Protection of humanitarian relief workers in Somalia from 3 December 1992 to 4 May 1993.

November 2009

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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Some articles listed below require access to subscription databases.  If you cannot gain access, contact your local library for availability.  AU students and faculty can contact the Web Maintainer for a password.

All sites listed were last accessed on November 3, 2009.

Internet Resources

Air War College.  Gateway to the Internet.:  Somalia (Lessons Learned)
Available online at:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-lesn.htm#somalia

Davis, Lois M. and others.  Army Medical Support for Peace Operations and Humanitarian Assistance.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 1996.
Available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR773/index.html#
Chapter 4:  Operations Restore Hope and Continue Hope, Somalia:  A Case Study of the Medical Mission.

Deployment Health Clinical Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center.  Operation United Shield.
Available online at:  http://www.pdhealth.mil/deployments/united_shield/background.asp
Provides detailed information about the medical aspects of Operation Restore Hope.

Global Security.org.  Operation Restore Hope.
Available online at:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/restore_hope.htm

Snyder, R.  Operation Restore Hope/Battle of Mogadishu 1993.  Northern Virginia Community College, History 135, August 2001.
Available online at:  http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/Events/Somalia93/Somalia93.html

United Nations.  Department of Public Information.  Somalia - UNOSOM I.
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosomi.htm
Provides brief information about the background to and the UN action in Somalia, April 1992 - March 1993 called UNOSOM I.

United Nations.  Department of Public Information.  Somalia - UNOSOM II.
Available online at:  http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosom2b.htm
Provides brief information about the background to and the UN action in Somalia, March 1993 - March 1995 called UNOSOM II.

Internet Resource (Student Research)

Viola, James A.  What Is the Proper Role of Public Opinion in the Decision to Use Military Force as an Element of National Power?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, February 2006. 19 p.
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449642
 "Explores the history and dimensions of public opinion. It reviews past influences of public opinion on military operations, such as the peacekeeping mission in Somalia, and examines its effects on current operations." - Abstract


Abdullahi, Mohammed Diriye.  Fiasco in Somalia:  US-UN Intervention.  Pretoria, South Africa, Africa Institute of South Africa, 1995.  47 p. (Occasional Papers of the Africa Institute, no. 61)
Book call no.:  967.73053 D598f

After the War:  Nation-Building from FDR to George W. Bush, by James Dobbins and others.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2008.  152 p.
Discusses Somalia on pages 43-49.
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG716.pdf
Book call no.:  327.1 A258

Amstutz, Mark R.  International Ethics:  Concepts, Theories, and Cases in Global Politics.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.  233 p.
Somalia Intervention, pp 138-144.
Book call no.:  172.4 A528i

Bercuson, David.  Significant Incident:  Canada's Army, the Airborne, and the Murder in Somalia.  Toronto, Canada, McClelland and Stewart, 1996.  263 p.
Bercuson exposes the profound problems affecting mission, leadership, and structure in Canada's army that made Arone's agonizing death possible." - Summary
Book call no.:  355.00971 B486s

Bowden, Mark.  Black Hawk Down:  A Story of Modern War.  New York, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.  386 p.
The original newspaper series online.  Includes audio and video clips.
Also available online at:  http://inquirer.philly.com/packages/somalia/
Book call no.: 967.73053 B784b

Brune, Lester H.  The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions:  Bush and Clinton in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia, 1992-1998.  Claremont, CA, Regina Books, 1998.  177 p. (Guides to Contemporary Issues, no.11)
The Somalia Intervention, pp 12-36.
Book call no.:  327.73 B894u

Casper, Lawrence E.  Falcon Brigade:  Combat and Command in Somalia and Haiti.  Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001.  278 p.
Casper’s candid account of Operation Continue Hope and the brigade’s involvement in Somalia, showcases the leadership skills and courage necessary for troop survival under beleaguered circumstances." - Abstract
Book call no.:  967.73953 C343f

Cassidy, Robert M.   Peacekeeping in the Abyss:  British and American Peacekeeping Doctrine and Practice after the Cold War.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2004.  284 p.
The American Military in Somalia - into the Abyss, pp 149-173.
Book call no.:  355.35 C345p

Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention
, edited by Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder.  New York, Columbia University Press, 1999.  331 p.
Somalia:  Civil War and International Intervention by David D. Laitin, pp 146-180.
Book call no.:  355.0218 C582

The Costs of Conflict:  Prevention and Cure in the Global Arena
, edited by Michael E. Brown and Richard N. Rosecrance.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.  278p.
Somalia, by Mike Blakley, pp 75-90.
Book call no.:  327.17 C842

Daniel, Donald C. F. and Bradd, C. Hayes.  Coercive Inducement and the Containment of International Crises.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999.  272 p.
Somalia, pp 79-112.
Book call no.:  341.584 D184c

Dawson, Grant.  "Here Is Hell":  Canada's Engagement in Somalia.  Vancouver, Canada, UBC Press, 2007.  230 p.
Uses interviews and documents to
show "how media pressure, government optimism about the United Nations, and the Canadian traditions of multilateralism and peacekeeping all helped to determine the level, length, and tenor of the country’s operations in Somalia." - Abstract
Book call no.:  967.73053 D272h

Fishel, John T.  Civil Military Operations in the New World.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1997.  269 p.
One Step Forward - Two Steps Back:  The Intervention in Somalia, pp 189-207.
Book call no.:  355.34 F532c

Fleitz, Frederick H., Jr.  Peacekeeping Fiascoes of the 1990s:  Causes, Solutions, and U.S. Interests.  Westport, CT, Praeger, 2002.  224 p.
Somalia, pp 130-134.
Book call no.:  341.584 F596p

Glenn, Russell W. and others.  Urban Battle Command in the 21st Century.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2005.  114 p.
Uses a study of fighting in Somalia for examples.
If hyperlink does not open, copy into browser.
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG181.pdf
Book call no.:  355.33041 G558u

Hirsch, John L. and Oakley, Robert B.  Somalia and Operation Restore Hope:  Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping.  Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995.  217 p.
"Captures the essence of the Somalia experience of humanitarian intervention."- Foreword
Book call no.:  341.58 H669s

Kelly, Michael.  Restoring and Maintaining Order in Complex Peace Operations:  The Search for a Legal Framework.  Boston, Kluwer Law International, 1999.  311 p. (International Humanitarian Law Series, vol 2)
Chapters 2 and 3 are about operations in Somalia.
Book call no.:  341.584 K291r

Lang, Anthony F., Jr.  Agency and Ethics:  The Politics of Military Intervention.  Albany, NY, State University of New York Press, 2002.  242 p. (SUNY Series in Global Politics)
Intervention in Somalia, pp 155-185.
Book call no.:  341.584 L269a

Larson, Eric V. and Bogdan, Savych.  American Public Support for U.S. Military Operations from Mogadishu to Baghdad.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2005.  248 p.
escribes American public opinion toward wars and other large military operations over the last decade, to delineate the sources of support and opposition for each war or operation, to identify the principal fault lines in support, and to illuminate those factors that are consistent predictors of support for and opposition to military operations." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG231.pdf
Book call no.:  355.4773 L 334a

Learning from Somalia:  The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention,
edited by Walter Clarke and Jeffrey Herbst.  Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1997.  276 p.
races the beginnings of the Somalia crisis from the UN standoff to the inevitable withdrawal." - Summary
Book call no.:  967.73053 L438

Matthews, Lloyd J.  The Political-Military Rivalry for Operational Control in U.S. Military Actions:  A Soldier's Perspective.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, 1998.  43 p.
"Presents a soldier's perspective of the operational implications of instant access to the battlefield by civilian leaders in Washington." - Forward
Also available online at:  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi/pubs/display.cfm/hurl/PubID=309
Book call no.:  322.5 M439p

Murphy, Ray.  UN Peacekeeping in Lebanon, Somalia and Kosovo:  Operational and Legal Issues in Practice.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007.  375 p.
Includes a case study of peacekeeping in Somalia.
Book call no.:  341.584 M9781u

Ockaitis, Thomas R.  Peace Operations and Intrastate Conflict:  The Sword or the Olive Branch?  Westport, CT, Praeger, 1999.  166 p.
Somalia, pp 46-77.
Book call no.:  341.584 M688p

O'Hanlon, Michael.  Saving Lives with Force:  Military Criteria for Humanitarian Intervention.  Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 1997.  86 p.
ilitary analyst Michael O'Hanlon shows how outside forces could intervene to stop an ongoing cycle of warfare in a country whose government has collapsed or come under severe internal challenge." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  341.584 O36s

Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized:  Preventive Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World,
edited by Bruce W. Jentleson Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.  431 p. (Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict)
Somalia:  Misread Crises and Missed Opportunities, by Kenneth Menkhaus and Louis Ortmayer, pp 211-237.
Book call no.:  327.109049 O623

Peace Operations Between War and Peace,
edited by Erwin A. Schmidl.  Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2000.  173 p.
Learning Lessons the Hard Way - Somalia and Srebrenica Compared, by Chris Klep and Donna Winslow, pp 93-137.
Book call no.:  355.35 P355

Peterson, Scott.  Me Against My Brother:  At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda:  A Journalist Reports from the Battlefields of Africa.  New York, Routledge, 2000.  357 p.
Book call no.:  960.329 P485m

Poole, Walter S.  The Effort to Save Somalia, August 1992-March 1994.  Washington, Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005.  99 p.
Book call no.:  967.73053 P822e

Press, Robert M.  The New Africa:  Dispatches from a Changing Continent.  Gainesville, FL, University Press of Florida, 1999.  380 p.
Things Fell Apart:  Somalia, pp 143-218.
Book call no.:  967.032 P935n

Ramsbotham, Oliver, and Woodhouse, Tom.  Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict:  A Reconceptualization.  Cambridge, MA, Polity Press, 1996.  264 p.
Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia, pp 193-216.
Book call no.:  327.16 R181h

Razack, Sherene.  Dark Threats and White Knights:  The Somalia Affair, Peacekeeping, and the New Imperialism.  Buffalo, NY, University of Toronto Press, 2004.  236 p.
The exposure of racist violence perpetrated by Canadian peacekeeping troops in Somalia, and the subsequent military trials and national inquiry, which came to be known as the Somalia Affair, is used as a case study in the construction of a modern 'color line' between 'civilized' white nations and 'uncivilized' Third World nations." - Abstract
Book call no.:  327.172096 R278d

Rutherford, Kenneth R.  Humanitarianism under Fire:  The US and UN Intervention in Somalia.  Sterling, VA, Kumarian Press, 20008.  217 p.
Shows how Somalia became a turning point in the relationship between the UN and US and how policy and strategy decisions in military operations continue to refer back to this singular event, even today." - Book jacket
Book call no.:  967.73053 R975h

Ryan, Stephen.  The United Nations and International Politics.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 2000.  209 p. (Studies in Contemporary History)
Somalia, pp 123-129.
Book call no.:  341.2309 R989u 

Sarooshi, Danesh.  The United Nations and the Development of Collective Security:  The Delegation by the UN Security Council of Its Chapter VII Powers.  New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.  311 p.  (Oxford Monographs in International Law)
See table of contents for sections on Somalia.
Book call no.:  341.2323 S246u

Shawcross, William.  Deliver Us from Evil:  Peacekeepers, Warlords and a World of Endless Conflict.  New York, Simon & Schuster, 2000.  447 p.
Crossing the Mogadishu Line, pp 83-123.
Book call no.:  909.825 S537d

Shay, Shaul.  The Red Sea Terror Triangle:  Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Islamic Terror.  New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction Publishers, 2005.  223 p.
Somalia and Islamic Terror, pp 63-99.
Book call no.:  303.6250953 S526r

Sklenka, Stephen D.  Strategy, National Interests, and Means to an End.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute, Army War College, 2007.  26 p. (Carlisle Papers in Security Strategy)
Develops a theory on the way ends, means, and strategy relate to one another and then examines the intervention in Somalia using this theory.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA473182
Book call no.:  355.02 S628s

Stanton, Martin.  Somalia on Five Dollars a Day:  A Soldier's Story.  Novato, CA, Presidio, 2001.  299 p.
hronicles the U.S. Army's elite 10th Mountain Division's confrontation with chaos, crime, and dangerous warlords on a mission to bring order to an unstable African nation during the early 1990s." - Summary
Book call no.:  341.584 L269s

Steed, Brian.  Armed Conflict:  The Lessons of Modern Warfare.  New York, Ballantine Publishing, 2002.  286 p.
Battle Analysis:  The Battle of Mogadishu Operation Restore Hope, 3-4 October 1993, pp 149-170.
Book call no.:  355.020973  S813a

Stopping Mass Killings in Africa:  Genocide, Airpower, and Intervention,
edited by Douglas Pfeiffer.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air University Press, 2008.  170 p.
compendium of case studies that seek to describe the best uses of military power, particularly airpower, in response to genocide.  The writers examine recent instances of genocide in Somalia, Rwanda, and Cote d’Ivoire to draw out useful generalizations concerning the nature of genocide, international reactions to genocide, and effective responses to genocide and the possibility of genocide." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://aupress.maxwell.af.mil/Books/Peifer/Peifer.pdf
Book call no.:  341.584096 S883

Tripodi, Paolo.  The Colonial Legacy in Somalia:  Rome and Mogadishu:  From Colonial Administration to Operation Restore Hope.  New York, St. Martin's Press, 1999.  219 p.
Book Call no.:  967.7305 T835c

UN Peacekeeping:  A Documentary Introduction,
edited by Michael Bothe and Thomas Dorschel.  Boston, Kluwer Law International, 1999.  319 p.
UNOSOM United Nations Operation in Somalia, pp 170-173.
UNOSOM II United Nations Operation in Somalia II, pp 177-183.
Use of Force Resolution, pp 264-268.
Book call no.:  341.117 U54

United Nations Peacekeeping Operations:  Ad Hoc Missions, Permanent Engagement,
edited by Ramesh Thakur and Albrecht Schnabel.  New York, United Nations University Press, 2001.  267 p.
Cascading Generations of Peacekeeping:  Across the Mogadishu Line Kosovo and Timor, by Ramesh Thakur and Albercht Schnabel, pp 3-25.
Book call no.:  341.584 U5821

United States Forces, Somalia:  After Action Report and Historical Overview:  The United States Army in Somalia, 1992-1994.  Washington, Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 2003.  276 p.
Book call no.:  967.73053 U58

Von Hippel, Karin.  Democracy by Force:  U.S. Military Intervention in the Post-Cold War World.  New York, Cambridge University Press, 2000.  244 p. (LES Monographs in International Studies)
Disappointed and Defeated in Somalia, pp 55-91.
Book call no.:  327.73 V946d

Weiss, Thomas George.  Military-Civilian Interactions:  Humanitarian Crises and the Responsibility to Protect, 2nd ed.  Lanham, MD, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.  275 p.  (New Millennium Books in International Studies)
Chapter 4:  Somalia, 1992-1995:  The Death of Pollyannaish Humanitarianism?
Book call no.:  341.584 W432m 2005

Wheeler, Ed and Roberts, Craig.  Doorway to Hell:  Disaster in Somalia.  Tulsa, OK, Consolidated Press International, 2002.  269 p.
Book call no.:  967.73053 W562d

Wheeler, Nicholas J.  Saving Strangers:  Humanitarian Intervention in International Society.  New York, Oxford University Press, 2000.  336 p.
From Famine Relief to 'Humanitarian War':  The U.S. and UN Intervention in Somalia, pp 172-207.
Book call no.:  341.584 W563s


Center for Naval Analyses.  The Joint Task Force in Operation Restore Hope, by Katherine A. W. McGrady.  Alexandria, VA, March 1994.  151 p.
Airlift, pp 25-38.
Air Operations, pp 55-61.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 31914-40 no.93-114

Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Congressional Restrictions on US Military Operations in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Somalia, and Kosovo:  Funding and Non-Funding Approaches, by Amy Belasco and others.  Washington, January 2007.  38 p.
"The main body of this report is a series of tables and an appendix that summarize and cite bill language that was intended to end or restrict U.S. military operations in Indochina between 1970 and 1973, in Somalia in 1993, and in Kosovo in 1999." - Summary
Also available online at:  http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33803.pdf

Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no. 07-RL 33803

RAND Corp.  Transporting the Army for Operation Restore Hope, by David Kassing.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 1994.  51 p.
This report analyzes Army ORH deployment and makes five observations on how to improve future humanitarian operations." - Summary
Doc. call no.: M-U 30352-84 no.384

United States.  Air Force.  Air Mobility Command.  Operation Restore Hope.  Scott AFB, IL, 1993.  185 p.
Articles from many sources about Operation Restore Hope.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 44037-9 Dec 92-Feb 93

Documents (Student Research)

Baggott, Christopher L.  A Leap into the Dark:  Crisis Action Planning for Operation Restore Hope.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.  66 p.
"An examination of Operation Restore Hope will serve to show the existence of potential MOOTW (military operations other than war) theoretical or doctrinal deficiencies." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA324425
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 B144L

Bly, Theresa.  Impact of Public Perception on U.S. National Policy:  A Study of Media Influence in Military and Government Decision Making.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2002.  145 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA407025
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B661i

Brown, Harry S.  The Command and Control of Special Operations Forces.   Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 1996.  125 p.
Somalia (Task Force Ranger), pp 73-96.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA327428
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B878c

Buer, Eric F.  United Task Force Somalia (UNITAF) and United Nations Operations Somalia (UNOSOMII):  A Comparative Analysis of Offensive Air Support.  Quantico, VA, Marine Corps Command and Staff College, April 2001.  45 p. 
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401273
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41886-71 B928u

Burt, Deanna M.  Into Africa:  What Is the Best US Strategy in the Pan Sahel?  Maxwell AFB, AL, School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, June 2006.  85 p.
Somalia:  Looking for a Mountain, pp 27-47.  Discusses U.S. actions in Somalia including the background to Operation Restore Hope, detailed information about the military operation, and lessons learned.
May need to click on "continue" to load into browser.
Also available online at:  https://research.au.af.mil/papers/ay2006/saas/Burt.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43998-1 B973i

Curry, Michael J.  21st Century Combat and the Operational Logistics Link.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, May 1999.  53 p.
Examines the fundamental organizational problems within the Core Support Command using Operation Restore Hope as one of the case studies.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA370345
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 C9761t

Day, Clifford E.  Critical Analysis on the Defeat of Task Force Ranger.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 1997.  42 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA398454
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 D273c

Donovan, William R., II.  Humanitarian Interventions:  Decision Guidelines for U.S. Policymakers.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2003.  1 vol.
"Selected cases of past humanitarian crises in Somalia and Rwanda are considered to provide an historical perspective of United States intervention decisions." - Abstract
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 D6872h

Ecklund, Marshall V. and McNerney, Michael A.  Personnel Recovery Operations Forces in Urban Environments:  Modeling Successful Overt and Clandestine Methods of Recovery.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2004.  201 p.
Model is applied to 3 different case studies in Somalia.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425043
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 E19p

Estep, David G.  Air Mobility:  The Strategic Use of Nonlethal Airpower.  Maxwell AFB, AL, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, June 1994.  88 p.
Somalia and Operation Restore Hope, pp 61-65.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA425680
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43998-1 E79a

Fleck, Christopher M.  "Just Do Something:"  Measuring and Achieving Operational Success in Peace Operations.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1997.  22 p.
Operation Restore Hope, pp 4-8.
Conclusions, pp 16-18.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA325119
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 F593j

Frett, Darwin A.  U.S. Military in Humanitarian Interventions:  A Challenging Decision.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2003.  32 p.
Three recent military humanitarian intervention cases, Somalia, Rwanda, and Bosnia are used to formulate a focus set of criteria for military intervention in accordance with the present National Security Strategy and future global trends." - Abstract
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 F888u

Gingery, Lee S.  Principles of Military Operations Other Than War as Applied to the United Nations Operation in Somalia II.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1997.  22 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA325087
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 G492p

Haberzettl, Anna M.  Night Stalkers Don't Quit:  The Story of CW4 Michael J. Durant, USA, Retired.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2005.  34 p.
Biography of CW4 Michael Durant who was captured and held for 11 days by the Somali National Alliance in 1993.
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 H115n

Jones, Dorian F.  The Viability of Large Scale Amphibious Operations on the Eve of the First Century in Light of Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW), High and Low Technology Weapons, and Weapons of Mass Destruction.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1997.  78 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA331847
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 J763v

Kutz, Robin K.  America's Post-Cold War Military Humanitarian Assistance Policy:  A Study in Inconsistency.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, April 1998.  68 p.
Includes Somalia in this study of military assistance operations.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA346300
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 K97a

Lyons, Todd W.  Military Intervention in Identity Group Conflicts.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2000.  100 p.
Uses Operation Restore Hope "to highlight the common elements of intervention and the activities that encourage cooperation with the intervention force." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA386419
Doc call no.:  M-U 42525 L991m

Manseau, Nicole C.  Deterring Spoilers:  Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, March 2008.  77 p.
"In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA479951
Doc call no.:  M-U 42525 M2861d

McCarthy, Michael F.  Not Quite War:  The Link Between Operational Protection and the Principles of MOOTW:  An Examination of Somalia Operations.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1997.  17 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA324814
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 M1231n

Mitchell-Musumarra, Mary Jane.  Public Theater:  The Role of Media Coverage in Meeting Operational Objectives.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2003.  19 p.
Operation Restore Hope is one of the operations examined.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA420295
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 M6821r

Moore, John M.  Disconnected Strategies:  Why Success Is Elusive in Stability Operations and Post-Conflict Reconstruction.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2004.  22 p.
Provide Relief/Restore Hope/Continue Hope:  Somalia,1992-1995, pp 5-8.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA424103
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 M8224d

Sangvic, Roger N.  Battle of Mogadishu:  Anatomy of a Failure.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, School of Advanced Military Studies, Army Command and General Staff College, December 1998.  69 p.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA366316
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022-2 S226b

Silvela Diaz-Criado, Enrique.  Doing Something:  Mandates for the Use of Force by the United Nations in Peace Operations since the End of the Cold War.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, June 2008.  109 p.
The United Nations (UN) developed a new concept for the use of force.  This concept extended the role of peacekeeping to include humanitarian assistance, conflict solving and nation building.  Two case studies especially reflect this new concept:  Somalia and the former Yugoslavia." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA482943
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42022 S587d

Steffens, A. W.  American Intervention in Africa:  Building on the Lessons of Somalia.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, April 2006.  40 p.
"At the strategic level, Somalia illustrates the importance of prevention over intervention; the criticality of timing; and the abilities and inherent weaknesses of the United Nations.  Operationally, it offers a clear warning to those who would intervene in weak and failing states – if the desired end state is long-term stability, there are no short-cuts." - Abstract
Also available online at:  https://www.afresearch.org/skins/RIMS/display.aspx?moduleid=be0e99f3-fc56-4ccb-8dfe-670c0822a153&mode=user&action=downloadpaper&objectid=b5726e13-5b87-4f5c-bac7-2bd4dc108e6a&rs=PublishedSearch
Doc. call no.:  M-U 43122 S817a

Turley, Lori F.  Achieving Unity of Effort in Military Operations Other Than War.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1997, 19 p.
"Suggests that unity of effort in MOOTW must be considered and addressed constantly, from the earliest stages of planning until the desired end-state has been achieved." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA325230
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 T941a


Adolph, Robert B., Jr.  Rangers Bled in Somalia While the Politicians Bailed out.  Army Times 61:62 August 7, 2000.
Recounts the mission of Task Force Ranger in Mogadishu.

Arnold, S. L.  Somalia:  An Operation Other Than War.  Military Review 73:26-35 December 1993.

Barela, Timothy P.  Air Bridge to Somalia.  Airman 37:2-11 March 1993.

Barela, Timothy P.  For Combat Controllers, Home Is Where the Havoc Is.  Airman 37:6-8 March 1993.
Discusses the experiences of combat controllers in Mogadishu, Somalia.

Baum, Matthew.  How Public Opinion Constrains the Use of Force:  The Case of Operation Restore Hope.  Presidential Studies Quarterly 34:187-226 June 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=813989971&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Bell, D. Bruce and others.  The Desert Fax:  A Research Note on Calling Home from Somalia.  Armed Forces & Society 25:509-521 Spring 1999.
Evaluates factors that might reduce the stress of the family of a deployed military member.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=2026798

Bird, Julie.  AMC Learning from Somalia Airlift.  Air Force Times 53:24 March 1, 1993.

Bird, Julie.  Somalia Operation to Test Air Mobility Command.  Air Force Times 53:4 December 14, 1992.

Bird, Julie.  Supplying Somalia:  'Heroic' Airmen Resurrect Airport in Several Hours.  Air Force Times 53:6 December 28, 1992.
First Air Force personnel arrive in Mogadishu and set up an airport.

Brown, John S.  Mogadishu 1993, Tal Afar 2004 and Army Transformation.  Army 57:78+ February 2007.
Refers to the better known fighting in Mogadishu to relate the later battle in Tal Afar, Iraq.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1219086141&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Burk, James.  Public Support for Peacekeeping in Lebanon and Somalia:  Assessing the Casualties Hypothesis.  Political Science Quarterly 114:53-78 Spring 1999.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=1894055

Canan, James W.  A Model for Mobility.  Air Force Magazine 76:32-37 September 1993.
"The collaboration of tankers and airlifters in Restore Hope is seen as a prototype for future operations." - Headline

Celeski, Joseph D.  A History of SF (Special Forces) Operations in Somalia:  1992-1995.  Special Warfare 15:16-27 June 2002.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=136916151&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Cohen, Herman J.  Update on Operation Restore Hope.  U.S. Department of State Dispatch 3:896-898 December 21, 1992.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=9301250462

Compart, Andrew.  Everyone 'Was Doing Heroic Things':  McPeak Honors 3 Who Aided in Mogadishu Fight.  Air Force Times 54:4 February 14, 1994.

Cooling, Norman L.  Operation Restore Hope in Somalia:  A Tactical Action Turned Strategic Defeat.  Marine Corps Gazette 85:92-106 September 2001.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=80212364&sid=3&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Crigler, T. Frank.  The Peace-Enforcement Dilemma.  Joint Force Quarterly No.2:64-70 Autumn 1993.
The UN fighting in Somalia aims "to determine whether collective military means can be successfully applied to halt fighting and restore order in countries torn by ethnic conflict, political chaos, or civil war." - Article
Also available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/jfq1002.pdf

Dauber, Cori.  Image as Argument:  The Impact of Mogadishu on U.S. Military Intervention.  Armed Forces & Society 27:205-229 Winter 2001.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=4345681

Dean, Richard M.  Eight Years Later...Mogadishu, and Air Force Hero Remembered.  Sergeants 40:24-25 October 2001.

Delaney, Douglas E.  Cutting, Running, or Otherwise?  The U.S. Decision to Withdraw from Somalia.  Small Wars and Insurgencies 15:28-46 Winter 2004.
Discusses the reasons for pulling out of Somalia.

Dworken, Jonathan T.  Restore Hope:  Coordinating Relief Operations.  Joint Force Quarterly No.8:14-20 Summer 1995.
"Restore Hope in Somalia exposed problems between the military and relief agencies in everything from operational planning to organizational culture." - Summary
Also available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/0508.pdf

Ecklund, Marshall V.  Analysis of Operation Gothic Serpent:  TF Ranger in Somalia.  Special Warfare 16:38-47 May 2004.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=680128761&sid=2&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Fact Sheet:  Somalia - Operation Restore Hope. 
U.S. Department of State Dispatch 3:898-899 December 21, 1992.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=9301250464

Fox, John G.  Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically:  The Case of Somalia.  SAIS Review 21:147-158 Winter-Spring 2001.
In regards to Operation Restore Hope "
Decision-makers should have realized from the outset that in order to end the starvation it would be necessary to strike a blow to the power of the warlords and their militias as well as to aid the development of some sort of civilian political structures that would encourage an alternative to the politics of the gun." - Article
Also available online at:  http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/sais_review/v021/21.1fox.html

Freeman, Waldo D. and others.  Operation Restore Hope:  A U.S. CENTCOM Perspective.  Military Review 73:61-72 September 1993.

Grier, Peter.  Hero at Mogadishu Retires.  Air Force Magazine 84:13 October 2001.
"USAF MSgt Timothy K. Wilkinson, the only enlisted Air Force Cross recipient in uniform, retired from active duty July 20."
Also available online at:  http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Magazine Documents/2001/October 2001/1001world.pdf

Hasenauer, Heike.  Background to a Battle.  Soldiers 57:47 February 2002.
Gives background information about fighting that occurred in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3rd, 1993.
Scroll down to page 13 if using hyperlink.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&an=6250552

Hasenauer, Heike.  "Black Hawk Down."  Soldiers 57:40-47 February 2002.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&an=6250551

Heitman, Helmoed-Romer.  Darfur, Somalia:  Too Little, Too Late.  Jane's Defense Weekly 44:18 April 25, 2007.

Hoar, Joseph P.  A CINC's Perspective.  Joint Force Quarterly No.2:56-63 Autumn 1993.
General Joseph P. Hoar, USMC, is Commander in Chief, U. S. Central Command.
Available online:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/jfq0902.pdf

Hoffman, Frank G. and Borchini, Charles.  One Decade Later:  Debacle in Somalia.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 130:66-71 January 2004.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=11911154

Hollis, Mark A. B.  Platoon Under Fire:  Mogadishu, October 1993.  African Armed Forces, pp 29-35, February 1999.

Hudson, Neff.  Aircrews Mobilize for Somalia.  Air Force Times 53:4+ December 21, 1992.

Janney, Hailes.  Conflict Turns to Chaos in Somalia.  Jane's Intelligence Review 15:18-21 January 2003.

Kapur, S. Paul.  The Operational Identity of Humanitarian Military Interventions.  Security Studies 12:97-131 Autumn 2002.
One of the case studies the author uses to illustrate his theme is the US intervention in Somalia.
Available online:  http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&issn=0963-6412&volume=12&issue=1&spage=97

Kelp, Chris and Winslow, Donna.  Learning Lessons the Hard Way-Somalia and Srebrenica Compared.  Small Wars and Insurgencies 10:92-137 Autumn 1999.

Klarevas, Louis J.  The United States Peace Operation in SomaliaPublic Opinion Quarterly 64:523-540 Winter 2000.
A large scale pattern in public opinion seems to emerge from the Somalia case:  the American public will be supportive (or at least tolerant) of a post-Cold War peace operation - even when the overall policy objective involves more expansive peace-enforcement goals - so long as American soldiers are not losing their lives in pursuit of interests not considered to be vital." - Abstract
Available online:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=69608512&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Lynch, David J.  When the Mission Is Aid.  Air Force Magazine 76:60-64 February 1993.
Discusses the mission of s
tabilization, peacebuilding, and sustainability in the Horn of Africa.

McCoy, Dorcas E.  American Post-Cold War Images and Foreign Policy Preferences Toward "Dependent" States:  A Case Study of Somalia.   World Affairs 163:39-47 Summer 2000.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&an=3360918

McKenna, Pat.  Heavy Mettle in Mogadishu:  Sergeant Dashes into Dragon's Lair to Save the Lives of Wounded Soldiers.  Airman 44:15-16 February 2000.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&an=2942511

Matthews, William.  Somalia:  Troops Face Danger to Deliver Food.  Air Force Times 53:4 December 14, 1992.

Mersiades, Michael.   Peacekeeping and Legitimacy:  Lessons from Cambodia and Somalia.   International Peacekeeping 12:205-221 Summer 2005.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=16967873

Mission to Somalia.
 Air Force Magazine 76:48-53 March 1993.

Muradian, Vago.  Goodbye Somalia:  Did the Mission Succeed?  What Did the Service Learn?  Air Force Times 54:12-14 April 4, 1994.
Includes chronology.

Murphy, John R.  Memories of Somalia.  Marine Corps Gazette 82:20-25 April 1998.
Also available online at: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=28486555&sid=4&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Oakley, Robert B.  An Envoy's Perspective.  Joint Force Quarterly No.2:44-55 Autumn 1993.
"Robert B. Oakley was the President’s Special Envoy for Somalia from December 1992 to March 1993." - Article
Also available online at:  http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/jfq0802.pdf

Patman, Robert G.  Beyond 'the Mogadishu Line':  Some Australian Lessons for Managing Intra-State Conflict.  Small Wars & Insurgencies 12:59-75 Spring 2001.

Piasecki, Eugene G.  If You Liked Beirut, You'll Love Mogadishu:  An Introduction to ARSOF ( Army Special Operations Forces) in SomaliaVeritas 3, no.2:17-27 2007.

Pomper, Miles A.  UN Peacekeeping in Trouble as Cost and Controversy Grow.  CQ Weekly 58:2031-2033 September 2, 2000.
Discussion includes failure of UN peacekeeping in Somalia.

Rhodes, Philip F.  No Time for Fear (Mogadishu firefight).  Airman 38:22-31 May 1994.

Rice, John.  Always the First to Deliver Relief and Hope.  National Guard 47:22-24 March 1993.

Robinson, Piers.  Operation Restore Hope and the Illusion of News Media Driven Intervention.  Political Studies 49:941-956 December 2001.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&an=5693034

Shorey, George.  Bystander Non-Intervention and the Somalia Incident.  Canadian Military Journal 1:19-28 Winter 2000-2001.

Swan, James.  Foreign Affairs - Somalia.  DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance 29:78-83 July 2007.
Excerpts are presented from the remarks on Somalia presented to the Baltimore Council on Foreign Affairs by Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs James Swan in March, 2007." - Abstract
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=26361374&site=ehost-live

Ward, Joe M., Jr.  Operation Restore Hope - A Personal Perspective.  Air Force Comptroller 27:9-11 October 1993.

Western, Jon.  Sources of Humanitarian Intervention:  Beliefs, Information, and Advocacy in the U.S. Decisions on Somalia and Bosnia. International Security  26:112-142 Spring 2002.

Also available online at:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3092104

Willis, G. E.  Remembering Mogadishu.  Army Times 59:16-20 October 12, 1998.
Includes a chronology.

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