July 2003

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


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All sites listed were last accessed on July 8, 2003.

Internet Resources

Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2002.
Available online at: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/pg.html
Includes information on the Spratly Islands.

Elferink, Alex G. Oude. The Islands in the South China Sea: How Does Their Presence Limit the Extent of the High Seas and the Area and Maritime Zones of the Mainland Coasts?  Ocean Development & International Law. April 2001. 22 pages.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=4425180&db=aph
A number of small islands (Paracel Islands, Pratas Islands, Spratly Islands, and Scarborough Reef) may have a considerable effect on the extent of maritime zones in the South China Sea.

Federation of American Scientists. Spratly Islands.
Available online at: http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/ops/war/spratly.htm

Gjetnes, Marius. The Spratlys: Are They Rocks or Islands?  Ocean Development & International Law. April 2001. 14 p.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=4425179&db=aph
The South China Sea is a multilateral battlefield of conflicting claims to sovereignty over island features and vast areas of maritime jurisdiction. In the middle of the South China Sea lies the Spratly archipelago--some 150 small island features to which six states have made claims. The core of the SCS dispute is access to natural resources, and the rival claims are largely based on the assumption that whoever has sovereignty can also claim large areas of ocean space attached to the islands.

Kang, Tong H. Vietnam and the Spratly Islands Dispute Since 1992. Monterey CA, Naval Postgraduate School , June 2000. 102 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA380048
This thesis examines Vietnam's approach to the Spratlys dispute since 1992. It concludes that: Hanoi's wooing of ASEAN has helped restrain China and the other claimants in the dispute; that Hanoi's rapprochement with Beijing has helped to limit China from seizing areas in the Spratlys occupied by Vietnam; that Hanoi's diplomacy has slowed Chinese expansionism in the Spratlys, while Hanoi's military build-up since 1992 has not; and Hanoi's appeal to UNCLOS has not helped resolve the dispute on its terms. To resolve the dispute in a peaceful manner, Hanoi must collaborate with the ASEAN states, Taiwan, and the larger Asia-Pacific community to prevent Beijing from dominating the Spratlys and the South China Sea.

Rosenberg, David. The South China Sea.
Available online at: http://www.middlebury.edu/SouthChinaSea/
An online resource for scholars and policy-makers interested in South China Sea regional development, environment, and security issues. Includes online reports and articles. Maps section includes an interactive map of the Spratly Islands, at: http://www.middlebury.edu/SouthChinaSea/macand.

Ruscheinski, Stephen J. China's Energy Security and the South China Sea. Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, May 2002. 128 p.
Available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA407062
This study questions whether China believes access to the South China Sea is of vital interest, one directly connected to the survival, safety, and vitality of its future. Initial discussion focuses on review of Chinese economic and energy policies. Subsequent analysis details Chinese behavior within the broader context of international relations theory, concluding with discussion on Chinese policy, resource, and sovereignty issues specific to the South China Sea.

Sanqiang Jian. Multinational Oil Companies and the Spratly Dispute.  Journal of Contemporary China.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9711101084&db=aph
This article has five sections. The first describes the background of the dispute in the Spratly Islands. The second section discusses the national policies of the host countries to attract western oil companies to engage in oil exploration in the Spratlys. The third section analyzes oil companies' attitudes and their corporate strategies for exploration there. The fourth section uses the case of the Wanan Bei dispute to illustrate the role of western oil companies' in the dispute. The final section summarizes the influence made by the western oil companies.

Thao, Nguyen Hong. Vietnam and the Code of Conduct for the South China Sea. Ocean Development & International Law. April 2001. 26 p.
Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=4425183&db=aph
This article portrays and characterizes the Vietnamese position toward the settlement of the island disputes in the South China Sea. The situation in the South China Sea has become more complicated since 1988 when China made its steps toward the Spratlys. After analyzing the situation in the South China Sea, the author emphasizes the need to have a code of conduct for this disputed area.


Catley, Robert and Keliat, Makmur. Spratlys: the Dispute in the South China Sea. Brookfield, VT, Ashgate, 1997. 221 p.
Book call no.: 341.44 C365s

Lu, Tzu-chien. China's Policy towards Territorial Disputes: The Case of the South China Sea Islands. New York, Routledge, 1989. 212 p.
Book call no.: 341.290951 L926c

Roberts, Chris. Chinese Strategy and the Spratly Islands Dispute.  Canberra, Australia, Australian National University. Strategic and Defence Studies Centre. 1996. 38 p. (Working paper; no. 293. )
Doc. call no.: 341.42 R643c

Samuels, Marwyn S. Contest for the South China Sea . New York , Methuen, 1982. 203 p.
Book call no.: 341.290916472 S193c

Sheng, Lijun. China's Policy towards the Spratly Islands in the 1990s. Australian National University. Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Canberra, Australia.1995. 36 p. (Working paper; no. 287)
Book call no.: 341.42 S546

Timperlake, Edward and Triplett, William C., II. Red Dragon Rising: Communist China's Military Threat to America. Lanham, MD, Regnery Pub.1999. 271 p.
Chapter 9: The Spratlys: Securing Strategic Ground, pp 139-150.
Book call no.: 355.0310951 T586r

Valencia, Mark J. China and the South China Sea Disputes: Conflicting Claims and Potential Solutions in the South China Sea. New York, Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995. 84 p. (Adelphi papers; no. 298 )
Book call no.: 909.82 I61a no. 298


Ahmad, Saidey B. Security in East Malaysia and Its Region.  Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2001. 23 p.
Research paper focuses on the potential threat to the region, including the overlapping claims on the Spratly Islands by Malaysia, China, Brunei, Philippines and Vietnam.  Author identifies China's claim on the sovereignty of the Spratlys and her concern for the US military presence in the region as the most particular threats to security.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 A286s

Borje, Adolf. The Spratly Islands: A Brewing Flashpoint in Asia. Monterey, CA, Naval Postgraduate School, 1994. 79 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42525 B734s

Burkhardt, Robert W. The Spratly Island Conflict. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1996. 30 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA309026
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 B9591s

Coker, Larry W. The Spratly Islands Dispute: Can ASEAN Provide the Framework for a Solution?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1996. 36 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA308657
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 C682s

Collins, J. T. Slow Siege of the Spratly Islands: China's South China Sea Strategy. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2001. 32 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA389080
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 C7124s

Cooney, James J. The Spratly Islands Dispute and U.S. Security Interests.  Newport, RI, Naval War College. 28 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662 C775s

Eikmeier, Dale C. A Leadership Vacuum: U.S. Actions in the South China Sea. Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 1998.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA357191
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022-2 E341L

Ham, Stephen P. The Spratly Island Dispute: A Case for a New U.S. Southeast Asia Security Strategy. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1996. 36 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA308522
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 H198s

Hurwitt, Mara C. U.S. Strategy in Southeast Asia: The Spratly Islands Dispute. Fort Leavenworth, KS, Army Command and General Staff College, 1993. 119 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42022 H967u

King, Michael W. United States and the Spratly Islands: Six Actors, Which Stage? Carlisle Barracks, PA , Army War College, 2001. 34 p.
This paper includes a brief background on the Spratly Islands (location, natural resources, and historical claims of ownership.) Following this is an analysis of why each of the six nations claiming ownership feels these uninhabited islands are important to their national interest. The analysis also looks at why and/or how these Asia-Pacific relationships, between each other and with nations outside of the region, affect the national interest of the United States. The conclusion recommends a United States strategy including ends, ways, and means to support its national interest in these islands and one or more of the nations claiming ownership.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401876
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 K531u

Miller, Mark S. Maintaining Peace in the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands: Are There Acceptable Alternatives to the U.S. Naval Forces Forward Deployed in the Asia Pacific Region?  Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 2002. 25 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA401689
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 M6492m

Pobre, Romulo. A Solution to the Spratly Islands Dispute. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air Command and Staff College, 2001. 22 p.
Recommends that the best possible solution is the continuous diplomatic efforts of ASEAN to prove to China that multilateral agreement is the best possible solution.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43122 P7391s

Schuetz, Robert E. The Spratly Islands Dispute and Implications for U.S. National Security. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Army War College, 1996. 28 p.
Also available online at: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA308510
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 S837s

Smith, Esmond D. Jr. China, Technology and the Spratly Islands: The Geopolitical Impact of New Technology. Newport, RI, Naval War College, 1994.  270 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 41662-6 S646c

Tien, Tsai-Mai. Republic of China and the Spratly Islands. Maxwell AFB, AL, Air War College, 1986. 29 leaves.
Doc. call no.: M-U 43117 T5621r

United States. Defense Mapping Agency. and United States Board on Geographic Names. Gazetteer of the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands: Names Approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names. Washington, DC, Defense Mapping Agency, 1987. 53 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 35416-11


Austin, Greg. Unwanted Entanglement: The Philippines' Spratly Policy as a Case Study in Conflict Enhancement? Security Dialogue 34:41-54 March 2003.
Explores the Phillippines' use of the ownership dispute over the Spratly Islands to stimulate the political and military relationship with the United States.

Baker, John C. and Wiencek David G. Sat-Images Could Be Spratlys' Salvation. Jane's Intelligence Review 11:50-54 February 1999.
Taking the territorial disputes over the Spratly Islands as an example, the authors examine how a new generation of commercial satellites could support diplomatic efforts to resolve conflicts and look at some potential pitfalls.

Chang, Felix K.  Beijing's Reach in the South China Sea. Orbis 40:353-374 Summer 1996.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9607115436&db=aph

Chien-peng Chung. The Spratlys and Other South China Sea Islands Disputes. Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies 24:17-36 Spring 1999.

De Castro, Renato Cruz. The Controversy in the Spratlys: Exploring the Limits to ASEAN's Engagement Policy. Issues & Studies 34:95-123 September 1998.
Analyzes ASEAN's policy of engagement with China over the Spratly Islands, and argues that attempts to link the PRC to ASEAN's consultative process are unlikely to succeed due to China's aversion to becoming deeply engaged in the process.

Er, Lam Peng. Japan and the Spratlys Dispute. Asian Survey 36:995--1010 October 1996.
Examines Japan's role in the resolution of the dispute over jurisdiction of the Spratly Islands. Discusses the interest of non-claimant states in the dispute, as well as Japan's historical, strategic, political and economic interests in the Spratlys.

Franko, Patrice. Defense Decisionmaking and Accountability Structures in the Philippines. Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 8:57-86 Spring 1999.
Focuses on three concerns: the process of force modernization, the guerrilla insurgency in the south and the flare-up of regional tensions in the Spratly Islands.

Furtado, Xavier. International Law and the Dispute over the Spratly Islands: Whither UNCLOS? Contemporary Southeast Asia 21:386-404 December 1999.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=2653642&db=aph

Hollingsbee, Trevor. Spratlys Rivalry as Philippines Faces Malaysia. Jane's Intelligence Review 11:3 December 1999.
Having taken issue with Chinese construction in the Spratly Islands recently, the Philippines is now protesting the activities of Vietnam and Malaysia in the South China Sea.

Hurng-Yu, Chen. The PRC's South China Sea Policy and Strategies of Occupation in the Paracel and Spratly Islands. Issues and Studies 36:95-131 July-August 2000.

Lee Jae-Hyung. China's Expanding Maritime Ambitions in the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Contemporary Southeast Asia 24:549-568 December 2002.
Includes discussion of China's overlapping claims in the Spratly and Senkaku Islands with neighboring countries.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9160527&db=aph

Marlay, Ross. China, the Philippines, and the Spratly Islands. Asian Affairs: An American Review 23:195-210 Winter 1997.

Odgaard, Liselotte. Deterrence and Co-operation in the South China Sea. Contemporary Southeast Asia 24:292-306 August 2001.
Explores the impact of the Spratly Islands dispute on security relations between China and Southeast Asia.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=5203728&db=aph

Schofield, Clive. A Code of Conduct for the South China Sea? Jane's Intelligence Review 12:36-40 November 2000.
The South China Sea is still a highly disputed area, with rival claims to the Spratly Islands and potential hydrocarbon resources in the region. Article examines the claims of the surrounding countries and the potential for a Code of Conduct for the South China Sea.

Studeman, Michael. Calculating China's Advances in the South China Sea: Identifying the Triggers of "Expansionism". Naval War College Review 51:68-90 Spring 1998.
Also available online at: http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/1998/spring/art5-sp8.htm

Tonnesson, Stein. Sino-Vietnamese Rapprochement and the South China Sea Irritant.  Security Dialogue 34:55-70 March 2003.
Includes discussion of prospects for a Sino-Vietnamese initiative to resolve the South China Sea dispute.

Townsend-Gault, Ian. Preventive Diplomacy and Pro-Activity in the South China Sea. Contemporary Southeast Asia 20:171-190 August 1998.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=1172544&db=aph

Valencia, Mark J. The Spratly Islands Dispute. Far Eastern Economic Review 166:21 January 9, 2003.
Comments on the implications of the International Court of Justice decision in the sovereignty dispute between Malaysia and Indonesia over the Spratly Islands.

Valencia, Mark J. Troubled Waters. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 53:49-54 January-February 1997.
Also available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com/direct.asp?an=9703310044&db=aph

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