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National Security Council
U.S. State Department
- see State Department section on Travel page for entry requirements, travel tips, and warnings
- see State Department - patterns of global terrorism and other counterterrorism reports at the Center for Terrorism Studies
- see nation building for Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS)
- The State Dept, main page
- Countries and Regions pages, State Dept
- Travel and Living Abroad, State Department
- Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. State Dept
- Travel Warnings & Consular Information Sheets, U.S. State Dept
- State magazine, U.S. State Dept
- Strategic Planning and International Affairs in the 21st Century, 1997 remarks at Conference on International Affairs in the 21st Century, by Amb. Johnstone, Director of Resources, Plans, and Policy
- State Dept International Information Programs (IIP)
- Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security
- Counterterrorism Office, State Dept
- Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) -- "FBIS collects and translates current political, economic, technical, and military information from the media worldwide for the U.S. government. Access to FBIS information is limited to the U.S. Government agencies and their contractors."
- Embassy Web, web sites of U.S. and other countries worldwide, with search capability by embassy owner and host country
- Worldwide Embassies and Consulates Search Engine, also available in Chinese language
- The Electronic Embassy, guide to Washington, D.C., foreign embassy community
- Foreign Government Resources on the Web, by U. of Mich.
- Library of Congress, Country Studies, all aspects, from historical to cultural to political -- built-in search engine -- recently added the countries of Central Asia, although info often is only as new as 1996
- Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)
- International Documents Task Force (IDTF), American Library Association Government Documents Round Table, with extensive lists of foreign government links and nongovernmental links
- See also Peacekeeping Lessons Learned
- See also Peacekeeping Cross-Cultural Communications
- Peace Education, from the State Dept.
- Program on Peacekeeping Policy (POPP), George Mason Univ.
- Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, formerly Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Centre
- United States Institute of Peace
- Operationalizing Dissuasion (local copy), by Rushton, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2006
- JP 3-07.3, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Peace Operations, 12 February 1999
- Joint Task Force Commander's Handbook for Peace Operations, 1.97 Mb file
- FM 100-23 Peace Operations
- FM 100-23-1, HA Multiservice Procedures for Humanitarian Assistance Operations
- AFDD 2-3 Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)
- Command Arrangements for Peace Operations (local copy), INSS, NDU
- Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) Initiative, factsheet on "initiative aimed at increasing the number of foreign military personnel qualified to participate in international peacekeeping missions"
- Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR), "designated by the Department of Defense as the legal agent for education and training under the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program"
- African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), DoD factsheet
- African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), EUCOM
- Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics (JSCOPE), incl case studies and papers on ethics of war and warfighters, and laws of war
- UN Peacekeeping Operations, including current and completed missions
- Partnership for Peace Information Management System (PIMS), a DoD program
- Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI), Carlisle Barracks
- Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Canadian Forces College - Peace and Security WWW Server
- Department of Peace Studies - University of Bradford
- International Peace Academy
- Peacekeeping and Related Operations -- University of New Brunswick Library
- Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), Germany
- Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Sweden
- M.K. Gandhi Institute for Nonviolence, India
- The Carter Center, USA
- African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), South Africa
- See also Kosovo NGO list and After-Action reports
- See International Humanitarian Resources
Failed States, Failing States, Fragile States
- See also establishing rule of law
- See also lessons learned - stability ops, humanitarian, and related topics
- See also small wars - including Small Wars Manual
- See also failed and failing states
- The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, by Dobbins et al, RAND report, 2007
- Nation Building bibliography, Naval War College
- Nation Builders, by Peters, in Government Executive, 15 Jun 2006
- Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS), U.S. State Department
- Center for Democracy and Governance, USAID web site with handbooks, studies, etc.
- Note: be sure to check the USAID site for latest versions of handbooks below.
- Beyond Nation Building (local copy), SecDef remarks, 14 Feb 2004
- The UN's Role in Nation-Building: From the Congo to Iraq, a RAND study, 2005 - with historic examples
- America's Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, a RAND study, 2003 - with historic examples
- Nation-Building, The American Way (local copy) by Carson, Army War College paper, 2003
- Preventing Terrorism Through Nation-Building: A Viable Way? (local copy) by Comfort, Army War College paper, 2003
- In Search of a New Type of Army: Nation Building and Occupation (local copy), by Camarena, School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), 2004
- US Nation-Building Abroad, Yale University
- Nation-Building Lite, by Ignatieff, in New York Times Magazine, 28 July 2002
- Preparing Leaders for Nationbuilding (local copy), by Donahoe, Military Review, May-Jun 2004
- Winning the Nationbuilding War (local copy), by Anderson, Military Review, Sep-Oct 2004
- Crossing Boundaries: Interagency Cooperation and the Military (local copy), by Kelleher, in Joint Force Quarterly, Autumn 2002
- America's Army - Expeditionary and Enduring, Foreign and Domestic (local copy), by Brown, Military Review, Nov-Dec 2003
- Strategic Democracy Building: How U.S. States Can Help, by Owens and Eid, The Washington Quarterly, Autumn 2002
- Robert Kaplan, “Supremacy by Stealth: Ten Rules for Managing the World,” Atlantic Monthly (July-August 2003), 80
Non-State Actors, Sub-State Actors
- See also nation building
- See also global trends on Future page
- See also Pentagon's New Map and related concepts on Theory page
- See also transition to/from hostilities on Lessons Learned page
- Ungoverned Territories: Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks, by Rabasa et al, RAND report, 2007
- The Failed States Index, May/June 2006, from Foreign Policy and the Fund for Peace
- Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS), U.S. State Department
- Conflict Management and Mitigation (CMM), a USAID program
- U.S. Threatened by "Failed States," USAID's Natsios Says - Official outlines U.S. development strategy for helping failed states (local copy), 17 Feb 05
- USAID’s 2005 Fragile States Strategy (local copy), Jan 2005
- USAID’s Approach in Fragile States (local copy), USAID presentation, summer seminar session 12, 14 Sep 04
- Grand Strategies for Dealing with Other States in the New, New World Order, by Miskel, Naval War College Review, Winter 2005 - with section on failing states
- Failing-states strategies are of a completely different order than pivotal, buffer, or seam-states strategies. Theoretically, pivotal and buffer-states strategies target other states as being relatively capable of either projecting influence regionally or acting as barriers against intrusion by third parties. Failing states are capable of neither, and it is their very incapacity that causes some strategists to believe that they warrant high priority in state-to-state assistance.
- Feral Cities, by Norton, Naval War College Review, Autumn 2003
- Developing Tools for Transition (local copy), remarks by Arthur E. Dewey, Assistant Secretary for Population, Refugees and Migration, 28 Oct 2004
- There are few, if any, surprises in a state on the path to failure. The road to chaos is predictable, reliable, and inevitable once a series of well-known thresholds have been crossed. These thresholds include:
- The rise of leaders and warlords driven by greed for money and power, who are oblivious to the rights and needs of their people.
- Discrimination, by race, class, ethnicity, politics, or religion.
- Increasing human rights violations, leading to civil strife and breakdown in public order.
- Economic hardship, communicable disease, malnutrition, starvation, ethnic cleansing. In the most extreme cases, as in Rwanda ten years ago, and Darfur today – genocide.
- Movements of large numbers of people from their homes, internally and externally, to places of refuge, or to places where they are less of a minority.
- Finally, too late and too little intervention by the international humanitarian and/or peacekeeping community.
- All of this leads to a failed state whose people become the wards of the international community. Their survival, and revival, depend upon the uneven capabilities an international community only beginning to awaken to the realities of development today. This international community is even farther behind in developing a literacy, and a know-how, to shape and conduct transition support operations.
- Nation-State Failure: A Recurring Phenomenon? (local copy), NIC 2020 paper, National Intelligence Council
- Preventing Conflicts Before They Erupt (local copy), remarks by Donald K. Steinberg, Deputy Director for Policy Planning, State Department, 23 Sep 2002
- In trying to predict where conflict will emerge, experts within government have looked at scores of conflicts over past decades and identified "associative" if not "causative" factors. Nine of these are particularly instructive.
- First is the degree of political participation, responsive governance, and rule of law. Societies must have safety valves to permit the peaceful redress of grievances.
- Second is the nexus of urbanization, population pressure, and the state of economy. A quick route to conflict is through youth unemployment and lack of opportunity.
- The condition of the education system is vital. Investment in schools and in girls’ education in particular is the single most important factor in improving health, agriculture, and other socio-economic standards, and giving youth a stake in the future.
- Next is the existence or absence of institutions of civil society, including women’s organizations.
- Fifth is religious and ethnic homogeneity, or at least the extent to which differences are tolerated.
- Next is: "Location, location, location." The role of neighbors in either mediating or fueling disputes is fundamental. Countries in bad neighborhoods risk spillover from armed combatants, refugees and arms flows; those is good neighborhoods receive a powerful dampening effect on potential violence.
- Seventh is the role of the military and security forces in the political structure.
- Eighth is international engagement, including the openness of the economy. Conflicts are like mushrooms: they grow best in darkness.
- Finally, has there been upheaval during past 15 years? Contrary to the warning on an investment prospectus, the past record is an indicator of future performance.
- These are among the factors we need to monitor as indicators and potential triggers of conflict, and this is one area where governments are highly dependent on the work of civil society to provide ground truth. We cannot do much about many of these factors, nor can we stop natural disasters that often translate into conflict. Still, every drought does not have to become a famine.
- Failed States and Casualty Phobia: Implications for Force Structure and Technology Choices, Jeffrey Record, CSAT paper 18
- Failed States Warlordism and "Tribal" Warfare, by Woodward, Naval War College Review, Spring 1999
- Spotting the Losers: Seven Signs of Non-Competitive States, by Peters, in Parameters, Spring 1998
- "They are as simple as they are fundamental, and they are rooted in culture. The greater the degree to which a state--or an entire civilization--succumbs to these "seven deadly sins" of collective behavior, the more likely that entity is to fail to progress or even to maintain its position in the struggle for a share of the world's wealth and power."
- These key "failure factors" are:
- Restrictions on the free flow of information.
- The subjugation of women.
- Inability to accept responsibility for individual or collective failure.
- The extended family or clan as the basic unit of social organization.
- Domination by a restrictive religion.
- A low valuation of education.
- Low prestige assigned to work.
- Spotting Trouble Identifying Faltering and Failing States, by Norton and Miskel, Naval War College Review, Spring 1997
- The Political Component: The Missing Vital Element in US Intervention Planning, by Clarke and Gosende, in Parameters, Autumn 1996
- Democratization and Failed States: The Challenge of Ungovernability, by Dorff, in Parameters, Summer 1996
- State Collapse and Ethnic Violence: Toward a Predictive Model, by Baker and Ausink, in Parameters, Spring 1996
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
- See also asymmetrical conflict on future studies page
- Doctrinal Lessons from Non-State Actors (local copy), by Forte, SAMS Monograph, May 2002
- Violent Non-State Actors: Countering Dynamic Systems, by Thomas and Casebeer, in Strategic Insights, Mar 2004
- Deterring Violent Non-State Actors in the New Millenium, by Thomas and Casebeer, in Strategic Insights, Dec 2002
- Dissuasion of Terrorists and Other Non-State Actors, by Pilat, in Strategic Insights, Oct 2004
- Lords of the Silk Route: Violent Non-State Actors in Central Asia, by Thomas and Kiser, INSS Occasional Paper 43, May 2002
- Modeling Violent Non-State Actors: A Summary of Concepts and Methods, by Bartolomei, Casebeer, and Thomas, IITA Research Publication 4, Nov 2004
- Nonstate Actors in Colombia: Threat and Response, by Manwaring, SSI, May 2002
- Historical Precedence and Technical Requirements of BW Use (local copy), by Frerichs, Sandia National Labs, Dec 2002 - including listings of sub-state actors' motivations and uses of biological agents
- Dealing with Non-State Actors, by Nurick, of Carnegie Moscow Center, posted at Center for Strategic Decision Research, Jun 2003 - including discussion of deterrence
- Deterrence for the New Threats, by Gen. Mehta, consulting ed. with Indian Defense Review, posted by Center for Strategic Decision Research, Jun 2003
- Deterring Mass-Casualty Terrorism (local copy), by Bowen, in Joint Force Quarterly, Summer 2002
- The real challenge in determining whether nonstate actors like al Qaeda are susceptible to deterrence logic involves penetrating their black boxes. This means understanding the frame
of reference of actors, how it is evoked, options considered in decisionmaking, and the lens through which they will perceive deterrent messages.
- Deterrence in the 21st Century, by Blotzer, in The Collins Center Update, Mar 2000
- The Role of Non-State Actors in Building Human Security: The Case of Armed Groups in Intra-State Wars, by Bruderlein, in Geneva, Mar 2000 - "this paper reviews the role of armed groups in the protection of civilian populations in internal armed conflicts"
- Conference on Non-State Actors, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Oct 2004, Center for International Development & Conflict Management
- Non- State Actors and Their Significance, by Busé, Journal of Mine Action
- A Volatile Mix: Non-State Actors and Criminal States, by Farah, in The Issues, Oct 2004
- Non-State Actors and Human Rights, by Alston, Oxford University Press
- Statecraft and Non-State Actors in an Age of Globalization, by Shambaugh, Georgetown University, Mar 2002
World and Regional Organizations
World and Regional Studies & News
Partnership for Peace
Civilian Universities and Schools
Military Colleges and Schools
Foreign Military Studies Office
Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS), National Defense Univ.
- See also international medical and humanitarian NGOs
- See also international relief and assistance on International Studies Reference page
- ReliefWeb "is the global hub for time-critical humanitarian information on Complex Emergencies and Natural Disasters" - used by NGOs and governments
- Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) section of UN Dept of Public Information
- A Guide to NGOs: A Primer about Private, Voluntary, Non-Governmental Organizations, by Frandsen, Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, June 2003
- An NGO Training Guide for Peace Corps Volunteers, Peace Corps
- How NGOs can best harness new technology, by Frandsen, in Humanitarian Affairs Review, Autumn 2004
- NGO Global Network, "non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations"
- NGOnet.org, "an electronic networking resource for nongovernmental organizations in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union"
- The NGO Café "set up on the internet as a meeting place for NGOs to discuss, debate and disseminate information on their work, strategies and results."
- Non-governmental Organizations
Research Guide, Duke University
- INSS Strategic Forum, buncha short papers on just about every topic and region, newest are at bottom of list
- INSS Strategic Assessments
- INSS Strategic Assessment 1999: Priorities for a Turbulent World (Local Copy), with sections on our changing world, regional dynamics, dealing with key countries, and managing military affairs
- INSS Strategic Assessment 1998: Engaging Power for Peace (Local Copy), incl regional stuff, future stuff, space threats ...
- INSS Strategic Assessment 1997: Flashpoints and Force Structures (Local Copy), incl lots of regional items
- INSS Strategic Assessment 1996: Elements of US Power (Local Copy), incl arms control, peace operations, and emerging military instruments
- INSS Strategic Assessment 1995: US Security Challenges in Transition (Local Copy), incl regional studies and peace operations
- INSS Research Directorate - includes research on Americas, Asia/Pacific, Europe, Middle East, Peace Ops, and OOTW
Human Security Paradigm
- See also cultural intelligence on Intelligence page
- See also cultural awareness and cross-cultural communication
- See also warrior societies
- United States Strategic Culture (local copy), by Mahnken, for DTRA, Nov 2006
- Comparative Strategic Culture, Sep 2005, Conference Report, Center for Contemporary Conflict, NPS (local copy of PDF)
- The Military Utility of Understanding Adversary Culture (local copy), by McFate, in Joint Force Quarterly, July 2005
- Comparative Strategic Culture, by Gray, in Parameters, Winter 1984 - examining the concept of strategic culture
- Know Thy Enemy: Profiles of Adversary Leaders and Their Strategic Cultures, Schneider and Post ed.s, USAF Counterproliferation Center book, July 2003 - Iran, Libya, Syria, North Korea, radical Islam, al Qaeda, and more
- Impact of Strategic Culture on U.S. Policies for East Asia, by Miller, SSI, Nov 2003
- Iran’s Strategic Culture and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Implications of US Policy, by Cain, Maxwell Paper No. 26, Apr 2002
- Strategic Implications of Culture: Historical Analysis of China’s Culture
and Implications for United States Policy, by Crider, Wright Flyer Paper No.8, ACSC, 1999
- China and Strategic Culture (Local Copy), by Scobell, SSI, May 2002
- North Korea’s Military Strategy, by Hodge, in Parameters, Spring 2003
- additional sources
Warrior Societies and Non-US Philosophies of Peace and War
- Military Implications of Human Security:
The Case of South Africa, by Ferreira and Henk, a paper presented to the conference of the Inter-University Seminar on
Armed Forces & Society, 20 Oct 2005
- Human Security: Relevance and Implications, by Henk, in Parameters, Summer 2005
- Commission on Human Security (CHS)
- Human Security Network
- Canada's Human Security Web Site
- Human Security, resources at Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs Official Web Site
- Institute for Human Security, The Fletcher School, Tufts University
- Human Security Centre
- Since the end of the Cold War, armed conflicts have increasingly taken place within, and not between, states. National security remains important, but in a world in which war between states is the rare exception, and many more people are killed by their own governments than by foreign armies, the concept of 'human security' has been gaining greater recognition.
- Unlike traditional concepts of security, which focus on defending borders from external military threats, human security is concerned with the security of individuals.
- The Canadian Consortium on Human Security
- Human Security Gateway, a Canadian Research and Information Database
- Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project Office at UCI (GECHS-UCI), University of California, Irvine
- Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University
Ministries of Defence and Armed Forces
- See also strategic culture
- See also chaos, warriors, & barbarians on Future Studies page
- It's the Tribes, Stupid, by Pressfield, posted by D-N-I, Oct 2006 - an alternative view
- For two years I've been researching a book about Alexander the Great's counter-guerrilla campaign in Afghanistan, 330-327 B.C. What struck me most powerfully is that that war is a dead ringer for the ones we're fighting today – even though Alexander was pre-Christian and his enemies were pre-Islamic.
- The heart of every tribal male is that of a warrior. Even the most wretched youth in a Palestinian refugee camp sees himself as a knight of Islam. The Pathan code of nangwali prescribes three virtues – nang, pride; badal, revenge; melmastia, hospitality. These guys are Apaches.
- What the warrior craves before all else is respect. Respect from his own people, and, even more, from his enemy. When we of the West understand this, as Alexander did, we'll have taken the first step toward solving the unsolvable.
- The New Warrior Class, by Peters, in Parameters
- 21st Century Land Warfare: Four Dangerous Myths, by Dunlap, in Parameters
- Myth 1: Our most likely future adversaries will be like us
- Myth 2: We can safely downsize our military in favor of smaller, highly trained forces equipped with high-technology weapons
- Myth 3: We can achieve information superiority and even dominance in future conflicts
- Myth 4: Modern technology will make future war more humane if not bloodless
International Think Tanks and Policy Centers
- International Security, WWW Virtual Library, includes list of links to world ministries of defense
- Royal Air Force
- Royal Australian Air Force
- Argentina, Ministerio de Defensa
- Australian Defence Organisation
- Canada, Department of National Defence
- Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional
- Denmark, Ministry of Defence
- Germany, Ministry of Defense
- Greece, Ministry of National Defence
- Israel, Ministry of Defense
- Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Official Site
- Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of Defence
- Netherlands, Ministerie van Defensie
- Norway, Ministry of Defence
- Singapore, Ministry of Defence
- Republic of Korea, Ministry of National Defense
- Spain, Ministerio de Defensa
- Swiss Armed Forces online
- United Kingdom, Ministry of Defence