Air University Library Publications

TERRORIST AND INSURGENT ORGANIZATIONS

July 2000

REVOLUTIONARY ARMED FORCES OF COLOMBIA (FARC)

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Air Force of this Web site or the information, products, or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities such as military exchanges and morale, welfare and recreation sites, the U.S. Air Force does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this DoD Web site.  

All sites last viewed March 13, 2003.


Internet Resources

FARC-EP (Fuerzas Armadas de Colombia).
Available at: http://burn.ucsd.edu/~farc-ep/
Site is in Spanish. Offers documents, communiques, articles, group history, etc.

An Overview of Recent Colombian History.
Available at: http://www.igc.org/colhrnet/timeline.htm
Offers an annotated timeline with references to ELN and FARC activities through April 2000.

The Peace Process in Colombia.
Available at: http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/
Site is maintained by the Center for International Policy. Offers background information including a timeline of events and information about the combatants. Also includes the peace initiatives and demands for each group.

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
Available at: http://www.ict.org.il/
Site maintained by the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism. Under 'International Terrorism: Terrorist Organization Profiles: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia' are links to articles and documents, a list of attacks, and updates.


** For additional internet sites, refer to the General Internet Resources section at the beginning of this bibliography.

Books

Anderson, Sean and Sloan, Stephen. Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. Metuchen, NJ, Scarecrow Press, 1995. 452 p.
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, pp 310-313.
Book call no.: R 303.62503 A594h

Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America, edited by Cynthia J. Arnson. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 1999. 493 p.
Negotiating Peace amid Multiple Forms of Violence: The Protracted Search for a Settlement to the Armed Conflicts in Colombia, pp 159-195.
Appendix: Colombia's Major Guerrilla Movements, pp 196-199.
Book call no.: 980.033 C737

Defense & Foreign Affairs Handbook 1999. Alexandria, VA, International Strategic Studies Association, 1999. 1760 p.
Colombia, pp 313-326 (especially note section one 'History' and section nine 'Insurgency Groups').
Book call no.: R 355 D313 1999

Downes, Richard. Landpower and Ambiguous Warfare: The Challenge of Colombia in the 21st Century. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute. U.S. Army War College, 1999. 21 p.
Refers to FARC throughout.
Book call no.: 320.9861 D748L

Encyclopedia of World Terrorism, edited by Martha Crenshaw and John Pimlott. Armonk, NY, M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1997. 3 vols.
Terrorism in Colombia, pp 430-433.
Book call no.: R 303.625 E56 Vol.2

Facts on File, 1999. New York, Facts on File, 1999. 1 vol.
Colombia: Guerrillas, Government Hold Peace Talks, January 28, 1999, pp 65-66.
Colombia: Americans Found Slain. FARC Admits Role, March 11, 1999, p 176.
Colombia: Government, Rebels Resume Peace Talks, May 13, 1999, p 353.
Colombia: Defense Minister Resigns (over peace strategy with FARC), June 3, 1999, p 406.
Colombia: Peace Talks Postponed Again/ FARC Launches Offensive, July 29, 1999, p 554.
Book call no.: R 909.82 F11 1999

Foreign Military Markets: Latin America & Caribbean. Newtown, CT, Forecast International/DMS, 2000. 1 vol.
Colombia - report dated January 1999. Especially note the "Analysis" section ("guerrillas the gravest security threat").
Book call no.: R 338.476234 F7141

International Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Chicago, IL, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. 805 p.
Terrorism in Colombia, pp 448-451.
Book call no.: R 303.625 I612

Jane's Sentinel: South America. Alexandria, VA, Jane's Information Group, 2000. 1 vol.
Colombia - offers a fifty-seven page report. Especially note the sections on 'Internal Affairs' and 'Security and Foreign Forces'.
Book call no.: R 980 J33 2000 Feb-Jul

Jane's World Insurgency and Terrorism. Alexandria, VA, Jane's Information Group, 1999. 520 p.
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), pp 92-94.
FARC: Diary of Events, pp 371-381.
Book call no.: R 364.1 J33 1999 May-August

Kline, Harvey F. State Building and Conflict Resolution in Colombia, 1986-1994. Tuscaloosa, AL, University of Alabama Press, 1999. 240 p.
Barco's Guerrilla Policy, pp 33-43.
Negotiations between the Government and the Guerrilla Groups, pp 85-118.
See index under "Armed Forces of the Colombian Revolution" and "Army of National Liberation" for additional references.
Book call no.: 320.9861 K65s

Laffin, John. The World in Conflict: War Annual 8. London, Brassey's, 1997. 198 p.
Colombia: A Madhouse of War, pp 92-98.
Book call no.: R 355.00904 W2532 v.8 1997

Laqueur, Walter. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999. 312 p.
Colombia: Drugs and Terrorism, pp 188-191.
Terrorism and Organized Crime: Colombia, pp 212-214.
Book call no.: 363.32 L317n

Latin America Monitor: Andean Group. London, Business Monitor International, 2000. 1 vol.
Colombia: Military Build-Up Continues, January 2000, p 5.
Colombia: US Proposes Fresh Aid Package, February 2000, p 5.
Colombia: Peace Process Revived, March 2000, p 5.
Colombia's Confidence Crisis, June 2000, p 1+.
Book call no.: R 980.005 L357

Marcella, Gabriel and Schulz, Donald. Colombia's Three Wars: U.S. Strategy at the Crossroads. Carlisle Barracks, PA, Strategic Studies Institute. U.S. Army War College, March 1999. 41 p.
Book call no.: 320.9861 M314c

Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1999. Washington, U.S. Dept of State, April 2000. 107 p.
Latin America Overview: Colombia, pp 23-25.
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), pp 85-86.
Also available online at: http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1999report/1999index.html
Book call no.: R 303.625 P316 1999

Radu, Michael and Tismaneanu, Vladimir. Latin American Revolutionaries: Groups, Goals, Methods. Washington, Pergamon-Brassey's, 1990. 386 p.
FARC, pp 149-155.
Book call no.: 322.42098 R132L

Societies of Fear: The Legacy of Civil War, Violence and Terror in Latin America. New York, Zed Books, 1999. 335 p.
From Banality of Violence to Real Terror: The Case of Colombia, pp 141-167.
Book call no.: 303.6098 S678

South America Central America and the Caribbean 2000. 8th ed. London, Europa Publications Limited, 1999. 832 p.
Colombia: History, pp 222-227.
Book call no.: R 980.003 S726 8th ed 2000

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Peace Corps Narcotics and Terrorism. Confronting Threats to Security in the Americas. Hearing. 106th Congress, 1st session. Washington, GPO, 1999. 33 p.
Refers to the FARC and ELN activities. See 'Colombia', pp 13-19 and 24-30.
Book call no.: 355.03307 U581c

United States. Department of State. Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Political Violence Against Americans. Washington, GPO, 1999. 49 p.
Western Hemisphere: Colombia, pp 3-6.
Americans in Captivity: Colombia, p 31-32.
Book call no.: 362.88 S578 1998

World Conflicts and Confrontations Volume I: The Americas, edited by Charles F. Bahmueller. Hackensack, NJ, Salem Press, 2000. 1 vol.
Colombia, pp 195-204.
Book call no.: R 909.82 W9273 v.1

Document

Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Colombia: Conditions and U.S. Policy Options, by Nina M. Serafino. Washington, GPO, 2000. 36 p.
Reviews the current conflict including information concerning the FARC and the ELN.
Doc. call no.: M-U 42953-1 no.-RL30330

Periodicals

The Americas: The Generals Under Fire. Economist 346:35-36 March 14, 1998.
FARC kills 83 members of Colombia's armed forces.

Aquila-Lawrence, David. Guerrillas Disrupt Local Elections. NACLA Report on the Americas 31:45-46 November-December 1997.
Reports on the actions taken by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) to shut down the 1997 municipal elections.

The Assault on Democratic Society in Colombia. Economist 354:35-36 March 18, 2000.

Brazil Orders Troop Mobilisation to Contain Colombian "Spillover". Latin American Weekly Report, p 517, November 9, 1999.
Brazil mobilizes troops to the border based on FARC plans to seize the Brazilian airstrip at Querari.

Cala, Andres. The Enigmatic Guerrilla: FARC's Manuel Marulanda. Current History 99:56-59 February 2000.

Castano Threatens Venezuela, Panama. Latin American Weekly Report, p 436, September 21, 1999.
"Neighboring countries accused (by paramilitaries) of backing rebels".

Chepesiuk, Ron. Guerrillas in the Midst. National Review 49:27-28+ September 1, 1997.
Reviews FARC's connection to the international drug trade.

Chernick, Marc W. The Paramilitarization of the War in Colombia. NACLA Report on the Americas 31:28-33 March-April 1998.

Colombia. For Your Eyes Only 2000.
Christmas Truce Ends with a Bang. No.480:19 January 2000.
Peace Talks Held in Rome/ Continue. No.481:11 & 20 February 2000.
FARC Attacks Towns. No.482:5 March 2000.
Another Demilitarized Zone/ Police Commander Captured. No.483:4 & 27 April 2000.
FARC Issues Land Law. No.484:31 May 2000.

Colombia. Pinkerton Global Intelligence Services 2000.
2,733 Persons Kidnapped January -November 1999. 17:3 January 7, 2000.
FARC Kills 5 ELN Guerrillas in Fight for Control in Arauca. 17:4 January 14, 2000.
Guerrillas Go to Scandinavia to Study Economic Models for Peace Talks. 17:1-3 February 4, 2000.
FARC Kills 3 Police, Injures 6 in Ambush. 17:3 February 18, 2000.
FARC Rebels Bomb Town, Blow Up Telephone Link to 4 Provinces. 17:4 March 24, 2000.
Peace Process at a Major Turning Point (launch of FARC political wing, etc) 7:1-3 April 28, 2000.
U.S. Ranks Colombia First for Terrorist Attacks. 17:5 May 5, 2000.

Colombia Reviews Plans in Wake of Rebel (FARC) Attack. Jane's Defence Weekly 29:10 March 18, 1998.
The Colombian armed forces are changing their strategy against the FARC guerrillas.

Dayani, Martin. Sparks Fly as FARC Targets Power Grid. Jane's Intelligence Review 11:41-43 December 1999.

Dettmer, Jamie. The Anatomy of the Narco-Rebels. Insight on the News 13:42-43 November 24, 1997.
Provides facts and details on FARC from Colombia's secret intelligence files.

Diebel, Linda. Drug Politics in Colombia a Trap for the US: By Labeling Rebels Narco-Guerrillas, America Risks Another Vietnam. Current News: Early Bird, p 7, April 1, 1998.
FARC leader claims "U.S. military advisers are heading covert counter-insurgency operations against the rebels rather than fighting drugs as the United States is supposed to do".

Excursion to Scandinavia: Government and Guerrillas (FARC) Go Off in Search of Ideas. Latin American Weekly Report, p 69, February 8, 2000.

FARC Attack U.S. "Declaration of War". Latin American Weekly Report, p 112, March 7, 2000.
"Military aid issue threatens to hold up negotiations".

FARC Declares Truce at Last. Latin American Weekly Report, p 592, December 21, 1999.

FARC Refuse to Consider a Truce. Latin American Weekly Report, p 508, November 2, 1999.

FARC Say Talks about to Resume. Latin American Weekly Report, p 448, September 28, 1999.

Fears of Clashes as FARC Truce Ends. Latin American Weekly Report, p 16, January 11, 2000.

Foreign Broadcast Information Service Reports.
For up-to-date information on the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), check the FBIS online database. Numerous articles are available for 1999 and 2000. (FBIS is a subscription service available in-house at the Air University Library).

Formal Talks (with FARC) Give Hope for Peace in Colombia. Jane's Intelligence Review 11:5 June 1999.

Franco, George H. Their Darkest Hour: Colombia's Government and the Narco-Insurgency. Parameters 30:83-93 Summer 2000.
Discusses the size, resilence, intensity, and four-decade history of the FARC.
Also available online at: http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/parameters/00summer/franco.htm

Guerrilla Law. Economist 353:31-33 December 18, 1999.

Guerrillas Reject Pastrana Truce Plea. Latin American Weekly Report, p 544, November 23, 1999.
"FARC offensive shows they intend to keep upper hand".

Hunter, Thomas B. The Organization and Leadership of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. Counterterrorism & Security Reports 8, no.2:11+ 1999.

Hunter, Tom. Colombia's Oil Wars: A Chronological Analysis. Journal of Counterterrorism & Security International 5:4-5 Spring 1998.
Discusses activities of the ELN and the FARC.

Klepak, Hal. Colombia: Why Doesn't the War End? Jane's Intelligence Review 12:41-45 June 2000.

Latin America: Growing Kidnap Threat Throughout the Region. Pinkerton Global Intelligence Services 2000. 17:2-5 May 5, 2000.

Leader, Stefan and Wiencek, David. Drug Money: The Fuel for Global Terrorism. Jane's Intelligence Review 12:49-54 February 2000.

Leongomez, Eduardo Pizarro. Clouds over Colombia. NACLA Report on the Americas 33:6-9 September-October 1999.
Discusses the support for the peace process and the United States' involvement in the conflict.

Manuel Perez, 62, Former Priest and Leader of Colombia Rebels (FARC) Dies. New York Times,, p D8, April 11, 1998.
Obituary

Meza, Ricardo Vargas. The FARC, the War and the Crisis of the State. NACLA Report on the Americas 31:22-27 March-April 1998.

Meza, Ricardo Vargas. A Military-Paramilitary Alliance Besieges Colombia. NACLA Report on the Americas 32:25-30 November-December 1998.
Rural actions against FARC.

Murillo, Mario and Maldonado, Victoria. Raul Reyes (Interview). NACLA Report on the Americas 31:23-25 July-August 1997.
Interviews Raul Reyes, head of the International Commission of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) who discusses the political program of the group and addresses the accusations of "narco-guerrillas" drug actions.

Murillo, Mario A. Indigenous Communities Caught in the Crossfire. NACLA Report on the Americas 33:10-11 July-August 1999.
Reviews attacks against Colombia's Indian tribes by Colombian guerrillas (FARC), paramilitaries, and government agents.

'Necklace Bomb' Rattles Peace Process. Latin American Weekly Report, p 230, May 23, 2000.

Novak, Richard D. Who Lost Colombia? Current News: Early Bird, pp 15-16, April 9, 1998.
According to official sources, narcotics-financed guerrillas now control 40-50% of Colombia. Discusses the U.S. relationship to Colombia.

(Panama's) Security Plan to Face Colombian Spillover. Latin American Weekly Report, p 521, November 9, 1999.
Panama works out security plan to contain Colombian conflict from reaching Panama.

Passage, David. Colombia in Turmoil: How the U.S. Could Help. Special Warfare 13:8-15 Winter 2000.

Pastrana Calls for Graft Referendum. Latin American Weekly Report, p 161, April 4, 2000.
Mentions FARC activities and its demand for reforms in the political system.

Pastrana's Many Battles. Economist 353:31-32 November 27, 1999.

Pastrana & Serpa Draw Back from the Brink. Latin American Weekly Report, p 246, May 30, 2000.
Discusses the peace talks with FARC and ELN and mentions the new FARC "law".

Robinson, Linda. Is Colombia Lost to Rebels? U.S. News & World Report 124:38-42 May 11, 1998.
Reviews the FARC's control of southern half of Colombia and the United States' aid in the form of anti-narcotics money.

Shifter, Michael. Colombia at War. Current History 98:116-121 March 1999.

Shifter, Michael. The United States and Colombia: Partners in Ambiguity. Current History 99:51-55 February 2000.

Spencer, David. Bogota Continues to Bleed as FARC Find Their Military Feet. Jane's Intelligence Review 10:35-40 November 1998.

Talks with FARC Begin at Last. Latin American Weekly Report, p 496, October 26, 1999.

Tickner, Arlene B. Colombia: Chronicle of a Crisis Foretold. Current History 97:61-65 February 1998.

Tirofijo (FARC leader) Shows Up for Peace Talks. Latin American Weekly Report, p 28, January 18, 2000.

Tirofijo Rebuffs Pastrana Proposal. Latin American Weekly Report, p 436, September 21, 1999.
"Guerrillas insist no foreign monitors will be allowed in".

The US-Colombian Narco-War Intensifies. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy 27, no.12:16 1999.

Youngers, Coletta. U.S. Entanglements in Colombia Continue. NACLA Report on the Americas 31:34-35 March-April 1998.
Discusses the use of U.S. aid money to train and equip paramilitaries used against the guerrilla groups.

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