SUICIDE TERRORISM

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

July 2004

Compiled by Bibliography Branch
Muir S.  Fairchild Research Information Center
Maxwell AFB, AL


Contents

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All sites listed were last accessed on July 23, 2004


Internet Resources


Abuza, Zachary. Learning by Doing: Al Qaeda's Allies in Southeast Asia. Current History April 2004.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=12721281&db=aph
Reports on the activities of the Al Qaeda and the allies of the terrorist network in Southeast Asia. Suicide bombings by Jemaah Islamiah; Security concerns in Indonesia and the Philippines.

Assaf, Moghadam. Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organizational Aspects. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism March 2003.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9331054&db=aph
This article explores various issues related to Palestinian suicide terrorism by presenting a two-phase model to explain the processes and factors underlying the development of Palestinian suicide bombers, and the execution of suicide bombing attacks. The model is applied to the case of suicide attacks that have occurred in the course of the first 21 months of the Second Intifada, from September 2000 to June 2002. The assumptions of the model are tested by taking an in-depth look into the various motives leading individual Palestinians to volunteer for suicide missions, and by discussing the activities and major functions of the organizations that have employed this modus operandi in the specified time frame. It will be concluded that while a counter-terrorism strategy aimed at targeting terrorist organizations may offer short-term gains, in the long run Israel will need to identify ways of removing or reducing the incentives that lead some Palestinians to volunteer for suicide missions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

Atran, Scott. Genesis of Suicide Terrorism. Science March 7, 2003.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9355002&db=aph
Contemporary suicide terrorists from the Middle East are publicly deemed crazed cowards bent on senseless destruction who thrive in poverty and ignorance. Recent research indicates they have no appreciable psychopathology and are as educated and economically well-off as surrounding populations. A first line of defense is to get the communities from which suicide attackers stem to stop the attacks by learning how to minimize the receptivity of mostly ordinary people to recruiting organizations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

Atran, Scott. Mishandling Suicide Terrorism. Washington Quarterly
Available online at: http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?sid=D86BC040-81BA-45DD-BD1D-9394CAF63E16&ttype=6&tid=13782&mlid=301
Last accessed: Summer 2004.

Berko, Anat. The Moral Infrastructure of Chief Perpetrators of Suicide Terrorism: An Analysis in Terms of Moral Judgment International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism - ICT May 15, 2004.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il
Search for article title after clicking on "search."

Beyler, Clara. Chronology of Suicide Bombings Carried out by Women International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism - ICT February 12, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il
Search for article title after clicking "search."

Beyler, Clara. Messengers of Death: Female Suicide Bombers International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism - ICT February 12, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il
Search for article title after clicking "search."

Dolnik, Adam. Die and Let Die: Exploring Links between Suicide Terrorism and Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism January 2003.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9258994&db=aph
Reveals why suicide terrorism does not necessarily make a mass-casualty chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear attack by a terrorist group more likely. Suicide bombers' lack of constraints; Weakening of the instinct for self-preservation; Advantages of suicide bombings over other forms of delivery.

Fighel, Jonathan. Top Muslim Clerics Endorse Suicide Attacks - A Challenge to the United States? International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism - ICT January 12, 2002.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il
Search for article title after clicking "search."

Glausiusz, Josie. The Surprises of Suicide Terrorism. Discover October 2003.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10841171&db=aph
Interviews anthropologist Scott Atran on suicide terrorism. Reason behind the need to address the problem as a scientific investigation; Remarks on the psychological pathology of suicide bombers; Suggestion of Atran regarding the role of natural selection in the tendency of people to become suicide terrorists.

Hoffman, Bruce. The Logic of Suicide Terrorism. Atlantic Monthly June 2003.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9730945&db=aph
Focuses on suicide terrorism in various countries of the world. Spread of suicide terrorism from the Middle East to the U.S.; Characteristics of suicide terrorism; Strategies of terrorism adopted by various countries.

Kimhi, Shaul and Even, Shmuel.  Who are the Palestinian Suicide Terrorists?  Jaffe Center for Strategic Studies September 2003.
Available online at: http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/sa/v6n2p5Kim.html

Mansdorf, Irwin J. The Psychological Framework of Suicide Terrorism Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. April 15, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp496.htm

Martyrdom and Murder. Economist January 10, 2004.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=11908940&db=aph
The article discusses why terrorists are willing to use suicide attacks. The fact that Hizbullah started the trend of suicide terrorism, and that its spread has coincided with the rise of other Islamic groups--Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), al-Qaeda and others--has led some to surmise that Islamic fundamentalism somehow explains it. For many Muslims, jihad is principally an internal struggle. But, the advent of Wahhabism, a branch of Sunni Islam that evolved in the 18th century, the notion of jihad as external warfare has been revived. Despite Koranic injunctions to the contrary, some radical Islamic thinkers have justified the killing of civilians, and of other Muslims, in the name of jihad.

National Center for Policy Analysis - Daily Policy Digest . Suicide Terrorists
Available online at: http://www.ncpa.org/pi/congress/pd091201e.html
Outlines the motivations and reasons behind suicide attacks.

Paz, Reuven. The Saudi Fatwah Against Suicide Terrorism.  International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism ICT May 16, 2001.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il
Search for article title after clicking "search."

Perina, Kaja. Suicide Terrorism. Psychology Today September-October 2002.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=7146151&db=aph
Investigates the psychological aspects of suicide bombing. Psychological effect of religion and social reinforcement; Relevance of post traumatic stress disorder among potential suicide bombers; Results of a study on adolescent Muslims in Gaza Strip during the Palestinian intifada from 1987 to 1993.

Pipes, Daniel. The Scourge of Suicide Terrorism. National Interest Summer 1986.
Available online at: http://www.danielpipes.org/article/175

Sarraj, Eyad. Why We Have Become Suicide Bombers: Understanding Palestinian Terror. Mission Islam
Available online at: http://www.missionislam.com/conissues/palestine.htm

Schweitzer, Yoram. Suicide Bombings -The Ultimate Weapon? International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism - ICT.  August 7, 2001.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il
Search for article title after clicking on "search."

Shuman, Ellis. What Makes Suicide Bombers Tick?  Israelinsider.com
Available online at: http://www.israelinsider.com/channels/security/articles/sec_0049.htm

Simon, Steven and Stevenson, Jonathan. Confronting Hamas.  National Interest 74:59-69 Winter 2003-04.
Focuses on how should Israel deal with Hamas, a Palestinian terrorist group which conducts suicide bombing directed against Israelis. Capability of Hamas to block the peace process between the Palestinian Authority and Israel; Reaction of Israel to suicide attacks by Hamas; Description of the organization and ideology of Hamas; Power struggle between Hamas and Fatah in the Palestinian Authority; Discussion on how should the United States handle the problem between Israel and Palestinian Authority.
Also available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=11960983&db=aph

Sprinzak, Enud. Outsmarting Suicide Terrorists.  Christian Science Monitor October 24, 2000.
Available online at: http://csmonitor.com/cgi-bin/durableRedirect.pl?/durable/2000/10/24/fp9s1-csm.shtml

Suicide Terror: Was 9/11 Something New?  Council on Foreign Relations Terrorism: Questions & Answers. 2004.
Available online at: http://cfrterrorism.org/terrorism/suicide.html

Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat Jane's Intelligence Review October 20, 2000.
Available online at: http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/usscole/jir001020_1_n.shtml

Suicide Terrorism: an Overview International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism -ICT February 15, 2000.
Available online at: http://www.ict.org.il/articles/articledet.cfm?articleid=128
Describes what constitutes a suicide attack, the benefits for the terrorist organization, and the benefits for the perpetrator.

Van Biema, David. Why the Bombers Keep Coming. Time Atlantic December 17, 2001.
Available online at: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=5717911&db=aph
Focuses on the increasing numbers of Islamic suicide bombers. Details surrounding the suicide bombing of Osama Bahar of Palestine in Jerusalem, Israel; Use of suicide bombings by the Shi'ite Muslim extremist group Hizballah of Lebanon and during the Iran-Iraq war; Concept of martyrdom behind suicide bombing; Popularity among members of Hamas and Islamic Jihad; Suicide bombing used as an attempt to drive out the Israelis.

Wolfson, Adam. Demystify It: How to Defeat Suicide Terrorism National Review Online September 16, 2003.
Available online at: http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-wolfson091603.asp


AUL Bibliographies

Terrorism Today. (Special Bibliography No. 322) July 2003. 116 p (Armstrong)

Terrorism: The Threat and Post 9/11 Trends.  September 2002. 156 p (AUL Staff)


Books


Ali, Tariq. The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity. New York, Verso, 2002. 342 p.
See chapter 20 "September Surprise." Attempts to answer the question "Why does an educated layer of Saudis, Egyptians and Algerians gravitate towards individual terrorism and why are they, as individuals, prepared to sacrifice their lives in the process?"
Book call no.: 320.550917671 A398c

Countering Suicide Terrorism: An International Conference. Herzliya, Israel, International Policy Institute for Counter Terrorism, 2001. 160 p.
Held February 20-23, 2000, Herzliya, Israel.
Book call no.: 363.32 C855

Essential Readings on Political Terrorism: Analyses of Problems and Prospects for the 21st Century, edited with a foreword by Harvey W. Kushner. Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 2002. 399 p.
Explains the nature of terrorism as a socio-political phenomenon and examines the psychology of suicide bombers.
Book call no.: 303.625 K97e

Griset, Pamala L. and Mahan, Sue. Terrorism in Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, 2003. 391 p.
See "Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat" by Rohan Gunaratna.
Book call no.: 303.625 G869t

Horovitz, David. Still Life with Bombers: Israel in the Age of Terrorism. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. 266 p.
Book call no.: 956.94054 H816s

Israeli, Raphael. Islamikaze: Manifestations of Islamic Martyrology. Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 2003. 494 p.
Book call no.: 297.72 I85i

Laqueur, Walter. No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. New York, Continuum, 2003. 288 p.
See chapter "Suicide."
Book call no.: 303.625 L317n

Selegut, Charles. Sacred Fury: Understanding Religious Violence. Walnut Creek, CA, AltaMira Press, 2003. 269 p.
Book call no.: 201.76 S464s

Stork, Joe. Erased in a Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians. New York, Human Rights Watch, 2002. 160 p.
Book call no.: 956.94054 S885e

Victor, Barbara. Army of Roses: Inside the World of Palestinian Women Suicide Bombers, foreword by Christopher Dickey. Emmaus, PA, Rodale, 2003. 300 p.
Book call no.: 956.9405 V642a


Periodicals


All it Takes to Make a Suicide Attacker. New Scientist 182:3 May 15, 2004.
Numerous studies have confirmed, a major reason why organizations turn to terrorism is the perception that their homeland is being occupied by a foreign power. This is especially true for suicide terrorism, which almost without exception has only been used as part of a systematic campaign to persuade a government to withdraw from territory the group considers its own. In Iraq, extremists have been targeting anyone associated with the coalition, even Iraqi Kurds and the newly re-formed Iraqi police force.

Bennett, James. Gingerly, Arabs Question Suicide Bombings. New York Times, p.A1, Op, July 3, 2002.
Focuses on the debate among Palestinians over suicide bombing.

Bennett, James. HAMAS Urges Iraqis to Make Suicide Attacks on the Invaders. New York Times, p.B13, Op, March 22, 2003.
Reports that the Palestinian armed HAMAS is urging Iraqis to use suicide as a weapon against invading troops, as Muslim preachers in the Gaza Strip inveighed against war in Iraq.

Bennett, James. Rash of New Suicide Bombers Exhibit No Patterns or Ties. New York Times, p.A1, Op, June 21, 2002.
Examines the increase in Palestinian suicide bombers who are not connected to the militantly Islamic groups. Gives views of psychiatrists.

Bond, Michael. The Making of a Suicide Bomber. New Scientist 182:34-37 May 15, 2004.
The article considers factors that make a suicide bomber. While suicide terrorists invariably come from oppressed communities, recent research by psychologists, anthropologists and others suggests that they fit none of the other common profiles. They are no less rational or sane, no worse educated, no poorer and no more religious than anyone else. Killing yourself while killing your enemy is not a modern idea. The link with religion is more complicated since most Islamic terrorist groups use religious propaganda, largely the promise of paradise, to prepare recruits for suicide missions. Yet suicide terrorism is in no way exclusive either to religious groups or to Islamic culture.

Dying to Kill Us. New York Times, p.A17, Op, September 22, 2003.
Presents an article on the link between liberal democracy and military occupation and suicide terrorism, rather than religious fundamentalism.

Eshel, David. Israel Reviews Profile of Suicide Bombers. Jane's Intelligence Review 13:20-21 November 2001.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Suicide Terrorism: A Global Threat.  Jane's Intelligence Review 12:52-55 April 2000.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Terror From the Sky. Jane's Intelligence Review 13:6-9 October 2001.
Describes the evolution of suicide terrorism and the use of airborne attacks.

Hecht, Richard D. Deadly History, Deadly Actions, and Deadly Bodies: A Response to Ivan Strenski's 'Sacrifice, Gift and the Social Logic of Muslim "Human Bombers."' Terrorism and Political Violence 15:35-47 Autumn 2003.

Hoffman, Bruce and McCormick, Gordon H. Terrorism, Signaling, and Suicide Attack. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 27:243-281 July-August 2004.

Israeli, Raphael. A Manual of Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence 14:23-40 Winter 2002.

Kondaki, Christopher. Suicide Terrorism, an Age-Old Weapon, Adds Technology. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 29:8-9 2001.

Kushner, Harvey W. Suicide Bombers: Business as Usual. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 19:329-337 October-December 1996.

Luft, Gal. The Palestinian H-Bomb. Foreign Affairs 81:2-8 July-August 2002.
Article discusses the Palestinian's growing acceptance of suicide bombings as a legitimate tool of war.

Moghadam, Assaf. Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organizational Aspects. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 26:65-92 March-April 2003.

Pape, Robert A. The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. American Political Science Review 97:343-362 August 2003.
To advance our understanding of this growing phenomenon, this study collects the universe of suicide terrorist attacks worldwide from 1980 to 2001, 188 in all. In contrast to the existing explanations, this study shows that suicide terrorism follows a strategic logic, one specifically designed to coerce modern liberal democracies to make significant territorial concessions. Moreover, over the past two decades, suicide terrorism has been rising largely because terrorists have learned that it pays.

Perina, Kaja. Suicide Terrorism: Seeking Motives Beyond Mental Illness. Psychology Today 35:15 September-October 2002.

Pope, Hugh.  HAMAS Official Won't Rule out Suicide Bombings. Wall Street Journal, p.A10, Op, April 21, 2003.
Reports on the refusal of Mousa Abu Marzouq, a member of the political bureau that runs HAMAS in Syria, to rule out suicide bombings in an effort to achieve peace in the Middle East.

Sprinzak, Ehud. Rational Fanatics Foreign Policy 120:66-73 September-October 2000.
Discusses the prevalence, history and religious aspects of suicide terrorism. Also gives the organizational link of a suicide terrorist and the views by terrorist groups on using suicide bombers.

Strenski, Ivan. Sacrifice, Gift and the Social Logic of Muslim "Human Bombers."  Terrorism and Political Violence 15:1-34 Autumn 2003.

Telhami, Shibley. Why Suicide Terrorism Takes Root. New York Times, pA23, Op, April 4, 2002.
Discusses the possible reasons for the suicide bombings being committed by Palestinians in line with the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

Waldman, Amy.  Masters of Suicide Bombing: Tamil Guerrillas of Sri Lanka. New York Times, p.A1, Op, January 14, 2003.
Focuses on the Black Tigers, a special suicide unit of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka. Perception of suicide attacks as the ultimate commitment to the movement; effectiveness of the attacks; examples of their suicide bombings, which were later imitated in the Middle East; percentage of Tigers' suicide bombers who were women.


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