SOMALI PIRACY


September 2010

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL

 


Contents

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Internet Resources


Carafano, James J. and others.  Maritime Security:  Fighting Piracy in the Gulf of Aden and Beyond.  Washington, Heritage Foundation, 2009.  29 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA506760
"While the appropriate response for each threat must be tempered by local conditions, the solutions and instruments for responsible action in the Gulf of Aden will hold lessons for meeting the challenge of piracy in other parts of the world." - Abstract.

Countering Piracy off the Horn of Africa:  Partnership and Action Plan.  Washington, National Security Council, December 2008.  19 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA500781
"This Plan implements the National Strategy for Maritime Security (September 2005) and the Policy for the Repression of Piracy and other Criminal Acts of Violence at Sea (June 2007) as applied to piracy off the Horn of Africa." - Abstract.

Eliminating Piracy off Somalia's Coast Requires Not Only Sustained Effort at Sea, but Continued Support for Country's Peace, Stability Says Secretary-General (UN).  U.S. Fed News Service Washington, August 28, 2010.
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2123354021&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's remarks to the Security Council Open Debate on Somalia piracy in New York, August 25, 2010.

Kaufman, Alison A.  China's Participation in Anti-Piracy Operations off the Horn of Africa: Drivers and Implications.  Alexandria, VA, CNA Analysis and Solutions, July 2009.  19 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503697
"In December 2008, the navy of the People's Republic of China (People's Liberation Army Navy, or PLAN) deployed a task force, made up of two guided missile destroyers and a supply ship, to participate in international antipiracy operations off the coast of Somalia, in the Gulf of Aden/Horn of Africa (HoA) region." - Abstract.

Obama, Barack H.  Statement on the Rescue of Richard Phillips off the Coast of Somalia.  Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents, April 12, 2009.  1 p. 
Available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1703799291&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Wombwell, James A.  The Long War Against Piracy:  Historical Trends.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Combat Studies Institute Press, Army Command and General Staff College, May 2010.  209 p.  (Occasional Paper, no. 32).
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA522959
"Surveys the experience of the United States, Great Britain, and other seafaring nations in addressing the problem of piracy at sea, then derives insights from that experience that may be relevant to the suppression of the current surge of piratical activity." - Abstract.


Internet Resources (Student Research)

Davis, William M.  Analysis of the Strategy to Combat Maritime Piracy.  Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, December 2009.  95 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA512384
"Argues that the United States' current strategy for combating piracy is ineffective because the social and economic factor that contribute to piracy in the Horn of Africa are not adequately addressed." - Abstract.

Hallerberg, Mary K.  Maritime Piracy:  Examining the U.S. Response to a Global Threat.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, March 2010.  36 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA522024
Examines "the U.S. response to the global threat of piracy, including that of the U.S. Navy, as well as international efforts to stop it." - Abstract.

O'Connell, Ryan J. and Descovich, Christopher M.  Decreasing Variance in Response Time to Singular Incidents of Piracy in the Horn of Africa Area of Operation.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2010.  111 p. 
Available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA525041
"This thesis will investigate the implications of SSAS (Ship Security Alert System) reports being directly fed to existing Navy networks.  The thesis shows that small changes to existing Navy Maritime Operations C2 structure could result in an optimization in force employment and timeliness of response" - Abstract.


Books


Bruton, Bronwyn E.  Somalia:  A New Approach.  New York, Center for Preventive Action, Council on Foreign Relations, 2010.  45 p.(Council on Foreign Relations, no. 52)
"The specter of Somalia’s providing a sanctuary for al-Qaeda has become an important concern, and piracy off Somalia’s coast, which affects vital international shipping lanes, remains a menace." - Summary.
Also available online at:  http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Somalia_CSR52.pdf
Book call no.:  967.73053 B913s

Chalk, Peter and others.  Countering Piracy in the Modern Era:  Notes from a RAND Workshop to Discuss the Best Approaches for Dealing with Piracy in the 21st Century.  Santa Monica, CA, RAND, 2009.  7 p.(Conference Proceedings RAND)
Discussion includes Somali piracy.
Also available online at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/conf_proceedings/2009/RAND_CF269.pdf
Book call no.:  364.164 C436c

Metaferia, Getachew.  Ethiopia and the United States:  History, Diplomacy, and Analysis.  New York, Algora Publishing, 2009.  208 p.
"Begins with a historical survey of Ethiopia and explains the role of this region in European, Middle Eastern and eventually American military strategies.  This book also examines the US-Ethiopia alliance in the context of the Cold War, the Ethiopian diaspora and modern-day piracy." - Summary.
Book call no.:  327.73063 G394e

Murphy, Martin N.  Small Boats, Weak States, Dirty Money:  The Challenge of Piracy.  New York, Columbia University Press, 2009.  539 p.
See table of contents for sections on Somalia.
Book call no.:  364.164 M978s

Payne, John C.  Piracy Today:  Fighting Villainy on the High Seas.  Dobbs Ferry, NY, Sheridan House, 2010.  262 p.
Includes much material about Somali piracy.
Book call no.:  364.164 P346p

Phillips, Richard.  A Captain's Duty:  Somali Pirates, Navy SEALs, and Dangerous Days at Sea.  New York, Hyperion, 2010.  286 p.
"Tells the dramatic life-and-death tale of the Vermont native who, in April of 2009, was held captive on a tiny lifeboat off Somalia’s anarchic, gun-plagued shores." - Summary.
Book call no.:  364.164 P562c

Piracy and Maritime Crime:  Historical and Modern Case Studies, edited by Bruce A. Elleman and others.  Newport, RI, Naval War College Press, 2010.  273 p.(Newport Paper, no. 35)
Chapter 13:  Fish, Family, and Profit:  Piracy and the Horn of Africa, by Gary E. Weir.
Also available online at:  http://www.usnwc.edu/Publications/Naval-War-College-Press/Newport-Papers/Documents/35.aspx
Book call no.:  364.164 P6671

Sekulich, Daniel.  Terror of the Seas:  True Tales of Modern-Day Pirates.  New York, Thomas Dunne Books, 2009.  308 p.
Includes Somali piracy.
Book call no.:  910.35 S463t

United States.  Congress.  Senate.  Committee on Armed Services.  Ongoing Efforts to Combat Piracy on the High Seas.  Hearing.  111th Congress, 1st session, May 5, 2009.  Washington, GPO, 2009.  57 p.
Statements include Somali piracy.
Also available online at:  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS118315
Book call no.:  364.164 U58o

United States.  Congress.  Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations.  Subcommittee on African Affairs.  Developing a Coordinated and Sustainable Strategy for Somalia.  Hearing.  111th Congress, 1st session, May 20, 2009.  Washington, GPO, 2009.  32 p.
Hearing includes discussions on Somali piracy.
Also available online at:  http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS116672
Book call no.:  327.7306773 U58d


Documents


Library of Congress.  Congressional Research Service.  Piracy off the Horn of Africa, by Lauren Ploch and others.  Washington, April 2010.  44 p.
Also available online at:  http://opencrs.com/document/R40528/2010-04-19/download/1013/
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42953-1 no.R40528


Documents (Student Research)

Apgar, Bruce A., Jr.  Countering 21st Century Piracy in the Horn of Africa.  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, February 2010.  24 p.
"The unique challenges of countering 21st century pirates can be overcome through enhanced cooperation between security forces and the maritime shipping community and the application of 21st century information sharing technology." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA518045
Doc. call no.:  M-U 39080-537 A641c

Bair, Robert S.  Disrupting Somali Piracy Via Trust and Influence Operations.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2009.  63 p.
"Analyzes the piracy problem in East Africa focusing specifically on Somali pirate networks." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA501147
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 B163d

Hoffman, Chris.  The Counter-Piracy JIATF:  Getting AFRICOM into the Piracy Fight.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2009.  24 p.
"The nature of the (Horn of Africa) HOA piracy problem suggests that AFRICOM establish a dedicated joint interagency task force (JIATF) as the most effective way to operationalize national level strategy." - Article
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503001
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 H6991c

Jamiola, Donald R., Jr.  The Strait of Malacca Formula:  Success in Counter-Piracy and Its Applicability to the Gulf of Aden.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, October 2009.  20 p.
"Recommendations include U.N. Security Council Resolutions or agreements with littoral states to pursue pirates in their territorial waters or in the pirate havens ashore, and coordinated planning between USAFRICOM and USCENTCOM for combining the land and sea counter-piracy tactics." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514002
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 J321s

Jarrett, Michael Richard, Jr.  Optimizing the Naval Force for the Horn of Africa Anti-Piracy Mission.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2009.  19 p.
"Analyzes how our navies are being employed in the region and if there are more effective measures to achieve positive results." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA502932
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 J371o

Marsh, Christopher D.  Counter Piracy:  A Repeated Game with Asymmetric Information.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2009.  39 p.
Challenges and Threats Resulting from Piracy in Somalia, pp 3-4.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA508889
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 M3652c

Murphy, Brian T.  Securing Sub-Saharan Africa's Maritime Environment:  Lessons Learned from the Caribbean and Southeast Asia.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2009.  75 p.
Finds that "the combination of robust coordination at the interagency and international levels and enhanced maritime security capacity was key to success in counterdrug and antipiracy operations." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://edocs.nps.edu/npspubs/scholarly/theses/2009/Jun/09Jun_Murphy.pdf
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 M9782s

Nakamura, Michelle.  Piracy off the Horn of Africa:  What Is the Most Effective Method of Repression?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2009.  24 p.
Looks at the initiative of the U.S. National Security Council Partnership and Action Plan for Countering Piracy off the Horn of Africa.  "Analyzes the effectiveness of the current initiatives and draws conclusions for how the effort should be resourced, supported, organized, and directed.  Finally, it provides recommendations for how to enact the proposed plan." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503032
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 N163p

Newsome, Timothy.  Somali Piracy:  Are We Making a Mountain Out of a Molehill?  Newport, RI, Naval War College, October 2009.  25 p.
"Demonstrates that Somali piracy is not significant enough to the U.S. to warrant the current application of scarce naval resources.  This paper will also demonstrate the need for commercial shippers to take a more proactive role in the prevention of successful pirate attacks by implementing counter piracy measures." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA513932
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 N558s

Peppel, Christopher D.  Building the Right Framework for Effective Multinational Anti-Piracy Operations in the Gulf of Aden.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2009.  17 p.
Looks at maritime piracy "generally at high-level UN guidance and shows at the theater-strategic and operational levels what the response(s) have been to date." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503068
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 P424b

Riggs, Stephen L.  Piracy in the Horn of Africa:  A Comparative Study with Southeast Asia.  Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, December 2009.  99 p.
Provides "an analysis of lessons learned that could be applied in the Horn of Africa." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA514377
Doc. call no.:  M-U 42525 M9782s

Sampson, Dennis W.  USAFRICOM's Role in Counter-Piracy Operations Within the Horn of Africa.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2009.  21 p.
"In order to solve the threat of piracy within the Horn of Africa, USAFRICOM must take a more proactive role by promoting and encouraging the development of a regionally sourced, multinational coast guard and bolstering theater security cooperation efforts ashore." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503097
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 S192u

Zogg, Dennis M.  Why the U.S. Navy Should Not Be Fighting Piracy off Somalia.  Newport, RI, Naval War College, May 2009.  24 p.
"This paper will illustrate why the sea-based counter-piracy approach of CTF-151 will not succeed.  It will also highlight strategic, legal, and economic reasons why the U.S. Navy should not be involved." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA503124
Doc. call no.:  M-U 41662 Z85w


Periodicals


Acts of Piracy Increase.  African Armed Forces Journal, pp 12-13, April 2010.
Five brief articles about privacy in African waters.

Ahoy There!  Economist 389:60 November 22, 2008.
"Discusses the increase in attacks by Somalian pirates and describes the hijacking of the oil tanker Sirius Star." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35390882&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Annait, Massimo.  Maritime Operations off the Horn of Africa - a Coordinated Effort or Management by Coincidence?  Naval Forces 31,no. 1:26-29+ 2010.
In reaction to piracy emanating from Somalia "navies have established international coalitions and operations such as the Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) which was directed by the U.S. Fifth Fleet." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=48607978&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Annait, Massimo.  Maritime Operations off the Horn of Africa:  New and Permanent Task for Our Navies?  Naval Forces 30,no. 4:36-40 2009.
"Focuses on the task of naval forces in providing remedy against terrorism and piracy in Somalia." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=44447952&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Axe, David.  Defeating Somalia Pirates on Land:  The Kenya Connection.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 135:68-69 March 2009.
Aticle "states that around two dozen warships from the U.S., Great Britain, France, China and other countries patrol the million square miles of the ocean where pirates are operating.  It mentions that in December 2008, Kenyan military chief General Jeremiah Kianga welcomed international cooperation in combating piracy." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=37193187&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Bacon, Lance M.  Frigate, Destroyers Sink Vessels, Capture Pirates in 2 Skirmishes.  Navy Times 59:26 April 12, 2010.
"Reports on two separate encounters between the U.S. Navy and pirates off the Kenyan and Somalia coasts in April 2010, in which the Navy had sunk two vessels and captured suspected pirates." - Abstract.

Berube, Claude.  Marine Corps:  Private Security Companies and Piracy.  Jane's Intelligence Review 21:34-37 March 2009.
"Examines how private marine security companies are being considered for the protection of merchant vessels internationally." - Abstract.

Boyne, Sean.  EU Force Seeks 'Eyes in the Sky' as Pirates Head East.  Jane's Navy International 115:26-31 May 2010.
"Reports on the European Union (EU) naval force's counter-piracy effort in Somalia." - Abstract.

Brookes, Peter.  Buccaneers Are Back:  The Challenges of Modern Piracy.  Armed Forces Journal 146:10-12 December 2008.
The problem with Somalia piracy "is that complacency over this emerging challenge, especially its potential to aid and abet terrorism, could prove damaging to our national security if not confronted quickly and decisively." - Article

Burgess, Richard R.  Cops on the Beat:  Anti-Piracy Patrols by U.S. and Coalition Warships Help Make the High Seas Safer for Commercial Shipping.  Sea Power 51:24-26 February 2008.
"Features the important role played by the U.S. anti-piracy patrols and coalition warships to counteract the threat of piracy worldwide." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=36443748&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Casey, Eric R.  Piracy and the Maritime Industry.  Marine Corps Gazette 94:21-26 February 2010.
Examines United States Navy and Marine Corps roles in the U.S. response to piracy off the coast of Somalia.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1963066911&sid=1&Fmt=4&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Chalk, Peter.  On Dry Land:  The Onshore Drives of Piracy.  Jane's Intelligence Review 21:38-42 August 2009.
"The international community has responded to the growing piracy problem off Somalia through maritime means."  The author "argues that piracy will never be eradicated unless measures are taken on land as well." - Headline

Chalk, Peter.  Piracy off the Horn of Africa:  Scope, Dimensions, Causes and Responses.  Brown Journal of World Affairs 16:89-108 Spring-Summer 2010.
"Discusses the scope and dimensions of contemporary piracy off the Horn of Africa focusing on their modus operandi and the international responses aimed at mitigating pirate attacks in the region." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=50883227&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Combating Piracy off Somalia:  Swift Naval Response Is Only Part of the Solution.  Military Technology 33, no. 3:38-40 2009.
"Reports on the security measures undertaken by the commercial shipping industry to combat piracy in Somalia." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1686368431&sid=3&Fmt=2&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Cook, Peter.  Tapping Private Forces in Fight Against Piracy.  Jane's Defence Weekly 47:20 March 17, 2010.
"Discusses the active and important role of maritime security companies to fight against piracy in Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden." - Abstract.

Cowan, Gerrard.  Briefing:  NATO in the Gulf of Aden.  Jane's Defence Weekly 46:22-24 November 11, 2009.
"NATO's anti-piracy mission in the Gulf of Aden has made great strides, but is hampered by legal confusion and continued instability in Somalia." - Headline

Cowan, Gerrard.  Interview:  Commodore Steve Chick, Commander, Standing NATO Maritime Group 2.  Jane's Defence Weekly 46:34 November 11, 2009.
"Discussion with Commodore Steve Chick, commander of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Maritime Group 2 concerning piracy at the Gulf of Aden and the stabilization of Somalia." - Abstract.

Do Somali Pirates Have Legitimate Grievances?  New African No. 496:30-31 June 2010.
States "that the Pirates claimed of reacting to the 18 years of fatal toxic waste disposal and illegal, unregulated fishing in Somali waters." - Abstract.

Drennan, James.  Like Moths to a Flame.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 136:8 July 2010.
Advocates using decoy ships to lure Somali pirates into a fight.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=52382921&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

European Union and the United States Commanders Discuss Piracy Countermeasures.  African Armed Forces Journal, p 21, January 2009.
"A European Union commander met with the commander of Combined Task Force (CTF) 151 aboard the amphibious transport dock ship USS San Antonio (LPD 17) Jan. 16 to exchange lessons learned, insights and perspectives on maritime security operations." - Article

Ewing, Philip.  Blackwater:  We'll Protect Ships from Pirates.  Navy Times 58:13 October 27, 2008.
"The military contractor Blackwater Worldwide is offering to protect merchant ships from pirates." - Abstract.

Ewing, Philip.  Chasing Down Pirates:  Plan Would Allow Entry to Somalian Turf.  Navy Times 58:8 December 22, 2008.
"U.S. President George W. Bush has filed a resolution to the United Nation's (U.N.) Security Council to authorize sailors and marines to track down the pirates on land.  It is said that most of the Somali pirates escaped to coastal lands which they use as refuge for hijacked ships." - Abstract.

Ewing, Philip.  Counterpiracy Patrols Can't Go on Forever, Admiral Says.  Navy Times 59:19 May 3, 2010.
"U.S. and international warships can't continue indefinitely patrolling for pirates in the lawless waters off the Horn of Africa, given the heavy expense and the toll it takes on ships and their crews." - Abstract.

Ewing, Philip.  Task Force Makes 1st Pirate Bust.  Navy Times 58:18 February 23, 2009.
"The Navy's counterpiracy task force nabbed its first suspected pirates Feb. 11 in the Gulf of Aden, after quick thinking by merchant sailors kept would-be hijackers from boarding two ships in separate incidents." - Abstract.

Frick, Matthew M.  Atalanta Rising.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 136:66-71 March 2010.
"Presents information on the threats of pirates around waters surrounding Somalia." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=48868511&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Friedman, Norman.  Chasing the Pirates.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 135:90-91 June 2009.
"Focuses on the efforts made by the U.S. Navy to deal with the piracy problem in Somalia." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=42646964&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Frodl, Michael G.  Choke Point:  Hijacked Super Tanker Exposes Vulnerability of Energy Supplies.  National Defense 93:18-20 March 2009.
"Discusses the implications of the hijacking of the super tanker Sirius Star by Somali pirates in 2008." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=36920559&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Frodl, Michael G.  Perils at Sea:  Somali Piracy Tactics Evolving; Threats Could Expand Globally.  National Defense 94:38-39 April 2010.
"Discusses the rising threat from Somali pirates whose activities are supported by ransoms, investor money and foreign criminal gangs.  While the first generation of Somali pirates operated within 50 miles of Somali, subsequent generations expanded their reach to East Asian energy lanes." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=49119455&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Gelfand, Lauren.  NATO Extends Piracy Mission off Somalia.  Jane's Defence Weekly 47:16 March 17, 2010.
Discusses NATO's mission to protect against piracy in the Gulf of Aden.

Gelfand, Lauren.  NATO Flotilla Heads for Somalia to Tackle Piracy.  Jane's Defence Weekly 45:18 October 29, 2008.
"Reports on the expected arrival of a flotilla of North Atlantic Treaty Organization ships in Somali territorial waters with new rules of engagement to respond to threats from pirates who have attacked several shipping vessels in the Gulf of Aden." - Abstract.

Gelfand, Lauren.  Somalia Agrees to Establish Coastguard to Battle Piracy.  Jane's Defence Weekly 47:15 June 30, 2010.
"Reports on the decision of the four administrative regions that comprise Somalia to collaborate on the development of a coastguard for counter-piracy operations off the Horn of Africa." - Abstract.

Gettleman, Jeffrey.  In Somali Civil War, Both Sides Embrace Pirates.  New York Times, p A1, September 2, 2010.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2126805221&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Gettleman, Jeffrey.  The Most Dangerous Place in the World.  Foreign Policy No. 171:60-69 March-April 2009.
"Piracy is rife off the coast of Somalia and Islamic groups are struggling for power." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1664744761&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Gettleman, Jeffrey and Schmitt, Eric.  U.S. Marines Free Ship and Capture Somali Pirates Without Bloodshed.  New York Times, p A4, September 10, 2010.
Two teams of U.S. Marines boarded the German-owned ship, the Magellan Star, which a band of Somali pirates hijacked in the Gulf of Aden seizing both ship and its crew of 11.  The rescue appeared to be the first time the American military had boarded a ship commandeered by Somali pirates.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2134525111&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Hanson, Marshall A.  Of Pirates and Pundits:  The World's Navies Take on High Seas Thievery, and the Media Takes on the Navies.  Officer 85:22-23 February-March 2009.
Urges the U.S. Navy to combat the pirates in the Gulf of Aden.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1701692701&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Heitman, Helmoed-Romer.  Analysis:  Harried Somali Pirates May Plot Course South.  Jane's Defence Weekly 46:38 February 11, 2009.
"Reports on the possible extension of reach and use of new and innovative equipment such as radar tracking and surveillance hardware of Somali pirates." - Abstract.

Hilburn, Matt.  Piracy on the Rise.  Sea Power 51:12-14+ November 2008.
"Focuses on the rising piracy problems in the Gulf of Aden, off the coast of Somalia." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=36443915&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Hutchison, Harold C.  Piracy Surge:  The Jolly Roger Is Active... Again.  Soldier of Fortune 35:40+ July 2010.
Discusses the surge in Somali piracy and response by Combined Task Force 151.

Hutchison, Harold C.  SEAL Snipers Whack Three Pirates.  Soldier of Fortune 34:62+ July 2009.
Recounts the SEAL rescue of the Maersk Alabama.

Khalifa, Daisy R.  No Smooth Sailing:  Surge in Piracy off Somalia Draws International Naval Response.  Sea Power 52:18-22 February 2009.
"Focuses on the efforts of the international community to tackle the surge in piracy off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=36645379&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

King, Martin L.  In a Tailspin.  Africa Today:  Voice of the Continent 15:22-23 May 2009.
"Piracy, clan based violence and al-Qaida terrorists combine to make Somalia uncomfortable." - Headline

Kraska, James.  Fighting Piracy:  International Coordination Is Key to Countering Modern-Day Freebooters.  Armed Forces Journal 146:10-17+ February 2009.
"Discusses international coordination as the key to modern-day piracy.  An overview of the extent of piracy in the Gulf of Aden is given together with the volume of maritime activities in the area." - Abstract.

Kraska, James and Wilson, Brian.  The Co-operative Strategy and the Pirates of the Gulf of Aden.  RUSI Journal 154:74-81 April 2009.
"New international law and policy frameworks have become the most effective force multiplier for implementing a new collaborative approach, and the first test is the challenge posed by maritime piracy in the Horn of Africa." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=39253817&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kraska, James and Wilson, Brian.  The Global Maritime Partnership and Somali Piracy.  Defense & Security Analysis 25:223-234 September 2009.
"Describes the maritime piracy threat in the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden.  It discusses the greatest force multiplier in preventing maritime piracy which serves as the basis for maritime security partnerships." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=44746390&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Kraska, James and Wilson, Brian.  Somali Piracy:  A Nasty Problem, a Web of Responses.  Current History 108:227-231 May 2009.
"Examines the international cooperation that has flourished as a result of Somali piracy in the Indian Ocean." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1706809041&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Kreisher, Otto.  The Growing Connection Between Piracy and Terrorism in Somalia Warrants a Stronger U.S. Navy Response.  Naval Forces 29, no.5:6 2008.
"Focuses on the response of the U.S. Navy to the growing connection between piracy and terrorism in Somalia.  It is observed that the money the pirates are getting in ransom for captured ships and crews are strengthening warlords and Islamic militants who are attempting to gain control of the country, where al'Qaeda is speculated to be involved." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=35402745&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Lloyd, James.  An Expeditionary Solution to Somalia Piracy.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 135:8 November 2009.
Suggests "that by embarking security teams on merchant ship, the maritime industry could combat this scourge.  It is suggested that the U.S. military should take action to destroy infrastructure in and around the villages that serve as pirate base camps to counter the threat of today's pirates." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=45383645&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Lundquist, Edward H.  'The Entire Indian Ocean Is up for Grabs'.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 136:18-23 July 2010.
In response to growing piracy in the Indian Ocean, the navy of the European Union Task Force Atalanta is incorporating new methods.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=52382926&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Marcario, John C.  The Long Battle:  No Quick Solution to 'Difficult' Problem of Piracy along the Somali Coast.  Sea Power 52:32-34 June 2009.
Recounts U.S. efforts to control piracy off the coast of Somalia.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=42525477&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Meade, Sean.  The Not so Jolly Rogers:  Somali Pirates Reflect Many Problems in Africa.  Defense Technology International 4:31 January 2010.
Concludes "but with Somalia, conditions on land must improve before sea lanes will become safer." - Article

Menkhaus, Ken.  Dangerous Waters.  Survival 51:21-25 February-March 2009.
"Discusses maritime piracy occurring off the coast of Somalia from 2007 through January 2009." - Article
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=36449347&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Muradian, Vago and Scutro, Andrew.  Pirate Plan Goes Global:  Intel Sharing, New Tracking System Part of Responses to Hijackers.  Navy Times 58:8 December 8, 2008.
"Top Navy leaders are sharing highly classified intelligence and their new Maritime Domain Awareness system with close allies to more effectively combat a rising tide of piracy across the Horn of Africa." - Abstract.

Murphy, Martin.  High Resolution.  Jane's Intelligence Review 20:24-27 August 2008.
"Reports that the United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1816, permitting mandated countries to enter Somali waters for the purpose of combating piracy." - Abstract.

Murphy, Martin N.  Solving Somalia.  U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 136:30-35 July 2010.
Advocates that countries near Somalia need to cooperate with international efforts to halt piracy in that area.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=52382928&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Operation Atalanta in Pirate Alley.  Africa Confidential 50:5 December 18, 2009.
"Operation Atalanta contributes up to 12 of the 35 warships currently patrolling in the security cordon from Djibouti to Yemen." - Article

Ouko, Daniel.  Rising Piracy Threatens Global Trade.  New African No.478:44-45 November 2008.
"Focuses on the impact brought by the increasing piracy to the global trade in Somalia." - Abstract.

Perils of the Sea; Piracy off Somalia.  Economist 391:51-52 April 18, 2009.
Discusses the US reaction to piracy in the case of the Maersk Alabama.
Also available online at:  http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=1680418681&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=417&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Schaeffer, Nathan.  Deterring Piracy at Sea:  The Navy's Latest Mission Is a Blast from the Past.  Soldier of Fortune 34:72+ May 2009.
This 5+ page article discusses Somali piracy and the coalition response to the threat.

Schiemsky, Bruno.  Piracy's Rising Tide.  Jane's Intelligence Review 21:40-45 February 2009.
Reports on the growth of piracy in the waters off Somalia.

Scott, Richard.  Interview:  Rear Admiral Peter Hudson, Operation Commander, EU Naval Force.  Jane's Defence Weekly 47:34 April 28, 2010.
"Hudson states that EU NAVFOR aims to offer protection to the World Food Programme shipping, launch surveillance in high-risk areas, and stop piracy attacks." - Abstract.

Scutro, Andrew.  Anti-Pirate Pioneers:  New Task Force's 'Lessons Learned' Will Serve as Blueprint for Future Forces.  Navy Times 58:8 February 9, 2009.
"Sailors working the new anti-piracy mission in the Middle East are helping craft updated training for crews who will follow them into the region." - Article.

Scutro, Andrew.  Communication Key for 27-Nation Anti-Pirate Fleet.  Navy Times 58:30 June 15, 2009.
"The system U.S. ships use to communicate with one another and allies is called CENTRIXS, short for Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System."..."That communication paid off June 2, when British sailors from the frigate Portland captured and disarmed 10 suspected pirates who'd been spotted by a Spanish patrol aircraft." - Abstract.

Scutro, Andrew.  No Easy Answer to Piracy Problems:  Capture of U.S. Merchant Captain Puts Region's Woes in Focus.  Navy Times 58:10 April 20, 2009.
"Hijacking in the Gulf of Aden and south into the Indian Ocean has no purely naval solution.  A crime at sea, they conclude, can only be solved through arduous, complicated international coordination in lawless Somalia." - Abstract.

Scutro, Andrew.  Piracy Task Force Sees Results off Somalia.  Navy Times 58:12-13 March 16, 2009.
"Thanks to a beefed-up coalition naval presence in the area, harder-to-navigate winter seas and passive defensive tactics by shippers, pirate attacks have dropped off.  But they're not going to stop." - Abstract.

Scutro, Andrew.  Pirate Attacks Continue off Somalia.  Navy Times 58:12 October 6, 2008.
"Two unmarked and unflagged skiffs raced toward a 41,000-ton U.S. fleet oiler in the pirate-infested waters off Somalia on Sept. 23, a Navy spokesman said.  A security team embarked on the oiler fired on the boats, forcing them to peel away in the latest incidence of pirate activity in the region." - Abstract.

Scutro, Andrew.  Pirates Still Defiant Aboard Tank-Carrying Cargo Ship.  Navy Times 58:18-19 October 13, 2008.
U.S. Navy warships have surrounded the Ukrainian tank carrier M/V Faina which still has pirates aboard.

Scutro, Andrew.  Showdown at Sea:  Sailors Recount Their Roles in Dramatic Rescue That Ended Pirate Siege.  Navy Times 58:14-17 April 27, 2009.
Tells the story of the U.S. destroyer Bainbridge and the rescue of the Maersk-Alabama.

Scutro, Andrew.  U.S., Allies Step up Patrols in Gulf of Aden.  Navy Times 57:13+ September 8, 2008.
"U.S. 5th Fleet in Bahrain announced the establishment of a maritime security patrol area in the waters between the coasts of Somalia and Yemen; the area will be patrolled by allied naval forces under Combined Task Force 150." - Abstract.

Somalia: Anti-Pirate Alliance.  Africa Confidential 50:8-9 March 20, 2009.
"Expensive naval alliances have formed to deter the sea raiders who prey on ships off the Horn." - Article

Somalia/Asia:  Pirates of the Red Sea.  Africa - Asia Confidential 1:6 September 2008.
"Asia's navies are planning tougher action to combat the menace of piracy along Somalia's coast line and in the Red Sea region." - Article

Somalia:  Pirates Afloat.  Africa Confidential 49:12 September 19, 2008.
"United Nations World Food Programme has successfully appealed to the European Union for protection of its life-saving cargoes of food aid." - Article

Somalia:  Pirates and the Lads.  Africa Confidential 49:12 November 28, 2008.
Discusses the impending collapse of the federal government in Somalia and pirates operating out of Somalia in the Gulf of Aden.

Stevenson, Jonathan.  Jihad and Piracy in Somalia.  Survival 52:27-38 February-March 2010.
Argues that the United States should pursue a new policy in Somalia.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=49151802&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Tahvildari, Sheilia.  UK Royal Marines Kill Suspected Somali Pirates.  Jane's Defence Weekly 45:19 November 19, 2008.
"Reports that British Royal Marines on board HMS Cumberland have killed two suspected pirates in the Gulf of Aden in Somalia." - Abstract.

Warner, Leslie Anne.  Pieces of Eight.  Naval War College Review 63:61-87 Spring 2010.
"Discusses US counterpiracy options in the Horn of Africa, specifically off the coast of Somalia." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=51197439&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Weir, Gary E.  Fish, Family and Profit:  Piracy in the Horn of Africa.  Naval War College Review 62:15-29 Summer 2009.
"Focuses on piracy off the coast of Somalia, focusing on statistical information gathered for the period from 1993 to 2005 by Great Britain's House of Commons Transport Committee." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=43545192&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Wijk, Rob de, Anderson, David M., and Haines, Steven.  The New Piracy.  Three Contexts.  Survival 52:39-54 February-March 2010.
Three experts, in these 3 articles, discuss the global, historical, and legal implications of increasing hijackings by Somalia pirates.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mth&AN=49151801&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Wilson, Jim.  New Patrols Established to Halt Piracy in Gulf of Aden.  Jane's Defence Weekly 45:18 September 3, 2008.
"Reports on the establishment of a Maritime Security Patrol Area and air and sea patrols by coalition forces in the Gulf of Aden by the U.S. Naval Forces Central Command to deter piracy by Somalia-based pirates on merchant ships." - Abstract.

Wittman, Amy L.  A Different Life:  Maersk Alabama Master Reflects on 30 Years at Sea:  Interview with Capt. Richard Phillips.  Sea Power 52:16-20 August 2009.
"An interview with Captain Richard Phillips, master of the MV Maersk Alabama ship who was attacked by four Somali pirates, is presented." - Abstract.
Also available online at:  http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=43934353&site=ehost-live&custid=airuniv

Zoro, Cassandra.  Interview:  Cmdr. Peter Reesink, Captain of the HrMs De Ruyter.  Jane's International Defense Review 42:66 January 2009.
The captain of HrMs De Ruyter discusses "the ship's mission to control piracy in the Horn of Africa.  Reesink admits that the prime challenge he faces in the mission is the lack of warship that is fit to hunt pirates." - Abstract.

Zulkarnaen, Isaak.  Security Needed off Somali Coast and the Gulf of Aden as Piracy Situation Worsens.  Asian Defence Journal, pp 20-21 October 2008.
Focuses on the French response to piracy in the Gulf of Aden.


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