By definition, complex contingency operations involve a number of USG departments and agencies. Past experience demonstrates that the following offices are usually involved:
Bureau for Humanitarian Response
Office of the Secretary of Defense
International Security Affairs
National Defense University
International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program
U.S. Coast Guard
Office of International Affairs
· Director of Central Intelligence
National Intelligence Council/Global Issues
· NSC Global Issues and Multilateral Affairs
· Office of Management and Budget
National Security and International Affairs
The agency descriptions in this appendix provide cursory background information on the departments and agencies that are likely to contribute to a complex contingency operation. While the descriptions do not give detailed information on all the operations of an agency or department, they highlight some of the unique skills and abilities of various USG offices.
* The following agency descriptions are taken in large part from Interagency Coordination During Joint Operations (Joint Pub 3-08).
The CIA is responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence on issues of national security. It also conducts counterintelligence activities abroad and works with the FBI on domestic counterintelligence efforts. It has no police, subpoena, law enforcement powers, or domestic security functions. Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) is both the head of the Intelligence Community and the Director of the CIA. The DCI is also the principal intelligence advisor to the President and the NSC.
The CIA is organized into four major Directorates:
· Deputy Director for Operations (DDO) has primary responsibility for the clandestine collection of foreign intelligence.
· Deputy Director for Science and Technology (DDS&T) collects and processes information gathered by technical collection systems and develops advanced equipment to improve collection and processing.
· Deputy Director for Administration (DDA) provides comprehensive support to the other directorates.
The CIA's reconnaissance and intelligence assessment capabilities provide real-time information for interagency action. The CIA is regularly involved with other agencies of the U.S. Government:
· The DCI serves as the Chairman of the NSC's Senior Interagency Group when it meets to consider issues requiring interagency attention, deals with inter-departmental matters, and monitors the execution of approved intelligence policies and decisions.
· The National Intelligence Council (NIC) concentrates on the substantive problems of particular regions of the world and particular functional areas, such as economics and weapons proliferation, and produces national intelligence estimates.
· To support joint military operations, the DCI may provide a National Intelligence Support Team (NIST), staffed by the CIA, DIA, and NSA, to augment the intelligence capabilities of combatant commands and joint task forces.
The following USDA Agencies provide key Departmental services and capabilities:
· Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) provides, through the Land-Grant University system, wide-ranging educational capabilities to support enhanced decisionmaking across the agricultural sector. The network of State specialist and County Extensions Agents, with access to every county and the territories, provides grass-roots involvement and action
· Natural Resources Conservation Service provides specialists in soil and water conservation.
· Forest Service, active in the conservation and proper use of forest resources, also provides disaster-scene management skills.
· Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service assists in the protection of food resources from pests and disease threats.
· Economic Research Service and the National Agricultural Statistics Service, which help to better understand the condition of agricultural sectors and the probable effects of different policy decisions.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has wide-ranging knowledge and skills in the U.S. agricultural sector and applies these skills to analysis and development overseas. Within the U.S. Department of Agriculture, most international responsibilities are handled by the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). The agency is represented by agricultural counselors and attaches working with U.S. embassies throughout the world.
For field coordination, initial contact should be made through the FAS agricultural counselor or attaché, or directly to the FAS/International Cooperation and Development (ICD) Program if there is no agricultural office. Further operational coordination in the field may be made through a civil-military operations center (CMOC), if established, with appropriate USDA field personnel. To coordinate agricultural development and emergency technical assistance, the FAS/ICD has major responsibilities. The Deputy Administrator for FAS/ICD has the authority to accept funding and implementation responsibilities on behalf of the USDA technical agencies, and to assist in the implementation process. FAS/ICD also coordinates USDA relations with a variety of governmental and international organizations.
The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is responsible for several foreign; food assistance programs where U.S. agricultural commodities are donated abroad for humanitarian and developmental purposes. The food assistance is provided through three channels: the P.L. 480 Program (Title II and Title III), which is administered by the Agency for International Development, and the Section 416(b) Program, and the Food for Progress Program, both of which are administered by USDA. The FSA's Kansas City Commodity Office, through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC is responsible for procuring or supplying commodities from CCC inventory for all foreign food assistance donation programs.
The Department of Commerce is responsible for developing and administering Federal policy and programs affecting the industrial and commercial segments of the national economy. The DOC is the support agency for several Emergency Support Functions within the Federal Response Plan (FRP).
The DOC is composed of the Office of the Secretary, 14 bureaus, and other operating units. DOC's capabilities include:
· produce, analyze, and disseminate economic and demographic data
· conduct statistical research, and collect information about virtually every country in the world and data on foreign trade
· analyze and protect the national defense production base and help with defense conversion in the United States
· contribute to an international search-and-rescue satellite system that reacts to aviation and marine emergency transponders
· formulate U.S. export control policies through the Bureau of Export Administration, a key agency in the effort to stop the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and to control sensitive technology transfer
· develop and implement U.S. foreign trade and economic policies through the International Trade Administration with the Department of the Treasury, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative and others.
The DOC can also contribute to humanitarian and military operations through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA conducts research, makes predictions, and gathers data about the environment through six functional divisions and a system of special program units, regional field offices, and laboratories.
The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary or Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff, the Military Departments and the Military Services within those Departments, the unified combatant commands, the Defense agencies and DOD Field Activities, and other offices, agencies, activities and commands.
· The OSD is the principal staff for policy development, planning, resource management, fiscal, and program evaluation.
· The JCS includes the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps.
· The Military Departments are the Departments of the Army, Navy (including the Marine Corps), and Air Force. Each Military Department is organized under a civilian Secretary who exercise authority, direction, and control (through the Chiefs of the Services) of their forces not specifically assigned to combatant commanders.
· A unified combatant command is composed of forces from two or more Military Departments. The Unified Command Plan establishes the missions, responsibilities, and force structure for commanders of unified combatant commands and establishes their general geographic areas of responsibility and functions.
· There are currently 16 Defense Agencies and seven DOD Field Activities, which provide support and services to the DOD in specific functional areas, such as intelligence.
The Department of Defense has the capability to respond rapidly and decisively to quell regional crises. U.S. military capabilities include:
The Department of Energy formulates and executes energy policies plans, and programs including: energy, weapons and waste clean-up; science and technology programs; energy efficiency and renewable energy, fossil energy, nuclear energy information, and civilian radioactive waste management; oversight of power marketing administrations, intelligence and national security programs, energy research, science education and technical information programs; and laboratory management. A principal DOE mission during crisis is to help the Federal government meet military, essential civilian, defense industry, and allied energy requirements. The DOE is the primary agency for emergencies that involving the provision of emergency power and fuel to support immediate response operations, as well as providing power and fuel to normalize community functioning.
The DOE has an emergency operations center at its Washington, DC, headquarters for use during crises involving energy systems and for support to other Federal agencies when appropriate. The Director of the DOE's lead field office, in conjunction with the headquarters, assigns staff to temporary duty at FEMA's disaster field office and to field mobilization centers to assist in the coordination of disaster relief.
Through the DOE Emergency Response Program, the DOE deals with all forms of nuclear accidents and incidents, including those that may be associated with terrorist activity. The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) provides facilities for handling victims of radiation emergencies. The DOE also participates in the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) to provide assistance to Federal agencies, state, tribal, and local governments during radiological incidents. The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is a crisis response activity, coordinating radiological monitoring and assessment of the Federal agencies, while supporting reaction to a radiological incident.
The Office of Emergency Management manages DOE emergency response assets. Ion addition to REAC/TS and FRMAC, also available is: Aerial Measuring System (AMS) which provides real-time radiation contamination measuring; Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which can provide prediction of dispersal of radioactive material, and personnel and equipment to locate, identify radiological materials. Assistance is available domestically through FEMA and internationally through both the Department of State and host nation.
The DOE's capabilities include:
· research and development of energy-related technologies.
· research, development, and testing of nuclear reactors and weapons.
· management of weapon stockpiling.
· oversight of occupational safety involving radiological activities and environmental restoration, as well as assessment of clean-up and decontamination needs.
· assistance in situations involving radioactive materials.
· assistance in managing incidents/accidents.
The Department of Justice provides legal advice to the President, represents the Executive Branch in court, investigates Federal crimes, enforces Federal laws, operates Federal prisons, and provides law enforcement assistance to states and local communities. The Attorney General heads the Department of Justice; supervises U.S. attorneys, marshals, clerks, and other officers of Federal courts; represents the United States in legal matters; and makes recommendations to the President on Federal judicial appointments and positions within the DOJ.
The DOJ has an important role in helping to improve the legal and law enforcement systems of many countries through its numerous training programs. The Criminal Division's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) has provided training and assistance to a number of countries including Haiti, Panama, and states in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. ICITAP can provide assistance in a number of areas including police training, development of procedural, organization, and administrative bases for law enforcement and penal agencies, development of forensic capabilities, and US-based models for dealing with organized crime, drug trafficking, and financial crimes.
The following law enforcement agencies have significant roles in crisis response, intelligence, and the interagency process:
· DEA is the primary narcotics enforcement agency for the U.S. Government. FBI investigates violations of certain Federal statutes, collects evidence for cases in which the United States is or may be an interested party, maintains liaison posts abroad in foreign countries to quell organized crime, drugs, foreign counterintelligence, white collar crime, terrorism, and violent clime.
· The FBI has extensive domestic and foreign intelligence and operational assets
· United States National Central Bureau (USNCB) is the U.S. representative to the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), which coordinates information exchange in international investigations.
· United States Marshals Service (USMS) provides prisoner transportation, service and execution of court orders, Federal court and judicial security, witness protection, maintenance and disposal of forfeited assets, Federal fugitive apprehension, foreign extradition, security and law enforcement assistance during movement of cruise and intercontinental ballistic missiles, and emergency response by the USMS Special Operations Group to a number of domestic emergency circumstances.
· The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) plays a significant role in interagency response to migrant operations.
The Department of State is responsible for planning and implementing U.S. foreign policy. In its diplomatic role, the DOS is an important source of foreign affairs data, national security and economic information, and data on the policies and inner workings of other countries. In its consular function, the DOS provides notarial and citizenship services to U.S. citizens abroad and assists in implementing U.S. immigration and naturalization laws.
There are Under Secretaries of State for Political Affairs; Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs; Arms Control and International Security Affairs; Global Affairs, which includes international narcotics, counterterrorism, environment and science, population and refugees, labor, and human rights; and Management. Seven regional bureaus are responsible to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs and are headed by the Assistant Secretaries of State for: African Affairs; East Asian and Pacific Affairs; European and Canadian Affairs; Near Eastern Affairs; Inter-American Affairs; South Asian Affairs; and International Organizational Affairs. Other bureaus in the Department are functionally oriented, and their Assistant Secretaries are responsible to other Under Secretaries for such matters as: Administration; Diplomatic Security; Consular Affairs; Personnel; International Narcotics and Law Enforcement; Oceans and Environmental Scientific Affairs; Politico-Military Affairs; Democracy, Human Rights and Labor; Intelligence and research; Population, Refugee, and Migration; and Economic and Business Affairs.
Embassies are the basic unit for the conduct of diplomacy overseas. They are headed by an Ambassador, who is a Presidential appointee and the President's personal representative. Ambassadors coordinate, direct, and supervise all U.S. Government activities and representatives posted in the foreign country to which they are accredited. They do not, however, exercise control of U.S. personnel attached to and working for the head of a U.S. Mission to an international organization or U.S. military personnel operating under the command of a geographic combatant commander. Overseas, Foreign Service Officers are assisted by another 10,000 career Foreign Service National employees and the more than 1,600 U.S. Marines on deputation to the DOS as Marine Security Guards.
The Department of Transportation is responsible for ensuring the safety and reliability of all forms of transportation, protecting the interests of consumers, conducting planning and research for the future, and rendering assistance to cities and states in meeting their transportation goals. The Secretary of Transportation is one principal advisor to the President on transportation programs and oversees the nine operating administrations that compose the Department.
The DOT consists of the Office of the Secretary and nine operating administrations that are organized generally by mode of travel: United States Coast Guard (USCG); Federal Aviation Administration (FAA); Federal Highway Administration (FHA); Federal Railroad Administration (FRA); National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Federal Transit Administration; Maritime Administration; Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation; and Research and Special Programs Administration.
The DOT and its agencies have close and continuous liaison within the interagency, especially with the Department of Defense. The DOT brings to the interagency a responsive planning and operational mechanism, and a logistics apparatus to support strategic and operational planning for force projection, combat operations, deterrence, crisis response, disaster assistance, humanitarian relief efforts, and strategic exercises. Specifically, the DOT provides:
· Enforcement of maritime laws and suppression of smuggling and Illicit drug trafficking. The USCG routinely places law enforcement detachments on board surface combatants of the U.S. Navy for maritime interdiction operations.
· Expertise involving the civilian and military use of U.S. transportation system. DOT can redirect the Nation's transportation assets and change priorities, usually through Presidential Executive Order or emergency decrees.
· Cooperation with the FAA and the Department of Defense in military aviation, aeronautical charts and publications, Notices to Airmen, military airport operations and certification, airspace management during national crises, and airspace control and certification of expeditionary aviation facilities overseas during military contingency operations.
The Department of the Treasury performs four basic functions: 1) formulates and recommends economic, financial, tax, and fiscal policies; 2) serves as financial agent for the U.S. Government; 3) enforces the law; and 4) manufactures coins and currency.
The Assistant Secretary (Enforcement) is responsible for: the Office of Financial Enforcement and the Office of Foreign Assets Control; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF); U.S. Customs Service (USCS); the U.S. Secret Service (USSS); and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. Treasury also contains the Internal Revenue Service and the Undersecretary for International Affairs, which deals with several national security issues including financial transactions associated with terrorism, illegal drugs, and rogue states.
Significant skills reside within the many components of the Department of Treasury including: financial management; public safety; law enforcement, especially suppression and interdiction of illegal trafficking; and training of Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
Treasury also provides:
· liaison between the Secretary and other USG agencies with respect to their financial operations, and government-wide accounting and cash management
· financial services, information, and advice to taxpayers, Federal agencies, and policy makers
· interaction with the FAA, the airports, and the air carriers
· administration and enforcement of some 400 provisions of law on behalf of more than 40 USG agencies
· suppressing the traffic of illegal narcotics and pornography
· direction and support to the Drug Law Enforcement System and service as an integral component of the counterdrug Joint Interagency Task Forces (JIATF).
FEMA is the focal point for domestic emergency planning, preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery. It develops and coordinates national policy and programs and facilitates delivery of emergency management during all phases of national security and catastrophic emergencies. FEMA oversees the development and execution of policies and programs for overall emergency management, national emergency readiness, disaster planning, emergency training and education, fire prevention and control, flood plain management, and insurance operations.
FEMA maintains the following abilities:
· administer programs designed to improve emergency planning preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery capabilities
· administer the National Flood Insurance Program and the Federal Crime Insurance Program
· provide leadership, coordination, and support for the Agency's urban search and rescue, fire prevention and control, hazardous materials and emergency medical services activities
· appoint a Federal Coordinating Officer, on behalf of the President, to carry out operations in a domestic emergency.
Through its various programs FEMA maintains effective liaison with state and local emergency response officials.
The NSC Staff serves as the President's national security and foreign policy staff within the White House. The staff receives its direction from the President through the National Security Advisor. The staff provides a variety of activities in advising and assisting the President and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, including briefings, responding to Congressional inquiries, and public remarks. The NSC staff is an initial point of contact for department and agencies wishing to bring a national security issue to the President's attention. Staff members participate in interagency working groups.
The office of Global Issues and Multilateral Affairs advises the President and National Security Advisor on all aspects of U.S. foreign policy dealing with transnational issues or those issues that involve special multilateral arrangements. These issues include terrorism, complex contingency operations, narcotics, the United Nations, international crime, foreign military sales, war crimes, sanctions policy, and regional security arrangement. This office is also handles PDD-56 implementation.
OMB's predominant mission is to assist the President in overseeing the preparation of the Federal budget and to supervise its administration in Executive Branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the President's budget and with Administration policies.
In addition, OMB oversees and coordinates procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, and to reduce unnecessary burdens on the public.
OMB is composed of divisions organized either by agency and program area or by functional responsibilities. OMB's divisions include: Resource Management Offices, which assist with the President's management and budget agenda; Budget Review Offices, which analyze trends in and the consequences of aggregate budget policy; Legislative Reference Division; and Statutory Offices, such as the Office of Federal Financial Management and the Office of Federal Procurement Policy.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an autonomous agency under the Secretary of State. USAID administers and directs U.S. foreign economic assistance programs, and is the lead Federal agency for foreign disaster assistance. USAID focuses much of its efforts on six areas of concern: agriculture, environment, child survival, AIDS, population planning, and basic education. Response to natural and manmade disasters is one of USAID's primary missions.
USAID is prepared to respond to complex contingencies and to assist in the transition of states from crisis to stability. The agency looks at three factors in responding to crises: 1) the emergency response, focused on saving lives and reducing suffering, can simultaneously assist in returning to sustainable development by supporting local capabilities, providing safety nets, and strengthening human capacity; 2) the prevention or mitigation of the effects of a disaster must be built into response programs; and 3) timely, effective assistance to countries emerging from crisis can make the difference between a successful or failed transition.
The Office of Transition Initiatives provides a mechanism to rapidly assess and address the short-term political and economic needs in the recovery stage of a disaster. Key areas for the office include demobilization and reintegration of soldiers, landmine awareness and removal, electoral preparations, and civil infrastructure. USAID funding underwrites long-term rehabilitation and recovery efforts in states emerging from complex emergencies. These efforts support sustainable development, preventing crises from becoming intractable, and minimizing the need for future humanitarian and disaster relief.
Other USAID programs include Food for Peace (operated with the Department of Agriculture), Food for Development, and the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. The Food for Peace program supports humanitarian and sustainable development assistance through U.S. agricultural commodities and provides resources to private voluntary organizations and the World Food Program. Food for Development provides country-to-country grants of agricultural commodities to improve food security in developing countries and to promote agricultural reforms that encourage food production. A description of the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance is included in this appendix.
The President designated the USAID Administrator as his Special Coordinator for Disaster Assistance. Through its Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), USAID provides emergency relief and long-term assistance in response to disasters. OFDA responsibilities include:
· organizing and coordinating USG disaster relief response
· responding to embassy and mission requests for disaster assistance
· initiating necessary procurement of supplies, services and transportation
· coordinating assistance efforts with operational-level NGOs and PVOs.
OFDA operates a Crisis Management Center to coordinate disaster assistance operations, and OFDA regional advisors in Ethiopia, Costa Rica, the Philippines, and Fiji are emergency response experts and consultants. OFDA's response capability, Disaster Assistance Response Teams (DART), provide rapid response assistance to international disasters. OFDA's capabilities include:
· information on disaster areas
· up to $25,000 with the U.S. embassy or mission for supplies or services to assist disaster victims
· grants to local government relief organizations or PVOs handling emergency relief.
· data in Disaster Assistance Logistics Information System
· transportation of relief supplies to an affected country
· funds to support activities in shelter, water and sanitation, health, food, logistics, and technical assistance
· stockpiles of standard relief commodities in United States, Panama, Italy, Guam, and Thailand.
USIA's mission is to understand, inform, and influence foreign publics in promotion of U.S. national interests and to broaden the dialogue between Americans and U.S. institutions and their counterparts abroad. USIA is prohibited from conducting information programs or disseminating its information products within the United States.
USIA is known overseas as the U.S. Information Service (USIS). The USIA Foreign Service Officers and staff operate in virtually all U.S. embassies and consulates abroad and also run cultural and information resource centers in many countries. USIS posts are responsible for managing press strategy for all USG elements operating abroad under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador. USIA is also responsible for the Voice of America, broadcasting worldwide in more than 40 languages; Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty; the WORLDNET satellite television system; radio and television broadcasting to Cuba; the Fulbright Scholarship, International Visitor and other educational and cultural exchange programs; the U.S. Speakers program; and the Wireless File, a daily compendium of policy statements and opinions.
Press activities of all USG elements operating at U.S. diplomatic missions abroad are cleared and coordinated by USIS posts at those missions. Additionally, USIA tracks foreign media coverage of issues of U.S. national interest and advises on foreign public opinion. USIS posts can assist in publicizing U.S. military and civilian achievements in a given foreign country. Plans involving civil affairs should include coordination with USIA-USIS planners. When requested by the Secretary of Defense, USIA will provide a senior representative to any established interagency planning or oversight committee.
USIA's capabilities include the following:
· Significant contributions to press and public information planning during preparation for employment of U.S. forces in crisis response or contingency operations, and contributions to the implementation of press and public information strategy during the operational phase using USIS officers in country and the full range of Agency print and broadcast media products and services.
· Assistance to civil affairs personnel in developing popular support, and detecting and countering conditions and activities, which hinder U.S. operations. Similar assistance is rendered to psychological operations personnel.