that govern the permissive or restrictive measures of each status." - Abstract
Also available online at: 
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA451789
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 E15u

Feser, Brian R.  Homeland Security:  Taking the Lead-Issues and Concerns for the Operational Commander.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, February 2002.  23 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA400935
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 F413h

Fields, Richard L.  Homeland Defense and the Role of the Military.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2002.  27p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 F4621h

Flynn, Ronald B.  The National Guard Drug Interdiction Mission:  A Circumvention of Posse Comitatus?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1990.  27 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-83 F648n

Gallavan, Christopher G.  Fast Guns and the Posse Comitatus Act.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1999.  39 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA363944
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 G165f

Geiger, Deborah L.  Posse Comitatus, the Army, and Homeland Security:  What Is the Proper Balance?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, January 2006.  20 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA448746
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 G3121p

Guse, Stephen L.  The Military and the Drug War:  Operational Art at an Impasse?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1997.  1 vol.
Also available online:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA325215
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 G982m

Harvey, James P.  Not in Our Own Back Yard:  Posse Comitatus and the Challenge of Government Reorganization.  Maxwell AFB, AL, February 2006.  68 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43117 H3411n

Johnson, Diana L.  Capability Does Not Equal Authority:  A Primer for Judge Advocates on Defense Support of Civil Authorities in a Natural Disasters Scenario.  Maxwell, AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2008.  62 p.
Also available online at: 
https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=researchproject&objectid=1a0df513-b80d-4098-b419-325f797e4f45
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 J6618c

King, David R.  How Can the United States Best Prepare Army Federal Troops to Respond Quickly to Future National Emergencies Within the United States.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.  84 p.
States that the Posse Comitatus Act has outlived its usefulness.
Also available online at: 
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA452186
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 K521h

Maher, Christopher M.  Combating International Organized Crime:  A Proposal for Expanding Our National Military Strategy and Amending Title 10 of the United States Code.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 2001.  27 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA390575
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 M214c

Miller, Steven L.  The Military, Domestic Law Enforcement, and Posse Comitatus:  A Time for Change.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2000.  37 p.
Also available online at:  https://research.maxwell.af.mil/viewabstract.aspx?id=2301
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 M6513m

Neptun, Daniel A.  Posse Comitatus:  Some Thoughts on Loosening Its Restrictions Within the Department of Defense.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1999.  32 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA371372
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 N442p

Salmon, Edward A., Jr.  The Future Role of the Air National Guard in Homeland Security and Defense.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2003. 37 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 S172f

Sellars, Thomas J.  The National Guard Meeting Its Obligation to Provide Capable Forces for Homeland Security.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2006.  18 p.
Briefly discusses the National Guard and posse comitatus.
Also available online at: 
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449000
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 S4671n

Sherod, Frank William, II.  Avian Influenza Pandemic May Expand the Military Role in Disaster Relief.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2006.  24 p.
Also available online at:   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA448619
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 S553a

Tappan, John A.  Military Involvement in the War on Drugs:  "Just Say No."  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1998.  33 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA339218
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 T174p

Taylor, Scott.  Analysis of the Military Role in America's Domestic Counterdrug Effort.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1998.  31 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA344527
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 T246a

Tegtmeyer, Glenn H.  Call for a Posse - the Air Force Response.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, March 1984.  15 p.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 T261c

Thomas, Greg A.  Posse Comitatus and the Use of the Military in Denying Terrorist Access to the United States along the Border with Mexico.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2005.  15 p.
Also available online at: 
http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA433672
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 T456p

Toomer, Jeffrey K.  A Strategic View of Homeland Security:  Relooking the Posse Comitatus Act and DOD's Role in Homeland Security.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, May 2002.  56 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA403866
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 T6721s

Weber, James R.  The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878:  An Historical Perspective and Implications for Homeland Defense.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 2003.  28 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420136
Doc. call no.:  M-U  39080-537 W3741p

Weston, Mark C.  Review of the Posse Comitatus Act after Hurricane Katrina.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2006.  35 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA448803
Doc. call no.:  M-U  39080-537 W535r

White, James R.  Military Assistance for Special Events:  Planning Requirements and Support Methodology (a Mission for the National Guard).  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 1999.  60 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA366774
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 W585m


Periodicals


Alterman, Eric.  It Can Happen Here.  Nation 288:10 March 30, 2009.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=36879959&site=ehost-live

Banks, William C.  Troops Defending the Homeland:  The Posse Comitatus Act and the Legal Environment for a Military Role in Domestic Counterterrorism.  Terrorism & Political Violence 14:41 Autumn 2002.

Beveridge, Reid K.  Bulwark of Civilian Supremacy:  Posse Comitatus Act Has Stood the Test of Time.  Armed Forces Journal International 140:22+ October 2002.

Bolgiano, David G.  Military Support of Domestic Law Enforcement Operations.  FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 70:16-24 December 2001.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=5791719&site=ehost-live

Bradley, Mary J. and others.  The Posse Comitatus Act:  Does It Impact the Department of Defense During Consequence Management Operations?  Army Lawyer No. 413:68-75 October 2007.
Also available online at: 
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=28320605&site=ehost-live

Bryant, Leroy C.  The Posse Comitatus Act, the Military, and Drug Interdiction:  Just How Far Can We Go?  Army Lawyer No. 216:3-12 December 1990.
Also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/12-1990.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Cragin, Charles L.  A Ready, Capable Total Force.  National Guard 53:10-11 March 1999.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=40121244&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

D'Agostino, Joseph A.  Bush Will Review Law on Domestic Use of Military.  Human Events 58:6 July 29, 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7069875&site=ehost-live

Dunlap, Charles J., Jr.  The Origins of the American Military Coup of 2012.  Parameters 22:2-20 Winter 1992-1993.
 Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/1992/dunlap.htm

Farrell, William R.  Military Involvement in Domestic Terror Incidents.  Naval War College Review 34:53-66 July-August 1981.

Felicetti, Gary and Luce, John.  The Posse Comitatus Act:  Liberation from the Lawyers.  Parameters 34:94-107 Autumn 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=14325563&site=ehost-live

Freedberg, Sidney J., Jr.  Posse Comitatus:  Tiny Law, Big Impact.  National Journal 37:3557-3558 November 12, 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=19041267&site=ehost-live

Furman, H. W. C.  Restrictions upon Use of the Army Imposed by the Posse Comitatus Act.  Military Law Review 7:85-129 January 1960.
Also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/Military_Law_Review/pdf-files/27786B~1.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Gilligan, Matthew.  Opening the Gate?  An Analysis of Military Law Enforcement Authority over Civilian Lawbreakers on and off the Federal Installation.  Military Law Review 161:1-55 September 1999.
Also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/Military_Law_Review/pdf-files/275085~1.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Govern, Kevin H.  "Making Martial Law Easier" in the U.S.  Homeland Security Review 1:221-229 Fall 2007.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=tsh&AN=31692047&site=ehost-live

Haider-Markel, Donald P. and O'Brien, Sean P.  Creating a Well Regulated Militia:  Policy Responses to Paramilitary Groups in the American States.  Political Research Quarterly 50:551-566 September 1997.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=16377632&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Hilton, Robert E.  Recent Developments Relating to the Posse Comitatus Act.  Army Lawyer No. 121:1-8 January 1983.
Also available online at: 
http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/01-1983.pdf

International and Operational Law Notes:  Consequences of Violating the Posse Comitatus Act.
 Army Lawyer No. 272:61-68 July 1995.
Scroll down to the second topic in the article.
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Kayyem, Juliette N. and Roberts, Steven E.  War on Terrorism Will Compel Revisions to Posse Comitatus.  National Defense 87:41-42 December 2002.
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Kiser, George C.  Military Policing of the United States.  Humanist 57:32-33 May-June 1997.
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Kraska, Peter B. and Kappeler, Victor.  Militarizing American Police:  The Rise and Normalization of Paramilitary Units.  Social Problems 44:1-18 February 1997.

Lujan, Thomas R.  The Legal Aspects of Domestic Employment of the Army.  Parameters 27:82-97 Autumn 1997.
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Magnuson, Stew.  A Cautious Approach to Homeland Security:  Pentagon Wary of Posse Comitatus Prohibitions.  Defense News 18:28 November 17, 2003.
Also available online at:  http://www.infoweb.newsbank.com

Meeks, Clarence I., III.  Illegal Law Enforcement:  Aiding Civil Authorities in Violation of the Posse Comitatus Act.  Military Law Review 70:83-136 Fall 1975.
Also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/Military_Law_Review/pdf-files/275487~1.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Military Resists Domestic Role.  Government Executive 33:28 November 2001.
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Navas, William A., Jr.  Posse Comitatus:  The Army of the 21st Century and the Law of Unintended Consequences.  National Guard 53:34 January 1999.
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Pine, Art.  Should Congress Scrap Posse Comitatus?  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 131:46-48 December 2005.
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Preserve Posse Comitatus.  Progressive No. 11:8-10 November 2005.
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Quillen, Chris.  Posse Comitatus and Nuclear Terrorism.  Parameters 32:60-74 Spring 2002.
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Rice, Paul J.  New Laws and Insights Encircle the Posse Comitatus Act.  Military Law Review 104:109-138 Spring 1984.
Also available online at: 
http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/Military_Law_Review/pdf-files/276861~1.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Rich, Stephen B.  The National Guard, Drug Interdiction and Counter Drug Activities, and Posse Comitatus:  The Meaning and Implications of  'in Federal Service.'  Army Lawyer No. 259:35-43 June 1994.
Also available online at:  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/06-1994.pdf  (if pdf doesn't open, copy link into your browser)

Rohde, Aleksandra M.  Pushing the Limits of Posse Comitatus.  National Guard 43:30-32+ August 1989.

Rossi, C. T.  Modifying Posse Comitatus Puts Americans in Danger.  Insight on the News 18:45 September 2, 2002.
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Rothschild, Matthew.  What Is NorthCom up to?  Progressive 73:17-20 February 2009.
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Scully, Megan.  Pentagon Begins Review of Law on Military's Domestic Role.  CongressDaily, pp 6-8, September 27, 2005.
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Taft, William H., IV.  The Role of DOD in Civilian Law Enforcement.  Defense 83, pp 6-9, March 1983.

Thompson, Mark and Dickerson, John F.  Soldier on the Beat.  Time 158:60+ December 3, 2001.
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Turbiville, Graham H., Jr.  U.S.-Mexican Border Security: Civil-Military Cooperation.  Military Review 79:29-39 July-August 1999.
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Webb, Andrew.  Posse Comitatus and the Military in Domestic Law Enforcement.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:44-43 January 2004.
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When Can a President Intervene?  CongressDaily, pp 85-86, November 12, 2005.
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Wodele, Greta.  National Guard Brass Oppose Posse Comitatus Changes.  CongressDaily, pp 8-9, October 27, 2005.
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