Air University Library Publications

TERRORIST AND INSURGENT ORGANIZATIONS

July 2000

DOMESTIC GROUPS -- UNITED STATES
(Includes Extremist/ Radical Groups)

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site.  

All sites last viewed March 13, 2003.


Internet Resources

CNN's Oklahoma City Tragedy Special Section.
Available at: http://cnn.com/US/OKC/

CNN's The Olympic Park Bombing Special Section.
Available at: http://cnn.com/US/9707/olympic.park.bombing/

Domestic Preparedness Homepage.
Available at: http://dp.sbccom.army.mil/
The purpose of the DP Program is to prepare the United States for the possibility of a terrorist attack involving nuclear, biological or chemical weapons.

The Hate Directory: Hate Groups on the Internet.
Available at: http://www.bcpl.net/~rfrankli/hatedir.htm

The Militia Research Page.
Available at: http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~thetruth/militia/militia.html
List of links to articles, editorials, media reports, factual breakdown by states, militia and anti-militia sites, etc.

The Militia Watchdog.
Available at: http://www.militia-watchdog.org/index.htp
Site "devoted to monitoring far right extremism in the United States". Provides special reports, "Patriot" profiles, news section, image gallery, militia FAQ section and a chat room. Also provides an extensive list of links to neo-militia, white supremacist, and hate group sites.

The National Alliance.
Available at: http://www.natvan.com/
The National Alliance goals include 'white living space and an aryan society'. The site offers the organizational goals, online publications, etc.

Southern Poverty Law Center: Intelligence Project.
Available at: http://www.splcenter.org/intelligenceproject/ip-index.html
The Intelligence Project monitors hate groups and extremist activity throughout the United States. Provides a list of hate groups, a list of hate incidents in 1999, and information from SPLC's 'Militia Task Force'.

** For additional internet sites, refer to the General Internet Resources section at the beginning of this bibliography.

Books

Abanes, Richard. American Militias: Rebellion, Racism, & Religion. Downers Grove, IL, InterVarsity Press, 1996. 296 p.
Book call no.: 303.484 A117a

Anderson, Sean and Sloan, Stephen. Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. Metuchen, NJ, Scarecrow Press, 1995. 452 p.
Armed Forces of National Liberation, pp 41-43.
Aryan Nations, pp 46-48.
Christian Patriots Defense League, pp 65-66.
The Covenant, pp 75-77.
Jewish Defense League, pp 169-172.
Ku Klux Klan, pp 186-188.
Macheteros, pp 203-205.
Neo-Nazis, pp 247-250.
The Order, pp 262-263.
Posse Comitatus, pp 289-291.
Skinheads, pp 332-334.
United Underground, pp 364-366.
Book call no.: R 303.62503 A594h

Armageddon in Waco: Critical Perspectives on the Branch Davidian Conflict, edited by Stuart A. Wright. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1995. 394 p.
Book call no.: 299.93 A727

Bushart, Howard L. and others. Soldiers of God: White Supremacists and Their Holy War for America. New York, Kensington Publishing Corp., 1998. 308 p.
Book call no.: 322.42 B978s

Chemical and Biological Warfare, edited by Brian Solomon. New York, Wilson, 1999. 158 p.
Terrorism at Home and Abroad, pp 81-115.
Book call no.: 808.5 R332 v.71 no.3

Coppola, Vincent. Dragons of God: A Journey Through Far-Right America. Atlanta, GA, Longstreet Press, 1996. 187 p.
Book call no.: 303.484 C785d

Dees, Morris. Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat. New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 1996. 254 p.
Written by chief trial counsel for the Southern Poverty Law Center, Dees ties together the events, the players, and the history that gave life to the militias.
Book call no.: 303.484 D312g

Ellis, Richard J. The Dark Side of the Left: Illiberal Egalitarianism in America. Lawrence, KS, University Press of Kansas, 1998. 426 p.
Book call no.: 303.484 E47d

Encyclopedia of World Terrorism, edited by Martha Crenshaw and John Pimlott. Armonk, NY, M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997. 3 vols.
Terrorism in the United States (includes separate chapters on the KKK, Weathermen, Symbionese Liberation Army, Puerto Rican separatists, the World Trade Center bombing, anti-abortion activists terror campaign, and the Oklahoma City bombing), pp 525-550.
Book call no.: R 303.625 E56 Vol.2

The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk. Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1997. 293 p.
Right-Wing Extremism in the United States, pp 55-83.
Book call no.: 320.533 E96

Falkenrath, Richard A. and others. America's Achilles Heel: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Terrorism and Covert Attack. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1998. 354 p.
Book call no.: 363.320973 F192a

The Future of Terrorism: Violence in the New Millenium, edited by Harvey W. Kushner. London, Sage Publications, 1998. 278 p.
Terrorism, Hate Crime, and Antigovernment Violence: A Review of the Research, pp 55-96.
The Patriot Movement: Past, Present, and Future, pp 97-131.
Two Decades of Terror - Characteristics, Trends, and Prospects for the Future of American Terrorism, pp 132-156.
Book call no.: 363.32 F996

George, John and Wilcox, Laird. American Extremists: Militias, Supremacists, Klansmen, Communists, & Others. Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 1996. 443 p.

Grosscup, Beau. The Newest Explosions of Terrorism. Far Hills, NJ, New Horizon Press, 1998. 424 p.
The Explosions of Internal Terrorism: Mayhem in Our Midst as We Approach 2000, pp 78-122.
Book call no.: 303.625 G878n

Hamilton, Neil A. Militias in America. Denver, CO, ABC-CLIO Inc, 1996. 235 p.
Book call no.: 303.484 H219m

Hilliard, Robert L. and Keith, Michael C. Waves of Rancor: Tuning in the Radical Right. Armonk, NY, M. E. Sharpe, 1999. 309 p.
Book call no.: 302.23 H654w

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York, Columbia University Press, 1998. 288 p.
See index under 'United States of America' for specific references.
Book call no.: 303.625 H699i

International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Chicago, IL, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. 805 p.
Terrorism in the United States, pp 539-566.
Book call no.: R 303.625 I612

Jane's World Insurgency and Terrorism. Alexandria, VA, Jane's Information Group, 1999. 520 p.
The 'Patriot' Movement: Right-Wing Neo-Militia Groups in the USA, pp 21-23.
Right-Wing Militia Groups, pp 118-119.
Los Macheteros, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberacion Nacional (FALN), Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, etc., pp 120-121.
Right-Wing Militias: Diary of Events, p 401.
Book call no.: R 364.1 J33 1999 May-August

Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Los Angeles, University of California Press, 2000. 316 p.
Soldiers for Christ, (includes discussion of abortion bombings, Timothy McVeigh, Christian Identity, etc), pp 20-43.
Book call no.: 291.178331 J93t

Kushner, Harvey W. Terrorism in America: A Structured Approach to Understanding the Terrorist Threat. Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas, 1998. 218 p.
Domestic Terrorism, pp 56-85.
Terrorist and Extremist Groups in the United States, pp 99-144.
Book call no.: 364.1 K97t

Lamy, Philip. Millennium Rage: Survivalists, White Supremacists, and the Doomsday Prophecy. New York, Plenum Press, 1996. 295 p.
Book call no.: 301 L242m

Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999. 312 p.
Terror and the Far Right, pp 107-119.
Book call no.: 363.32 L317n

Mullins, Wayman C. A Sourcebook on Domestic and International Terrorism: An Analysis of Issues, Organizations, Tactics, and Responses. 2nd ed. Springfield, IL, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1997. 582 p.
Domestic Terrorism, pp 36-37.
Terrorism in the United States (history), pp 64-88.
United States Terrorist Organizations, pp 169-236.
Book call no.: 363.32 M959t 1997

Neiwert, David A. In God's Country: The Patriot Movement and the Pacific Northwest. Pullman, Washington, Washington State University Press, 1999. 357 p.
Book call no.: 322.420973 N417i

Serrano, Richard A. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York, Norton, 1998. 321 p.
Book call no.: 976.6 S487o

Snow, Robert L. The Militia Threat: Terrorists Among Us. New York, Plenum Trade, 1999. 266 p.
Book call no.: 322.420973 S674m

Stern, Kenneth S. A Force Upon the Plain: The American Militia Movement and the Politics of Hate. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1996. 303 p.
Book call no.: 306.2 S839f

Tabor, James D. and Gallagher, Eugene V. Why Waco? Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America. Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press, 1995. 252 p.
Book call no.: 299.93 T114w

Terror from the Extreme Right, edited by Tore Bjorgo. London, Frank Cass & Co Ltd, 1995. 322 p.
Right-Wing Terrorism in a Comparative Perspective: The Case of Split Delegitimization, by Ehud Sprinzak, pp 17-43.
Right-Wing Violence in North America, by Jeffrey Kaplan, pp 44-95.
Book call no.: 303.625 T32812

Terrorism in the United States, edited by Frank McGuckin. New York, H. W. Wilson, 1997. 131 p.
Offers eighteen essays by various authors on such topics as the militia movement, America's bomb culture, etc.
Book call no.: 808.5 R332 v.69 no.1

Thibodeau, David. A Place Called Waco. New York, Public Affairs/Perseus, 1999. 365 p.
Book call no.: 976.4 T427p

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. The FALN and Macheteros Clemency: Misleading Explanations, a Reckless Decision, a Dangerous Message: Third Report. House report. 106th Congress, 1st session. Washington, GPO, 1999. 695 p.
Book call no.: 364.65 U58f

United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Comprehensive Antiterrorism Act of 1995.. Washington, GPO, 1996. 189 p.
Book call no.: 344.730532 U581c

United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on National Security. Subcommittee on Military Research and Development. The Federal Response to Domestic Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Status of the Department of Defense Support Program. Hearing. 105th Congress, 1st session. Washington, GPO, 1998. 270 p.
Book call no.: 363.32 U581fa

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Treasury, Postal Service and General Government. Oklahoma City Bombing. Hearing. 104th Congress, 1st session. Washington, GPO, 1996. 66 p.
Book call no.: 303.625 U582o

White, Jonathan R. Terrorism: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1998. 321 p.
Terrorism in the United States, pp 204-227.
America's Vulnerability to Technological Terrorism, pp 274-278.
Book call no.: 363.32 W585t 1998

Wills, Gary. A Necessary Evil: A History of American Distrust of Government. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1999. 365 p.
Includes separate chapters on insurrectionists and vigilantes. Refers to Timothy McVeigh.
Book call no.: 973 W741n

Documents

Driscoll, John B. A Chaordic Threat: Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States. Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 1996. 37 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 D781c

Mannon, Otis G. Asymmetry from the Right: Imminent Danger from Extremist Activities? Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 1998. 50 p.
Doc. call no.: M-U 39080-537 M285a

Periodicals

ADL (Anti-Defamation League) Report Cites Neo-Nazi National Alliance as Most Dangerous Organized Hate Group in America. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 7, no.4:12 1998.

Barkun, Michael. Religion, Militias and Oklahoma City: The Mind of Conspiratorialists. Terrorism and Political Violence 8:50-64 Spring 1996.

Beaumont, Roger. American as Cherry Pie?: Unofficial Militias in American History. Journal of Conflict Studies 19:144-162 Fall 1999.

A Blow to the Heart. Time 145:36-43 May 1, 1995.
Oklahoma City bombing.

Boston Gets Ready for Sarin Terrorist Attack. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 6, no.3:7 September-October 1997.
As part of the 1996 Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, 120 cities in U.S. are targeted for training by DOD units.

Cole, Wendy. Re-Enter the Dragon. Time 144:51 October 3, 1994.
Thom Robb, (the national director of the Knights of the KKK) and the splintering of the KKK into factions is discussed.

Cotter, John M. Sounds of Hate: White Power Rock and Roll and the Neo-Nazi Skinhead Subculture. Terrorism and Political Violence 11:111-140 Summer 1999.

Davis, Paul B. American Experiences and the Contemporary Perception of Terrorism. Small Wars & Insurgencies 7:220-242 Autumn 1996.

Dawson, Patrick. State of Siege (Montana Freemen). Time 147:24-27 April 8, 1996.

Downey, Dennis B. Domestic Terrorism: The Enemy Within. Current History 99:169-173 April 2000.

Duffy, Brian. The Mad (Una) Bomber? U.S. News & World Report 120:28-36 April 15, 1996

Durham, Martin. Preparing for Armageddon: Citizen Militias, the Patriot Movement and the Oklahoma City Bombing. Terrorism and Political Violence 8:65-79 Spring 1996.

Emerson, Steven. Terrorism in America: The Middle Eastern Connection -- Domestic Groups That Support Middle Eastern Terrorism. Journal of Counterterrorism & Security International 5:13-15 Spring 1998.

Enemies and Assets. New American 13:4+ March 3, 1997.
Terrorists responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing had direct links to CIA and FBI agents and resources.
Also available online at: http://www.thenewamerican.com/tna/1997/vo13no05/vo13no05_assets.htm

Gallagher, Eugene V. God and Country: Revolution as a Religious Imperative on the Radical Right. Terrorism and Political Violence 9:63-79 Autumn 1997.
Discusses how radical groups try to legitimize their purpose by applying religious imperatives. This is reflected in such literature as The Field Manual of the Free Militia, Hunter, and The Turner Diaries. Refers to various domestic militia and extremist groups.

Government Evasion: Waco Truth Trickles Out. Economist 352:35-36 September 4, 1999.

Gray, Paul. Headliners: Timothy McVeigh. Time 146:101-102 December 25, 1995.

Gromer, Cliff and Wilson, Jim. Weapons of Mass Destruction. Popular Mechanics 175:80-85 June 1998.
'Easy to build, easy to hide, they pose a greater threat to the American way of life than Russia's nuclear bombs'. Discusses the three types of WMD and how international terrorists might use them.

Halpern, Thomas and others. Militia Movement: Prescription for Disaster. USA Today 124:16-22 January 1996.
Offers thirty-nine brief individual state assessments of militia organizations.

Hate Springs Eternal. Harpers Magazine 300:150 March 2000.
Offers a list of active U.S. hate groups, the number of chapters each has, and a U.S. map showing their locations.

Hoffman, Bruce. American Right-Wing Extremism. Jane's Intelligence Review 7:329-330 July 1995.

Hoffman, Bruce. "Holy Terror": The Implications of Terrorism Motivated by a Religious Imperative. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 18:271-284 October-December 1995.
Refers to the Aryan Nations and Christian Identity Movements.

Jenkins, Brian Michael. The Lessons of Waco. TVI Report 11, no.1:22-25 1993.

Johnston, David. F.B.I. Director Says Agency Blundered in Idaho Standoff. New York Times, sec A, p 28, col 5, October 20, 1995.
Reviews Louis J. Freeh's testimony before the Senate Judiciary's Subcommittee on Terrorism concerning incidents at Ruby Ridge.

Kaplan, Jeffrey. "Leaderless Resistance". Terrorism and Political Violence 9:80-95 Autumn 1997.
Discusses the concept of "leaderless resistance" in the American radical right.

Kaplan, Jeffrey. Right-Wing Violence in North America. Terrorism and Political Violence 7:44-95 Spring 1995.

Katz, Jesse and Hart, Lianne. Two Hostages in Texas Standoff Released; Crime: Authorities Step Up Pressure on Separatists in Effort to End Stalemate. Los Angeles Times, p 1 Home Edition (p 14 Southland Edition) April 29, 1997.
Republic of Texas standoff.

Keenan, Gerard P. America's Militia Threat. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 7, no.4:4-5 1998.

Klan Organizations by State. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 7, nos.2-3:25 1998.

Knickerbocker, Brad. U.S. Militias: The Dark Side of Frontier Independence. Christian Science Monitor, p 1, col 1, April 24, 1995.
Sheds light on groups that seek to overthrow the U.S. government through violence.

Leader, Stefan. Cash for Carnage: Funding the Modern Terrorist. Jane's Intelligence Review 10:42-46 May 1998.
Refers to various groups in the United States and their actions.

Morganthau, Tom and Shabad, Steven. The View from the Far Right. Newsweek 125:36-39 May 1, 1995.
Discusses right-wing U.S. militias: their political ideology and membership composition.

Mydans, Seth. Sabotage Derails Arizona Train; One Is Killed and 100 Are Hurt. New York Times,, p A1, col 1, October 10, 1995.
A stretch of track near Hyder, AZ was sabotaged, causing an Amtrak train carrying 268 people to derail. A note near the wreck claimed responsibility for the Sons of Gestapo, an anti-government group.

Reese, Lloyd F. Terrorism in America. Counterterrorism & Security Report 4, no.4:3-4 Winter 1996.

Sater, Rachel M. Bombings Involving Jewish Extremists in the United States. TVI Report 11, no.4:9-12 1996.
Provides a chronology of events from 1970-1994, many of them done by the Jewish Defense League.

Schmemann, Serge. New Images of Terror: Extremists in Heartland. New York Times, sec B, p 8 Late edition (National edition, p A12), April 24, 1995.
Discusses right-wing paramilitary groups. This issue of the New York Times has a section called "Terror in Oklahoma".

Smith, Brent L. and Morgan, Kathryn D. Terrorists Right and Left: Empirical Issues in Profiling American Terrorists. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 17:39-57 January-March 1994.

Specter Subcommittee Issues Ruby Ridge Report. American Rifleman 144:16 February 1996.
Presents the conclusions of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Government Information concerning the federal raid of Randy Weaver's cabin in Ruby Ridge, ID.

Texas A&M Designated as National Counterterrorism Center. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 7, nos.2-3:6 1998.

Today's Ku Klux Klan. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 7, nos.2-3:24 1998.
Includes a related article "Domestic Terrorism Growing".

United States: Mobilization for Global Justice Radicals. Pinkerton Global Intelligence Services 2000. 17:1-3 April 14, 2000.

United States: Potential Democratic National Convention Unrest and Extremists. Pinkerton Global Intelligence Services 2000. 17:3-4 June 9, 2000.

Van Biema, David. Murder on the Sunset Limited. Time 146:46-48 October 23, 1995.

Verhovek, Sam Howe. Texas Swaps a Jailed Militant for Hostages in Tense Siege. New York Times, sec A, p 1+, April 29, 1997.
Republic of Texas separatist group hostage situation.

Whine, Michael. Cyberspace -- A New Medium for Communication, Command, and Control by Extremists. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 22:231-245 July-September 1999.

Wilson, James Q. The Case for Greater Vigilance. Time 145:73 May 1, 1995.
FBI guidelines for investigating domestic extremist groups face conflicting political pressures.

Wines, Michael. Agreeing to a Trade Was Right, Experts Say. New York Times, sec D, p 23 (Late Edition), April 29, 1997.
Republic of Texas separatist group hostage situation.

Yaeger, Carl H. The Phineas Priesthood: Who Are These Guys? Journal of Counterterrorism & Security International 5:46-47 Fall 1998.

Videos

New Face of Terrorism.. New York, A&E Television Networks/ New Video Group, 1996. 1 videocassette, 50 min.
Focuses on the United States with discussion of militia groups.
Video call no.: 303.625 N532

Terrorism: Aims and Objectives: Domestic Terrorism. Princeton, NJ, Films for the Humanites & Sciences, 1995. 1 videocassette, 52 min.
Video call no.: 303.625 T32814 v.3

Waco: The Rules of Engagement.. New York, New York Video/ Somford Entertainment, 1997. 1 videocassette, 136 min.
Documentary of events occurring outside Waco, Texas April 1993 between federal agents and the Branch Davidian compound.
Video call no.: 363.250973 W115

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