September  2005

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S.  Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this web site or the information, products, or services contained therein.  For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations.  Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD web site.

Some materials listed below require access to subscription databases.   If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact  AUL's  Web Maintainerr for a password

All sites listed were last accessed on September 28, 2005.

Internet Resources 

Bildt, Carl.  Hard Earned Lessons On Nation Building:  Seven Ways to Rebuild Iraq.  May 7, 2003.  (Op Eds by Rand Staff).
Available online at:
This opinion article appeared in The International Herald Tribune on May 7, 2003.  The writer is a former prime minister of Sweden.

Cabe, Delia K.  Kennedy School Bulletin Nation Building:  Shedding Its Global Stance the United States Begins Reaching Out to Its Global Neighbors.  Spring 2002.  (Bulletin, Kennedy School of Government.  Harvard University).
Available online at:

Camarena, Mark J.  In Search of a New Type of Army:  Nation Building and Occupation.  Ft. Leavenworth, KS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  50 p. 
Available online at:

Chesterman, Simon.  Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan:  The Future of UN State Building.  International Peace Academy, September 2002.  12 p. 
Available online at:

Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction:  Conflict and Development
.  Washington, DC, World Bank.
Available online at:
Through assessment of the causes, consequences and characteristics of conflict and the transfer of lessons learned, the Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit works to design development efforts specific to conflict-affected countries.  The Post-Conflict Fund provides financing for physical and social reconstruction initiatives in post-war societies.  The Bank is playing a significant role in Afghanistan, Africa's Great Lakes region, the Balkans, Iraq, Liberia, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Timor Leste, the West Bank and Gaza, and other war-torn areas.

Cordesman, Anthony H.  Iraqi Force Development:  The Challenges of Partnership in Nation Building.  Revised.  Washington,  CSIS Press, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 7, 2005.  173 p. 
This is a working draft of a CIS book manuscript.
Also available online at:

Cordesman, Anthony H.  One Year On:  Nation Building in Iraq:  A Status Report.  Revised.  Washington,  CSIS Press, Center for Strategic and International Studies, April 16, 2004.  39 p. 
Working Paper.
Also available online at:

Dempsey, Gary T.  The Folly of Nation Building Afghanistan.  Washington, Cato Institute, 2001.  
Also available online at:

Dobbins, James.  Nation Building:  The Inescapable Responsibility of the World's Only Superpower.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, Summer 2003. 
Available online at:
We at the RAND Corporation have compiled what we have found to be the most important lessons learned by the United States in its nation-building efforts since World War II.  Not all these hard-won lessons have yet been fully applied to America's most recent nation-building efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Dobbins, James.  The UN's Role in Nation Building:  From the Congo to Iraq.  Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2005.  318 p. 
Available online at:
Reviews UN efforts to transform eight unstable countries into democratic, peaceful, and prosperous partners, and compares those missions with U.S. nation-building operations.  The UN provides the most suitable institutional framework for nation-building missions that require fewer than 20,000 men — one with a comparatively low cost structure, a comparatively high success rate, and the greatest degree of international legitimacy.

Hukill, Tracy.  National Journal Congress Weighs Building a Nation Building Agency., May 3, 2004. 
Available online at:

Mangan, Alan F.  Planning for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations Without a Grand Strategy.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2005.  31 p. 
Available online at:

Matthews, Lloyd J.  Winning the War by Winning the Peace:  Strategy for Conflict and Post Conflict in the 21st Century.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  63 p. 
Available online at:

Open Society Institute.  Reconstructing Iraq:  A Guide to the Issues.  Washington, OSI, May 30, 2003. 
Available online at:

Ottaway, Marina and Lieven, Anatol.  Rebuilding Afghanistan:  Fantasy versus Reality.  Washington, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2002.  7 p.  (Policy brief 12).
Available online at:

Pei, Minxin and Kaspar, Sara.  Lessons from the Past:  The American Record on Nation Building.  Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, May 24, 2003.  8 p.  (Policy Brief).
Available online at:
Of 16 efforts in nation building in the past democracy was sustained in only 4 cases, 10 years after the departure of US forces.

Peters, Katherine McIntire.  Iraq Rebuilding Efforts Plagued by Persistent Failures., June 30, 2004. 
Available online at:
Newly released assessments by the General Accounting Office and the inspector general of the defunct Coalition Provisional Authority show ongoing problems in U.S. efforts to manage programs to rebuild Iraq.

Pitts, Martin.  Rebuilding Iraq's Infrastructure Through Iraqi Nationals.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  27 p. 
Available online at:

Rebuilding Afghanistan.  Washington, The White House,
Available online at:

Rebuilding Iraq:  Actions Needed to Improve the Use of Private Security Providers.  Washington, U.S. General Accounting Office, 2005.  70 p.  (GAO-05-737).
Available online at:

Rebuilding Iraq:  Preliminary Observations on Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police.  Washington, U.S. General Accounting Office, 2005.  23 p.  (GAO-05-431T).
Available online at:

Rebuilding Iraq:  Resource, Security, Governance, Essential Services and Oversight Issues.  Washington, U.S. General Accounting Office, June 2004.  103 p.  (GAO-04-902R).
Available online at:

Robbins, Matthew J.  Investigating the Complexities of Nationbuilding:  A Sub-national Regional Perspective.  Wright Patterson AFB, OH, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2005.  168 p. 
Available online at:

Serafino, Nina M.  Peacekeeping and Related Stability Operations:  Issues of U.S. Military Involvement.  Washington, Congressional Research Service, March 2005.  16 p.  (CRS issue brief for Congress, IB94040).
Available online at:
See section "Debate over US military involvement in nation building" p.  6-7 See chart on DoD Incremental Costs of Peacekeeping and Security Contingency Operations FY1991-FY2005, p.16.


Braude, Joseph.  The New Iraq:  Rebuilding the Country for It's People, The Middle East, and the World.  New York, Basic Books, 2003.  211 p. 
Book call no.:  956.7044 B825n

Chesterman, Simon.  You, the People:  The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building.  NY, Oxford University Press, 2004.  296 p. 
The governance of post-conflict territories embodies a central contradiction:  how does one help a population prepare for democratic governance and the rule of law by imposing a form of benevolent autocracy?
Book call no.:  341.584 C525y

Crane, Conrad C.  and Terrill, W.  A.  Reconstructing Iraq:  Insights, Challenges, and Missions for Military Forces in a Post-Conflict Scenario.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2003.  85 p. 
This paper presents some historical insights from past occupations and peace operations, provides some additional analysis of the unique requirements involved in remaking Iraq, and develops a detailed list of potential tasks to help contemporary military commanders plan for post-conflict operations there.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  956.70443 C891r

Dempsey, Gary T.  Old Folly in a New Disguise:  Nation Building to Combat Terrorism.  Washington, Cato Institute, 2002.  21 p.  (Policy analysis (Cato Institute) ; no.  429)
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  363.320973 D389o

Dempsey, Gary T.  The Folly of Nation Building Afghanistan.  Washington, Cato Institute, 2001.  224 p. 
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  327.7301724 D389f

Feldman, Noah.  What We Owe Iraq:  War and the Ethics of Nation Building.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2004.  154 p. 
Book call no.:  956.704431 F312w

Hamre, John J.  Iraq's Post-Conflict Reconstruction a Field Review and Recommendations, July 17, 2003.  Washington, CSIS, 2003. 
Led by John Hamre, a team of experts in the field of post-conflict reconstruction assessed conditions in Iraq during the period of June 26, 2003, to July 7, 2003.  This report outlines the issues focused upon by the Hamre team during their 11 days in Iraq.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  956.70443 I659

Harris, Geoff T.  Recovery from Armed Conflict in Developing Countries.  London, Routledge, 1999.  340 p.  (Routledge studies in development economics; 14)
Focusing on developing countries, this three-part book surveys the extent, costs, and causes of armed conflict, including the structural or built-in conditions conducive to violence; explores issues of reconstruction and recovery by itemizing the steps and measures necessary to heal economic, social, and political wounds caused by war; and presents case studies of recovery programs in Angola, Cambodia, South Africa, and Sri Lanka.  Unfortunately none of these has been successful, though South Africa may still seem promising.  See part 3:  Reconstructing Afghanistan:  opportunities and challenges.
Book call no.:  338.91091724 R311

How to Build a New Iraq After Saddam, edited by Patrick Clawson.  Washington, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2002.  93 p. 
Book call no.:  327.730567 H847

Ignatieff, Michael.  Empire Lite:  Nation Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan.  Toronto, Penguin Canada, 2003.  134 p. 
Book call no.:  909.829 I24e

Ikenberry, G.  John.  After Victory:  Institutions, Strategic Restraint and Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars.  Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2001.  293 p.  (Princeton studies in international history and politics)
John Ikenberry asks the question, what do states that win wars do with their newfound power and how do they use it to build order? In examining the postwar settlements in modern history, he argues that powerful countries do seek to build stable and cooperative relations, but the type of order that emerges hinges on their ability to make commitments and restrain power.  The author explains that only with the spread of democracy in the twentieth century and the innovative use of international institutions--both linked to the emergence of the United States as a world power--has order been created that goes beyond balance of power politics to exhibit "constitutional" characteristics.
Book call no.:  327.1 I26a

Jennings, Ray Salvatore.  The Road Ahead:  Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace, 2003.  43 p.  (Peaceworks no.  49)
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  355.028 J54r

Kepel, Gilles.  The War for Muslim Minds:  Islam and the West.  Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004.  327 p. 
See chapter 6:  The Calamity of Nation Building in Iraq.
Book call no.:  909.097671 K38w

McKechnie, Alastair J.  Humanitarian Assistance, Reconstruction and Development in Afghanistan:  a Practitioner's View.  Washington, World Bank, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Unit, 2003.  14 p.  (CPR working paper; no.  3)
Country director for Afghanistan & Operations director, South Asia Region, World Bank, McKechnie describes Afghanistan's situation following the war as it moves from the need for emergency relief to reconstruction and development.
Also available online at:$FILE/WP+3+text.pdf
Book call no.:  958.1046 M154h

Morrison, Michael A.  and Zook, Melinda S.  Revolutionary Currents:  Nation Building in the Transatlantic World.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.  192 p. 
Book call no.:  303.6409034 R454

A Nation at War in an Era of Strategic Change , edited by Williamson Murray.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  371 p. 
A collection of essays written by students at U.S. Army War College's Advanced Strategic Arts Program.  See chapter 3:  "...Post Conflict Security Operations" pp 43-68.  See chapter 6:  "Waging Peace..." pp 125-172.  See chapter 9:  "...Is it Time For a Reconstruction and Stabilization Command?" pp 227-254.  See chapter 10:  "Nation Building:  A Bad Idea Whose Time Has Come" pp 255-276.
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  355.033573 N2774

Nation Building Unraveled?:  Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan, edited by Antonio Donini, Karin Wermester and Norah Niland.  Bloomfield, CT, Kumarian Press, 2004.  236 p. 
Book call no.:  958.1046 N277

Newman, Edward.  The United Nations and Human Security.  Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave, 2001.  231 p. 
Book call no.:  341.72 U581

Newman, Edward and Schnabel, Albrecht.  Recovering from Civil Conflict:  Reconciliation, Peace and Development .  London, Frank Cass, 2002.  231 p.  (The Cass series on peacekeeping).
Book call no.:  341.584 R311

Perito, Robert.  Where Is the Lone Ranger When We Need Him?:  America's Search for a Postconflict Stability Force.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004.  397 p. 
A penetrating study of U.S. policy on peace operations, Where Is the Lone Ranger When We Need Him? examines the challenges of establishing sustainable security in post-conflict environments in places like the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq. 
Book call no.:  341.584 P446w

Political Armies:  The Military and Nation Building in the Age of Democracy, edited by Kees Koonings and Dirk Kruijt.  London, Zed Books, 2002.  398 p. 
Book call no.:  322.5 P7692

Pollack, Kenneth M.  After Saddam:  Assessing the Reconstruction of Iraq.  Washington, Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, January 2004.  35 p.  (Analysis Paper)
Also available online at:
Book call no.:  956.70443 P771a

Pugh, Michael C.  Regeneration of War-Torn Societies.  New York, St.  Martin's Press, 2000.  249 p.  (Global issues series)
Book call no.:  363.3498526 R333

Rosenberg, Jerry M.  Nation-Building:  A Middle East Recovery Program.  Lanham, MD, University Press of America, 2003.  235 p. 
Jerry Rosenberg proposes a practical model for a reinvented Marshall Plan for the entire region.  Following a careful review of the 1948 European Recovery Program (the Marshall Plan), Rosenberg illustrates the similarities and differences between a post World War II rebuilding and reconstruction effort and the present situation in the Middle East.
Book call no.:  337.73056 R813n

Rotberg, Robert I.  When States Fail:  Causes and Consequences.  Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 2004.  335 p. 
Book call no.:  320.011 W567

Watson, Cynthia A.  Nation-Building:  A Reference Handbook.  Santa Barbara, CA, ABC CLIO, 2004.  331 p.  (Contemporary World Issues)
Book call no.:  R 327.73009045 W337n

Watson, Cynthia Ann.  Nation-Building:  A Reference Handbook.  Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, 2004.  333 p.  (Contemporary world issues).
Book call no.:  327.73009045 W337n

White, Thomas E.  Reconstructing Eden:  A Comprehensive Plan for the Post War Political and Economic Development of Iraq.  Houston, TX, Country Watch, 2003.  380 p. 
Book call no.:  338.9567 R311

Williams, Garland H.  Engineering Peace:  The Military Role in Postconflict Reconstruction.  Washington, D.C.  United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005.  317 p. 
In practically all the peacekeeping operations of the 1990s, a post-conflict reconstruction gap of almost one year separates the end of military peacekeepers' mission of halting mass violence from the start of removing mines as well as rebuilding and repairing the host country's physical infrastructure:  roads and bridges, public utilities, and buildings.  Colonel Garland Williams analyzes the post-conflict reconstruction gap in three case studies—Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan—and shows how military engineering brigades accompanying peacekeeping contingents can be put to use immediately after the conflict ends to restore vital infrastructure and social institutions. 
Book call no.:  355.028 W723e

Winning the Peace:  An American Strategy for Post-Conflict Reconstruction, edited by Robert C.  Orr.  Washington, CSIS Press, 2004.  353 p.  (Significant issues series, v.  26, no.  7)
The 17 papers first explore different aspects of reconstruction capabilities including security operations, governance structures, providing social and economic well-being, and dealing with justice and reconciliation.  They then turn to the enhancement of "capacity enablers" such as interagency planning, civilian rapid response capability, training and education for personnel, and funding.  Finally five case studies, from Japan to Iraq, are presented. 
Book call no.:  355.028 W776


Some of the documents cited in this section are student papers written to fulfill PME school requirements.

Carson, Jayne A.  Nation Building:  The American Way.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2003.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 C321n
Also available online at:

Edens, Timothy J.  Nation Building in Afghanistan:  A Disconnect Between Security Means and Political Ends?.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2003.  25 p.
Document call no.:  M-U 39080-537 E221n
Also available online at:

Fella, George.  Security Strategy for Postwar Iraq.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  22 p.  (USAWC strategy research project)
This paper examines shortcomings in the development and execution of the postwar security strategy for Operation Iraqi Freedom.  The strategy is evaluated from the perspective of the diplomatic informational military and economic elements of national power.  The paper presents lessons learned from the postwar strategy as they relate to recommendations made before the war by the bipartisan Commission on Post-Conflict Reconstruction.  It also includes other lessons learned and corrective actions the Commission didn't address."--Abstract taken from web site.
Document call no.:  M-U 39080-537 F317s

Also available online at:

Franklin, Mark D.  Iraq Reconstruction:  Time for a Plan.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  26 p.  (USAWC strategy research project).
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 F833i
Also available online at:

Grymes, Robert D.  Establishing Security and Stability in Afghanistan.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2003.  33 p.
Document call no.:  M-U 39080-537 G894e
Also available online at:

Howard, James R.  Preparing for War, Stumbling to Peace:  Planning for Post-Conflict Operations in Iraq:  a Monograph.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  59 p.
This monograph discusses planning for the post-conflict phase of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM.  More specifically, it examines whether a disparate focus on war-fighting operations during the planning and execution phase of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM is to blame for the lack of progress towards reconstruction.  The purpose of this paper is to assess whether planning for Operation IRAQI FREEDOM devoted sufficient attention to the likely requirements of the post-conflict environment.  It will analyze whether the failure to plan for this environment exposed realization of the strategic objectives to unnecessary risk. 
Document call no.:   M-U 42022-2 H849p
Also available online at:

MacLean, David G.  Nation Building in Palestine:  The Time is Now.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2002.  136 p.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 M161n
Also available online at:

McMillen, Donna L.  Nation Assistance Shaping National Security and Military Strategies for the 21st Century with a Cold War Policy?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2002.  21 p.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 M1671n
Also available online at:

Moore, John M.  Disconnected Strategies:  Why Success Is Elusive in Stability Operations and Post-Conflict Reconstruction.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  22 p.  (USAWC strategy research project Student papers)
Since the late 1980's, the United States (US) has conducted an increasing number of operations other than war to include attempts at post-conflict reconstruction.  Success in these operations has been elusive.  The US interventions in Panama, 1989-1991, Somalia, 1992- 1994, and Haiti, 1994-1996, provide excellent case studies for determining the foundational causes of its poor performance.  An analysis of these operations yields a consistent lesson. 
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 M8224d
Also available online at:

Naething, Robert R.  Transformation and the Future of Post-Conflict Operations:  Lessons from Our Nation's Past.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  26 p.  (USAWC strategy research project)
In the aftermath of the United States led attack that disposed Saddam Hussein serious questions have been raised as to the preparations for post- conflict operations.  The major conflict itself lasted a mere three weeks but since then delays in restoring pre-conflict civilian services and security have raised questions as to the preparedness of both the American government and its military to win the peace.  Post-conflict and counterinsurgency operations actually begin during combat operations. 
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 N144t
Also available online at:

Nelson, John D.  Swiftly Defeat the Efforts; Then What?:  The "New American Way of War" and Transitioning Decisive Combat to Post Conflict Stabilization.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  25 p.  (USAWC strategy research project)
It now takes more ground force to secure the peace in post conflict than to bring an end to decisive operations.  This paper will examine the paradox created by the New American Way of War and the increased need for ground forces to secure the peace compared to conducting decisive operations.  To explore this paradox the analysis will focus on the period of time in a campaign when decisive operations transition from conflict termination to post conflict stability operations.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 N427s
Also available online at:

Reed, Deborah L.  Post Conflict Operations Planning and Execution.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  24 p.  (USAWC strategy research project).
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 R3231p

Reider, Bruce J.  Joint Capabilities for Post-Conflict Operations:  A Monograph.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  75 p.
Victory is determined not only by what happens during a period of conflict but also by what happens after the fighting ends, during post-conflict operations.  This monograph examines what joint military capabilities are required for post-conflict operations in order to achieve the desired end state.  Post-conflict operations consist of a complex and challenging set of tasks involving the military as well as other government agencies and multinational partners. 
Document call no.:   M-U 42022-2 R359j
Also available online at:

Rigby, William A.  Nation Building:  An Essential Army Task.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2003.  26 p.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 R567n
Also available online at:

Shienle, Duke C.  Liberator or Occupier:  Indigenous Allies Make the Difference:  A Monograph.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.  54 p.
This monograph examines the potential roles of indigenous forces in the transition period from decisive combat through post-conflict reconstruction.  More specifically, should Unconventional Warfare (UW) doctrine assess, train, and develop suitable resistance forces for a post-conflict security role? Minimizing U.S. ground presence in future conflicts asks the question, what missions are indigenous resistance forces suitable for?
Document call no.:   M-U 42022-2 S555L
Also available online at:

Thompson, Burdett K.  Nation Building:  A Bad Idea Who's Time Has Come?.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2004.  24 p.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 T468n
Also available online at:

Williams, Garland H.  Post Conflict Reconstruction:  On the Critical Path to Long-Term Peace.  Carlisle Barracks, PA , U.S. Army War College, 2003.  276 p.  (USAWC strategy research project)
The focus of this research is to define the role the military should assume in post conflict infrastructure reconstruction during peace operations.  The paper examines the limitations under which the military currently operates, discusses the advantages and disadvantages that the military and the civil agencies bring to infrastructure reconstruction, and suggests a template to use during future peace operations maximizing each organization to its best effectiveness.
Document call no.:   M-U 39080-537 W723p
Also available online at:


Addison, Tony, Geda, Alemayehu, Le Billon, Philippe, and Murshed, S.  Mansoob.  Reconstructing and Reforming the Financial System in Conflict and 'Post-Conflict' Economies.  Journal of Development Studies 41:703-718 May 2005.
Reconstructing the financial system in countries affected by violent conflict is crucial to successful and broad-based recovery.  Particularly important tasks include:  currency reform, rebuilding (or creating) central banks, revitalizing the banking sector, and strengthening prudential supervision and regulation.
Also available online at:

Ambrose, Stephen E.  The Master (Nation) Builder.  National Review 54:30-32 March 11, 2002.
Mr.  Ambrose argues that the United States should engage in so called nation building in Afghanistan.
Also available online at:

Baldauf, Scott.  Nation Building, Redoubled.  The Christian Science Monitor 95:1 September 8, 2003.
Also available online at:

Boot, Max.  Liberal Imperialism.  American Heritage 53:62-68 June-July 2002.
At a time when it can offer answers to urgent questions, we have forgotten America's long history of "nation building".
Also available online at:

Boot, Max.  The Struggle to Transform the Military.  Foreign Affairs 84:103-118 March-April 2005.
Also available online at:

Bose, Sumantra.  The Bosnian State a Decade After Dayton.  International Peacekeeping 12:322-335 Autumn 2005.
A decade on from the Dayton peace settlement, this essay sets out to examine two questions.  First, is the consociational and confederal paradigm established by the Dayton agreement, and subsequently institutionalized, the appropriate framework for the Bosnian state?
Also available online at:

Bronson, Rachael.  Reconstructing the Middle East? Brown Journal of World Affairs 10:271-280 Summer-Fall 2003.
Focuses on the need for nation-building projects by the U.S. government in the Middle East.  Commitment of the U.S. to the solution of the conflict among Arab countries; Assessment of the nation-building capabilities of the U.S.; Recommendations for the promotion of law and order and stability.
Also available online at:

Byman, Daniel.  Constructing a Democratic Iraq:  Challenges and Opportunities.  International Security vol.  28, no.  1:47-78 Summer 2003.
Also available online at:

Cahlink, George.  Reconstructing Afghanistan's Provinces.  National Journal 35:3824-3825 December 20, 2003.
A look at how the US Army's rebuilding operation is working in one Afghan city.
Also available online at:

Caplan, Richard.  International Authority and State Building:  The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  Global Governance 10:53-65 January-March 2004.
State building refers to efforts to reconstruct or in some cases to establish for the first time, an effective indigenous government in a state or territory where no such capacity exists or where the capacity has been seriously eroded, as of March 10, 2004.  Third-party state building, as opposed to indigenous state building, is a relatively recent practice in international relations.  The distinctive feature of an international territorial administration is both the scope of its interest in the governmental functions of the relevant state or territory and its authority over these functions.  Third parties have been active before in areas of governance thought historically to be the exclusive domain of domestic jurisdiction for instance, as part of "complex" peacekeeping or peace building arrangements that have granted the United Nations and its representatives intrusive powers, ranging from human rights monitoring and the supervision of elections to the demobilization of armed forces and the reorganization of police forces.
Also available online at:

Caraccilo, Dominic J.  and Rohling, Andrew M.  Targeting in Postconflict Operations in Iraq.  Military Review 84:11-19 January-February 2004.
Looks at the post-conflict military operations of the U.S. 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry Regiment (2-503d) in Iraq.  Definition of the term, rules of engagement, as defined in the Field Manual 101-5-1 "Operational Terms and Graphics"; Reason for the need of the commander's guidance to evolve; Elements involved in the interface of 2-503d delineated company sector with the Kirkuk community.
Also available online at:

Carlton Jr., Alfred P.  On Goal in Iraq.  ABA Journal 89:8 June 2003.
Discusses the Iraq Post-Conflict Action Team formed by the American Bar Association in the U.S. to help with Iraq's nation-building needs after the war.  Information on the nation-building programs of the ABA; Role of U.S. lawyers in rebuilding Iraq; Information on the efforts of the ABA to promote the rule of law globally.
Also available online at:

Carpenter, Ted G.  Jackboot Nation Building:  The West Brings "Democracy" To Bosnia.  Mediterranean Quarterly 11:1-22 Spring 2000.
Deals with the international nation-building mission in Bosnia.  Troubling aspect of the mission; Implication of the conduct of the international officials on media pluralism; Rationale of the nation builders.
Also available online at:

Chesterman, Simon.  Bush, the United Nations and Nation-Building.  Survival vol.  46, no.  1:101-116 Spring 2004.
Also available online at:

Civilian Workers Assist in Rebuilding Iraq and Afghanistan.  Officer Review Magazine 43:7 June 2004.
Reports that the U.S. Department of Defense is calling on civilian workers to assist in rebuilding Iraq and Afghanistan.  Launch of the Supporting Our Friends In Iraq and Afghanistan web site; Claim that job skills being sought are numerous and across the spectrum including civil engineering, banking, agriculture, education, communications and security.
Also available online at:

Corera, Gordon.  Iraq Provides Lessons in Nation Building.  Jane's Intelligence Review 16:30-33 January 2004.

Crawley, Vince.  Pentagon Panel:  Improve Postwar Skills--Stabilization, Reconstruction Should be Part of Combat Plan.  Defense News 20:12 January 24, 2005.

Crawley, Vince.  Study:  Nation Building Requires Prolonged Troop Stay.  Air Force Times 64:28 August 25, 2003.

Diamond, Larry.  Lessons from Iraq.  Journal of Democracy 16:9-23 January 2005.
The US-led reconstruction effort has so far failed to establish democratic institutions in Iraq.  But as troubled as that effort has been, it provides valuable lessons for future nation-building endeavors.  Here, Diamond identifies these lessons and discusses each of them.
Also available online at:

Dobbins, James.  The UN's Role In Nation Building:  From the Belgin Congo to Iraq.  Survival 46:  Winter 2004-2005.
Since the end of the Cold War, the United States and the United Nations have both been heavily engaged in nation-building and have developed their own distinct approaches to the conduct of such missions.  In the aftermath of its early and widely publicized failures in Somalia and Yugoslavia, the UN's reputation for competent nation- building was seriously damaged, and demand for its services fell off noticeably.  More recently, the US reputation for competence in the field has suffered as a result of setbacks in Afghanistan and Iraq.
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Dobbins, James F.  America's Role in Nation Building:  From Germany to Iraq.  Survival vol.  45, no.  4:87-109 Winter 2003-2004.
Also available online at:

Donahoe, Patrick J.  Preparing Leaders for Nationbuilding.   Military Review 84:24-26 May-June 2004.
Discusses how the U.S. can prepare leaders for nationbuilding.  Characteristics of fictional character, Major Victor Joppolo, in the book "A Bell for Adano," by John Hershey; Training needed by soldiers before foreign deployment; Importance of knowing how to run a city in establishing safety and stability in an urban environment.
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Edelstein, David M.  Occupational Hazards:  Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail.  International Security vol.  29, no.  1:49-91 Summer 2004.
The article examines twenty-four military occupations to study the critical role of commonly perceived external threat in determining occupation success.  Occupation success is largely influenced by structural factors that occupying powers cannot easily manipulate.  To the extent they can, great powers must therefore carefully choose places to occupy where the threat environment is conducive to occupation success.  Occupying powers can increase their chances of success both by pursuing a wartime strategy that creates an environment welcoming to occupation and by employing strategies, such as contingent withdrawal, that make their pledges to create an independent, indigenous government more credible.

Eizenstadt, Stuart E.  Rebuilding Weak States.  Foreign Affairs 84:134-146 January-February 2005.
Securing 50 weak or failing states may seem like a daunting, even overwhelming, task, but it is necessary.  In today's globalized world, weak states threaten the United States, regional stability, and international safety in a wide variety of ways.  The United States must not acquiesce at a time when its own security is threatened by the weakness of other states.  Washington must confront the development problems of faltering states now, before they fail and become unmanageable threats.
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Etzioni, Amitai.  A Self-Restrained Approach to Nation-Building by Foreign Powers.  International Affairs vol.  80, no.  1:1-17 January 2004.
Nation-building by foreign powers can rarely be accomplished and tends to be very costly, not merely in economic resources and those of political capital, but also in human lives.  Foreign powers often attempt to tackle numerous tasks with little discernible effect.  Therefore, whatever resources foreign powers are willing and able to commit should be focused on a modest agenda - what is termed in this article a 'restrained approach'.
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Flavin, William.  Planning for Conflict Termination and Post-Conflict Success.  Parameters 33:95-112 Autumn 2003.
Flavin examines the doctrinal basis for conflict termination planning and provides suggestions and approaches for greater success.  The keys to successful conflict termination include the following fundamentals:  conducting early interagency planning, establishing workable objectives, goals, and end states; providing for adequate intelligence and signaling; ensuring unity of effort; and establishing the appropriate the appropriate post-conflict organization.  Moreover, successful conflict termination, post-conflict peace operations, and conflict resolution depend on the civil and military leadership recognizing that the end of conflict is as critical as the conduct of war.
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Fukuyama, Francis.  Nation Building 101.  Atlantic Monthly 293:159-162 January-February 2004.
The chief threats to U.S. and to world order come from states.  Learning how to fix weak, collapsed, or failed states, and building necessary political support at home, will be a defining issue for the U.S. in the century ahead.  The transformation of U.S. President George W. Bush from a presidential candidate opposed to nation-building into a President committed to writing the history of an entire troubled part of the world is one of the most dramatic illustrations of how the September 11 terrorist attacks changed American politics.  Before September 11, 2001, the United States felt it could safely ignore chaos in a far-off place like Afghanistan, but the intersection of religious terrorism and weapons of mass destruction has meant that formerly peripheral areas are now of central concern.
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Gilbert, Marc Jason.  Fatal Amnesia:  American Nation-Building in Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq.  Journal of Third World Studies 31:13-43 Fall 2004.
Offers views on the process that led U.S. foreign policy makers to pursue interventionist strategies that have ill-served its national interests and seriously compromise the interests of those communities that are the foci of American nation building efforts.  Typologies of U.S. nation building; Information on the nation-building efforts of the U.S. in Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq; Politics of anti-nation-building from 1980 to 2003.
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Hamre, John J.  and Sullivan, Gordon R.  Toward Postconflict Reconstruction.  Washington Quarterly 25:85-96 Autumn 2002.
Discusses how the United States and its allies should deal with failed states to reduce the threat to the national interests of the U.S. and to the stability of the entire regions.  Allowing the failed state to resolve its own problems without major action on the part of outsiders; Quarantining a failed state; Acknowledging that a failed state is no longer viable and recognized its dissolution into smaller pieces; Integrating or absorbing a failed state.
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Harris, Shane.  The Slog of Reconstruction.  Government Executive 37:26-27 January 2005.
The massive nation-building effort underway in Iraq, led largely by the US government and American contractors, has been beset for almost 2 years by delays, insurgent attacks and corruption.  Any one of these factors could derail the initiative, which aims to make Iraq an economic engine of the Middle East.  Taken together, however, and in light of the findings of 2 new reports on the reconstruction, the future of rebuilding looks imperiled.  In addition to kidnappings and ambushes, an Army analysis attributed the slow reconstruction to shortages of critical US government personnel.  Particularly lacking are career procurement and contracting specialists with the skills and experience to manage massive nation-building operations. 
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Hukill, Traci.  Time for an Office of Nation Building.  National Journal 36:1346 May 1, 2004.
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Ignatieff, Michael.  Intervention and State Failure.  Dissent 49:114-123 Winter 2002.
Ignatieff discusses what has happened to the interaction between sovereignty and human rights since 1945, and how the theory and practice of humanitarian intervention has developed in response to the epidemic of state failure since the end of the cold war.  Though some results are mixed, such as the cases in Bosnia and East Timor, an inchoate practice of nation building is showing that state order can rebuild if wealthy and powerful states are prepared to invest time and money.
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Ismael, Tareq and Ismael, Jacqueline.  Whither Iraq? Beyond Saddam, Sanctions and Occupation.  Third World Quarterly vol.  26, no.  4-5:609-629 October 2005.
The USA's policy of nation-building and state-building in Iraq are examined against two earlier models of political reconstruction there British and Baathist.  Using the guideposts revealed, four scenarios are posited based on different sets of assumptions about the state of state- and nation building.

Khalilzad, Zalmay.  How to Nation-Build.  National Interest 80:19-27 Summer 2005 .
FOR THREE and a half years, the United States has been engaged with the Afghan people in an ambitious program of state-building.  Afghans have a strong sense of national identity, despite their ethnic diversity.  The key task has been to establish a legitimate political process and rebuild state institutions.  As the president's special envoy and as ambassador to Afghanistan during the past 17 months, I have seen that a nation wracked by a quarter century of occupation and internal conflict can lay the foundation upon which a democratic society can be constructed.
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Kimmey, Mark L.  Transforming Civil Affairs.  Army 55:17-23 March 2005.
The US Army's primary asset in nation-building--its civil service affairs component--will become ever more engaged as this century unfolds.  Here, Kimmey discusses the importance of transforming civil affairs to better support the maneuver commander and the nation as a whole.
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Klein, Naomi.  The Rise of Disaster Capitalism.  Nation 280:9-11 May 2, 2005.
On August 5, 2004, the White House created the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization, headed by former U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Carlos Pascual.  Its mandate is to draw up elaborate "post-conflict" plans for up to twenty-five countries that are not, as of yet, in conflict. 
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Krebs, Ronald R.  A School for the Nation:  How Military Service Does Not Build Nations, And How It Might.  International Security vol.  28, no.  4:85-124 Spring 2004.
Like many leaders before and after them, Roosevelt and Brezhnev turned to the armed forces and the policy of universal military service at least in part to help build cohesive national communities out of their countries’ multinational jumbles.  This view of the military as a key institution for the labeling and transmission of social values has roots stretching back to ancient Greece, but the armed forces first achieved great popularity as a nation builder toward the end of the nineteenth century. 

Looney, Robert.  Banking on Baghdad:  Financial Change in Postwar Iraq.  Strategic Insights 3:  May 2004.
An electronic journal published by Center for Contemporary Conflict, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.
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Mcmahon, Patrice C.  Rebuilding Bosnia:  A Model to Emulate or to Avoid? Political Science Quarterly 119:569-593 Winter 2004-2005.
The article debates over the issue of rebuilding of Bosnia and Hercegovina.  Based on interviews in Bosnia in 2000 and 2001 with officials from international organizations, private foundations, and representatives of local nongovernmental organizations, it assess international strategies for bringing Bosnia back.
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Michael, Bryane.  Losing Iraq by Failing to Rebuild It.  World & I 18:38-43 October 2003.
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Muggah, Robert.  No Magic Bullet:  a Critical Perspective on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (Ddr) and Weapons Reduction in Post-Conflict Contexts.  Round Table 94:239-252 April 2005.
The end of war does not necessarily signal a return to security.  The introduction of a ceasefire, peace agreement or even discrete interventions seeking to disarm warring parties, does not necessarily guarantee improvements in the safety of either civilians or former combatants. 
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Nation Building.  CQ Researcher 13:634-635 July 25, 2003.
Comments on how the U.S. government shifted its power from establishing colonies to establishing a reputation as a nation that helps rebuild its vanquished enemies focusing on rebuilding Iraq after the war in 2003.  Involvement in the reconstruction of the defeated Germany and Japan after World War II.

Ottaway, Marina.  Nation Building.  Foreign Policy issue 132:16-20 September-October 2002.
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Page, Susan.  History's Lesson:  Reform in Iraq Can't Be Hurried.  USA Today News Section, p 01-A April 15, 2003.
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Peck, Fred.  Somalia, Afghanistan:  A Script for Reconstruction of Iraq.  Sea Power 46:78-81 April 2003.
Focuses on the relevance of the experience of the U.S. in the war in Somalia and in Afghanistan to the post-war reconstruction of Iraq.  Importance of the teamwork between military and civil agencies; Overview of the reconstruction program of the U.S. in the two wars; Challenges facing the reconstruction of Iraq.
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Pei, Minxin.  Lessons of the Past.  Foreign Policy issue 137:52-54 July-August 2003.
Nation building--the restructuring of the governing institutions in foreign societies--is probably the most complex, costly, and, ultimately, frustrating foreign policy undertaking.  Even for great powers endowed with unsurpassed military strength and wealth, most attempts to rebuild other nations in their own image have historically ended in disappointment, if not outright failure.  To make nation building work in Iraq, the United States must first and foremost recall its own experiences in other countries.
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Quynh-Nhu Vuong.  U.S. Peacekeeping and Nation Building:  The Evolution of Self Interested Multilateralism.  Berkley Journal of International Law vol.  21, issue 3 :894-824 2003.
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Rubin, Barnette R.  (Re) Building Afghanistan:  The Folly of Stateless Democracy.  Current History 103:165-170 April 2004.
Reports on the transition towards democracy in Afghanistan.  Interrelationship between the patronage connections in Afghanistan and the international system; Barriers to the security and human rights implementation in the Muslin state; Framework for self-governance.
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Ryan, Priscilla.  Building a State in Iraq:  Is There a Good Precedent? An Interview With Simon Chesterman.  Journal of International Affairs 57:219-225 Fall 2003.
Interviews Simon Chesterman, senior associate at the International Peace Academy, about the state-building initiatives in Iraq.  Influential personalities involved in the modern state-building process; Information on the possible impact of the events of September 11, 2001 on modern state building activities; Insights on the possible results of the state-building initiatives in Iraq.
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Schadlow, Nadia.  War and the Art of Governance.  Parameters 33:85-94 Autumn 2003.
Describes the concept of war and the art of governance in the U.S.  Distinction between governance operation with peace operations and peacekeeping; Plan of the government to restore political and economic condition; Implication of effective reconstruction strategy for military planning, command arrangements and governance operation.
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Sorensen, Alan.  The Reluctant Nation Builders.  Current History 102:407 December 2003.
The dubiously rationalized and defiantly prosecuted occupation of Iraq has distracted from the need to develop international consensus and capacity for nation building and other benevolent interventions.  Sorensen opines that America's makeshift attempt to remake Iraq could prove hard to sustain and much less to replicate, especially if it continues to provoke more terrorism than it puts down, and what the world really needs now is possibly a new multilateral organization that specializes peacekeeping and state-building operations.
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Special Issue:  Reconstructing Post-Saddam Iraq.  Third World Quarterly 26:559-852 June 2005.
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Stohl, Rachael.  What to Do With Afghanistan:  Prospects For Stability.  Defense Monitor 30:3-5 November 2001.
Focuses on the role of the U.S. in leading the process of developing a nation-building strategy after the military campaign in Afghanistan.  Creation of viable economy; Implementation of an immediate aid program; Delivery of food assistance clothes and blankets in advance of winter.
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Von Hippel, Karin.  Democracy By Force:  A Renewed Commitment to Nation Building.  Washington Quarterly 23:91-112 Winter 2000.
Examination of developments in nation-building after U.S.-sponsored military intervention in the last decade reveals the factors that put the U.S. government on the path to military action in the first place, the changes in peace-support operations, the advances in nation-building efforts and the recommendations for improving future operations.
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