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By Herodotus

Translated by G. C. Macaulay

January, 2001  [Etext #2456]

Project Gutenberg Etext The History of Herodotus V2 by Herodotus
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Etext prepared by John Bickers,
and Dagny,


Translated into English



{e Herodotou diathesis en apasin epieikes, kai tois men agathois
sunedomene, tois de kakois sunalgousa}.--Dion. Halic.


  This text was prepared from the third edition, printed in 1914, by
  MacMillan and Co., Limited, St. Martin's Street, London.

  Greek text has been transliterated and marked with brackets, as in
  the opening citation above.




1. In the meantime those of the Persians who had been left behind in
Europe by Dareios, of whom Megabazos was the commander, had subdued
the people of Perinthos first of the Hellespontians, since they
refused to be subject to Dareios. These had in former times also been
hardly dealt with by the Paionians: for the Paionians from the Strymon
had been commanded by an oracle of their god to march against the
Perinthians; and if the Perinthians, when encamped opposite to them,
should shout aloud and call to them by their name, they were to attack
them; but if they should not shout to them, they were not to attack
them: and thus the Paionians proceeded to do. Now when the Perinthians
were encamped opposite to them in the suburb of their city, a
challenge was made and a single combat took place in three different
forms; for they matched a man against a man, and a horse against a
horse, and a dog against a dog. Then, as the Perinthians were getting
the better in two of the three, in their exultation they raised a
shout of /paion/,[1] and the Paionians conjectured that this was the
very thing which was spoken of in the oracle, and said doubtless to
one another, "Now surely the oracle is being accomplished for us, now
it is time for us to act." So the Paionians attacked the Perinthians
when they had raised the shout of paion, and they had much the better
in the fight, and left but few of them alive. 2. Thus it happened with
respect to those things which had been done to them in former times by
the Paionians; and at this time, although the Perinthians proved
themselves brave men in defence of their freedom, the Persians and
Megabazos got the better of them by numbers. Then after Perinthos had
been conquered, Megabazos marched his army through the length of
Thracia, forcing every city and every race of those who dwell there to
submit to the king, for so it had been commanded him by Dareios, to
subdue Thracia.

3. Now the Thracian race is the most numerous, except the Indians, in
all the world: and if it should come to be ruled over by one man, or
to agree together in one, it would be irresistible in fight and the
strongest by far of all nations, in my opinion. Since however this is
impossible for them and cannot ever come to pass among them,[2] they
are in fact weak for that reason. They have many names, belonging to
their various tribes in different places; but they all follow customs
which are nearly the same in all respects, except the Getai and
Trausians and those who dwell above the Crestonians. 4. Of these the
practices of the Getai, who believe themselves to be immortal, have
been spoken of by me already:[3] and the Trausians perform everything
else in the same manner as the other Thracians, but in regard to those
who are born and die among them they do as follows:--when a child has
been born, the nearest of kin sit round it and make lamentation for
all the evils of which he must fulfil the measure, now that he is
born,[3a] enumerating the whole number of human ills; but when a man
is dead, they cover him up in the earth with sport and rejoicing,
saying at the same time from what great evils he has escaped and is
now in perfect bliss. 5. Those who dwell above the Crestonians do as
follows:--each man has many wives, and when any man of them is dead, a
great competition takes place among his wives, with much exertion on
the part of their friends, about the question of which of them was
most loved by their husband; and she who is preferred by the decision
and so honoured, is first praised by both men and women, then her
throat is cut over the tomb by her nearest of kin, and afterwards she
is buried together with her husband; and the others are exceedingly
grieved at it, for this is counted as the greatest reproach to them.
6. Of the other Thracians the custom is to sell their children to be
carried away out of the country; and over their maidens they do not
keep watch, but allow them to have commerce with whatever men they
please, but over their wives they keep very great watch; and they buy
their wives for great sums of money from their parents. To be pricked
with figures is accounted a mark of noble rank, and not to be so
marked is a sign of low birth.[4] Not to work is counted most
honourable, and to be a worker of the soil is above all things
dishonourable: to live on war and plunder is the most honourable
thing. 7. These are their most remarkable customs; and of the gods
they worship only Ares and Dionysos and Artemis. Their kings, however,
apart from the rest of the people, worship Hermes more than all gods,
and swear by him alone; and they say that they are descended from
Hermes. 8. The manner of burial for the rich among them is this:--for
three days they expose the corpse to view, and they slay all kinds of
victims and feast, having first made lamentation. Then they perform
the burial rites, either consuming the body with fire or covering it
up in the earth without burning; and afterwards when they have heaped
up a mound they celebrate games with every kind of contest, in which
reasonably the greatest prizes are assigned for single combat.[5] This
is the manner of burial among the Thracians.

9. Of the region lying further on towards the North of this country no
one can declare accurately who the men are who dwell in it; but the
parts which lie immediately beyond the Ister are known to be
uninhabited and vast in extent. The only men of whom I can hear who
dwell beyond the Ister are those who are said to be called Sigynnai,
and who use the Median fashion of dress. Their horses, it is said,
have shaggy hair all over their bodies, as much as five fingers long;
and these are small and flat-nosed and too weak to carry men, but when
yoked in chariots they are very high-spirited; therefore the natives
of the country drive chariots. The boundaries of this people extend,
it is said, to the parts near the Enetoi, who live on the Adriatic;
and people say that they are colonists from the Medes. In what way
however these have come to be colonists from the Medes I am not able
for my part to conceive, but everything is possible in the long course
of ages. However that may be, the Ligurians who dwell in the region
inland above Massalia call traders /sigynnai/, and the men of Cyprus
give the same name to spears. 10. Now the Thracians say that the other
side of the Ister is occupied by bees, and that by reason of them it
is not possible to pass through and proceed further: but to me it
seems that when they so speak, they say that which is not probable;
for these creatures are known to be intolerant of cold, and to me it
seems that the regions which go up towards the pole are uninhabitable
by reason of the cold climate. These then are the tales reported about
this country; and however that may be, Megabazos was then making the
coast-regions of it subject to the Persians.

11. Meanwhile Dareios, so soon as he had crossed over the Hellespont
and come to Sardis, called to mind the service rendered to him by
Histiaios the Milesian and also the advice of the Mytilenian Coės, and
having sent for them to come to Sardis he offered them a choice of
rewards. Histiaios then, being despot of Miletos, did not make request
for any government in addition to that, but he asked for the district
of Myrkinos which belonged to the Edonians, desiring there to found a
city. Histiaios chose this for himself; but Coės, not being a despot
but a man of the people, asked to be made despot of Mitylene. 12.
After the desires of both had been fulfilled, they betook themselves
to that which they had chosen: and at this same time it chanced that
Dareios saw a certain thing which made him desire to command Megabazos
to conquer the Paionians and remove them forcibly from Europe into
Asia: and the thing was this:--There were certain Paionians named
Pigres and Mantyas, who when Dareios had crossed over into Asia, came
to Sardis, because they desired themselves to have rule over the
Paionians, and with them they brought their sister, who was tall and
comely. Then having watched for a time when Dareios took his seat
publicly in the suburb of the Lydian city, they dressed up their
sister in the best way they could, and sent her to fetch water, having
a water-jar upon her head and leading a horse after her by a bridle
round her arm, and at the same time spinning flax. Now when the woman
passed out of the city by him, Dareios paid attention to the matter,
for that which was done by the woman was not of Persian nor yet of
Lydian fashion, nor indeed after the manner of any people of Asia. He
sent therefore some of his spearmen, bidding them watch what the woman
would do with the horse. They accordingly followed after her; and she
having arrived at the river watered the horse, and having watered him
and filled her jar with the water, she passed along by the same way,
bearing the water upon her head, leading the horse after her by a
bridle round her arm, and at the same time turning the spindle. 13.
Then Dareios, marvelling both at that which he heard from those who
went to observe and also at that which he saw himself, bade them bring
her into his presence: and when she was brought, her brothers also
came, who had been watching these things at no great distance off. So
then when Dareios asked of what country she was, the young men said
that they were Paionians and that she was their sister; and he
replied: "Who then are these Paionians, and where upon the earth do
they dwell?" and he asked them also what they desired, that they had
come to Sardis. They declared to him that they had come to give
themselves up to him, and that Paionia was a country situated upon the
river Strymon, and that the Strymon was not far from the Hellespont,
and finally that they were colonists from the Teucrians of Troy. All
these things severally they told him; and he asked whether all the
women of that land were as industrious as their sister; and they very
readily replied to this also, saying that it was so, for it was with a
view to that very thing that they had been doing this. 14. Then
Dareios wrote a letter to Megabazos, whom he had left to command his
army in Thrace, bidding him remove the Paionians from their place of
habitation and bring them to the king, both themselves and their
children and their wives. Then forthwith a horseman set forth to ride
in haste bearing the message to the Hellespont, and having passed over
to the other side he gave the paper to Megabazos. So he having read it
and having obtained guides from Thrace, set forth to march upon
Paionia: 15, and the Paionians, being informed that the Persians were
coming against them, gathered all their powers together and marched
out in the direction of the sea, supposing that the Persians when they
invaded them would make their attack on that side. The Paionians then
were prepared, as I say, to drive off the army of Megabazos when it
came against them; but the Persians hearing that the Paionians had
gathered their powers and were guarding the entrance which lay towards
the sea, directed their course with guides along the upper road; and
passing unperceived by the Paionians they fell upon their cities,
which were left without men, and finding them without defenders they
easily took possession of them. The Paionians when they heard that
their cities were in the hands of the enemy, at once dispersed, each
tribe to its own place of abode, and proceeded to deliver themselves
up to the Persians. Thus then it happened that these tribes of the
Paionians, namely the Siropaionians,[6] the Paioplians and all up to
the lake Prasias, were removed from their place of habitation and
brought to Asia; 16, but those who dwell about mount Pangaion, and
about the Doberians and Agrianians and Odomantians,[7] and about the
lake Prasias itself, were not conquered at all by Megabazos. He tried
however to remove even those who lived in the lake and who had their
dwellings in the following manner:--a platform fastened together and
resting upon lofty piles stood in the middle of the water of the lake,
with a narrow approach to it from the mainland by a single bridge. The
piles which supported the platform were no doubt originally set there
by all the members of the community working together, but since that
time they continue to set them by observance of this rule, that is to
say, every man who marries brings from the mountain called Orbelos
three piles for each wife and sets them as supports; and each man
takes to himself many wives. And they have their dwelling thus, that
is each man has possession of a hut upon the platform in which he
lives and of a trap-door[8] leading through the platform down to the
lake: and their infant children they tie with a rope by the foot, for
fear that they should roll into the water. To their horses and beasts
of burden they give fish for fodder; and of fish there is so great
quantity that if a man open the trap-door and let down an empty basket
by a cord into the lake, after waiting quite a short time he draws it
up again full of fish. Of the fish there are two kinds, and they call
them /paprax/ and /tilon/.

17. So then those of the Paionians who had been conquered were being
brought to Asia: and Megabazos meanwhile, after he had conquered the
Paionians, sent as envoys to Macedonia seven Persians, who after
himself were the men of most repute in the army. These were being sent
to Amyntas to demand of him earth and water for Dareios the king. Now
from lake Prasias there is a very short way into Macedonia; for first,
quite close to the lake, there is the mine from which after this time
there came in regularly a talent of silver every day to Alexander; and
after the mine, when you have passed over the mountain called Dysoron,
you are in Macedonia. 18. These Persians then, who had been sent to
Amyntas, having arrived came into the presence of Amyntas and
proceeded to demand earth and water for king Dareios. This he was
willing to give, and also he invited them to be his guests; and he
prepared a magnificent dinner and received the Persians with friendly
hospitality. Then when dinner was over, the Persians while drinking
pledges to one another[9] said thus: "Macedonian guest-friend, it is
the custom among us Persians, when we set forth a great dinner, then
to bring in also our concubines and lawful wives to sit beside us. Do
thou then, since thou didst readily receive us and dost now entertain
us magnificently as thy guests, and since thou art willing to give to
king Dareios earth and water, consent to follow our custom." To this
Amyntas replied: "Persians, among us the custom is not so, but that
men should be separate from women. Since however ye being our masters
make this request in addition, this also shall be given you." Having
so said Amyntas proceeded to send for the women; and when they came
being summoned, they sat down in order opposite to the Persians. Then
the Persians, seeing women of comely form, spoke to Amyntas and said
that this which had been done was by no means well devised; for it was
better that the women should not come at all, than that they should
come and should not seat themselves by their side, but sit opposite
and be a pain to their eyes. So Amyntas being compelled bade them sit
by the side of the Persians; and when the women obeyed, forthwith the
Persians, being much intoxicated, began to touch their breasts, and
some no doubt also tried to kiss them. 19. Amyntas seeing this kept
quiet, notwithstanding that he felt anger, because he excessively
feared the Persians; but Alexander the son of Amyntas, who was present
and saw this, being young and without experience of calamity was not
able to endure any longer; but being impatient of it he said to
Amyntas: "My father, do thou grant that which thy age demands, and go
away to rest, nor persevere longer in the drinking; but I will remain
here and give to our guests all that is convenient." On this Amyntas,
understanding that Alexander was intending to do some violence, said:
"My son, I think that I understand thy words, as the heat of anger
moves thee, namely that thou desirest to send me away and then do some
deed of violence: therefore I ask of thee not to do violence to these
men, that it may not be our ruin, but endure to see that which is
being done: as to my departure, however, in that I will do as thou
sayest." 20. When Amyntas after having made of him this request had
departed, Alexander said to the Persians: "With these women ye have
perfect freedom, guests, to have commerce with all, if ye so desire,
or with as many of them as ye will. About this matter ye shall be they
who give the word; but now, since already the hour is approaching for
you to go to bed and I see that ye have well drunk, let these women go
away, if so it is pleasing to you, to bathe themselves; and when they
have bathed, then receive them back into your company." Having so
said, since the Persians readily agreed, he dismissed the women, when
they had gone out, to the women's chambers; and Alexander himself
equipped men equal in number to the women and smooth-faced, in the
dress of the women, and giving them daggers he led them into the
banqueting-room; and as he led them in, he said thus to the Persians:
"Persians, it seems to me that ye have been entertained with a feast
to which nothing was wanting; for other things, as many as we had, and
moreover such as we were able to find out and furnish, are all
supplied to you, and there is this especially besides, which is the
chief thing of all, that is, we give you freely in addition our
mothers and our sisters, in order that ye may perceive fully that ye
are honoured by us with that treatment which ye deserve, and also in
order that ye may report to the king who sent you that a man of
Hellas, ruler under him of the Macedonians, entertained you well at
board and bed." Having thus said Alexander caused a Macedonian man in
the guise of a woman to sit by each Persian, and they, when the
Persians attempted to lay hands on them, slew them. 21. So these
perished by this fate, both they themselves and their company of
servants; for there came with them carriages and servants and all the
usual pomp of equipage, and this was all made away with at the same
time as they. Afterwards in no long time a great search was made by
the Persians for these men, and Alexander stopped them with cunning by
giving large sums of money and his own sister, whose name was Gygaia;
--by giving, I say, these things to Bubares a Persian, commander of
those who were searching for the men who had been killed, Alexander
stopped their search. 22. Thus the death of these Persians was kept
concealed. And that these descendants of Perdiccas are Hellenes, as
they themselves say, I happen to know myself, and not only so, but I
will prove in the succeeding history that they are Hellenes.[10]
Moreover the Hellanodicai, who manage the games at Olympia, decided
that they were so: for when Alexander wished to contend in the games
and had descended for this purpose into the arena, the Hellenes who
were to run against him tried to exclude him, saying that the contest
was not for Barbarians to contend in but for Hellenes: since however
Alexander proved that he was of Argos, he was judged to be a Hellene,
and when he entered the contest of the foot-race his lot came out with
that of the first.[11]

23. Thus then it happened with regard to these things: and at the same
time Megabazos had arrived at the Hellespont bringing with him the
Paionians; and thence after passing over the straits he came to
Sardis. Then, since Histiaios the Milesian was already engaged in
fortifying with a wall the place which he had asked and obtained from
Dareios as a reward for keeping safe the bridge of boats (this place
being that which is called Myrkinos, lying along the bank of the river
Strymon), Megabazos, having perceived that which was being done by
Histiaios, as soon as he came to Sardis bringing the Paionians, said
thus to Dareios: "O king, what a thing is this that thou hast done,
granting permission to a Hellene who is skilful and cunning to found a
city in Thracia in a place where there is forest for shipbuilding in
abundance and great quantity of wood for oars and mines of silver and
great numbers both of Hellenes and Barbarians living round, who when
they have obtained a leader will do that which he shall command them
both by day and by night. Therefore stop this man from doing so, that
thou be not involved in a domestic war: and stop him by sending for
him in a courteous manner; but when thou hast got him in thy hands,
then cause that he shall never again return to the land of the
Hellenes. 24. Thus saying Megabazos easily persuaded Dareios, who
thought that he was a true prophet of that which was likely to come to
pass: and upon that Dareios sent a messenger to Myrkinos and said as
follows: "Hisiaios, king Dareios saith these things:--By taking
thought I find that there is no one more sincerely well disposed than
thou art to me and to my power; and this I know having learnt by deeds
not words. Now therefore, since I have it in my mind to accomplish
great matters, come hither to me by all means, that I may communicate
them to thee." Histiaios therefore, trusting to these sayings and at
the same time accounting it a great thing to become a counsellor of
the king, came to Sardis; and when he had come Dareios spoke to him as
follows: "Histiaios, I sent for thee for this reason, namely because
when I had returned from the Scythians and thou wert gone away out of
the sight of my eyes, never did I desire to see anything again within
so short a time as I desired then both to see thee and that thou
shouldst come to speech with me; since I perceived that the most
valuable of all possessions is a friend who is a man of understanding
and also sincerely well-disposed, both which qualities I know exist in
thee, and I am able to bear witness of them in regard to my affairs.
Now therefore (for thou didst well in that thou camest hither) this is
that which I propose to thee:--leave Miletos alone and also thy newly-
founded city in Thracia, and coming with me to Susa, have whatsoever
things I have, eating at my table and being my counseller." 25. Thus
said Dareios, and having appointed Artaphrenes[12] his own brother and
the son of his father to be governor of Sardis, he marched away to
Susa taking with him Histiaios, after he had first named Otanes to be
commander of those who dwelt along the sea coasts. This man's father
Sisamnes, who had been made one of the Royal Judges, king Cambyses
slew, because he had judged a cause unjustly for money, and flayed off
all his skin: then after he had torn away the skin he cut leathern
thongs out of it and stretched them across the seat where Sisamnes had
been wont to sit to give judgment; and having stretched them in the
seat, Cambyses appointed the son of that Sisamnes whom he had slain
and flayed, to be judge instead of his father, enjoining him to
remember in what seat he was sitting to give judgment. 26. This Otanes
then, who was made to sit in that seat, had now become the successor
of Megabazos in the command: and he conquered the Byzantians and
Calchedonians, and he conquered Antandros in the land of Troas, and
Lamponion; and having received ships from the Lesbians he conquered
Lemnos and Imbros, which were both at that time still inhabited by
Pelasgians. 27. Of these the Lemnians fought well, and defending
themselves for a long time were at length brought to ruin;[13] and
over those of them who survived the Persians set as governor Lycaretos
the brother of that Maiandrios who had been king of Samos. This
Lycaretos ruled in Lemnos till his death. And the cause of it[14] was
this:--he continued to reduce all to slavery and subdue them, accusing
some of desertion to the Scythians and others of doing damage to the
army of Dareios as it was coming back from Scythia.

28. Otanes then effected so much when he was made commander: and after
this for a short time there was an abatement[15] of evils; and then
again evils began a second time to fall upon the Ionians, arising from
Naxos and Miletos. For Naxos was superior to all the other islands in
wealth, and Miletos at the same time had just then come to the very
height of its prosperity and was the ornament[16] of Ionia; but before
these events for two generations of men it had been afflicted most
violently by faction until the Parians reformed it; for these the
Milesians chose of all the Hellenes to be reformers of their State.
29. Now the Parians thus reconciled their factions:--the best men of
them came to Miletos, and seeing that the Milesians were in a
grievously ruined state, they said that they desired to go over their
land: and while doing this and passing through the whole territory of
Miletos, whenever they saw in the desolation of the land any field
that was well cultivated, they wrote down the name of the owner of
that field. Then when they had passed through the whole land and had
found but few of such men, as soon as they returned to the city they
called a general gathering and appointed these men to manage the
State, whose fields they had found well cultivated; for they said that
they thought these men would take care of the public affairs as they
had taken care of their own: and the rest of the Milesians, who before
had been divided by factions, they commanded to be obedient to these

30. The Parians then had thus reformed the Milesians; but at the time
of which I speak evils began to come to Ionia from these States[17] in
the following manner:--From Naxos certain men of the wealthier
class[18] were driven into exile by the people, and having gone into
exile they arrived at Miletos. Now of Miletos it happened that
Aristagoras son of Molpagoras was ruler in charge, being both a son-
in-law and also a cousin of Histiaios the son of Lysagoras, whom
Dareios was keeping at Susa: for Histiaios was despot of Miletos, and
it happened that he was at Susa at this time when the Naxians came,
who had been in former times guest-friends of Histiaios. So when the
Naxians arrived, they made request of Aristagoras, to see if perchance
he would supply them with a force, and so they might return from exile
to their own land: and he, thinking that if by his means they should
return to their own State, he would be ruler of Naxos, but at the same
time making a pretext of the guest-friendship of Histiaios, made
proposal to them thus: "I am not able to engage that I can supply you
with sufficient force to bring you back from exile against the will of
those Naxians who have control of the State; for I hear that the
Naxians have an army which is eight thousand shields strong and many
ships of war: but I will use every endeavour to devise a means; and my
plan is this:--it chances that Artaphrenes is my friend: now
Artaphrenes, ye must know,[18a] is a son of Hystaspes and brother of
Dareios the king; and he is ruler of all the people of the sea-coasts
in Asia, with a great army and many ships. This man then I think will
do whatsoever we shall request of him." Hearing this the Naxians gave
over the matter to Aristagoras to manage as best he could, and they
bade him promise gifts and the expenses of the expedition, saying that
they would pay them; for they had full expectation that when they
should appear at Naxos, the Naxians would do all their bidding, and
likewise also the other islanders. For of these islands, that is the
Cyclades, not one was as yet subject to Dareios. 31. Aristagoras
accordingly having arrived at Sardis, said to Artaphrenes that Naxos
was an island not indeed large in size, but fair nevertheless and of
fertile soil, as well as near to Ionia, and that there was in it much
wealth and many slaves: "Do thou therefore send an expedition against
this land, and restore it to those who are now exiles from it: and if
thou shalt do this, first I have ready for thee large sums of money
apart from the expenses incurred for the expedition (which it is fair
that we who conduct it should supply), and next thou wilt gain for the
king not only Naxos itself but also the islands which are dependent
upon it, Paros and Andros and the others which are called Cyclades;
and setting out from these thou wilt easily attack Eubœa, an island
which is large and wealth, as large indeed as Cyprus, and very easy to
conquer. To subdue all these a hundred ships are sufficient." He made
answer in these words: "Thou makest thyself a reporter of good things
to the house of the king; and in all these things thou advisest well,
except as to the number of the ships: for instead of one hundred there
shall be prepared for thee two hundred by the beginning of the spring.
And it is right that the king himself also should join in approving
this matter." 32. So Aristagoras hearing this went back to Miletos
greatly rejoiced; and Artaphrenes meanwhile, when he had sent to Susa
and communicated that which was said by Aristagoras, and Dareios
himself also had joined in approving it, made ready two hundred
triremes and a very great multitude both of Persians and their allies,
and appointed to be commander of these Megabates a Persian, one of the
Achaimenidai and a cousin to himself and to Dareios, to whose daughter
afterwards Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus the Lacedaemonian (at
least if the story be true) betrothed himself, having formed a desire
to become a despot of Hellas. Having appointed Megabates, I say, to be
commander, Artaphrenes sent away the armament to Aristagoras. 33. So
when Megabates had taken force together with the Naxians, he sailed
with the pretence of going to the Hellespont; but when he came to
Chios, he directed his ships to Caucasa, in order that he might from
thence pass them over to Naxos with a North Wind. Then, since it was
not fated that the Naxians should be destroyed by this expedition,
there happened an event which I shall narrate. As Megabates was going
round to visit the guards set in the several ships, it chanced that in
a ship of Myndos there was no one on guard; and he being very angry
bade his spearmen find out the commander of the ship, whose name was
Skylax, and bind him in an oar-hole of his ship in such a manner[19]
that his head should be outside and his body within. When Skylax was
thus bound, some one reported to Aristagoras that Megabates had bound
his guest-friend of Myndos and was doing to him shameful outrage. He
accordingly came and asked the Persian for his release, and as he did
not obtain anything of that which he requested, he went himself and
let him loose. Being informed of this Megabates was exceedingly angry
and broke out in rage against Aristagoras; and he replied: "What hast
thou to do with these matters? Did not Artaphrenes send thee to obey
me, and to sail whithersoever I should order? Why dost thou meddle
with things which concern thee not?" Thus said Aristagoras; and the
other being enraged at this, when night came on sent men in a ship to
Naxos to declare to the Naxians all the danger that threatened them.
34. For the Naxians were not at all expecting that this expedition
would be against them: but when they were informed of it, forthwith
they brought within the wall the property which was in the fields, and
provided for themselves food and drink as for a siege, and
strengthened their wall.[20] These then were making preparations as
for war to come upon them; and the others meanwhile having passed
their ships over from Chios to Naxos, found them well defended when
they made their attack, and besieged them for four months. Then when
the money which the Persians had brought with them had all been
consumed by them, and not only that, but Aristagoras himself had spent
much in addition, and the siege demanded ever more and more, they
built walls for the Naxian exiles and departed to the mainland again
with ill success. 35. And so Aristagoras was not able to fulfil his
promise to Artaphrenes; and at the same time he was hard pressed by
the demand made to him for the expenses of the expedition, and had
fears because of the ill success of the armament and because he had
become an enemy of Megabates; and he supposed that he would be
deprived of his rule over Miletos. Having all these various fears he
began to make plans of revolt: for it happened also that just at this
time the man who had been marked upon the head had come from Hisiaios
who was at Susa, signifying that Aristagoras should revolt from the
king. For Histiaios, desiring to signify to Aristagoras that he should
revolt, was not able to do it safely in any other way, because the
roads were guarded, but shaved off the hair of the most faithful of
his slaves, and having marked his head by pricking it, waited till the
hair had grown again; and as soon as it was grown, he sent him away to
Miletos, giving him no other charge but this, namely that when he
should have arrived at Miletos he should bid Aristagoras shave his
hair and look at his head: and the marks, as I have said before,
signified revolt. This thing Histiaios was doing, because he was
greatly vexed by being detained at Susa. He had great hopes then that
if a revolt occurred he would be let go to the sea-coast; but if no
change was made at Miletos[20a] he had no expectation of ever
returning thither again.

36. Accordingly Hisiaios with this intention was sending the
messenger; and it chanced that all these things happened to
Aristagoras together at the same time. He took counsel therefore with
his partisans, declaring to them both his own opinion and the message
from Hisiaios; and while all the rest expressed an opinion to the same
effect, urging him namely to make revolt, Hecataios the historian
urged first that they should not undertake war with the king of the
Persians, enumerating all the nations over whom Dareios was ruler, and
his power: and when he did not succeed in persuading him, he
counselled next that they should manage to make themselves masters of
the sea. Now this, he continued, could not come to pass in any other
way, so far as he could see, for he knew that the force of the
Milesians was weak, but if the treasures should be taken[21] which
were in the temple at Branchidai, which Crœsus the Lydian dedicated as
offerings, he had great hopes that they might become masters of the
sea; and by this means they would not only themselves have wealth at
their disposal, but the enemy would not be able to carry the things
off as plunder. Now these treasures were of great value, as I have
shown in the first part of the history.[22] This opinion did not
prevail; but nevertheless it was resolved to make revolt, and that one
of them should sail to Myus, to make the force which had returned from
Naxos and was then there, and endeavour to seize the commanders who
sailed in the ships. 37. So Iatragoras was sent for this purpose and
seized by craft Oliatos the son of Ibanollis of Mylasa, and Histiaios
the son of Tymnes of Termera, and Coės the son of Erxander, to whom
Dareios had given Mytilene as a gift, and Aristagoras the son of
Heracleides of Kyme, and many others; and then Aristagoras openly made
revolt and devised all that he could to the hurt of Dareios. And first
he pretended to resign the despotic power and give to Miletos
equality,[23] in order that the Milesians might be willing to revolt
with him: then afterwards he proceeded to do this same thing in the
rest of Ionia also; and some of the despots he drove out, but those
whom he had taken from the ships which had sailed with him to Naxis,
these he surrendered, because he desired to do a pleasure to their
cities, delivering them over severally to that city from which each
one came. 38. Now the men of Mitylene, so soon as they received Coės
into their hands, brought him out and stoned him to death; but the men
of Kyme let their despot go, and so also most of the others let them
go. Thus then the despots were deposed in the various cities; and
Aristagoras the Milesian, after having deposed the despots, bade each
people appoint commanders in their several cities, and then himself
set forth as an envoy to Lacedemon; for in truth it was necessary that
he should find out some powerful alliance.

39. Now at Sparta Anaxandrides the son of Leon was no longer surviving
as king, but had brought his life to an end; and Cleomenes the son of
Anaxandrides was holding the royal power, not having obtained it by
merit but by right of birth. For Anaxandrides had to wife his own
sister's daughter and she was by him much beloved, but no children
were born to him by her. This being so, the Ephors summoned him before
them and said: "If thou dost not for thyself take thought in time, yet
we cannot suffer this to happen, that the race of Eurysthenes should
become extinct. Do thou therefore put away from thee the wife whom
thou now hast, since, as thou knowest, she bears thee no children, and
marry another: and in doing so thou wilt please the Spartans." He made
answer saying that he would do neither of these two things, and that
they did not give him honourable counsel, in that they advised him to
send away the wife whom he had, though she had done him no wrong, and
to take to his house another; and in short he would not follow their
advice. 40. Upon this the Ephors and the Senators deliberated together
and proposed to Anaxandrides as follows: "Since then we perceive that
thou art firmly attached to the wife whom thou now hast, consent to do
this, and set not thyself against it, lest the Spartans take some
counsel about thee other than might be wished. We do not ask of thee
the putting away of the wife whom thou hast; but do thou give to her
all that thou givest now and at the same time take to thy house
another wife in addition to this one, to bear thee children." When
they spoke to him after this manner, Anaxandrides consented, having
two wives, a thing which was not by any means after the Spartan
fashion. 41. Then when no long time had elapsed, the wife who had come
in afterwards bore this Cleomenes of whom we spoke; and just when she
was bringing to the light an heir to the kingdom of the Spartans, the
former wife, who had during the time before been childless, then by
some means conceived, chancing to do so just at that time: and though
she was in truth with child, the kinsfolk of the wife who had come in
afterwards, when they heard of it cried out against her and said that
she was making a vain boast, and that she meant to pass off another
child as her own. Since then they made a great show of indignation, as
the time was fast drawing near, the Ephors being incredulous sat round
and watched the woman during the birth of her child: and she bore
Dorieos and then straightway conceived Leonidas and after him at once
Cleombrotos,--nay, some even say that Cleombrotos and Leonidas were
twins. The wife however who had born Cleomenes and had come in after
the first wife, being the daughter of Primetades the son of
Demarmenos, did not bear a child again. 42. Now Cleomenes, it is said,
was not quite in his right senses but on the verge of madness,[24]
while Dorieos was of all his equals in age the first, and felt assured
that he would obtain the kingdom by merit. Seeing then that he had
this opinion, when Anaxandrides died and the Lacedemonians followed
the usual custom established the eldest, namely Cleomenes, upon the
throne, Dorieos being indignant and not thinking it fit that he should
be a subject of Cleomenes, asked the Spartans to give him a company of
followers and led them out to found a colony, without either inquiring
of the Oracle at Delphi to what land he should go to make a
settlement, or doing any of the things which are usually done; but
being vexed he sailed away with his ships to Libya, and the Theraians
were his guides thither. Then having come to Kinyps[25] he made a
settlement in the fairest spot of all Libya, along the banks of the
river; but afterwards in the third year he was driven out from thence
by the Macai and the Libyans[26] and the Carthaginians, and returned
to Peloponnesus. 43. Then Antichares a man of Eleon gave him counsel
out of the oracles of Laļos to make a settlement at Heracleia[27] in
Sicily, saying that the whole land of Eryx belonged to the
Heracleidai, since Heracles himself had won it: and hearing this he
went forthwith to Delphi to inquire of the Oracle whether he would be
able to conquer the land to which he was setting forth; and the
Pythian prophetess replied to him that he would conquer it. Dorieos
therefore took with him the armament which he conducted before to
Libya, and voyaged along the coast of Italy.[28] 44. Now at this time,
the men of Sybaris say that they and their king Telys were about to
make an expedition against Croton, and the men of Croton being
exceedingly alarmed asked Dorieos to help them and obtained their
request. So Dorieos joined them in an expedition against Sybaris and
helped them to conquer Sybaris. This is what the men of Sybaris say of
the doings of Dorieos and his followers; but those of Croton say that
no stranger helped them in the war against the Sybarites except
Callias alone, a diviner of Elis and one of the descendants of Iamos,
and he in the following manner:--he ran away, they say, from Telys the
despot of the Sybarites, when the sacrifices did not prove favourable,
as he was sacrificing for the expedition against Croton, and so he
came to them. 45. Such, I say, are the tales which these tell, and
they severally produce as evidence of them the following facts:--the
Sybarites point to a sacred enclosure and temple by the side of the
dried-up bed of the Crathis,[29] which they say that Dorieos, after he
had joined in the capture of the city, set up to Athene surnamed "of
the Crathis"; and besides they consider the death of Dorieos himself
to be a very strong evidence, thinking that he perished because he
acted contrary to the oracle which was given to him; for if he had not
done anything by the way but had continued to do that for which he was
sent, he would have conquered the land of Eryx and having conquered it
would have become possessor of it, and he and his army would not have
perished. On the other hand the men of Croton declare that many things
were granted in the territory of Croton as special gifts to Callias
the Eleisan, of which the descendants of Callias were still in
possession down to my time, and that nothing was granted to Dorieos or
the descendants of Dorieos: but if Dorieos had in fact helped them in
the way with Sybaris, many times as much, they say, would have been
given to him as to Callias. These then are the evidences which the two
sides produce, and we may assent to whichever of them we think
credible. 46. Now there sailed with Dorieos others also of the
Spartans, to be joint-founders with him of the colony, namely
Thessalos and Paraibates and Keleas and Euryleon; and these when they
had reached Sicily with all their armament, were slain, being defeated
in battle by the Phenicians and the men of Egesta; and Euryleon only
of the joint-founders survived this disaster. This man then having
collected the survivors of the expedition, took possession of Minoa
the colony of Selinus, and he helped to free the men of Selinus from
their despot Peithagoras. Afterwards, when he had deposed him, he laid
hands himself upon the despotism in Selinus and became sole ruler
there, though but for a short time; for the men of Selinus rose in
revolt against him and slew him, notwithstanding that he had fled for
refuge to the altar of Zeus Agoraios.[30]

47. There had accompanied Dorieos also and died with him Philip the
son of Butakides, a man of Croton, who having betrothed himself to the
daughter of Telys the Sybarite, became an exile from Croton; and then
being disappointed of this marriage he sailed away to Kyrene, whence
he set forth and accompanied Dorieos with a trireme of his own,
himself supplying the expenses of the crew. Now this man had been a
victor at the Olympic games, and he was the most beautiful of the
Hellenes who lived in his time; and on account of his beauty he
obtained from the men of Egesta that which none else ever obtained
from them, for they established a hero-temple over his tomb, and they
propitiate him still with sacrifices.

48. In this manner Dorieos ended his life: but if he had endured to be
a subject of Cleomenes and had remained in Sparta, he would have been
king of Lacedemon; for Cleomenes reigned no very long time, and died
leaving no son to succeed him but a daughter only, whose name was

49. However, Aristagoras the despot of Miletos arrived at Sparta while
Cleomenes was reigning: and accordingly with him he came to speech,
having, as the Lacedemonians say, a tablet of bronze, on which was
engraved a map[31] of the whole Earth, with all the sea and all the
rivers. And when he came to speech with Cleomenes he said to him as
follows: "Marvel not, Cleomenes, at my earnestness in coming hither,
for the case is this.--That the sons of the Ionians should be slaves
instead of free is a reproach and a grief most of all indeed to
ourselves, but of all others most to you, inasmuch as ye are the
leaders of Hellas. Now therefore I entreat you by the gods of Hellas
to rescue from slavery the Ionians, who are your own kinsmen: and ye
may easily achieve this, for the Barbarians are not valiant in fight,
whereas ye have attained to the highest point of valour in that which
relates to war: and their fighting is of this fashion, namely with
bows and arrows and a short spear, and they go into battle wearing
trousers and with caps[32] on their heads. Thus they are easily
conquered. Then again they who occupy that continent have good things
in such quantity as not all the other nations of the world together
possess; first gold, then silver and bronze and embroidered garments
and beasts of burden and slaves; all which ye might have for
yourselves, if ye so desired. And the nations moreover dwell in such
order one after the other as I shall declare:--the Ionians here; and
next to them the Lydians, who not only dwell in a fertile land, but
are also exceedingly rich in gold and silver,"[33]--and as he said
this he pointed to the map of the Earth, which he carried with him
engraved upon the tablet,--"and here next to the Lydians," continued
Aristagoras, "are the Eastern Phrygians, who have both the greatest
number of sheep and cattle[34] of any people that I know, and also the
most abundant crops. Next to the Phrygians are the Cappadokians, whom
we call Syrians; and bordering upon them are the Kilikians, coming
down to this[35] sea, in which lies the island of Cyprus here; and
these pay five hundred talents to the king for their yearly tribute.
Next to these Kilikians are the Armenians, whom thou mayest see here,
and these also have great numbers of sheep and cattle. Next to the
Armenians are the Matienians occupying this country here; and next to
them is the land of Kissia here, in which land by the banks of this
river Choaspes is situated that city of Susa where the great king has
his residence, and where the money is laid up in treasuries. After ye
have taken this city ye may then with good courage enter into a
contest with Zeus in the matter of wealth. Nay, but can it be that ye
feel yourselves bound to take upon you the risk of[36] battles against
Messenians and Arcadians and Argives, who are equally matched against
you, for the sake of land which is not much in extent nor very
fertile, and for confines which are but small, though these peoples
have neither gold nor silver at all, for the sake of which desire
incites one to fight and to die,--can this be, I say, and will ye
choose some other way now, when it is possible for you easily to have
the rule over all Asia?" Aristagoras spoke thus, and Cleomenes
answered him saying: "Guest-friend from Miletos, I defer my answer to
thee until the day after to-morrow."[37] 50. Thus far then they
advanced at that time; and when the appointed day arrived for the
answer, and they had come to the place agreed upon, Cleomenes asked
Aristagoras how many days' journey it was from the sea of the Ionians
to the residence of the king. Now Aristagoras, who in other respects
acted cleverly and imposed upon him well, in this point made a
mistake: for whereas he ought not to have told him the truth, at least
if he desired to bring the Spartans out to Asia, he said in fact that
it was a journey up from the sea of three months: and the other
cutting short the rest of the account which Aristagoras had begun to
give of the way, said: "Guest-friend from Miletos, get thee away from
Sparta before the sun has set; for thou speakest a word which sounds
not well in the ears of the Lacedemonians, desiring to take them a
journey of three months from the sea." 51. Cleomenes accordingly
having so said went away to his house: but Aristagoras took the
suppliant's branch and went to the house of Cleomenes; and having
entered in as a suppliant, he bade Cleomenes send away the child and
listen to him; for the daughter of Cleomenes was standing by him,
whose name was Gorgo, and this as it chanced was his only child, being
of the age now of eight or nine years. Cleomenes however bade him say
that which he desired to say, and not to stop on account of the child.
Then Aristagoras proceeded to promise him money, beginning with ten
talents, if he would accomplish for him that for which he was asking;
and when Cleomenes refused, Aristagoras went on increasing the sums of
money offered, until at last he had promised fifty talents, and at
that moment the child cried out: "Father, the stranger will do thee
hurt,[38] if thou do not leave him and go." Cleomenes, then, pleased
by the counsel of the child, departed into another room, and
Aristagoras went away from Sparta altogether, and had no opportunity
of explaining any further about the way up from the sea to the
residence of the king.

52. As regards this road the truth is as follows.--Everywhere there
are royal stages[39] and excellent resting-places, and the whole road
runs through country which is inhabited and safe. Through Lydia and
Phrygia there extend twenty stages, amounting to ninety-four and a
half leagues;[40] and after Phrygia succeeds the river Halys, at which
there is a gate[40a] which one must needs pass through in order to
cross the river, and a strong guard-post is established there. Then
after crossing over into Cappadokia it is twenty-eight stages, being a
hundred and four leagues, by this way to the borders of Kilikia; and
on the borders of the Kilikians you will pass through two several
gates and go by two several guard-posts: then after passing through
these it is three stages, amounting to fifteen and a half leagues, to
journey through Kilikia; and the boundary of Kilikia and Armenia is a
navigable river called Euphrates. In Armenia the number of stages with
resting-places is fifteen, and of leagues fifty-six and a half, and
there is a guard-post on the way: then from Armenia, when one enters
the land of Matiene,[41] there are thirty-four stages, amounting to a
hundred and thirty-seven leagues; and through this land flow four
navigable rivers, which cannot be crossed but by ferries, first the
Tigris, then a second and third called both by the same name,[42]
though they are not the same river nor do they flow from the same
region (for the first-mentioned of them flows from the Armenian land
and the other[43] from that of the Matienians), and the fourth of the
rivers is called Gyndes, the same which once Cyrus divided into three
hundred and sixty channels.[44] Passing thence into the Kissian land,
there are eleven stages, forty-two and a half leagues, to the river
Choaspes, which is also a navigable stream; and upon this is built the
city of Susa. The number of these stages amounts in all to one hundred
and eleven. 53. This is the number of stages with resting-places, as
one goes up from Sardis to Susa: and if the royal road has been
rightly measured as regards leagues, and if the league[45] is equal to
thirty furlongs,[46] (as undoubtedly it is), the number of furlongs
from Sardis to that which is called the palace of Memnon is thirteen
thousand five hundred, the number of leagues being four hundred and
fifty. So if one travels a hundred and fifty furlongs each day, just
ninety days are spent on the journey.[47] 54. Thus the Milesian
Aristagoras, when he told Cleomenes the Lacedemonian that the journey
up from the sea to the residence of the king was one of three months,
spoke correctly: but if any one demands a more exact statement yet
than this, I will give him that also: for we ought to reckon in
addition to this the length of the road from Ephesos to Sardis; and I
say accordingly that the whole number of furlongs from the sea of
Hellas to Susa (for by that name the city of Memnon is known) is
fourteen thousand and forty; for the number of furlongs from Ephesos
to Sardis is five hundred and forty: thus the three months' journey is
lengthened by three days added.

55. Aristagoras then being driven out of Sparta proceeded to Athens;
which had been set free from the rule of despots in the way which I
shall tell.--When Hipparchos the son of Peisistratos and brother of
the despot Hippias, after seeing a vision of a dream which signified
it to him plainly,[48] had been slain by Aristogeiton and Harmodios,
who were originally by descent Gephyraians, the Athenians continued
for four years after this to be despotically governed no less than
formerly,--nay, even more. 56. Now the vision of a dream which
Hipparchos had was this:--in the night before the Panathenaia it
seemed to Hipparchos that a man came and stood by him, tall and of
fair form, and riddling spoke to him these verses:

 "With enduring soul as a lion endure unendurable evil:
  No one of men who doth wrong shall escape from the judgment appointed."

These verses, as soon as it was day, he publicly communicated to the
interpreters of dreams; but afterwards he put away thought of the
vision[49] and began to take part in that procession during which he
lost his life.

57. Now the Gephyraians, of whom were those who murdered Hipparchos,
according to their own account were originally descended from Eretria;
but as I find by carrying inquiries back, they were Phenicians of
those who came with Cadmos to the land which is now called Bœotia, and
they dwelt in the district of Tanagra, which they had had allotted to
them in that land. Then after the Cadmeians had first been driven out
by the Argives, these Gephyraians next were driven out by the Bœotians
and turned then towards Athens: and the Athenians received them on
certain fixed conditions to be citizens of their State, laying down
rules that they should be excluded from a number of things not worth
mentioning here. 58. Now these Phenicians who came with Cadmos, of
whom were the Gephyraians, brought in among the Hellenes many arts
when they settled in this land of Bœotia, and especially letters,
which did not exist, as it appears to me, among the Hellenes before
this time; and at first they brought in those which are used by the
Phenician race generally, but afterwards, as time went on, they
changed with their speech the form of the letters also. During this
time the Ionians were the race of Hellenes who dwelt near them in most
of the places where they were; and these, having received letters by
instruction of the Phenicians, changed their form slightly and so made
use of them, and in doing so they declared them to be called
"phenicians," as was just, seeing that the Phenicians had introduced
them into Hellas. Also the Ionians from ancient time call paper
"skins," because formerly, paper being scarce, they used skins of goat
and sheep; nay, even in my own time many of the Barbarians write on
such skins. 59. I myself too once saw Cadmeian characters in the
temple of Ismenian Apollo at Thebes of the Bœotians, engraved on
certain[49a] tripods, and in most respects resembling the Ionic
letters: one of these tripods has the inscription,

 "Me Amphitryon offered from land Teleboian returning:"[50]

this inscription would be of an age contemporary with Laļos the son of
Labdacos, the son of Polydoros, the son of Cadmos. 60. Another tripod
says thus in hexameter rhythm:

 "Me did Scaios offer to thee, far-darting Apollo,
  Victor in contest of boxing, a gift most fair in thine honour:"

now Scaios would be the son of Hippocoön (at least if it were really
he who offered it, and not another with the same name as the son of
Hippocoön), being of an age contemporary with Œdipus the son of Laļos:
61, and the third tripod, also in hexameter rhythm, says:

 "Me Laodamas offered to thee, fair-aiming Apollo,
  He, of his wealth,[51] being king, as a gift most fair in thine honor:"

now it was in the reign of this very Laodamas the son of Eteocles that
the Cadmeians were driven out by the Argives and turned to go to the
Enchelians; and the Gephyraians being then left behind were afterwards
forced by the Bœotians to retire to Athens. Moreover they have temples
established in Athens, in which the other Athenians have no part, and
besides others which are different from the rest, there is especially
a temple of Demeter Achaia and a celebration of her mysteries.

62. I have told now of the vision of a dream seen by Hipparchos, and
also whence the Gephrynians were descended, of which race were the
murderers of Hipparchos; and in addition to this I must resume and
continue the story which I was about to tell at first, how the
Athenians were freed from despots. When Hippias was despot and was
dealing harshly with the Athenians because of the death of Hipparchos,
the Alcmaionidai, who were of Athenian race and were fugitives from
the sons of Peisistratos,[52] as they did not succeed in their attempt
made together with the other Athenian exiles to return by force, but
met with great disaster when they attempted to return and set Athens
free, after they had fortified Leipsydrion which is above Paionia,--
these Alomaionidai after that, still devising every means against the
sons of Peisistratos, accepted the contract to build and complete the
temple at Delphi, that namely which now exists but then did not as
yet: and being wealthy and men of repute already from ancient time,
they completed the temple in a manner more beautiful than the plan
required, and especially in this respect, that having agreed to make
the temple of common limestone,[53] they built the front parts of it
in Parian marble. 63. So then, as the Athenians say, these men being
settled at Delphi persuaded the Pythian prophetess by gifts of money,
that whenever men of the Spartans should come to inquire of the
Oracle, either privately or publicly sent, she should propose to them
to set Athens free. The Lacedemonians therefore, since the same
utterance was delivered to them on all occasions, sent Anchimolios the
son of Aster, who was of repute among their citizens, with an army to
drive out the sons of Peisistratos from Athens, although these were
very closely connected with them by guest-friendship; for they held
that the concerns of the god[53a] should be preferred to those of men:
and this force they sent by sea in ships. He therefore, having put in
to shore at Phaleron, disembarked his army; but the sons of
Peisistratos being informed of this beforehand called in to their aid
an auxiliary force from Thessaly, for they had made an alliance with
the Thessalians; and the Thessalians at their request sent by public
resolution a body of a thousand horse and also their king Kineas, a
man of Conion.[54] So having obtained these as allies, the sons of
Peisistratos contrived as follows:--they cut down the trees in the
plain of Phaleron and made this district fit for horsemen to ride
over, and after that they sent the cavalry to attack the enemy's camp,
who falling upon it slew (besides many others of the Lacedemonians)
Anchimolios himself also: and the survivors of them they shut up in
their ships. Such was the issue of the first expedition from
Lacedemon: and the burial-place of Anchimolios is at Alopecai in
Attica, near the temple of Heracles which is at Kynosarges. 64. After
this the Lacedemonians equipped a larger expedition and sent it forth
against Athens; and they appointed to be commander of the army their
king Cleomenes the son of Anaxandrides, and sent it this time not by
sea but by land. With these, when they had invaded the land of Attica,
first the Thessalian horse engaged battle; and in no long time they
were routed and there fell of them more than forty men; so the
survivors departed without more ado and went straight back to
Thessaly. Then Cleomenes came to the city together with those of the
Athenians who desired to be free, and began to besiege the despots
shut up in the Pelasgian wall. 64. And the Lacedemonians would never
have captured the sons of Peisistratos at all; for they on their side
had no design to make a long blockade, and the others were well
provided with food and drink; so that they would have gone away back
to Sparta after besieging them for a few days only: but as it was, a
thing happened just at this time which was unfortunate for those, and
at the same time of assistance to these; for the children of the sons
of Peisistratos were captured, while being secretly removed out of the
country: and when this happened, all their matters were thereby cast
into confusion, and they surrendered receiving back their children on
the terms which the Athenians desired, namely that they should depart
out of Attica within five days. After this they departed out of the
country and went to Sigeion on the Scamander, after their family had
ruled over the Athenians for six-and-thirty years. These also[54a]
were originally Pylians and sons of Neleus, descended from the same
ancestors as the family of Codros and Melanthos, who had formerly
become kings of Athens being settlers from abroad. Hence too
Hippocrates had given to his son the name of Peisistratos as a
memorial, calling him after Peisistratos the son of Nestor.

Thus the Athenians were freed from despots; and the things worthy to
be narrated which they did or suffered after they were liberated, up
to the time when Ionia revolted from Dareios and Aristagoras the
Milesian came to Athens and asked them to help him, these I will set
forth first before I proceed further.

66. Athens, which even before that time was great, then, after having
been freed from despots, became gradually yet greater; and in it two
men exercised power, namely Cleisthenes a descendant of Alcmaion, the
same who is reported to have bribed the Pythian prophetess, and
Isagoras, the son of Tisander, of a family which was highly reputed,
but of his original descent I am not able to declare; his kinsmen
however offer sacrifices to the Carian Zeus. These men came to party
strife for power; and then Cleisthenes was being worsted in the
struggle, he made common cause with the people. After this he caused
the Athenians to be in ten tribes, who were formerly in four; and he
changed the names by which they were called after the sons of Ion,
namely Geleon, Aigicoreus, Argades, and Hoples, and invented for them
names taken from other heroes, all native Athenians except Ajax, whom
he added as a neighbour and ally, although he was no Athenian.

67. Now in these things it seems to me that this Cleisthenes was
imitating his mother's father Cleisthenes the despot of Sikyon: for
Cleisthenes when he went to war with Argos first caused to cease in
Sikyon the contests of rhapsodists, which were concerned with the
poems of Homer, because Argives and Argos are celebrated in them
almost everywhere; then secondly, since there was (as still there is)
in the market-place itself of the Sikyonians a hero-temple of Adrastos
the son of Talaos, Cleisthenes had a desire to cast him forth out of
the land, because he was an Argive. So having come to Delphi he
consulted the Oracle as to whether he should cast out Adrastos; and
the Pythian prophetess answered him saying that Adrastos was king of
the Sikyonians, whereas he was a stoner[55] of them. So since the god
did not permit him to do this, he went away home and considered means
by which Adrastos should be brought to depart of his own accord: and
when he thought that he had discovered them, he sent to Thebes in
Bœotia and said that he desired to introduce into his city Melanippos
the son of Astacos, and the Thebans gave him leave. So Cleisthenes
introduced Melanippos into his city, and appointed for him a sacred
enclosure within the precincts of the City Hall[56] itself, and
established him there in the strongest position. Now Cleisthenes
introduced Melanippos (for I must relate this also) because he was the
greatest enemy of Adrastos, seeing that he had killed both his brother
Mekisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus: and when he had appointed the
sacred enclosure for him, he took away the sacrifices and festivals of
Adrastos and gave them to Melanippos. Now the Sikyonians were
accustomed to honour Adrastos with very great honours; for this land
was formerly the land of Polybos, and Adrastos was daughter's son to
Polybos, and Polybos dying without sons gave his kingdom to Adrastos:
the Sikyonians then not only gave other honours to Adrastos, but also
with reference to his sufferings they specially honoured him with
tragic choruses, not paying the honour to Dionysos but to Adrastos.
Cleisthenes however gave back the choruses to Dionysos, and the other
rites besides this he gave to Melannipos. 68. Thus he had done to
Adrastos; and he also changed the names of the Dorian tribes, in order
that the Sikyonians might not have the same tribes as the Argives; in
which matter he showed great contempt of the Sikyonians, for the names
he gave were taken from the names of a pig and an ass by changing only
the endings, except in the case of his own tribe, to which he gave a
name from his own rule. These last then were called Archelaoi,[57]
while of the rest those of one tribe were called Hyatai,[58] of
another Oneatai,[59] and of the remaining tribe Choireatai.[60] These
names of tribes were used by the men of Sikyon not only in the reign
of Cleisthenes, but also beyond that for sixty years after his death;
then however they considered the matter and changed them into Hylleis,
Pamphyloi, and Dymanatai, adding to these a fourth, to which they gave
the name Aigialeis after Aigialeus the son of Adrastos.

69. Thus had the Cleisthenes of Sikyon done: and the Athenian
Cleisthenes, who was his daughter's son and was called after him,
despising, as I suppose, the Ionians, as he the Dorians, imitated his
namesake Cleisthenes in order that the Athenians might not have the
same tribes as the Ionians: for when at the time of which we speak he
added to his own party the whole body of the common people of the
Athenians, which in former time he had despised,[61] he changed the
names of the tribes and made them more in number than they had been;
he made in fact ten rulers of tribes instead of four, and by tens also
he distributed the demes in the tribes; and having added the common
people to his party he was much superior to his opponents. 70. Then
Isagoras, as he was being worsted in his turn, contrived a plan in
opposition to him, that is to say, he called in Cleomenes the
Lacedemonian to help him, who had been a guest-friend to himself since
the siege of the sons of Peisistratos; moreover Cleomenes was accused
of being intimate with the wife of Isagoras. First then Cleomenes sent
a herald to Athens demanding the expulsion of Cleisthenes and with him
many others of the Athenians, calling them the men who were under the
curse:[62] this message he sent by instruction of Isagoras, for the
Alcmaionidai and their party were accused of the murder to which
reference was thus made, while he and his friends had no part in it.
71. Now the men of the Athenians who were "under the curse" got this
name as follows:--there was one Kylon among the Athenians, a man who
had gained the victory at the Olympic games: this man behaved with
arrogance, wishing to make himself despot; and having formed for
himself an association of men of his own age, he endeavoured to seize
the Acropolis: but not being able to get possession of it, he sat down
as a suppliant before the image of the goddess.[63] These men were
taken from their place as suppliants by the presidents of the
naucraries, who then administered affairs at Athens, on the condition
that they should be liable to any penalty short of death; and the
Alcmaionidai are accused of having put them to death. This had
occurred before the time of Peisistratos. 72. Now when Cleomenes sent
demanding the expulsion of Cleisthenes and of those under the curse,
Cleisthenes himself retired secretly; but after that nevertheless
Cleomenes appeared in Athens with no very large force, and having
arrived he proceeded to expel as accursed seven hundred Athenian
families, of which Isagoras had suggested to him the names. Having
done this he next endeavoured to dissolve the Senate, and he put the
offices of the State into the hands of three hundred, who were the
partisans of Isagoras. The Senate however making opposition, and not
being willing to submit, Cleomenes with Isagoras and his partisans
seized the Acropolis. Then the rest of the Athenians joined together
by common consent and besieged them for two days; and on the third day
so many of them as were Lacedemonians departed out of the country
under a truce. Thus was accomplished for Cleomenes the ominous saying
which was uttered to him: for when he had ascended the Acropolis with
the design of taking possession of it, he was going to the sanctuary
of the goddess, as to address her in prayer; but the priestess stood
up from her seat before he had passed through the door, and said,
"Lacedemonian stranger, go back and enter not into the temple, for it
is not lawful for Dorians to pass in hither." He said: "Woman, I am
not a Dorian, but an Achaian." So then, paying no attention to the
ominous speech, he made his attempt and then was expelled again with
the Lacedemonians; but the rest of the men the Athenians laid in bonds
to be put to death, and among them Timesitheos the Delphian, with
regard to whom I might mention very great deeds of strength and
courage which he performed. 73. These then having been thus laid in
bonds were put to death; and the Athenians after this sent for
Cleisthenes to return, and also for the seven hundred families which
had been driven out by Cleomenes: and then they sent envoys to Sardis,
desiring to make an alliance with the Persians; for they were well
assured that the Lacedemonians and Cleomenes had been utterly made
their foes. So when these envoys had arrived at Sardis and were saying
that which they had been commanded to say, Artaphrenes the son of
Hystaspes, the governor of Sardis, asked what men these were who
requested to be allies of the Persians, and where upon the earth they
dwelt; and having heard this from the envoys, he summed up his answer
to them thus, saying that if the Athenians were willing to give earth
and water to Dareios, he was willing to make alliance with them, but
if not, he bade them begone: and the envoys taking the matter upon
themselves said that they were willing to do so, because they desired
to make the alliance. 74. These, when they returned to their own land,
were highly censured: and Cleomenes meanwhile, conceiving that he had
been outrageously dealt with by the Athenians both with words and with
deeds, was gathering together an army from the whole of the
Peloponnese, not declaring the purpose for which he was gathering it,
but desiring to take vengeance on the people of the Athenians, and
intending to make Isagoras despot; for he too had come out of the
Acropolis together with Cleomenes. Cleomenes then with a large army
entered Eleusis, while at the same time the Bœotians by agreement with
him captured Oinoe and Hysiai, the demes which lay upon the extreme
borders of Attica, and the Chalkidians on the other side invaded and
began to ravage various districts of Attica. The Athenians then,
though attacked on more sides than one, thought that they would
remember the Bœotians and Chalkidians afterwards, and arrayed
themselves against the Peloponnesians who were in Eleusis. 75. Then as
the armies were just about the join battle, the Corinthians first,
considering with themselves that they were not acting rightly, changed
their minds and departed; and after that Demaratos the son of Ariston
did the same, who was king of the Spartans as well as Cleomenes,
though he had joined with him in leading the army out from Lacedemon
and had not been before this at variance with Cleomenes. In
consequence of this dissension a law was laid down at Sparta that it
should not be permitted, when an army went out, that both the kings
should go with it, for up to this time both used to go with it, and
that as one of the kings was set free from service, so one of the sons
of Tyndareus[64] also should be left behind; for before this time both
of these two were called upon by them for help and went with the
armies. 76. At this time then in Eleusis the rest of the allies,
seeing that the kings of the Lacedemonians did not agree and also that
the Corinthians had deserted their place in the ranks, themselves too
departed and got them away quickly. And this was the fourth time that
the Dorians had come to Attica, twice having invaded it to make war
against it, and twice to help the mass of the Athenian people,--first
when they at the same time colonised Megara (this expedition may
rightly be designated as taking place when Codros was king of the
Athenians), for the second and third times when they came making
expeditions from Sparta to drive out the sons of Peisistratos, and
fourthly on this occasion, when Cleomenes at the head of the
Peloponnesians invaded Eleusis: thus the Dorians invaded Athens then
for the fourth time.

77. This army then having been ingloriously broken up, the Athenians
after that, desiring to avenge themselves, made expedition first
against the Chalkidians; and the Bœotians came to the Euripos to help
the Chalkidians. The Athenians, therefore, seeing those who had come
to help,[64a] resolved first to attack the Bœotians before the
Chalkidians. Accordingly they engaged battle with the Bœotians, and
had much the better of them, and after having slain very many they
took seven hundred of them captive. On this very same day the
Athenians passed over into Eubœa and engaged battle with the
Chalkidians as well; and having conquered these also, they left four
thousand holders of allotments in the land belonging to the "Breeders
of Horses":[65] now the wealthier of the Chalkidians were called the
Breeders of Horses. And as many of them as they took captive, they
kept in confinement together with the Bœotians who had been captured,
bound with fetters; and then after a time they let them go, having
fixed their ransom at two pounds of silver apiece:[66] but their
fetters, in which they had been bound, they hung up on the Acropolis;
and these were still existing even to my time hanging on walls which
had been scorched with fire by the Mede,[67] and just opposite the
sanctuary which lies towards the West. The tenth part of the ransom
also they dedicated for an offering, and made of it a four-horse
chariot of bronze, which stands on the left hand as you enter the
Propylaia in the Acropolis, and on it is the following inscription:

 "Matched in the deeds of war with the tribes of Bœotia and Chalkis
    The sons of Athens prevailed, conquered and tamed them in fight:
  In chains of iron and darkness they quenched their insolent spirit;
    And to Athene present these, of their ransom a tithe."

78. The Athenians accordingly increased in power; and it is evident,
not by one instance only but in every way, that Equality[68] is an
excellent thing, since the Athenians while they were ruled by despots
were not better in war that any of those who dwelt about them, whereas
after they had got rid of despots they became far the first. This
proves that when they were kept down they were wilfully slack, because
they were working for a master, whereas when they had been set free
each one was eager to achieve something for himself.

79. These then were faring thus: and the Thebans after this sent to
the god, desiring to be avenged on the Athenians; the Pythian
prophetess however said that vengeance was not possible for them by
their own strength alone, but bade them report the matter to the
"many-voiced" and ask help of those who were "nearest" to them. So
when those who were sent to consult the Oracle returned, they made a
general assembly and reported the oracle; and then the Thebans heard
them say that they were to ask help of those who were nearest to them,
they said: "Surely those who dwell nearest to us are the men of
Tanagra and Coroneia and Thespiai; and these always fight zealously on
our side and endure the war with us to the end: what need is there
that we ask of these? Rather perhaps that is not the meaning of the
oracle." 80. While they commented upon it thus, at length one
perceived that which the oracle means to tell us. Asopos is said to
have had two daughters born to him, Thebe and Egina; and as these are
sisters, I think that the god gave us for answer that we should ask
the men of Egina to become our helpers." Then as there seemed to be no
opinion expressed which was better than this, they sent forthwith and
asked the men of Egina to help them, calling upon them in accordance
with the oracle; and they, when these made request, said that they
sent with them the sons of Aiacos to help them. 81. After that the
Thebans, having made an attempt with the alliance of the sons of
Aiacos and having been roughly handled by the Athenians, sent again
and gave them back the sons of Aiacos and asked them for men. So the
Eginetans, exalted by great prosperity and calling to mind an ancient
grudge against the Athenians, then on the request of the Thebans
commenced a war against the Athenians without notice: for while the
Athenians were intent on the Bœotians, they sailed against them to
Attica with ships of war, and they devastated Phaleron and also many
demes in the remainder of the coast region, and so doing they deeply
stirred the resentment of the Athenians.[69]

82. Now the grudge which was due beforehand from the Eginetans to the
Athenians came about from a beginning which was as follows:--The land
of the Epidaurians yielded to its inhabitants no fruit; and
accordingly with reference to this calamity the Epidaurians went to
inquire at Delphi, and the Pythian prophetess bade them set up images
of Damia and Auxesia, and said that when they had set up these, they
would meet with better fortune. The Epidaurians then asked further
whether they should make images of bronze or of stone; and the
prophetess bade them not use either of these, but make them of the
wood of a cultivated olive-tree. The Epidaurians therefore asked the
Athenians to allow them to cut for themselves an olive-tree, since
they thought that their olives were the most sacred; nay some say that
at that time there were no olives in any part of the earth except at
Athens. The Athenians said that they would allow them on condition
that they should every year bring due offerings to Athene Polias[70]
and to Erechtheus. The Epidaurians, then, having agreed to these
terms, obtained that which they asked, and they made images out of
these olive-trees and set them up: and their land bore fruit and they
continued to fulfil towards the Athenians that which they had agreed
to do. 83. Now during this time and also before this the Eginetans
were subject to the Epidaurians, and besides other things they were
wont to pass over to Epidauros to have their disputes with one another
settled by law:[71] but after this time they built for themselves
ships and made revolt from the Epidaurians, moved thereto by
wilfulness. So as they were at variance with them, they continued to
inflict damage on them, since in fact they had command of the sea, and
especially they stole away from them these images of Damia and
Auxesia, and they brought them and set them up in the inland part of
their country at a place called Oia, which is about twenty furlongs
distant from their city. Having set them up in this spot they
worshipped them with sacrifices and choruses of women accompanied with
scurrilous jesting, ten men being appointed for each of the deities to
provide the choruses: and the choruses spoke evil of no man, but only
of the women of the place. Now the Epidaurians also had the same
rites; and they have also rites which may not be divulged. 84. These
images then having been stolen, the Epidaurians no longer continued to
fulfil towards the Athenians that which they had agreed. The Athenians
accordingly sent and expressed displeasure to the Epidaurians; and
they declared saying that they were doing no wrong; for during the
time when they had the images in their country they continued to
fulfil that which they had agreed upon, but since they had been
deprived of them, it was not just that they should make the offerings
any more; and they bade them demand these from the men of Egina, who
had the images. So the Athenians sent to Egina and demanded the images
back; but the Eginetans said that they had nothing to do with the

85. The Athenians then report that in one single trireme were
despatched those of their citizens who were sent by the State after
this demand; who having come to Egina, attempted to tear up from off
their pedestals the images, (alleging that they were made of wood
which belonged to the Athenians), in order to carry them back with
them: but not being able to get hold of them in this manner (say the
Athenians) they threw ropes round them and were pulling them, when
suddenly, as they pulled, thunder came on and an earthquake at the
same time with the thunder; and the crew of the trireme who were
pulling were made beside themselves by these, and being brought to
this condition they killed one another as if they were enemies, until
at last but one of the whole number was left; and he returned alone to
Phaleron. 86. Thus the Athenians report that it came to pass: but the
Eginetans say that it was not with a single ship that the Athenians
came; for a single ship, and even a few more than one, they could have
easily repelled, even if they had not happened to have ships of their
own: but they say that the Athenians sailed upon their country with a
large fleet of ships, and they gave way before them and did not fight
a sea-battle. They cannot however declare with certainty whether they
gave way thus because they admitted that they were not strong enough
to fight the battle by sea, or because they intended to do something
of the kind which they actually did. The Athenians then, they say, as
no one met them in fight, landed from their ships and made for the
images; but not being able to tear them up from their pedestals, at
last they threw ropes round them and began to pull, until the images,
as they were being pulled, did both the same thing (and here they
report something which I cannot believe, but some other man may), for
they say that the images fell upon their knees to them and that they
continue to be in that position ever since this time. The Athenians,
they say, were doing thus; and meanwhile they themselves (say the
Eginetans), being informed that the Athenians were about to make an
expedition against them, got the Argives to help them; and just when
the Athenians had disembarked upon the Eginetan land, the Argives had
come to their rescue, and not having been perceived when they passed
over from Epidauros to the island, they fell upon the Athenians before
these had heard anything of the matter, cutting them off secretly from
the way to their ships; and at this moment it was that the thunder and
the earthquake came upon them. 87. This is the report which is given
by the Argives and Eginetans both, and it is admitted by the Athenians
also that but one alone of them survived and came back to Attica: only
the Argives say that this one remained alive from destruction wrought
by them upon the army of Athens, while the Athenians say that the
divine power was the destroyer. However, even this one man did not
remain alive, but perished, they say, in the following manner:--when
he returned to Athens he reported the calamity which had happened; and
the wives of the men who had gone on the expedition to Egina, hearing
it and being very indignant that he alone of all had survived, came
round this man and proceeded to stab him with the brooches of their
mantles, each one of them asking of him where her husband was. Thus he
was slain; and to the Athenians it seemed that the deed of the women
was a much more terrible thing even than the calamity which had
happened; and not knowing, it is said, how they should punish the
women in any other way, they changed their fashion of dress to that of
Ionia,--for before this the women of the Athenians wore Dorian dress,
very like that of Corinth,--they changed it therefore to the linen
tunic, in order that they might not have use for brooches. 88. In
truth however this fashion of dress is not Ionian originally but
Carian, for the old Hellenic fashion of dress for women was
universally the same as that which we now call Dorian. Moreover it is
said that with reference to these events the Argives and Eginetans
made it a custom among themselves in both countries[72] to have the
brooches made half as large again as the size which was then
established in use, and that their women should offer brooches
especially in the temple of these goddesses,[73] and also that they
should carry neither pottery of Athens nor anything else of Athenian
make to the temple, but that it should be the custom for the future to
drink there from pitchers made in the lands themselves.

89. The women of the Argives and Eginetans from this time onwards
because of the quarrel with the Athenians continued to wear brooches
larger than before, and still do so even to my time; and the origin of
the enmity of the Athenians towards the Eginetans came in the manner
which has been said. So at this time, when the Thebans invaded them,
the Eginetans readily came to the assistance of the Bœotians, calling
to mind what occurred about the images. The Eginetans then were laying
waste, as I have said, the coast regions of Attica; and when the
Athenians were resolved to make an expedition against the Eginetans,
an oracle came to them from Delphi bidding them stay for thirty years
reckoned from the time of the wrong done by the Eginetans, and in the
one-and-thirtieth year to appoint a sacred enclosure for Aiacos and
then to begin the war against the Eginetans, and they would succeed as
they desired; but if they should make an expedition against them at
once, they would suffer in the meantime very much evil and also
inflict very much, but at last they would subdue them. When the
Athenians heard the report of this, they appointed a sacred enclosure
for Aiacos, namely that which is now established close to the market-
place, but they could not endure to hear that they must stay for
thirty years, when they had suffered injuries from the Eginetans. 90.
While however they were preparing to take vengeance, a matter arose
from the Lacedemonians which provided a hindrance to them: for the
Lacedemonians, having learnt that which had been contrived by the
Alcmaionidai with respect to the Pythian prophetess, and that which
had been contrived by the Pythian prophetess against themselves and
the sons of Peisistratos, were doubly grieved, not only because they
had driven out into exile men who were their guest-friends, but also
because after they had done this no gratitude was shown to them by the
Athenians. Moreover in addition to this, they were urged on by the
oracles which said that many injuries would be suffered by them from
the Athenians; of which oracles they had not been aware of before, but
they had come to know them, since Cleomenes had brought them to
Sparta. In fact Cleomenes had obtained from the Acropolis of the
Athenians those oracles which the sons of Peisistratos possessed
before and had left in the temple when they were driven out; and
Cleomenes recovered them after they had been left behind. 91. At this
time, then, when the Lacedemonians had recovered the oracles and when
they saw that the Athenians were increasing in power and were not at
all willing to submit to them, observing that the Athenian race now
that it was free was becoming[74] a match for their own, whereas when
held down by despots it was weak and ready to be ruled,--perceiving, I
say, all these things, they sent for Hippias the son of Peisistratos
to come from Sigeion on the Hellespont, whither the family of
Peisistratos go for refuge;[75] and when Hippias had come upon the
summons, the Spartans sent also for envoys to come from their other
allies and spoke to them as follows: "Allies, we are conscious within
ourselves that we have not acted rightly; for incited by counterfeit
oracles we drove out into exile men who were very closely united with
us as guest-friends and who undertook the task of rendering Athens
submissive to us, and then after having done this we delivered over
the State to a thankless populace, which so soon as it had raised its
head, having been freed by our means drove out us and our king with
wanton outrage; and now exalted with pride[76] it is increasing in
power, so that the neighbours of these men first of all, that is the
Bœotians and Chalkidians, have already learnt, and perhaps some others
also will afterwards learn, that they committed an error.[76a] As
however we erred in doing those things of which we have spoken, we
will try now to take vengeance on them, going thither together with
you;[77] since it was for this very purpose that we sent for Hippias,
whom ye see here, and for you also, to come from your cities, in order
that with common counsel and a common force we might conduct him to
Athens and render back to him that which we formerly took away."

92. Thus they spoke; but the majority of the allies did not approve of
their words. The rest however kept silence, but the Corinthian
Socles[78] spoke as follows: (a) "Surely now the heaven shall be below
the earth, and the earth raised up on high above the heaven, and men
shall have their dwelling in the sea, and fishes shall have that
habitation which men had before, seeing that ye, Lacedemonians, are
doing away with free governments[79] and are preparing to bring back
despotism again into our cities, than which there is no more unjust or
more murderous thing among men. For if in truth this seems to you to
be good, namely that the cities should be ruled by despots, do ye
yourselves first set up a despot in your own State, and then endeavour
to establish them also for others: but as it is, ye are acting
unfairly towards your allies, seeing that ye have had no experience of
despots yourselves and provide with the greatest care at Sparta that
this may never come to pass. If however ye had had experience of it,
as we have had, ye would be able to contribute juster opinions of it
than at present. (b) For the established order of the Corinthian State
was this:--the government was an oligarchy, and the oligarchs, who
were called Bacchiadai, had control over the State and made marriages
among themselves.[80] Now one of these men, named Amphion, had a
daughter born to him who was lame, and her name was Labda. This
daughter, since none of the Bacchiadai wished to marry her, was taken
to wife by Aėtion the son of Echecrates, who was of the deme of Petra,
but by original descent a Lapith and of the race of Caineus. Neither
from this wife nor from another were children born to him, therefore
he set out to Delphi to inquire about offspring; and as he entered,
forthwith the prophetess addressed him in these lines:

"'Much to be honoured art thou, yet none doth render thee honour.[81]
  Labda conceives, and a rolling rock will she bear, which shall ruin
  Down on the heads of the kings, and with chastisement visit Corinthos.'

This answer given to Aėtion was by some means reported to the
Bacchiadai, to whom the oracle which had come to Corinth before this
was not intelligible, an oracle which had reference to the same thing
as that of Aėtion and said thus:

"'An eagle conceives in the rocks[82] and shall bear a ravening lion,
  Strong and fierce to devour, who the knees of many shall loosen.
  Ponder this well in your minds, I bid you, Corinthians, whose dwelling
  Lies about fair Peirene's spring and in craggy Corinthos.'

(c) This oracle, I say, having come before to the Bacchiadai was
obscure; but afterwards when they heard that which had come to Aėtion,
forthwith they understood the former also, that it was in accord with
that of Aėtion; and understanding this one also they kept quiet,
desiring to destroy the offspring which should be born to Aėtion.
Then, so soon as his wife bore a child, they sent ten of their own
number to the deme in which Aėtion had his dwelling, to slay the
child; and when these had come to Petra and had passed into the court
of Aėtion's house, they asked for the child; and Labda, not knowing
anything of the purpose for which they had come, and supposing them to
be asking for the child on account of friendly feeling towards its
father, brought it and placed it in the hands of one of them. Now
they, it seems, had resolved by the way that the first of them who
received the child should dash it upon the ground. However, when Labda
brought and gave it, it happened by divine providence that the child
smiled at the man who had received it; and when he perceived this, a
feeling of compassion prevented him from killing it, and having this
compassion he delivered it to the next man, and he to the third. Thus
it passed through the hands of all the ten, delivered from one to
another, since none of them could bring himself to destroy its life.
So they gave the child back to its mother and went out; and then
standing by the doors they abused and found fault with one another,
laying blame especially on the one who had first received the child,
because he had not done according to that which had been resolved;
until at last after some time they determined again to enter and all
to take a share in the murder. (d) From the offspring of Aėtion
however it was destined that evils should spring up for Corinth: for
Labda was listening to all this as she stood close by the door, and
fearing lest they should change their mind and take the child a second
time and kill it, she carried it and concealed it in the place which
seemed to her the least likely to be discovered, that is to say a
corn-chest,[84] feeling sure that if they should return and come to a
search, they were likely to examine everything: and this in fact
happened. So when they had come, and searching had failed to find it,
they thought it best to return and say to those who had sent them that
they had done all that which they had been charged by them to do. (e)
They then having departed said this; and after this the son of Aėtion
grew, and because he had escaped this danger, the name of Kypselos was
given him as a surname derived from the corn-chest. Then when Kypselos
had grown to manhood and was seeking divination, a two-edged[85]
answer was given him at Delphi, placing trust in which he made an
attempt upon Corinth and obtained possession of it. Now the answer was
as follows:

"'Happy is this man's lot of a truth, who enters my dwelling,
  Offspring of Aėtion, he shall rule in famous Corinthos,
  Kypselos, he and his sons, but his children's children no longer.'

Such was the oracle: and Kypselos when he became despot was a man of
this character,--many of the Corinthians he drove into exile, many he
deprived of their wealth, and very many more of their lives. (f) And
when he had reigned for thirty years and had brought his life to a
prosperous end, his son Periander became his successor in the
despotism. Now Periander at first was milder than his father; but
after he had had dealings through messengers with Thrasybulos the
despot of Miletos, he became far more murderous even than Kypselos.
For he sent a messenger to Thrasybulos and asked what settlement of
affairs was the safest for him to make, in order that he might best
govern his State: and Thrasybulos led forth the messenger who had come
from Periander out of the city, and entered into a field of growing
corn; and as he passed through the crop of corn, while inquiring and
asking questions repeatedly[86] of the messenger about the occasion of
his coming from Corinth, he kept cutting off the heads of those ears
of corn which he saw higher than the rest; and as he cut off their
heads he cast them away, until he had destroyed in this manner the
finest and richest part of the crop. So having passed through the
place and having suggested no word of counsel, he dismissed the
messenger. When the messenger returned to Corinth, Periander was
anxious to hear the counsel which had been given; but he said that
Thrasybulos had given him no counsel, and added that he wondered at
the deed of Periander in sending him to such a man, for the man was
out of his senses and a waster of his own goods,--relating at the same
time that which he had seen Thrasybulos do. (g) So Periander,
understanding that which had been done and perceiving that Thrasybulos
counselled him to put to death those who were eminent among his
subjects, began then to display all manner of evil treatment to the
citizens of the State; for whatsoever Kypselos had left undone in
killing and driving into exile, this Periander completed. And in one
day he stripped all the wives of the Corinthians of their clothing on
account of his own wife Melissa. For when he had sent messengers to
the Thesprotians on the river Acheron to ask the Oracle of the dead
about a deposit made with him by a guest-friend, Melissa appeared and
said she would not tell in what place the deposit was laid, for she
was cold and had no clothes, since those which he had buried with her
were of no use to her, not having been burnt; and this, she said,
would be an evidence to him that she was speaking the truth, namely
that when the oven was cold, Periander had put his loaves into it.
When the report of this was brought back to Periander, the token made
him believe, because he had had commerce with Melissa after she was
dead; and straightway after receiving the message he caused
proclamation to be made that all the wives of the Corinthians should
come out to the temple of Hera. They accordingly went as to a festival
in their fairest adornment; and he having set the spearmen of his
guard in ambush, stripped them all alike, both the free women and
their attendant; and having gathered together all their clothes in a
place dug out, he set fire to them, praying at the same time to
Melissa. Then after he had done this and had sent a second time, the
apparition of Melissa told him in what spot he had laid the deposit
entrusted to him by his guest-friend.

"Such a thing, ye must know, Lacedemonians, is despotism, and such are
its deeds: and we Corinthians marvelled much at first when we saw that
ye were sending for Hippias, and now we marvel even more because ye
say these things; and we adjure you, calling upon the gods of Hellas,
not to establish despotisms in the cities. If however ye will not
cease from your design, but endeavour to restore Hippias contrary to
that which is just, know that the Corinthians at least do not give
their consent to that which ye do."

93. Socles being the envoy of Corinth thus spoke, and Hippias made
answer to him, calling to witness the same gods as he, that assuredly
the Corinthians would more than all others regret the loss of the sons
of Peisistratos, when the appointed days should have come for them to
be troubled by the Athenians. Thus Hippias made answer, being
acquainted with the oracles more exactly than any other man: but the
rest of the allies, who for a time had restrained themselves and kept
silence, when they heard Socles speak freely, gave utterance every one
of them to that which they felt, and adopted the opinion of the
Corinthian envoy, adjuring the Lacedemonians not to do any violence to
a city of Hellas.

94. Thus was this brought to an end: and Hippias being dismissed from
thence had Anthemus offered to him by Amyntas king of the Macedonians
and Iolcos by the Thessalians. He however accepted neither of these,
but retired again to Sigeion; which city Peisistratos had taken by
force of arms from the Mytilenians, and having got possession of it,
had appointed his own natural son Hegesistratos, born of an Argive
woman, to be despot of it: he however did not without a struggle keep
possession of that which he received from Peisistratos; for the
Mytilenians and Athenians carried on war for a long time, having their
strongholds respectively at Achilleion and at Sigeion, the one side
demanding that the place be restored to them, and the Athenians on the
other hand not admitting this demand, but proving by argument that the
Aiolians had no better claim to the territory of Ilion than they and
the rest of the Hellenes, as many as joined with Menelaos in exacting
vengeance for the rape of Helen. 95. Now while these carried on the
war, besides many other things of various kinds which occurred in the
battles, once when a fight took place and the Athenians were
conquering, Alcaios the poet, taking to flight, escaped indeed
himself, but the Athenians retained possession of his arms and hung
them up on the walls of the temple of Athene which is at Sigeion.
About this matter Alcaios composed a song and sent it to Mytilene,
reporting therein his misadventure to one Melanippos, who was his
friend. Finally Periander the son of Kypselos made peace between the
Athenians and the Mytilenians,[87] for to him they referred the matter
as arbitrator; and he made peace between them on the condition that
each should continue to occupy that territory which they then
possessed. 96. Sigeion then in this matter had come under the rule of
the Athenians. And when Hippias had returned to Asia from Lacedemon,
he set everything in motion, stirring up enmity between the Athenians
and Artaphrenes, and using every means to secure that Athens should
come under the rule of himself and of Dareios. Hippias, I say, was
thus engaged; and the Athenians meanwhile hearing of these things sent
envoys to Sardis, and endeavoured to prevent the Persians from
following the suggestions of the exiled Athenians. Artaphrenes however
commanded them, if they desired to be preserved from ruin, to receive
Hippias back again. This proposal the Athenians were not by any means
disposed to accept when it was reported; and as they did not accept
this, it became at once a commonly received opinion among them that
they were enemies of the Persians.

97. While they had these thoughts and had been set at enmity with the
Persians, at this very time Aristagoras the Milesian, ordered away
from Sparta by Cleomenes the Lacedemonian, arrived at Athens; for this
was the city which had most power of all the rest besides Sparta. And
Aristagoras came forward before the assembly of the people and said
the same things as he had said at Sparta about the wealth which there
was in Asia, and about the Persian manner of making war, how they used
neither shield nor spear and were easy to overcome. Thus I say he
said, and also he added this, namely that the Milesians were colonists
from the Athenians, and that it was reasonable that the Athenians
should rescue them, since they had such great power; and there was
nothing which he did not promise, being very urgent in his request,
until at last he persuaded them: for it would seem that it is easier
to deceive many than one, seeing that, though he did not prove able to
deceive Cleomenes the Lacedemonian by himself, yet he did this to
thirty thousand Athenians. The Athenians then, I say, being persuaded,
voted a resolution to despatch twenty ships to help the Ionians, and
appointed to command them Melanthios one of their citizens, who was in
all things highly reputed. These ships proved to be the beginning of
evils for the Hellenes and the Barbarians.

98. Aristagoras however sailed on before and came to Miletos; and then
having devised a plan from which no advantage was likely to come for
the Ionians (nor indeed was he doing what he did with a view to that,
but in order to vex king Dareios), he sent a man to Phrygia to the
Piaonians who had been taken captive by Megabazos from the river
Strymon, and who were dwelling in a district and village of Phrygia
apart by themselves; and when the messenger came to the Paionians he
spoke these words: "Paionians, Aristagoras the despot of Miletos sent
me to offer to you salvation, if ye shall be willing to do as he says;
for now all Ionia has revolted from the king and ye have an
opportunity of coming safe to your own land: to reach the sea shall be
your concern, and after this it shall be thenceforth ours." The
Paionians hearing this received it as a most welcome proposal, and
taking with them their children and their women they began a flight to
the sea; some of them however were struck with fear and remained in
the place where they were. Having come to the coast the Paionians
crossed over thence to Chios, and when they were already in Chios
there arrived in their track a large body of Persian horsemen pursuing
the Paionians. These, as they did not overtake them, sent over to
Chios to bid the Paionians return back: the Paionians however did not
accept their proposal, but the men of Chios conveyed them from Chios
to Lesbos, and the Lesbians brought them to Doriscos, and thence they
proceeded by land and came to Paionia.

99. Aristagoras meanwhile, when the Athenians had arrived with twenty
ships, bringing with them also five triremes of the Eretrians, he
joined the expedition not for the sake of the Athenians but of the
Milesians themselves, to repay them a debt which they owed (for the
Milesians in former times had borne with the Eretrians the burden of
all that war which they had with the Chalkidians at the time when the
Chalkidians on their side were helped by the Samians against the
Eretrians and Milesians),--when these, I say, had arrived and the
other allies were on the spot, Aristagoras proceeded to make a march
upon Sardis. On this march he did not go himself, but remained at
Miletos and appointed others to be in command of the Milesians, namely
his brother Charopinos and of the other citizens one
Hermophantos.[87a] 100. With this force then the Ionians came to
Ephesos, and leaving their ships at Coresos in the land of Ephesos,
went up themselves in a large body, taking Ephesians to guide them in
their march. So they marched along by the river Ca’ster, and then when
they arrived after crossing the range of Tmolos, they took Sardis
without any resistance, all except the citadel, but the citadel
Artaphrenes himself saved from capture, having with him a considerable
force of men. 101. From plundering this city after they had taken it
they were prevented by this:--the houses in Sardis were mostly built
of reeds, and even those of them which were of brick had their roofs
thatched with reeds: of these houses one was set on fire by a soldier,
and forthwith the fire going on from house to house began to spread
over the whole town. So then as the town was on fire, the Lydians and
all the Persians who were in the city being cut off from escape, since
the fire was prevailing in the extremities round about them, and not
having any way out of the town, flowed together to the market-place
and to the river Pactolos, which brings down gold-dust for them from
Tmolos, flowing through the middle of their market-place, and then
runs out into the river Hermos, and this into the sea;--to this
Pactolos, I say, and to the market-place the Lydians and Persians
gathered themselves together, and were compelled to defend themselves.
The Ionians then, seeing some of the enemy standing on their defence
and others in great numbers coming on to the attack, were struck with
fear and retired to the mountain called Tmolos, and after that at
nightfall departed to go to their ships.

102. Sardis was then destroyed by fire, and in it also the temple of
the native goddess Hybebe; which the Persians alleged afterwards as a
reason for setting on fire in return the temples in the land of the
Hellenes. However at the time of which I speak the Persians who
occupied districts within the river Halys, informed beforehand of this
movement, were gathering together and coming to the help of the
Lydians; and, as it chanced, they found when they came that the
Ionians no longer were in Sardis; but they followed closely in their
track and came up with them at Ephesos: and the Ionians stood indeed
against them in array, but when they joined battle they had very much
the worse; and besides other persons of note whom the Persians
slaughtered, there fell also Eualkides commander of the Eretrians, a
man who had won wreaths in contests of the games and who was much
celebrated by Simonides of Keos: and those of them who survived the
battle dispersed to their various cities.

103. Thus then they fought at that time; and after the battle the
Athenians left the Ionians together, and when Aristagoras was urgent
in calling upon them by messengers for assistance, they said that they
would not help them: the Ionians, however, though deprived of the
alliance of the Athenians, none the less continued to prepare for the
war with the king, so great had been the offences already committed by
them against Dareios. They sailed moreover to the Hellespont and
brought under their power Byzantion and all the other cities which are
in those parts; and then having sailed forth out of the Hellespont,
they gained in addition the most part of Caria to be in alliance with
them: for even Caunos, which before was not willing to be their ally,
then, after they had burnt Sardis, was added to them also. 104. The
Cyprians too, excepting those of Amathus, were added voluntarily to
their alliance; for these also had revolted from the Medes in the
following manner:--there was one Onesilos, younger brother of Gorgos
king of Salamis, and son of Chersis, the son of Siromos, the son of
Euelthon. This man in former times too had been wont often to advise
Gorgos to make revolt from the king, and at this time, when he heard
that the Ionians had revolted, he pressed him very hard and
endeavoured to urge him to it. Since however he could not persuade
Gorgos, Onesilos watched for a time when he had gone forth out of the
city of Salamis, and then together with the men of his own faction he
shut him out of the gates. Gorgos accordingly being robbed of the city
went for refuge to the Medes, and Onesilos was ruler of Salamis and
endeavoured to persuade all the men of Cyprus to join him in revolt.
The others then he persuaded; but since those of Amathus were not
willing to do as he desired, he sat down before their city and
besieged it.

105. Onesilos then was besieging Amathus; and meanwhile, when it was
reported to king Dareios that Sardis had been captured and burnt by
the Athenians and the Ionians together, and that the leader of the
league for being about these things[88] was the Milesian Aristagoras,
it is said that at first being informed of this he made no account of
the Ionians, because he knew that they at all events would not escape
unpunished for their revolt, but he inquired into who the Athenians
were; and when he had been informed, he asked for his bow, and having
received it and placed an arrow upon the string, he discharged it
upwards towards heaven, and as he shot into the air he said: "Zeus,
that it may be granted me to take vengeance upon the Athenians!"
Having so said he charged one of his attendants, that when dinner was
set before the king he should say always three times: "Master,
remember the Athenians." 106. When he had given this charge, he called
into his presence Histiaios the Milesian, whom Dareios had now been
keeping with him for a long time, and said: "I am informed, Histiaios,
that thy deputy, to whom thou didst depute the government of Miletos,
has made rebellion against me; for he brought in men against me from
the other continent and persuaded the Ionians also,--who shall pay the
penalty to me for that which they did,--these, I say, he persuaded to
go together with them, and thus he robbed me of Sardis. Now therefore
how thinkest thou that this is well? and how without thy counsels was
anything of this kind done? Take heed lest thou afterwards find reason
to blame thyself for this." Histiaios replied: "O king, what manner of
speech is this that thou hast uttered, saying that I counselled a
matter from which it was likely that any vexation would grow for thee,
either great or small? What have I to seek for in addition to that
which I have, that I should do these things; and of what am I in want?
for I have everything that thou hast, and I am thought worthy by thee
to hear all thy counsels. Nay, but if my deputy is indeed acting in
any such manner as thou hast said, be assured that he has done it
merely on his own account. I however, for my part, do not even admit
the report to be true, that the Milesians and my deputy are acting in
any rebellious fashion against thy power: but if it prove that they
are indeed doing anything of that kind, and if that which thou hast
heard, O king, be the truth, learn then what a thing thou didst in
removing me away from the sea-coast; for it seems that the Ionians,
when I had gone out of the sight of their eyes, did that which they
had long had a desire to do; whereas if I had been in Ionia, not a
city would have made the least movement. Now therefore as quickly as
possible let me set forth to go to Ionia, that I may order all these
matters for thee as they were before, and deliver into thy hands this
deputy of Miletos who contrived these things: and when I have done
this after thy mind, I swear by the gods of the royal house that I
will not put off from me the tunic which I wear when I go down to
Ionia, until I have made Sardinia tributary to thee, which is the
largest of all islands." 107. Thus saying Histiaios endeavoured to
deceive the king, and Dareios was persuaded and let him go, charging
him, when he should have accomplished that which he had promised, to
return to him again at Susa.

108. In the meantime, while the news about Sardis was going up to the
king, and while Dareios, after doing that which he did with the bow,
came to speech with Histiaios, and Histiaios having been let go by
Dareios was making his journey to the sea-coast,--during all that time
the events were happening which here follow.--As Onesilos of Salamis
was besieging those of Amathus, it was reported to him that Artybios a
Persian, bringing with him in ships a large Persian army, was to be
expected shortly to arrive in Cyprus. Being informed of this, Onesilos
sent heralds to different places in Ionia to summon the Ionians to his
assistance; and they took counsel together and came without delay with
a large force. Now the Ionians arrived in Cyprus just at the time when
the Persians having crossed over in ships from Kilikia were proceeding
by land to attack Salamis, while the Phenicians with the ships were
sailing round the headland which is called the "Keys of Cyprus." 109.
This being the case, the despots of Cyprus called together the
commanders of the Ionians and said: "Ionians, we of Cyprus give you a
choice which enemy ye will rather fight with, the Persians or the
Phenicians: for if ye will rather array yourselves on land and make
trial of the Persians in fight, it is time now for you to disembark
from your ships and array yourselves on the land, and for us to embark
in your ships to contend against the Phenicians; but if on the other
hand ye will rather make trial of the Phenicians,--whichever of these
two ye shall choose, ye must endeavour that, so far as it rests with
you, both Ionia and Cyprus shall be free." To this the Ionians
replied: "We were sent out by the common authority of the Ionians to
guard the sea, and not to deliver our ships to the Cyprians and
ourselves fight with the Persians on land. We therefore will endeavour
to do good service in that place to which we were appointed; and ye
must call to mind all the evils which ye suffered from the Medes, when
ye were in slavery to them, and prove yourselves good men." 110. The
Ionians made answer in these words; and afterwards, when the Persians
had come to the plain of Salamis, the kings of the Cyprians set in
order their array, choosing the best part of the troops of Salamis and
of Soloi to be arrayed against the Persians and setting the other
Cyprians against the rest of the enemy's troops; and against Artybios,
the commander of the Persians, Onesilos took up his place in the array
by his own free choice.

111. Now Artybios was riding a horse which had been trained to rear up
against a hoplite. Onesilos accordingly being informed of this, and
having a shield-bearer, by race of Caria, who was of very good repute
as a soldier and full of courage besides,[89] said to this man: "I am
informed that the horse of Artybios rears upright and works both with
his feet and his mouth against any whom he is brought to attack. Do
thou therefore consider the matter, and tell me forthwith which of the
two thou wilt rather watch for and strike, the horse or Artybios
himself." To this his attendant replied: "O king, I am ready to do
both or either of these two things, and in every case to do that which
thou shalt appoint for me; but I will declare to thee the way in which
I think it will be most suitable[90] for thy condition. I say that it
is right for one who is king and commander to fight with a king and
commander; for if thou shalt slay the commander of the enemy, it turns
to great glory for thee; and again, if he shall slay thee, which
heaven forbid, even death when it is at the hands of a worthy foe is
but half to be lamented: but for us who are under thy command it is
suitable to fight with the others who are under his command and with
his horse: and of the tricks of the horse have thou no fear at all,
for I engage to thee that after this at least he shall never stand
against any man more." Thus he spoke; and shortly afterwards the
opposed forces joined battle both on land and with their ships. 112.
On that day the Ionians for their part greatly distinguished
themselves and overcame the Phenicians, and of them the Samians were
best: and meanwhile on land, when the armies met, they came to close
quarters and fought; and as regards the two commanders, what happened
was this:--when Artybios came to fight with Onesilos sitting upon his
horse, Onesilos, as he had concerted with his shield-bearer, struck at
Artybios himself, when he came to fight with him; and when the horse
put its hoofs against the shield of Onesilos, then the Carian struck
with a falchion[91] and smote off the horse's feet. 113 So Artybios
the commander of the Persians fell there on the spot together with his
horse: and while the others also were fighting, Stesenor the despot of
Curion deserted them, having with him a large force of men,--now these
Curians are said to be settlers from Argos,--and when the Curians had
deserted, forthwith also the war-chariots of the men of Salamis
proceeded to do the same as the Curians. When these things took place,
the Persians had the advantage over the Cyprians; and after their army
had been put to rout, many others fell and among them Onesilos the son
of Chersis, he who brought about the revolt of the Cyprians, and also
the king of the Solians, Aristokypros the son of Philokypros,--that
Philokypros whom Solon the Athenian, when he came to Cyprus, commended
in verse above all other despots. 114. So the men of Amathus cut off
the head of Onesilos, because he had besieged them; and having brought
it to Amathus they hung it over the gate of the city: and as the head
hung there, when it had now become a hollow, a swarm of bees entered
into it and filled it with honeycomb. This having so come to pass, the
Amathusians consulted an Oracle about the head, and they received an
answer bidding them take it down and bury it and sacrifice to Onesilos
every year as a hero; and if they did this, it would go better with
them. 115. The Amathusians accordingly continued to do so even to my
time. But the Ionians who had fought the sea-fight in Cyprus, when
they perceived that the fortunes of Onesilos were ruined and that the
cities of the Cyprians were besieged, except Salamis, and that this
city had been delivered over by the Salaminians to Gorgos the former
king,--as soon as they perceived this, the Ionians sailed away back to
Ionia. Now of the cities in Cyprus Soloi held out for the longest time
under the siege; and the Persians took it in the fifth month by
undermining the wall round.

116. The Cyprians then, after they had made themselves free for one
year, had again been reduced to slavery afresh: and meanwhile
Daurises, who was married to a daughter of Dareios, and Hymaies and
Otanes, who were also Persian commanders and were married also to
daughters of Dareios, after they had pursued those Ionians who had
made the expedition to Sardis and defeating them in battle had driven
them by force to their ships,--after this distributed the cities
amongst themselves and proceeded to sack them. 117. Daurises directed
his march to the cities on the Hellespont, and he took Dardanos and
Abydos and Percote and Lampsacos and Paisos, of these he took on each
day one; and as he was marching from Paisos against the city of
Parion, the report came that the Carians had made common cause with
the Ionians and were in revolt from the Persians. He turned back
therefore from the Hellespont and marched his army upon Caria. 118.
And, as it chanced, a report of this was brought to the Carians before
Daurises arrived; and the Carians being informed of it gathered
together at the place which is called the "White Pillars" and at the
river Marsyas, which flows from the region of Idrias and runs out into
the Maiander. When the Carians had been gathered together there, among
many other counsels which were given, the best, as it seems to me, was
that of Pixodaros the son of Mausolos, a man of Kindye, who was
married to the daughter of the king of the Kilikians, Syennesis. The
opinion of this man was to the effect that the Carians should cross
over the Maiander and engage battle with the Persians having the river
at their backs, in order that the Carians, not being able to fly
backwards and being compelled to remain where they were, might prove
themselves even better men in fight than they naturally would. This
opinion did not prevail; but they resolved that the Persians rather
than themselves should have the Maiander at their backs, evidently[92]
in order that if there should be a flight of the Persians and they
should be worsted in the battle, they might never return home, but
might fall into the river. 119. After this, when the Persians had come
and had crossed the Maiander, the Carians engaged with the Persians on
the river Marsyas and fought a battle which was obstinately contested
and lasted long; but at length they were worsted by superior numbers:
and of the Persians there fell as many as two thousand, but of the
Carians ten thousand. Then those of them who escaped were shut up in
Labraunda[93] within the sanctuary of Zeus Stratios, which is a large
sacred grove of plane-trees; now the Carians are the only men we know
who offer sacrifices to Zeus Stratios. These men then, being shut up
there, were taking counsel together about their safety, whether they
would fare better if they delivered themselves over to the Persians or
if they left Asia altogether. 120. And while they were thus taking
counsel, there came to their aid the Milesians and their allies. Then
the Carians dismissed the plans which they were before considering and
prepared to renew the war again from the beginning: and when the
Persians came to attack them, they engaged with them and fought a
battle, and they were worsted yet more completely than before; and
while many were slain of all parties,[94] the Milesians suffered most.
121. Then afterwards the Carians repaired this loss and retrieved
their defeat; for being informed that the Persians had set forth to
march upon their cities, they laid an ambush on the road which is by
Pedasos,[95] and the Persians falling into it by night were destroyed
both they and their commanders, namely Daurises and Amorges and
Sisimakes; and with them died also Myrsos the son of Gyges. Of this
ambush the leader was Heracleides the son of Ibanollis, a man of

122. These then of the Persians were thus destroyed; and meanwhile
Hymaies, who was another of those who pursued after the Ionians that
had made the expedition to Sardis, directed his march to the Propontis
and took Kios in Mysia; and having conquered this city, when he was
informed that Daurises had left the Hellespont and was marching
towards Caria, he left the Propontis and led his army to the
Hellespont: and he conquered all the Aiolians who occupy the district
of Ilion, and also the Gergithes, who were left behind as a remnant of
the ancient Teucrians. While conquering these tribes Hymaies himself
ended his life by sickness in the land of Troas. 123. He thus brought
his life to an end; and Artaphrenes the governor of the province of
Sardis was appointed with Otanes the third of the commanders to make
the expedition against Ionia and that part of Aiolia which bordered
upon it. Of Ionia these took the city of Clazomenai, and of the
Aiolians Kyme.

124. While the cities were thus being taken, Aristagoras the Milesian,
being, as he proved in this instance, not of very distinguished
courage, since after having disturbed Ionia and made preparation of
great matters[96] he counselled running away when he saw these things,
(moreover it had become clear to him that it was impossible to
overcome king Dareios),--he, I say, having regard to these things,
called together those of his own party and took counsel with them,
saying that it was better that there should be a refuge prepared for
them, in case that they should after all be driven out from Miletos,
and proposing the question whether he should lead them from thence to
Sardinia, to form a colony there, or to Myrkinos in the land of the
Edonians, which Histiaios had been fortifying, having received it as a
gift from Dareios. This was the question proposed by Aristagoras. 125.
Now the opinion of Hecataios the son of Hegesander the historian[97]
was that he should not take a colony to either of these places, but
build a wall of defence for himself in the island of Leros and keep
still, if he should be forced to leave Miletos; and afterwards with
this for his starting point he would be able to return to Miletos.
126. This was the counsel of Hecataios; but Aristagoras was most
inclined to go forth to Myrkinos. He therefore entrusted the
government of Miletos to Pythagoras, a man of repute among the
citizens, and he himself sailed away to Thrace, taking with him every
one who desired to go; and he took possession of the region for which
he had set out. But starting from this to make war, he perished by the
hands of the Thracians, that is both Aristagoras himself and his army,
when he was encamped about a certain city and the Thracians desired to
go out from it under a truce.


1.  {ie paion} (or {paian}), as the burden of a song of triumph.

2.  {eggenetai}: many MSS. and some Editors read {en genetai}, "and
    the race can never become united."

3.  iv. 93.

3a. Or "from the time that he was born."

4.  {to astikton} is probably for {to me estikhthai}: but possibly the
    meaning may be, "those who are not so marked are of low birth."

5.  "the greatest prizes are assigned for single combat in proportion"
    (as it is more difficult).

6.  Or "Siriopaionians."

7.  The words "and about the Doberians and Agrianians and Odomantians"
    are marked by Stein as an interpolation, on the ground that the
    two tribes first mentioned are themselves Paionian; but Doberians
    are distinguished from Paionians in vii. 113.

8.  {theres katarraktes}: the MSS. have {thures katapaktes} (which can
    hardly be right, since the Ionic form would be {katapektes}),
    meaning "fastened down." Stein suggests {thures katepaktes} (from
    {katepago}), which might mean "a door closed downwards," but the
    word is not found. (The Medicean MS. has {e} written over the last
    {a} of {katapaktes}.)

9.  {diapinontes}: or perhaps, "drinking against one another."

10. See viii. 137.

11. i.e. "he was drawn to run in the first pair."

12. The best MSS. give this form throughout, which is also used by
    Ęschylus: cp. iii. 70, note 60.

13. {ekakothesan}.

14. {toutou}: it is doubtful whether this means his power or his
    death. Perhaps something has dropped out after {teleuta}.

15. {anesis}: a conjectural emendation of {aneos}. (Perhaps however,
    the word was rather {ananeosis}, "after a short time there was a
    renewal of evils"). Grote wishes to translate this clause, "after
    a short time there was an abatement of evils," being of opinion
    that the {anesis kakon} lasted about eight years. However the
    expression {ou pollon khronon} is so loose that it might well
    cover the required period of time.

16. {praskhema}.

17. i.e. Miletos and Naxos.

18. {ton pakheon}.

18a. {umin}: omitted in some MSS. and editions.

19. Lit. "dividing him in such a manner."

20. {kai to teikhos esaxanto}: {esaxanto} from {satto}, which
    generally means "load." Various conjectures have been made, e.g.
    {kai to teikhos ephraxanto}, or {kata takhos esaxanto}, the comma
    after {pota} being removed.

20a. {me de neoteron ti poieuses tes Miletou}, "if Miletos made no
    change (i.e. rebellion)."

21. {katairetheie}, "taken down" from their place (cp. {anetheke}

22. {en to peoto ton logon}. The reference is to i. 92.

23. {isonomien}: cp. iii. 80.

24. {akromantes}: cp. {akrakholos}. It may mean "somewhat mad," so
    {akrozumos}, "slightly leavened," and other words.

25. {Kinupa}: for this Stein reads by conjecture {Aibuen} and
    afterwards {para Kinupa potamon} for {para potamon}: but Kinyps
    was the name of the district about the river (iv. 198), and the
    name of the river is easily supplied from this.

26. {Makeon te kai Libuon}. The Macai were of course Libyans,
    therefore perhaps we should read (with Niebuhr) {Makeon te
    Libuon}: or {Makeon te kai allon Libuon}.

27. Stein thinks that Heracleia Minoa on the S. coast of Sicily cannot
    be meant, because too distant to be considered part of the "land
    of Eryx." Evidently however this expression is very vague, and
    there seems no need to correct the text as he proposes.

28. {para ten Italion}: the name applied anciently only to the South-
    West of the peninsula.

29. {Krathin}, the MSS. give {krastin} here, and {krastie} below for
    {Krathie}. Sybaris was situated between the rivers Crathis and

30. i.e. "of the Market-place."

31. {periodos}.

32. {kurbasias}: see vii. 64.

33. {poluargurotatoi}: this seems to include gold also, for which
    Lydia was famous.

34. {poluprobatotatoi}.

35. {tende}, pointing to it in the map.

36. If {anaballesthai} is the true reading here, it cannot mean, "put
    off to another time," as Stein translates it; for the form of the
    sentence proves that it is to be taken as a question, co-ordinate
    with that which follows: {peri men khores ara ou polles khreon
    esti umeas makhas anaballesthai, parekhon de tes Asies arkhein
    allo ti airesesthe}; the first clause being in sense subordinate
    to the second.

37. {es triten emeren}.

38. {diaphthereei se}. It is impossible to reproduce the double
    meaning of {diaphtheirein}, "to destroy," and "to corrupt with
    bribes." The child was apparently alarmed by the vehement gestures
    of Aristagoras and supposed that he was going to kill her father.
    Cleomenes accepts the omen.

39. {stathmoi}: "stations," the distance between them averaging here
    about 120 stades.

40. {parasaggai}: the "parasang," as estimated at 30 stades, would be
    nearly 3½ English miles.

40a. i.e. a narrow pass; so also below in speaking of the passes into

41. In the MSS. this clause follows the account of the four rivers,
    and the distance through Matiene is given as "four stages" with no
    number of leagues added. By transposing the clause we avoid
    placing the rivers in Armenia instead of Matiene; and by making
    the number of stages thirty-four, with a corresponding number of
    leagues, we make the total right at the end and give the proper
    extension to Matiene.

42. i.e. Zabatos: the name has perhaps fallen out of the text.

43. {o d' usteron}: "the one mentioned afterwards." Stein reads {o d'

44. See i. 189.

45. {parasagges}.

46. {stadia}: the stade being equal to 606¾ English feet.

47. Reckoned for the march of an army.

48. Omitting {to eoutou pathei} which stands in the MSS. before
    {enargestaten}. If the words are retained, we must translate
    "which clearly pointed to his fate."

49. {apeipamenos ten opsin}, which some translate "he made offerings
    to avert the dream."

49a. {tisi}: many Editors adopt the conjecture {trisi}, three.

50. {anetheken eon}: various conjectures have been made here, e.g.
    {anetheken elon}, {anetheken ion}, {anetheke theo}, {anetheken
    eont}, {anetheke neon}: the last, which is Bentley's, is perhaps
    the best; but it is doubtful whether the active form of the verb
    is admissible.

51. {autos}: the MSS. have {auton}. If {autos} is right, the meaning
    is "from his own property."

52. The expression {Peisistratidai} is used loosely for the family in

53. {porinou lithou}, "tufa."

53a. Or "of God."

54. {Koniaion}. There is no such place as Conion known in Thessaly,
    but we cannot correct the text with any certainty.

55. There is perhaps a play of words in {basileus} and {leuster}.

56. {prutaneio}.

57. "Rulers of the people."

58. "Swine-ites."

59. "Ass-ites."

60. "Pig-ites."

61. {proteron aposmenon, tote panta}: most of the MSS. read {panton}
    for {panta}. The Editors propose various corrections, e.g.
    {proteron apospenon panton, tote k.t.l.}, "which before were
    excluded from everything," or {proteron apospenon, tote panton
    metadidous}, "giving the people, which before he had despised, a
    share of all rights": or {panton} is corrected to {epanion}, "on
    his return from exile," temporary exile being supposed as the
    result of the defeat mentioned in ch. 66.

62. {tous enageas}.

63. i.e. of Athene Polias in the Erechtheion.

64. Cp. iv. 145.

64a. {tous boethous}: most of the MSS. have {tous Boiotous}.

65. {ippobotai}.

66. {dimneos apotimesamenoi}.

67. See viii. 53.

68. {isegorin}: probably not "equal freedom of speech," but
    practically the same as {isonomie}, ch. 37.

69. Lit. "penetrated the Athenian greatly": most MSS. and Editors read
    {esineonto} (or {esinonto}) for {esikneonto}, which is given by
    the first hand in at least two good MSS.

70. i.e. "Athene (protectress) of the city," who shared with
    Erechtheus the temple on the Acropolis called the "Erechtheion";
    see viii. 55.

71. More lit. "to give and receive from one another satisfaction."

72. {eti tode poiesai nomon einai, para sphisi ekateroisi k.t.l.} The
    Editors punctuate variously, and alterations have been proposed in
    the text.

73. i.e. Damia and Auxesia.

74. {ginoito}: some MSS. read {an ginoito}, "would become": so Stein
    and many other Editors.

75. Some Editors omit this clause, "whither--refuge."

76. "having grown a good opinion of itself."

76a. Or, altering {oste} to {os ge} or {osper}, "as the neighbours of
    these men first of all, that is the Bœotians and Chalkidians, have
    already learnt, and perhaps some others will afterwards learn that
    they have committed an error." The word {amarton} would thus be
    added as an afterthought, with reference primarily to the
    Corinthians, see ch. 75.

77. {peiresometha spheas ama umin apikomenoi tisasthai}: some MSS.
    read {akeomenoi} and omit {tisasthai}. Hence it has been proposed
    to read {peisesometha sphea ama umin akeomenoi}, "we will
    endeavour to remedy this with your help," which may be right.

78. So the name is given by the better class of MSS. Others, followed
    by most Editors, make it "Sosicles."

79. {isokratias}.

80. Lit. "gave and took (in marriage) from one another."

81. {Eetion, outis se tiei polutiton eonta}: the play upon {Eetion}
    and {tio} can hardly be rendered. The "rolling rock" in the next
    line is an allusion to Petra, the name of the deme.

82. {aietos en petresi kuei}, with a play upon the names {Eetion}
    ({Aeton}) and {Petre} again.

83. {ophruoenta}, "situated on a brow or edge," the regular
    descriptive epithet of Corinth.

84. {kupselen}: cp. Aristoph. Pax, 631.

85. {amphidexion}: commonly translated "ambiguous," but in fact the
    oracle is of the clearest, so much so that Abicht cuts the knot by
    inserting {ouk}. Stein explains it to mean "doubly favourable,"
    {amphoterothen dexion}. I understand it to mean "two-edged" (cp.
    {amphekes}), in the sense that while promising success to Kypselos
    and his sons, it prophesies also the deposition of the family in
    the generation after, and so acts (or cuts) both ways.

86. {anapodizon}, "calling him back over the same ground again."

87. Evidently the war must be dated earlier than the time of

87a. Or (according to some MSS.), "another of the citizens, named

88. {tes sulloges oste tauta sunuphanthenai}, "the assembling together
    so that these things were woven."

89. {kai allos lematos pleos}.

90. {plospheresteron}, or perhaps {plopheresteron}, "to be preferred";
    so one MS.: {plospheres} ordinarily means "like."

91. {drepano}, cp. vii. 93.

92. {delade}, ironical.

93. Or, "Labranda."

94. i.e. Carians, Persians, and Ionians.

95. {en Pedaso}: the MSS. vary between {en Pidaso, epi daso}, and {epi
    lasoisi}, and Valla's translation has "in viam quae in Mylassa
    fert." Some Editors read {epi Mulasoisi}, others {epi Pedaso}.

96. {egkerasamenos pregmata megala}.

97. {andros logopoiou}.



1. Aristagoras accordingly, after having caused Ionia to revolt, thus
brought his life to an end; and meanwhile Histiaios the despot of
Miletos, having been let go by Dareios had arrived at Sardis: and when
he came from Susa, Artaphrenes the governor of Sardis asked him for
what reason he supposed the Ionians had revolted; and he said that he
could not tell, and moreover he expressed wonder at that which had
happened, pretending that he knew nothing of the state of affairs.
Then Artaphrenes seeing that he was using dissimulation said, having
knowledge of the truth about the revolt: "Thus it is with thee,
Histiaios, about these matters,--this shoe was stitched by thee, and
put on by Aristagoras." 2. Thus said Artaphrenes with reference to the
revolt; and Histiaios fearing Artaphrenes because he understood the
matter, ran away the next night at nightfall and went to the sea-
coast, having deceived king Dareios, seeing that he had engaged to
subdue Sardinia the largest of islands, and instead of that he was
endeavouring to take upon himself leadership of the Ionians in the war
against Dareios. Then having crossed over to Chios he was put in bonds
by the Chians, being accused by them of working for a change of their
State by suggestion of Dareios. When however the Chians learnt the
whole story and heard that he was an enemy to the king, they released
him. 3. Then Histiaios, being asked by the Ionians for what reason he
had so urgently charged Aristagoras to revolt from the king and had
wrought so great an evil for the Ionians, did not by any means declare
to them that which had been in truth the cause, but reported to them
that king Dareios had resolved to remove the Phenicians from their
land and to settle them in Ionia, and the Ionians in Phenicia; and for
this reason, he said, he had given the charge. Thus he attempted to
alarm the Ionians, although the king had never resolved to do so at

4. After this Histiaios acting through a messenger, namely Hermippos a
man of Atarneus, sent papers to the Persians who were at Sardis,
implying that he had already talked matters over with them about a
revolt: and Hermippos did not deliver them to those to whom he was
sent, but bore the papers and put them into the hands of Artaphrenes.
He then, perceiving all that was being done, bade Hermippos bear the
papers sent by Histiaios and deliver them to those to whom he was sent
to bear them, and to deliver to him the replies sent back by the
Persians to Histiaios. These things having been discovered,
Artaphrenes upon that put to death many of the Persians.

5. As regards Sardis therefore there was confusion of the design; and
when Histiaios had been disappointed of this hope, the Chians
attempted to restore him to Miletos at the request of Histiaios
himself. The Milesians, however, who had been rejoiced before to be
rid of Aristagoras, were by no means eager to receive another despot
into their land, seeing that they had tasted of liberty: and in fact
Histiaios, attempting to return to Miletos by force and under cover of
night, was wounded in the thigh by one of the Milesians. He then,
being repulsed from his own city, returned to Chios; and thence, as he
could not persuade the Chians to give him ships, he crossed over to
Mytilene and endeavoured to persuade the Lesbians to give him ships.
So they manned eight triremes and sailed with Histiaios to Byzantion,
and stationing themselves there they captured the ships which sailed
out of the Pontus, excepting where the crews of them said that they
were ready to do the bidding of Histiaios.

6. While Histiaios and the men of Mytilene were acting thus, a large
army both of sea and land forces was threatening to attack Miletos
itself; for the commanders of the Persians had joined together to form
one single army and were marching upon Miletos, considering the other
towns of less account. Of their naval force the most zealous were the
Phenicians, and with them also served the Cyprians, who had just been
subdued, and the Kilikians and Egyptians. 7. These, I say, were
advancing upon Miletos and the rest of Ionia; and meanwhile the
Ionians being informed of this were sending deputies[1] chosen from
themselves to the Panionion.[2] When these had arrived at that place
and took counsel together, they resolved not to gather a land-army to
oppose the Persians, but that the Milesians should defend their walls
by themselves, and that the Ionians should man their fleet, leaving
out not one of their ships, and having done so should assemble as soon
as possible at Lade, to fight a sea-battle in defence of Miletos. Now
Lade is a small island lying opposite the city of the Milesians. 8.
Then the Ionians manned their ships and came thither, and with them
also those Aiolians who inhabit Lesbos; and they were drawn up in
order thus:--the extremity of the line towards the East was held by
the Milesians themselves, who furnished eighty ships; next to them
were the Prienians with twelve ships and the men of Myus with three;
next to those of Myus were the Teians with seventeen ships, and after
the Teians the Chians with a hundred; after these were stationed the
men of Erythrai and of Phocaia, the former furnishing eight ships and
the latter three; next to the Phocaians were the Lesbians with seventy
ships, and last, holding the extremity of the line towards the West,
were stationed the Samians with sixty ships. Of all these the total
number proved to be three hundred and fifty-three triremes. 9. These
were the ships of the Ionians; and of the Barbarians the number of
ships was six hundred. When these too were come to the Milesian coast
and their whole land-army was also there, then the commanders of the
Persians, being informed of the number of the Ionian ships, were
struck with fear lest they should be unable to overcome them, and thus
on the one hand should not be able to conquer Miletos from not having
command of the sea, and at the same time should run a risk of being
punished by Dareios. Reflecting upon these things they gathered
together the despots of the Ionians who were exiles with the Medes,
having been deposed from their governments by Aristagoras the
Milesian, and who chanced to be then joining in the expedition against
Miletos,--of these men they called together those who were present and
spoke to them as follows: "Ionians, now let each one of you show
himself a benefactor of the king's house, that is to say, let each one
of you endeavour to detach his own countrymen from the body of the
alliance: and make your proposals promising at the same time that they
shall suffer nothing unpleasant on account of the revolt, and neither
their temples nor their private houses shall be burnt, nor shall they
have any worse treatment than they had before this; but if they will
not do so, but will by all means enter into a contest with us,
threaten them and tell them this, which in truth shall happen to them,
namely that if they are worsted in the fight they shall be reduced to
slavery, and we shall make their sons eunuchs, and their maidens we
shall remove to Bactria, and deliver their land to others." 10. They
thus spoke; and the despots of Ionia sent each one by night to his own
people announcing to them this. The Ionians however, that is those to
whom these messages came, continued obstinate and would not accept the
thought of treason to their cause; and each people thought that to
them alone the Persians were sending this message.

11. This happened as soon as the Persians came to Miletos; and after
this the Ionians being gathered together at Lade held meetings; and
others no doubt also made speeches to them, but especially the
Phocaian commander Dionysios, who said as follows: "Seeing that our
affairs are set upon the razor's edge, Ionians, whether we shall be
free or slaves, and slaves too to be dealt with as runaways, now
therefore if ye shall be willing to take upon yourselves hardships, ye
will have labour for the time being, but ye will be able to overcome
the enemy and be free; whereas if ye continue to be self-indulgent and
without discipline, I have no hope for you that ye will not pay the
penalty to the king for your revolt. Nay, but do as I say, and deliver
yourselves over to me; and I engage, if the gods grant equal
conditions, that either the enemy will not fight with us, or that
fighting he shall be greatly discomfited." 12. Hearing this the
Ionians delivered themselves to Dionysios; and he used to bring the
ships out every day in single file,[3] that he might practise the
rowers by making the ships break through one another's line,[4] and
that he might get the fighting-men in the ships under arms; an then
for the rest of the day he would keep the ships at anchor; and thus he
gave the Ionians work to do during the whole day. For seven days then
they submitted and did that which he commanded; but on the day after
these the Ionians, being unaccustomed to such toils and being
exhausted with hard work and hot sun, spoke to one another thus:
"Against which of the deities have we offended, that we thus fill up
the measure of evil? for surely we have delivered ourselves to a
Phocaian, an impostor, who furnishes but three ships: and he has taken
us into his hands and maltreats us with evil dealing from which we can
never recover; and many of us in fact have fallen into sicknesses, and
many others, it may be expected, will suffer the same thing shortly;
and for us it is better to endure anything else in the world rather
than these ills, and to undergo the slavery which will come upon us,
whatever that shall be, rather than to be oppressed by that which we
have now. Come, let us not obey him after this any more." So they
said, and forthwith after this every one refused to obey him, and they
pitched their tents in the island like an army, and kept in the shade,
and would not go on board their ships or practise any exercises.

13. Perceiving this which was being done by the Ionians, the
commanders of the Samians then at length accepted from Aiakes the son
of Syloson those proposals which Aiakes sent before at the bidding of
the Persians, asking them to leave the alliance of the Ionians; the
Samians, I say, accepted these proposals, perceiving that there was
great want of discipline on the part of the Ionians, while at the same
time it was clear to them that it was impossible to overcome the power
of the king; and they well knew also that even if they should overcome
the present naval force of Dareios,[5] another would be upon them five
times as large. Having found an occasion[6] then, so soon as they saw
that the Ionians refused to be serviceable, they counted it gain for
themselves to save their temples and their private property. Now
Aiakes, from whom the Samians accepted the proposals, was the son of
Syloson, the son of Aiakes, and being despot of Samos he had been
deprived of his rule by Aristagoras the Milesian, like the other
despots of Ionia. 14. So when the Phenicians sailed to the attack, the
Ionians also put out their ships from shore against them, sailing in
single file:[3] and when they came near and engaged battle with one
another, as regards what followed I am not able exactly to record
which of the Ionians showed themselves cowards or good men in this
sea-fight, for they throw blame upon one another. The Samians however,
it is said, according to their agreement with Aiakes put up their
sails then and set forth from their place in the line to sail back to
Samos, excepting only eleven ships: of these the captains stayed in
their places and took part in the sea-fight, refusing to obey the
commanders of their division; and the public authority of the Samians
granted them on account of this to have their names written up on a
pillar with their fathers' names also,[6a] as having proved themselves
good men; and this pillar exists still in the market-place. Then the
Lesbians also, when they saw that those next them in order were taking
to flight, did the same things as the Samians had done, and so also
most of the Ionians did the very same thing. 15. Of those which
remained in their places in the sea-fight the Chians suffered very
severely,[7] since they displayed brilliant deeds of valour and
refused to play the coward. These furnished, as was before said, a
hundred ships and in each of them forty picked men of their citizens
served as fighting-men;[8] and when they saw the greater number of
their allies deserting them, they did not think fit to behave like the
cowards among them, but left along with a few only of their allies
they continued to fight and kept breaking through the enemy's line;
until at last, after they had conquered many ships of the enemy, they
lost the greater number of their own. 16. The Chians then with the
remainder of their ships fled away to their own land; but those of the
Chians whose ships were disabled by the damage which they had
received, being pursued fled for refuge to Mycale; and their ships
they ran ashore there and left them behind, while the men proceeded
over the mainland on foot: and when the Chians had entered the
Ephesian territory on their way, then since[8a] they came into it by
night and at a time when a festival of Thesmophoria was being
celebrated by the women of the place, the Ephesians, not having heard
beforehand how it was with the Chians and seeing that an armed body
had entered their land, supposed certainly that they were robbers and
had a design upon the women; so they came out to the rescue in a body
and slew the Chians.

17. Such was the fortune which befell these men: but Dionysios the
Phocaian, when he perceived that the cause of the Ionians was ruined,
after having taken three ships of the enemy sailed away, not to Pocaia
any more, for he knew well that it would be reduced to slavery
together with the rest of Ionia, and he sailed forthwith straight to
Phenicia; and having there sunk merchant ships and taken a great
quantity of goods, he sailed thence to Sicily. Then with that for his
starting-point he became a freebooter, not plundering any Hellenes,
but Carthaginians and Tyrsenians only.

18. The Persians, then, being conquerors of the Ionians in the sea-
fight, besieged Miletos by land and sea, undermining the walls and
bringing against it all manner of engines; and they took it
completely[9] in the sixth year from the revolt of Aristagoras, and
reduced the people to slavery; so that the disaster agreed with the
oracle which had been uttered with reference to Miletos. 19. For when
the Argives were inquiring at Delphi about the safety of their city,
there was given to them an oracle which applied to both, that is to
say, part of it had reference to the Argives themselves, while that
which was added afterwards referred to the Milesians. The part of it
which had reference to the Argives I will record when I reach that
place in the history,[10] but that which the Oracle uttered with
reference to the Milesians, who were not there present, is as follows:

 "And at that time, O Miletos, of evil deeds the contriver,
  Thou shalt be made for many a glorious gift and a banquet:
  Then shall thy wives be compelled to wash the feet of the long-haired,
  And in Didyma then my shrine shall be tended by others."

At the time of which I speak these things came upon the Milesians,
since most of the men were killed by the Persians, who are long-
haired, and the women and children were dealt with as slaves; and the
temple at Didyma, with the sacred building and the sanctuary of the
Oracle, was first plundered and then burnt. Of the things in this
temple I have made mention frequently in other parts of the
history.[11] 20. After this the Milesians who had been taken prisoner
were conducted to Susa; and king Dareios did to them no other evil,
but settled them upon the Sea called Erythraian, in the city of Ampe,
by which the Tigris flows when it runs out into the sea. Of the
Milesian land the Persians themselves kept the surroundings of the
city and the plain, but the heights they gave to the Carians of Pedasa
for a possession.

21. When the Milesians suffered this treatment from the Persians, the
men of Sybaris, who were dwelling in Laos and Skidros, being deprived
of their own city, did not repay like with like: for when Sybaris was
taken by the men of Croton, the Milesians all from youth upwards
shaved their heads and put on great mourning: for these cities were
more than all others of which we know bound together by ties of
friendship. Not like the Sybarites were the Athenians; for these made
it clear that they were grieved at the capture of Miletos, both in
many other ways and also by this, that when Phrynichos had composed a
drama called the "Capture of Miletos" and had put it on the stage, the
body of spectators fell to weeping, and the Athenians moreover fined
the poet a thousand drachmas on the ground that he had reminded them
of their own calamities; and they ordered also that no one in future
should represent this drama.

22. Miletos then had been stripped bare of its former inhabitants: but
of the Samians they who had substance were by no means satisfied with
that which had been concerted by the commanders of their fleet with
the Medes; and taking counsel forthwith after the sea-fight it seemed
good to them, before their despot Aiakes arrived in the country, to
sail away and make a colony, and not to stay behind and be slaves of
the Medes and of Aiakes: for just at this time the people of Zancle in
Sicily were sending messengers to Ionia and inviting the Ionians to
come to the "Fair Strand,"[11a] desiring there to found a city of
Ionians. Now this which is called the Fair Strand is in the land of
the Sikelians and on that side of Sicily which lies towards Tyrsenia.
So when these gave the invitation, the Samians alone of all the
Ionians set forth, having with them those of the Milesians who had
escaped: and in the course of this matter it happened as follows:--23.
The Samians as they made their way towards Sicily reached Locroi
Epizephyroi, and at the same time the people of Zancle, both
themselves and their king, whose name was Skythes, were encamped about
a city of the Sikelians, desiring to conquer it. Perceiving these
things, Anaxilaos the despot of Rhegion, being then at variance with
those of Zancle, communicated with the Samians and persuaded them that
they ought to leave the Fair Strand alone, to which they were sailing,
and take possession of Zancle instead, since it was left now without
men to defend it. The Samians accordingly did as he said and took
possession of Zancle; and upon this the men of Zancle, being informed
that their city was possessed by an enemy, set out to rescue it, and
invited Hippocrates the despot of Gela to help them, for he was their
ally. When however Hippocrates also with his army had come up to their
rescue, first he put Skythes the ruler of the Zanclaians in fetters,
on the ground that he had been the cause of the city being lost, and
together with him his brother Pythogenes, and sent them away to the
town of Incyos;[12] then he betrayed the cause of the remaining
Zanclaians by coming to terms with the Samians and exchanging oaths
with them; and in return for this it had been promised by the Samians
that Hippocrates should receive as his share the half of all the
movable goods in the city and of the slaves, and the whole of the
property in the fields round. So the greater number of the Zanclaians
he put in bonds and kept himself as slaves, but the chief men of them,
three hundred in number, he gave to the Samians to put to death; which
however the Samians did not do. 24. Now Skythes the ruler of the
Zanclaians escaped from Incyos to Himera, and thence he came to Asia
and went up to the court of Dareios: and Dareios accounted him the
most righteous of all the men who had come up to him from Hellas; for
he obtained leave of the king and went away to Sicily, and again came
back from Sicily to the king; and at last he brought his life to an
end among the Persians in old age and possessing great wealth. The
Samians then, having got rid of the rule of the Medes, had gained for
themselves without labour the fair city of Zancle.

25. After the sea-battle which was fought for Miletos, the Phenicians
by the command of the Persians restored to Samos Aiakes the son of
Syloson, since he had been to them of much service and had done for
them great things; and the Samians alone of all who revolted from
Dareios, because of the desertion of their ships which were in the
sea-fight,[13] had neither their city nor their temples burnt. Then
after the capture of Miletos the Persians forthwith got possession of
Caria, some of the cities having submitted to their power voluntarily,
while others of them they brought over by force.

26. Thus it came to pass as regards these matters: and meanwhile
Histiaios the Milesian, who was at Byzantion and was seizing the
merchant vessels of the Ionians as they sailed forth out of the
Pontus, received the report of that which had happened about Miletos.
Upon that he entrusted the matters which had to do with the Hellespont
to Bisaltes the son of Apollophanes, a man of Abydos, while he himself
with the Lesbians sailed to Chios; and when a body of the Chians who
were on guard did not allow him to approach, he fought with them at
that spot in the Chian land which is called the "Hollows."[14]
Histiaios then not only slew many of these, but also, taking Polichne
of the Chians as his base, he conquered with the help of the Lesbians
the remainder of the Chians as well, since they had suffered great
loss by the sea-fight. 27. And heaven is wont perhaps to give signs
beforehand whenever great evils are about to happen to a city or a
race of men; for to the Chians also before these events remarkable
signs had come. In the first place when they had sent to Delphi a
chorus of a hundred youths, two only returned home, the remaining
ninety-eight of them having been seized by a plague and carried off;
and then secondly in their city about the same time, that is shortly
before the sea-fight, as some children were being taught[15] in school
the roof fell in upon them, so that of a hundred and twenty children
only one escaped. These signs God showed to them beforehand; and after
this the sea-fight came upon them and brought their State down upon
its knees; and as the Chians had suffered great loss, he without
difficulty effected the conquest of them.

28. Thence Histiaios made an expedition against Thasos, taking with
him a large force of Ionians and Aiolians; and while he was encamped
about the town of Thasos, a report came to him that the Phenicians
were sailing up from Miletos to conquer the rest of Ionia. Being
informed of this he left Thasos unconquered and himself hastened to
Lesbos, taking with him his whole army. Then, as his army was in want
of food,[16] he crossed over from Lesbos to reap the corn in Atarneus
and also that in the plain of the Caļcos, which belonged to the
Mysians. In these parts there chanced to be a Persian named Harpagos
commanding a considerable force; and this man fought a battle with him
after he had landed, and he took Histiaios himself prisoner and
destroyed the greater part of his army. 29. And Histiaios was taken
prisoner in the following manner:--As the Hellenes were fighting with
the Persians at Malene in the district of Atarneus, after they had
been engaged in close combat for a long time, the cavalry at length
charged and fell upon the Hellenes; and the cavalry in fact decided
the battle.[17] So when the Hellenes had been turned to flight,
Histiaios trusting that he would not be put to death by the king on
account of his present fault, conceived a love of life, so that when
he was being caught in his flight by a Persian and was about to be run
through by him in the moment of his capture, he spoke in Persian and
made himself known, saying that he was Histiaios the Milesian. 30. If
then upon being taken prisoner he had been brought to king Dareios, he
would not, as I think, have suffered any harm, but Dareios would have
forgiven the crime with which he was charged; as it was, however, for
this very reason and in order that he might not escape from punishment
and again become powerful with the king, Artaphrenes the governor of
Sardis and Harpagos who had captured him, when he had reached Sardis
on his way to the king, put him to death there and then, and his body
they impaled, but embalmed his head and brought it up to Dareios at
Susa. Dareios having been informed of this, found fault with those who
had done so, because they had not brought him up to his presence
alive; and he bade wash the head of Histiaios and bestow upon it
proper care, and then bury it, as that of one who had been greatly a
benefactor both of the king himself and of the Persians.

31. Thus it happened about Histiaios; and meanwhile the Persian fleet,
after wintering near Miletos, when it put to sea again in the
following year conquered without difficulty the islands lying near the
mainland, Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos; and whenever they took one of
the islands, the Barbarians, as each was conquered, swept the
inhabitants off it;[18] and this they do in the following manner:--
they extend themselves from the sea on the North to the sea on the
South, each man having hold of the hand of the next, and then they
pass through the whole island hunting the people out of it. They took
also the Ionian cities on the mainland in the same manner, except that
they did not sweep off the inhabitants thus, for it was not possible.
32. Then the commanders of the Persians proved not false to the
threats with which they had threatened the Ionians when these were
encamped opposite to them: for in fact when they conquered the cities,
they chose out the most comely of the boys and castrated them, making
eunuchs of them, and the fairest of the maidens they carried off by
force to the king; and not only this, but they also burnt the cities
together with the temples. Thus for the third time had the Ionians
been reduced to slavery, first by the Lydians and then twice in
succession by the Persians.

33. Departing from Ionia the fleet proceeded to conquer all the places
of the Hellespont on the left as one sails in, for those on the right
had been subdued already by the Persians themselves, approaching them
by land. Now the cities of the Hellespont in Europe are these:--first
comes the Chersonese, in which there are many cities, then Perinthos,
the strongholds of the Thracian border, Selymbria, and Byzantion. The
people of Byzantion and those of Calchedon opposite did not even wait
for the coming of the Persian ships, but had left their own land first
and departed, going within the Euxine; and there they settled in the
city of Mesambria.[19] So the Phenicians, having burnt these places
which have been mentioned, directed their course next to Proconnesos
and Artake; and when they had delivered these also to the flames, they
sailed back to the Chersonese to destroy the remaining cities which
they had not sacked when they touched there before: but against
Kyzicos they did not sail at all; for the men of Kyzicos even before
the time when the Phenicians sailed in had submitted to the king of
their own accord, and had made terms with Oibares the son of
Megabazos, the Persian governor at Daskyleion.[20] 34. In the
Chersonese then the Phenicians made themselves masters of all the
other cities except the city of Cardia. Of these cities up to that
time Miltiades the son of Kimon, the son of Stesagoras, had been
despot, Miltiades the son of Kypselos having obtained this government
in the manner which here follows:--The inhabitants of this Chersonese
were Dolonkian Thracians; and these Dolonkians, being hard pressed in
war by the Apsinthians, sent their kings to Delphi to consult the
Oracle about the war. And the Pythian prophetess answered them that
they must bring into their land as founder of a settlement the man who
should first offer them hospitality as they returned from the temple.
The Dolonkians then passed along the Sacred Road through the land of
the Phokians and of the Bœotians, and as no man invited them, they
turned aside and came to Athens. 35. Now at that time in Athens the
government was held by Peisistratos, but Miltiades also the son of
Kypselos had some power, who belonged to a family which kept four-
horse chariot teams, and who was descended originally from Aiacos and
Egina, though in more recent times his family was Athenian, Philaios
the son of Ajax having been the first of his house who became an
Athenian. This Miltiades was sitting in the entrance of his own
dwelling, and seeing the Dolonkians going by with dress that was not
of the native Athenian fashion and with spears, he shouted to them;
and when they approached, he offered them lodging and hospitality.
They then having accepted and having been entertained by him,
proceeded to declare all the utterances of the Oracle; and having
declared it they asked him to do as the god had said: and Miltiades
when he heard it was at once disposed to agree, because he was vexed
by the rule of Peisistratos and desired to be removed out of the way.
He set out therefore forthwith to Delphi to inquire of the Oracle
whether he should do that which the Dolonkians asked of him: 36, and as
the Pythian prophetess also bade him do so, Miltiades the son of
Kypselos, who had before this been victor at Olympia with a four-horse
chariot, now taking with him of the Athenians everyone who desired to
share in the expedition, sailed with the Dolonkians and took
possession of the land: and they who had invited him to come to them
made him despot over them. First then he made a wall across the
isthmus of the Chersonese from the city of Cardia to Pactye, in order
that the Apsinthians might not be able to invade the land and do them
damage. Now the number of furlongs[21] across the isthmus at this
place is six-and-thirty, and from this isthmus the Chersonese within
is altogether four hundred and twenty furlongs in length. 37. Having
made a wall then across the neck of the Chersonese and having in this
manner repelled the Apsinthians, Miltiades made war upon the people of
Lampsacos first of all others; and the people of Lampsacos laid an
ambush and took him prisoner. Now Miltiades had come to be a
friend[22] of Crœsus the Lydian; and Crœsus accordingly, being
informed of this event, sent and commanded the people of Lampsacos to
let Miltiades go; otherwise he threatened to destroy them utterly like
a pine-tree.[23] Then when the people of Lampsacos were perplexed in
their counsels as to what that saying should mean with which Crœsus
had threatened them, namely that he would destroy them utterly like a
pine-tree, at length one of the elder men with difficulty perceived
the truth, and said that a pine alone of all trees when it has been
cut down does not put forth any further growth but perishes, being
utterly destroyed. The people of Lampsacos therefore fearing Crœsus
loosed Miltiades and let him go. 38. He then escaped by means of
Crœsus, but afterwards he brought his life to an end leaving no son to
succeed him, but passing over his rule and his possessions to
Stesagoras, who was the son of Kimon, his brother on the mother's
side:[24] and the people of the Chersonese still offer sacrifices to
him after his death as it is usual to do to a founder, and hold in his
honour a contest of horse-races and athletic exercises, in which none
of the men of Lampsacos are allowed to contend. After this there was
war with those of Lampsacos; and it happened to Stesagoras also that
he died without leaving a son, having been struck on the head with an
axe in the City Hall by a man who pretended to be a deserter, but who
proved himself to be in fact an enemy and a rather hot one moreover.
39. Then after Stesagoras also had ended his life in this manner,
Miltiades son of Kimon and brother of that Stesagoras who was dead,
was sent in a trireme to the Chersonese to take possession of the
government by the sons of Peisistratos, who had dealt well with him at
Athens also, pretending that they had had no share in the death of his
father Kimon, of which in another part of the history I will set forth
how it came to pass.[25] Now Miltiades, when he came to the
Chersonese, kept himself within his house, paying honours in all
appearance[26] to the memory of his brother Stesagoras; and the chief
men of the inhabitants of the Chersonese in every place, being
informed of this, gathered themselves together from all the cities and
came in a body to condole with him, and when they had come they were
laid in bonds by him. Miltiades then was in possession of the
Chersonese, supporting a body of five hundred mercenary troops; and he
married the daughter of Oloros the king of the Thracians, who was
named Hegesipyle.

40. Now this Miltiades son of Kimon had at the time of which we speak
but lately returned[27] to the Chersonese; and after he had returned,
there befell him other misfortunes worse than those which had befallen
him already; for two years before this he had been a fugitive out of
the land from the Scythians, since the nomad Scythians provoked by
king Dareios had joined all in a body and marched as far as this
Chersonese, and Miltiades had not awaited their attack but had become
a fugitive from the Chersonese, until at last the Scythians departed
and the Dolonkians brought him back again. These things happened two
years before the calamities which now oppressed him: 41, and now,
being informed that the Phenicians were at Tenedos, he filled five
triremes with the property which he had at hand and sailed away for
Athens. And having set out from the city of Cardia he was sailing
through the gulf of Melas; and as he passed along by the shore of the
Chersonese, the Phenicians fell in with his ships, and while Miltiades
himself with four of his ships escaped to Imbros, the fifth of his
ships was captured in the pursuit by the Phenicians. Of this ship it
chanced that Metiochos the eldest of the sons of Miltiades was in
command, not born of the daughter of Oloros the Thracian, but of
another woman. Him the Phenicians captured together with his ship; and
being informed about him, that he was the son of Miltiades, they
brought him up to the king, supposing that they would lay up for
themselves a great obligation; because it was Miltiades who had
declared as his opinion to the Ionians that they should do as the
Scythians said, at that time when the Scythians requested them to
break up the bridge of boats and sail away to their own land. Dareios
however, when the Phenicians brought up to him Metiochos the son of
Miltiades, did Metiochos no harm but on the contrary very much good;
for he gave him a house and possessions and a Persian wife, by whom he
had children born who have been ranked as Persians. Miltiades
meanwhile came from Imbros to Athens.

42. In the course of this year there was done by the Persians nothing
more which tended to strife with the Ionians, but these things which
follow were done in this year very much to their advantage.--
Artaphrenes the governor of Sardis sent for envoys from all the cities
and compelled the Ionians to make agreements among themselves, so that
they might give satisfaction for wrongs and not plunder one another's
land. This he compelled them to do, and also he measured their
territories by parasangs,--that is the name which the Persians give to
the length of thirty furlongs,[28]--he measured, I say, by these, and
appointed a certain amount of tribute for each people, which continues
still unaltered from that time even to my own days, as it was
appointed by Artaphrenes; and the tribute was appointed to be nearly
of the same amount for each as it had been before. 43. These were
things which tended to peace for the Ionians; but at the beginning of
the spring, the other commanders having all been removed by the king,
Mardonios the son of Gobryas came down to the sea, bringing with him a
very large land-army and a very large naval force, being a young man
and lately married to Artozostra daughter of king Dareios. When
Mardonios leading this army came to Kilikia, he embarked on board a
ship himself and proceeded together with the other ships, while other
leaders led the land-army to the Hellespont. Mardonios however sailing
along the coast of Asia came to Ionia: and here I shall relate a thing
which will be a great marvel to those of the Hellenes who do not
believe that to the seven men of the Persians Otanes declared as his
opinion that the Persians ought to have popular rule;[29] for
Mardonios deposed all the despots of the Ionians and established
popular governments in the cities. Having so done he hastened on to
the Hellespont; and when there was collected a vast number of ships
and a large land-army, they crossed over the Hellespont in the ships
and began to make their way through Europe, and their way was directed
against Eretria and Athens. 44. These, I say, furnished them the
pretence for the expedition, but they had it in their minds to subdue
as many as they could of the Hellenic cities; and in the first place
they subdued with their ships the Thasians, who did not even raise a
hand to defend themselves: then with the land-army they gained the
Macedonians to be their servants in addition to those whom they had
already; for all the nations on the East of the Macedonians[30] had
become subject to them already before this. Crossing over then from
Thasos to the opposite coast, they proceeded on their way near the
land as far as Acanthos, and then starting from Acanthos they
attempted to get round Mount Athos; but as they sailed round, there
fell upon them a violent North Wind, against which they could do
nothing, and handled them very roughly, casting away very many of
their ships on Mount Athos. It is said indeed that the number of the
ships destroyed was three hundred,[30a], and more than twenty thousand
men; for as this sea which is about Athos is very full of sea
monsters, some were seized by these and so perished, while others were
dashed against the rocks; and some of them did not know how to swim
and perished for that cause, others again by reason of cold. 45. Thus
fared the fleet; and meanwhile Mardonios and the land-army while
encamping in Macedonia were attacked in the night by the Brygian
Thracians, and many of them were slain by the Brygians and Mardonios
himself was wounded. However not even these escaped being enslaved by
the Persians, for Mardonios did not depart from that region until he
had made them subject. But when he had subdued these, he proceeded to
lead his army back, since he had suffered great loss with his land-
army in fighting against the Brygians and with his fleet in going
round Athos. So this expedition departed back to Asia having gained no
honour by its contests.

46. In the next year after this Dareios first sent a messenger to the
men of Thasos, who had been accused by their neighbours of planning
revolt, and bade them take away the wall around their town and bring
their ships to Abdera. The Thasians in fact, as they had been besieged
by Histiaios the Milesian and at the same time had large revenues
coming in, were using their money in building ships of war and in
surrounding their city with a stronger wall. Now the revenues came to
them from the mainland and from the mines: from the gold-mines in
Scapte Hyle[31] there came in generally eighty talents a year, and
from those in Thasos itself a smaller amount than this but so much
that in general the Thasians, without taxes upon the produce of their
soil, had a revenue from the mainland and from the mines amounting
yearly to two hundred talents, and when the amount was highest, to
three hundred. 47. I myself saw these mines, and by much the most
marvellous of them were those which the Phenicians discovered, who
made the first settlement in this island in company with Thasos; and
the island had the name which it now has from this Thasos the
Phenician. These Phenician mines are in that part of Thasos which is
between the places called Ainyra and Koinyra and opposite Samothrake,
where there is a great mountain which has been all turned up in the
search for metal. Thus it is with this matter: and the Thasians on the
command of the king both razed their walls and brought all their ships
to Abdera.

48. After this Dareios began to make trial of the Hellenes, what they
meant to do, whether to make war with him or to deliver themselves up.
He sent abroad heralds therefore, and appointed them to go some to one
place and others to another throughout Hellas, bidding them demand
earth and water for the king. These, I say, he sent to Hellas; and
meanwhile he was sending abroad other heralds to his own tributary
cities which lay upon the sea-coast, and he bade them have ships of
war built and also vessels to carry horses. 49. They then were engaged
in preparing these things; and meanwhile when the heralds had come to
Hellas, many of those who dwelt upon the mainland gave that for which
the Persian made demand,[32] and all those who dwelt in the islands
did so, to whomsoever they came to make their demand. The islanders, I
say, gave earth and water to Dareios, and among them also those of
Egina, and when these had done so, the Athenians went forthwith urgent
against them, supposing that the Eginetans had given with hostile
purpose against themselves, in order to make an expedition against
them in combination with the Persians; and also they were glad to get
hold of an occasion against them. Accordingly they went backward and
forwards to Sparta and accused the Eginetans of that which they had
done, as having proved themselves traitors to Hellas. 50. In
consequence of this accusation Cleomenes the son of Anaxandrides, king
of the Spartans, crossed over to Egina meaning to seize those of the
Eginetans who were the most guilty; but as he was attempting to seize
them, certain of the Eginetans opposed him, and among them especially
Crios the son of Polycritos, who said that he should not with impunity
carry off a single Eginetan, for he was doing this (said he) without
authority from the Spartan State, having been persuaded to it by the
Athenians with money; otherwise he would have come and seized them in
company with the other king: and this he said by reason of a message
received from Demaratos. Cleomenes then as he departed from Egina,
asked Crios[33] what was his name, and he told him the truth; and
Cleomenes said to him: "Surely now, O Ram, thou must cover over thy
horns with bronze for thou wilt shortly have a great trouble to
contend with."

51. Meanwhile Demaratos the son of Ariston was staying behind in
Sparta and bringing charges against Cleomenes, he also being king of
the Spartans but of the inferior house; which however is inferior in
no other way (for it is descended from the same ancestor), but the
house of Eurysthenes has always been honoured more, apparently because
he was the elder brother. 52. For the Lacedemonians, who herein agree
with none of the poets, say that Aristodemos the son of Aristomachos,
the son of Cleodaios, the son of Hyllos, being their king, led them
himself (and not the sons of Aristodemos) to this land which they now
possess. Then after no long time the wife of Aristodemos, whose name
was Argeia,--she was the daughter, they say, of Autesion, the son of
Tisamenes, the son of Thersander, the son of Polyneikes,--she, it is
said, brought forth twins; and Aristodemos lived but to see his
children and then ended his life by sickness. So the Lacedemonians of
that time resolved according to established custom to make the elder
of the children their king; but they did not know which of them they
should take, because they were like one another and of equal size; and
when they were not able to make out, or even before this, they
inquired of their mother; and she said that even she herself did not
know one from the other. She said this, although she knew in truth
very well, because she desired that by some means both might be made
kings. The Lacedemonians then were in a strait; and being in a strait
they sent to Delphi to inquire what they should do in the matter. And
the Pythian prophetess bade them regard both children as their kings,
but honour most the first in age.[34] The prophetess, they say, thus
gave answer to them; and when the Lacedemonians were at a loss none
the less how to find out the elder of them, a Messenian whose name was
Panites made a suggestion to them: this Panites, I say, suggested to
the Lacedemonians that they should watch the mother and see which of
the children she washed and fed before the other; and if she was seen
to do this always in the same order, then they would have all that
they were seeking and desiring to find out, but if she too was
uncertain and did it in a different order at different times, it would
be plain to them that even she had no more knowledge than any other,
and they must turn to some other way. Then the Spartans following the
suggestion of the Messenian watched the mother of the sons of
Aristodemos and found that she gave honour thus to the first-born both
in feeding and in washing; for she did not know with that design she
was being watched. They took therefore the child which was honoured by
its mother and brought it up as the first-born in the public hall,[35]
and to it was given the name of Eurysthenes, while the other was
called Procles. These, when they had grown up, both themselves were at
variance, they say, with one another, though they were brothers,
throughout the whole time of their lives, and their descendants also
continued after the same manner.

53. This is the report given by the Lacedemonians alone of all the
Hellenes; but this which follows I write in accordance with that which
is reported by the Hellenes generally,--I mean that the names of these
kings of the Dorians are rightly enumerated by the Hellenes up to
Perseus the son of Danae (leaving the god out of account),[36] and
proved to be of Hellenic race; for even from that time they were
reckoned as Hellenes. I said "up to Perseus" and did not take the
descent from a yet higher point, because there is no name mentioned of
a mortal father for Perseus, as Amphitryon is for Heracles. Therefore
with reason, as is evident, I have said "rightly up to Perseus"; but
if one enumerates their ancestors in succession going back from Danae
the daughter of Acrisios, the rulers of the Dorians will prove to be
Egyptians by direct descent. 54. Thus I have traced the descent
according to the account given by the Hellenes; but as the story is
reported which the Persians tell, Perseus himself was an Assyrian and
became a Hellene, whereas the ancestors of Perseus were not Hellenes;
and as for the ancestors of Acrisios, who (according to this account)
belonged not to Perseus in any way by kinship, they say that these
were, as the Hellenes report, Egyptians. 55. Let it suffice to have
said so much about these matters; and as to the question how and by
what exploits being Egyptians they received the sceptres of royalty
over the Dorians, we will omit these things, since others have told
about them; but the things with which other narrators have not dealt,
of these I will make mention.

56. These are the royal rights which have been given by the Spartans
to their kings, namely, two priesthoods, of Zeus Lakedaimon and Zeus
Uranios;[37] and the right of making war against whatsoever land they
please, and that no man of the Spartans shall hinder this right, or if
he do, he shall be subject to the curse; and that when they go on
expeditions the kings shall go out first and return last; that a
hundred picked men shall be their guard upon expeditions; and that
they shall use in their goings forth to war as many cattle as they
desire, and take both the hides and the backs of all that are
sacrificed. 57. These are their privileges in war; and in peace
moreover things have been assigned to them as follows:--if any
sacrifice is performed at the public charge, it is the privilege of
the kings to sit down at the feast before all others, and that the
attendants shall begin with them first, and serve to each of them a
portion of everything double of that which is given to the other
guests, and that they shall have the first pouring of libations and
the hides of the animals slain in sacrifice; that on every new moon
and seventh day of the month there shall be delivered at the public
charge to each one of these a full-grown victim in the temple of
Apollo, and a measure[38] of barley-groats and a Laconian
"quarter"[39] of wine; and that at all the games they shall have seats
of honour specially set apart for them: moreover it is their privilege
to appoint as protectors of strangers[40] whomsoever they will of the
citizens, and to choose each two "Pythians:" now the Pythians are men
sent to consult the god at Delphi, and they eat with the kings at the
public charge. And if the kings do not come to the dinner, it is the
rule that there shall be sent out for them to their houses two
quarts[41] of barley-groats for each one and half a pint[42] of wine;
but if they are present, double shares of everything shall be given
them, and moreover they shall be honoured in this same manner when
they have been invited to dinner by private persons. The kings also,
it is ordained, shall have charge of the oracles which are given, but
the Pythians also shall have knowledge of them. It is the rule
moreover that the kings alone give decision on the following cases
only, that is to say, about the maiden who inherits her father's
property, namely who ought to have her, if her father have not
betrothed her to any one, and about public ways; also if any man
desires to adopt a son, he must do it in presence of the kings: and it
is ordained that they shall sit in council with the Senators, who are
in number eight-and-twenty, and if they do not come, those of the
Senators who are most closely related to them shall have the
privileges of the kings and give two votes besides their own, making
three in all.[42a] 58. These rights have been assigned to the kings
for their lifetime by the Spartan State; and after they are dead these
which follow:--horsemen go round and announce that which has happened
throughout the whole of the Laconian land, and in the city women go
about and strike upon a copper kettle. Whenever this happens so, two
free persons of each household must go into mourning, a man and a
woman, and for those who fail to do this great penalties are
appointed. Now the custom of the Lacedemonians about the deaths of
their kings is the same as that of the Barbarians who dwell in Asia,
for most of the Barbarians practise the same customs as regards the
death of their kings. Whensoever a king of the Lacedemonians is dead,
then from the whole territory of Lacedemon, not reckoning the
Spartans, a certain fixed number of the "dwellers round"[43] are
compelled to go to the funeral ceremony: and when there have been
gathered together of these and of the Helots and of the Spartans
themselves many thousands in the same place, with their women
intermingled, they beat their foreheads with a good will and make
lamentation without stint, saying that this one who has died last of
their kings was the best of all: and whenever any of their kings has
been killed in war, they prepare an image to represent him, laid upon
a couch with fair coverings, and carry it out to be buried. Then after
they have buried him, no assembly is held among them for ten days, nor
is there any meeting for choice of magistrates, but they have mourning
during these days. In another respect too these resemble the Persians;
that is to say, when the king is dead and another is appointed king,
this king who is newly coming in sets free any man of the Spartans who
was a debtor to the king or to the State; while among the Persians the
king who comes to the throne remits to all the cities the arrears of
tribute which are due. 60. In the following point also the
Lacedemonians resemble the Egyptians; that is to say, their heralds
and fluteplayers and cooks inherit the crafts of their fathers, and a
fluteplayer is the son of a fluteplayer, a cook of a cook, and a
herald of a herald; other men do not lay hands upon the office because
they have loud and clear voices, and so shut them out of it, but they
practise their craft by inheritance from their fathers.

61. Thus are these things done: and at this time of which we
speak,[44] while Cleomenes was in Egina doing deeds[45] which were for
the common service of Hellas, Demaratos brought charges against him,
not so much because he cared for the Eginetans as because he felt envy
and jealousy of him. Then Cleomenes, after he returned from Egina,
planned to depose Demaratos from being king, making an attempt upon
him on account of this matter which follows:--Ariston being king in
Sparta and having married two wives, yet had no children born to him;
and since he did not acknowledge that he himself was the cause of
this, he married a third wife; and he married her thus:--he had a
friend, a man of the Spartans, to whom of all the citizens Ariston was
most inclined; and it chanced that this man had a wife who was of all
the women in Sparta the fairest by far, and one too who had become the
fairest from having been the foulest. For as she was mean in her
aspect, her nurse, considering that she was the daughter of wealthy
persons and was of uncomely aspect, and seeing moreover that her
parents were troubled by it,--perceiving I say these things, her nurse
devised as follows:--every day she bore her to the temple of Helen,
which is in the place called Therapne, lying above the temple of
Phoebus; and whenever the nurse bore her thither, she placed her
before the image and prayed the goddess to deliver the child from her
unshapeliness. And once as the nurse was going away out of the temple,
it is said that a woman appeared to her, and having appeared asked her
what she was bearing in her arms; and she told her that she was
bearing a child; upon which the other bade her show the child to her,
but she refused, for it had been forbidden to her by the parents to
show it to any one: but the woman continued to urge her by all means
to show it to her. So then perceiving that the woman earnestly desired
to see it, the nurse showed her the child. Then the woman stroking the
head of the child said that she should be the fairest of all the women
in Sparta; and from that day her aspect was changed. Afterwards when
she came to the age for marriage, she was married to Agetos the son of
Alkeides, this friend of Ariston of whom we spoke. 62. Now Ariston it
seems was ever stung by the desire of this woman, and accordingly he
contrived as follows:--he made an engagement himself with his comrade,
whose wife this woman was, that he would give him as a gift one thing
of his own possessions, whatsoever he should choose, and he bade his
comrade make return to him in similar fashion. He therefore, fearing
nothing for his wife, because he saw that Ariston also had a wife,
agreed to this; and on these terms they imposed oaths on one another.
After this Ariston on his part gave that which Agetos had chosen from
the treasures of Ariston, whatever the thing was; and he himself,
seeking to obtain from him the like return, endeavoured then to take
away the wife of his comrade from him: and he said that he consented
to give anything else except this one thing only, but at length being
compelled by the oath and by the treacherous deception,[46] he allowed
her to be taken away from him. 63. Thus had Ariston brought into his
house the third wife, having dismissed the second: and this wife, not
having fulfilled the ten months[47] but in a shorter period of time,
bore him that Demaratos of whom we were speaking; and one of his
servants reported to him as he was sitting in council[48] with the
Ephors, that a son had been born to him. He then, knowing the time
when he took to him his wife, and reckoning the months upon his
fingers, said, denying with an oath, "The child would not be mine."
This the Ephors heard, but they thought it a matter of no importance
at the moment; and the child grew up and Ariston repented of that
which he had said, for he thought Demaratos was certainly his own son;
and he gave him the name "Demaratos" for this reason, namely because
before these things took place the Spartan people all in a body[49]
had made a vow[50] praying that a son might be born to Ariston, as one
who was pre-eminent in renown over all the kings who had ever arisen
in Sparta. 64. For this reason the name Demaratos[51] was given to
him. And as time went on Ariston died, and Demaratos obtained the
kingdom: but it was fated apparently that these things should become
known and should cause Demaratos to be deposed from the kingdom; and
therefore[52] Demaratos came to be at variance greatly with Cleomenes
both at the former time when he withdrew his army from Eleusis, and
also now especially, when Cleomenes had crossed over to take those of
the Eginetans who had gone over to the Medes. 65. Cleomenes then,
being anxious to take vengeance on him, concerted matters with
Leotychides the son of Menares, the son of Agis, who was of the same
house as Demaratos, under condition that if he should set him up as
king instead of Demaratos, he would go with him against the Eginetans.
Now Leotychides had become a bitter foe of Demaratos on account of
this matter which follows:--Leotychides had betrothed himself to
Percalos the daughter of Chilon son of Demarmenos; and Demaratos
plotted against him and deprived Leotychides of his marriage, carrying
off Percalos himself beforehand, and getting her for his wife. Thus
had arisen the enmity of Leotychides against Demaratos; and now by the
instigation of Cleomenes Leotychides deposed against Demaratos, saying
that he was not rightfully reigning over the Spartans, not being a son
of Ariston: and after this deposition he prosecuted a suit against
him, recalling the old saying which Ariston uttered at the time when
his servant reported to him that a son was born to him, and he
reckoning up the months denied with an oath, saying that it was not
his. Taking his stand upon this utterance, Leotychides proceeded to
prove that Demaratos was not born of Ariston nor was rightfully
reigning over Sparta; and he produced as witnesses those Ephors who
chanced then to have been sitting with Ariston in council and to have
heard him say this. 66. At last, as there was contention about those
matters, the Spartans resolved to ask the Oracle at Delphi whether
Demaratos was the son of Ariston. The question then having been
referred by the arrangement of Cleomenes to the Pythian prophetess,
thereupon Cleomenes gained over to his side Cobon the son of
Aristophantos, who had most power among the Delphians, and Cobin
persuaded Perialla the prophetess of the Oracle[53] to say that which
Cleomenes desired to have said. Thus the Pythian prophetess, when
those who were sent to consult the god asked her their question, gave
decision that Demaratos was not the son of Ariston. Afterwards however
these things became known, and both Cobon went into exile from Delphi
and Perialla the prophetess of the Oracle was removed from her office.

67. With regard to the deposing of Demaratos from the kingdom it
happened thus: but Demaratos became an exile from Sparta to the Medes
on account of a reproach which here follows:--After he had been
deposed from the kingdom Demaratos was holding a public office to
which he had been elected. Now it was the time of the Gymnopaidiai;
and as Demaratos was a spectator of them, Leotychides, who had now
become king himself instead of Demaratos, sent his attendant and asked
Demaratos in mockery and insult what kind of a thing it was to be a
magistrate after having been king; and he vexed at the question made
answer and said that he himself had now had experience of both, but
Leotychides had not; this question however, he said, would be the
beginning either of countless evil or countless good fortune for the
Lacedemonians. Having thus said, he veiled his head and went forth out
of the theatre to his own house; and forthwith he made preparations
and sacrificed an ox to Zeus, and after having sacrificed he called
his mother. 68. Then when his mother had come, he put into her hands
some of the inner parts[54] of the victim, and besought her, saying as
follows: "Mother, I beseech thee, appealing to the other gods and
above all to this Zeus the guardian of the household,[55] to tell me
the truth, who is really and truly my father. For Leotychides spoke in
his contention with me, saying that thou didst come to Ariston with
child by thy former husband; and others besides, reporting that which
is doubtless an idle tale,[56] say that thou didst go in to one of the
servants, namely the keeper of the asses, and that I am his son. I
therefore entreat thee by the gods to tell me the truth; for if thou
hast done any of these things which are reported, thou hast not done
them alone, but with many other women; and the report is commonly
believed in Sparta that there was not in Ariston seed which should
beget children; for if so, then his former wives also would have borne
children." 69. Thus he spoke, and she made answer as follows: "My son,
since thou dost beseech me with entreaties to speak the truth, the
whole truth shall be told to thee. When Ariston had brought me into
his house, on the third night[57] there came to me an apparition in
the likeness of Ariston, and having lain with me it put upon me the
garlands which it had on; and the apparition straitway departed, and
after this Ariston came; and when he saw me with garlands, he asked
who it was who had given me them; and I said that he had given them,
but he did not admit it; and I began to take oath of it, saying that
he did not well to deny it, for he had come (I said) a short time
before and had lain with me and given me the garlands. Then Ariston,
seeing that I made oath of it, perceived that the matter was of the
gods; and first the garlands were found to be from the hero-temple
which stands by the outer door of the house, which they call the
temple of Astrabacos,[58] and secondly the diviners gave answer that
it was this same hero. Thus, my son, thou hast all, as much as thou
desirest to learn; for either thou art begotten of this hero and the
hero Astrabacos is thy father, or Ariston is thy father, for on that
night I conceived thee: but as to that wherein thy foes most take hold
of thee, saying that Ariston himself, when thy birth was announced to
him, in the hearing of many declared that thou wert not his son,
because the time, the ten months namely, had not yet been fulfilled,
in ignorance of such matters he cast forth that saying; for women
bring forth children both at the ninth month and also at the seventh,
and not all after they have completed ten months; and I bore thee, my
son, at the seventh month: and Ariston himself also perceived after no
long time that he had uttered this saying in folly. Do not thou then
accept any other reports about thy begetting, for thou hast heard in
all the full truth; but to Leotychides and to those who report these
things may their wives bear children by keepers of asses!" 70. Thus
she spoke; and he, having learnt that which he desired to learn, took
supplies for travelling and set forth to go to Elis, pretending that
he was going to Delphi to consult the Oracle: but the Lacedemonians,
suspecting that he was attempting to escape, pursued after him; and it
chanced that before they came Demaratos had passed over to Zakynthos
from Elis; and the Lacedemonians crossing over after him laid hands on
his person and carried away his attendants from him. Afterwards
however, since those of Zakynthos refused to give him up, he passed
over from thence to Asia, to the presence of king Dareios; and Dareios
both received him with great honour as a guest, and also gave him land
and cities. Thus Demaratos had come to Asia, and such was the fortune
which he had had, having been distinguished in the estimation of the
Lacedemonians[59] in many other ways both by deeds and by counsels,
and especially having gained for them an Olympic victory with the
four-horse chariot, being the only one who achieved this of all the
kings who ever arose in Sparta.

71. Demaratos being deposed, Leotychides the son of Menares succeeded
to the kingdom; and he had born to him a son Zeuxidemos, whom some of
the Spartans called Kyniscos. This Zeuxidemos did not become king of
Sparta, for he died before Leotychides, leaving a son Archidemos: and
Leotychides having lost Zeuxidemos married a second wife Eurydame, the
sister of Menios and daughter of Diactorides, by whom he had no male
issue, but a daughter Lampito, whom Archidemos the son of Zeuxidemos
took in marriage, she being given to him by Leotychides. 72.
Leotychides however did not himself[60] live to old age in Sparta, but
paid a retribution for Demaratos as follows:--he went as commander of
the Lacedemonians to invade Thessaly, and when he might have reduced
all to subjection, he accepted gifts of money amounting to a large
sum; and being taken in the act there in the camp, as he was sitting
upon a glove full of money, he was brought to trial and banished from
Sparta, and his house was razed to the ground. So he went into exile
to Tegea and ended his life there. 73. These things happened later;
but at this time, when Cleomenes had brought to a successful issue the
affair which concerned Demaratos, forthwith he took with him
Leotychides and went against the Eginetans, being very greatly enraged
with them because of their insults towards him. So the Eginetans on
their part, since both the kings had come against them, thought fit no
longer to resist; and the Spartans selected ten men who were the most
considerable among the Eginetans both by wealth and by birth, and took
them away as prisoners, and among others also Crios[61] the son of
Polycritos and Casambos the son of Aristocrates, who had the greatest
power among them; and having taken these away to the land of Attica,
they deposited them as a charge with the Athenians, who were the
bitterest enemies of the Eginetans.

74. After this Cleomenes, since it had become known that he had
devised evil against Demaratos, was seized by fear of the Spartans and
retired to Thessaly. Thence he came to Arcadia, and began to make
mischief[62] and to combine the Arcadians against Sparta; and besides
other oaths with which he caused them to swear that they would
assuredly follow him whithersoever he should lead them, he was very
desirous also to bring the chiefs of the Arcadians to the city of
Nonacris and cause them to swear by the water of Styx; for near this
city it is said by the Arcadians[63] that there is the water of Styx,
and there is in fact something of this kind: a small stream of water
is seen to trickle down from a rock into a hollow ravine, and round
the ravine runs a wall of rough stones. Now Nonacris, where it happens
that this spring is situated, is a city of Arcadia near Pheneos. 75.
The Lacedemonians, hearing that Cleomenes was acting thus, were
afraid, and proceeded to bring him back to Sparta to rule on the same
terms as before: but when he had come back, forthwith a disease of
madness seized him (who had been even before this somewhat
insane[64]), and whenever he met any of the Spartans, he dashed his
staff against the man's face. And as he continued to do this and had
gone quite out of his senses, his kinsmen bound him in stocks. Then
being so bound, and seeing his warder left alone by the rest, he asked
him for a knife; and the warder not being at first willing to give it,
he threatened him with that which he would do to him afterwards if he
did not; until at last the warder fearing the threats, for he was one
of the Helots, gave him a knife. Then Cleomenes, when he had received
the steel, began to maltreat himself from the legs upwards: for he
went on cutting his flesh lengthways from the legs to the thighs and
from the thighs to the loins and flanks, until at last he came to the
belly; and cutting this into strips he died in that manner. And this
happened, as most of the Hellenes report, because he persuaded the
Pythian prophetess to advise that which was done about Demaratos; but
as the Athenians alone report, it was because when he invaded Eleusis
he laid waste the sacred enclosure of the goddesses;[65] and according
to the report of the Argives, because from their sanctuary dedicated
to Argos he caused to come down those of the Argives who had fled for
refuge from the battle and slew them, and also set fire to the grove
itself, holding it in no regard. 76. For when Cleomenes was consulting
the Oracle at Delphi, the answer was given him that he should conquer
Argos; so he led the Spartans and came to the river Erasinos, which is
said to flow from the Stymphalian lake; for this lake, they say,
running out into a viewless chasm, appears again above ground in the
land of Argos; and from thence onwards this water is called by the
Argives Erasinos: having come, I say, to this river, Cleomenes did
sacrifice to it; and since the sacrifices were not at all favourable
for him to cross over, he said that he admired the Erasinos for not
betraying the men of its country, but the Argives should not even so
escape. After this he retired back from thence and led his army down
to Thyrea; and having done sacrifice to the Sea by slaying a bull, he
brought them in ships to the land of Tiryns and Nauplia. 77. Being
informed of this, the Argives came to the rescue towards the sea; and
when they had got near Tiryns and were at the place which is called
Hesipeia,[66] they encamped opposite to the Lacedemonians leaving no
very wide space between the armies. There the Argives were not afraid
of the open fighting, but only lest they should be conquered by craft;
for to this they thought referred the oracle which the Pythian
prophetess gave in common to these and to the Milesians,[67] saying as

 "But when the female at length shall conquer the male in the battle,
  Conquer and drive him forth, and glory shall gain among Argives,
  Then many wives of the Argives shall tear both cheeks in their mourning;
  So that a man shall say some time, of the men that came after,
  'Quelled by the spear it perished, the three-coiled terrible serpent,'

The conjunction of all these things caused fear to the Argives, and
with a view to this they resolved to make use of the enemy's herald;
and having so resolved they proceeded to do as follows:--whenever the
Spartan herald proclaimed anything to the Lacedemonians, the Argives
also did that same thing. 78. So Cleomenes, perceiving that the
Argives were doing whatever the herald of the Lacedemonians
proclaimed, passed the word to the Lacedemonians that when the herald
should proclaim that they were to get breakfast, then they should take
up their arms and go to attack the Argives. This was carried out even
so by the Lacedemonians; for as the Argives were getting breakfast
according to the herald's proclamation, they attacked them; and many
of them they slew, but many more yet took refuge in the sacred grove
of Argos, and upon these they kept watch, sitting round about the
place. Then Cleomenes did this which follows:--79. He had with him
deserters, and getting information by inquiring of these, he sent a
herald and summoned forth those of the Argives who were shut up in the
sanctuary, mentioning each by name; and he summoned them forth saying
that he had received their ransom. Now among the Peloponnesians ransom
is two pounds weight of silver[68] appointed to be paid for each
prisoner. So Cleomenes summoned forth about fifty of the Argives one
by one and slew them; and it chanced that the rest who were in the
enclosure did not perceive that this was being done; for since the
grove was thick, those within did not see how it fared with those who
were without, at least until one of them climbed up a tree and saw
from above that which was being done. Accordingly they then no longer
came forth when they were called. 80. So Cleomenes thereupon ordered
all the Helots to pile up brushwood round the sacred grove; and they
obeying, he set fire to the grove. And when it was now burning, he
asked one of the deserters to what god the grove was sacred, and the
man replied that it was sacred to Argos. When he heard that, he
groaned aloud and said, "Apollo who utterest oracles, surely thou hast
greatly deceived me, saying that I should conquer Argos: I conjecture
that the oracle has had its fulfilment for me already." 81. After this
Cleomenes sent away the greater part of his army to go back to Sparta,
but he himself took a thousand of the best men and went to the temple
of Hera to sacrifice: and when he wished to sacrifice upon the altar,
the priest forbade him, saying that it was not permitted by religious
rule for a stranger to sacrifice in that place. Cleomenes however bade
the Helots take away the priest from the altar and scourge him, and he
himself offered the sacrifice. Having so done he returned back to
Sparta; 82, and after his return his opponents brought him up before
the Ephors, saying that he had received gifts and therefore had not
conquered Argos, when he might easily have conquered it. He said to
them,--but whether he was speaking falsely or whether truly I am not
able with certainty to say,--however that may be, he spoke and said
that when he had conquered the sanctuary of Argos, it seemed to him
that the oracle of the god had had its fulfilment for him; therefore
he did not think it right to make an attempt on the city, at least
until he should have had recourse to sacrifice, and should have learnt
whether the deity[69] permitted him or whether she stood opposed to
him: and as he was sacrificing for augury[70] in the temple of Hera, a
flame of fire blazed forth from the breasts of the image; and thus he
knew the certainty of the matter, namely that he would not conquer
Argos: for if fire had blazed forth from the head of the image, he
would have been conqueror of the city from top to bottom,[71] but
since it blazed from the breasts, everything had been accomplished for
him which the god desired should come to pass. Thus speaking he seemed
to the Spartans to speak credibly and reasonably, and he easily
escaped his pursuers.[72]

83. Argos however was so bereft of men that their slaves took
possession of all the State, ruling and managing it until the sons of
those who had perished grew to be men. Then these, endeavouring to
gain Argos back to themselves, cast them out; and the slaves being
driven forth gained possession of Tiryns by fighting. Now for a time
these two parties had friendly relations with one another; but
afterwards there came to the slaves a prophet named Cleander, by race
a Phigalian from Arcadia: this man persuaded the slaves to attack
their masters, and in consequence of this there was war between them
for a long time, until at last with difficulty the Argives overcame

84. The Argives then say that this was the reason why Cleomenes went
mad and had an evil end: but the Spartans themselves say that
Cleomenes was not driven mad by any divine power, but that he had
become a drinker of unmixed wine from having associated with
Scythians, and that he went mad in consequence of this: for the nomad
Scythians, they say, when Dareios had made invasion of their land,
desired eagerly after this to take vengeance upon him; and they sent
to Sparta and tried to make an alliance, and to arrange that while the
Scythians themselves attempted an invasion of Media by the way of the
river Phasis, the Spartans should set forth from Ephesos and go up
inland, and then that they should meet in one place: and they say that
Cleomenes when the Scythians had come for this purpose, associated
with them largely, and that thus associating more than was fit, he
learnt the practice of drinking wine unmixed with water; and for this
cause (as the Spartans think) he went mad. Thenceforth, as they say
themselves, when they desire to drink stronger wine, they say "Fill up
in Scythian fashion."[73] Thus the Spartans report about Cleomenes;
but to me it seems that this was a retribution which Cleomenes paid
for Demaratos.

85. Now when the Eginetans heard that Cleomenes had met his end, they
sent messengers to Sparta to denounce Leotychides for the matter of
the hostages which were being kept at Athens: and the Lacedemonians
caused a court to assemble and judged that the Eginetans had been
dealt with outrageously by Leotychides; and they condemned him to be
taken to Egina and delivered up in place of the men who were being
kept at Athens. Then when the Eginetans were about to take
Leotychides, Theasides the son of Leoprepes, a man of repute in
Sparta, said to them: "What are ye proposing[74] to do, men of Egina?
Do ye mean to take away the king of the Spartans, thus delivered up to
you by his fellow-citizens? If the Spartans now being in anger have
decided so, beware lest at some future time, if ye do this, they bring
an evil upon your land which may destroy it." Hearing this the
Eginetans abstained from taking him; but they came to an agreement
that Leotychides should accompany them to Athens and restore the men
to the Eginetans.

86. When however Leotychides came to Athens and asked for the deposit
back, the Athenians, not being willing to give up the hostages,
produced pretexts for refusing, and alleged that two kings had
deposited them and they did not think it right to give them back to
the one without the other: so since the Athenians said that they would
not give them back, Leotychides spoke to them as follows:

(a) "Athenians, do whichever thing ye yourselves desire; for ye know
that if ye give them up, ye do that which religion commands, and if ye
refuse to give them up, ye do the opposite of this: but I desire to
tell you what kind of a thing came to pass once in Sparta about a
deposit. We Spartans report that there was in Lacedemon about two
generations before my time on Glaucos the son of Epikydes. This man we
say attained the highest merit in all things besides, and especially
he was well reported of by all who at that time dwelt in Lacedemon for
his uprightness: and we relate that in due time[75] it happened to him
thus:--a man of Miletos came to Sparta and desired to have speech with
him, alleging the reasons which follow: 'I am a Milesian,' he said,
'and I am come hither desiring to have benefit from thy uprightness,
Glaucos; for as there was much report of thy uprightness throughout
all the rest of Hellas and also in Ionia, I considered with myself
that Ionia is ever in danger, whereas Peloponnesus is safely
established, and also that we never see wealth continue in the
possession of the same persons long;--reflecting, I say, on these
things and taking counsel with myself, I resolved to turn into money
the half of my possessions, and to place it with thee, being well
assured that if it were placed with thee I should have it safe. Do
thou therefore, I pray thee, receive the money, and take and keep
these tallies; and whosoever shall ask for the money back having the
tokens answering to these, to him do thou restore it.' (b) The
stranger who had come from Miletos said so much; and Glaucos accepted
the deposit on the terms proposed. Then after a long time had gone by,
there came to Sparta the sons of him who had deposited the money with
Glaucos; and they came to speech with Glaucos, and producing the
tokens asked for the money to be given back: but he repulsed them
answering them again thus: 'I do not remember the matter, nor does my
mind bring back to me any knowledge of those things whereof ye speak;
but I desire to recollect and do all that is just; for if I received
it, I desire to restore it honestly; and if on the other hand I did
not receive it at all, I will act towards you in accordance with the
customs of the Hellenes:[76] therefore I defer the settling of the
matter with you for three months from now.' (c) The Milesians
accordingly went away grieved, for they supposed that they had been
robbed of the money; but Glaucos set forth to Delphi to consult the
Oracle: and when he inquired of the Oracle whether he should rob them
of the money by an oath, the Pythian prophetess rebuked him with these

"'Glaucos, thou, Epikydes' son, yea, this for the moment,
  This, to conquer their word by an oath and to rob, is more gainful.
  Swear, since the lot of death waits also for him who swears truly.
  But know thou that Oath has a son, one nameless and handless and footless,
  Yet without feet he pursues, without hands he seizes, and wholly
  He shall destroy the race and the house of the man who offendeth.
  But for the man who swears truly his race is the better hereafter.'

Having heard this Glaucos entreated that the god would pardon him for
that which he had said, but the prophetess said that to make trial of
the god and to do the deed were things equivalent. (d) Glaucos then,
having sent for the Milesians, gave back to them the money: but the
reason for which, O Athenians, I set forth to relate to you this
story, shall now be told. At the present time there is no descendant
of Glaucos existing, nor any hearth which is esteemed to be that of
Glaucos, but he has been utterly destroyed and rooted up out of
Sparta. Thus it is good not even to entertain a thought about a
deposit other than that of restoring it, when they who made it ask for
it again."

87. When Leotychides had thus spoken, since not even so were the
Athenians willing to listen to him, he departed back; and the
Eginetans, before paying the penalty for their former wrongs wherein
they did outrage to the Athenians to please the Thebans,[77] acted as
follows:--complaining of the conduct of the Athenians and thinking
that they were being wronged, they made preparations to avenge
themselves upon the Athenians; and since the Athenians were
celebrating a four-yearly festival[78] at Sunion, they lay in wait for
the sacred ship which was sent to it and took it, the vessel being
full of men who were the first among the Athenians; and having taken
it they laid the men in bonds. 88. The Athenians after they had
suffered this wrong from the Eginetans no longer delayed to contrive
all things possible to their hurt. And there was[79] in Egina a man of
repute, one Nicodromos the son of Cnithos:[80] this man had cause of
complaint against the Eginetans for having before this driven him
forth out of the island; and hearing now that the Athenians had
resolved to do mischief to the Eginetans, he agreed with the Athenians
to deliver up Egina to them, telling them on what day he would make
his attempt and by what day it would be necessary for them to come to
his assistance. 89. After this Nicodromos, according as he had agreed
with the Athenians, seized that which is called the old city, but the
Athenians did not come to his support at the proper time; for, as it
chanced, they had not ships sufficient to fight with the Eginetans; so
while they were asking the Corinthians to lend them ships, during this
time their cause went to ruin. The Corinthians however, being at this
time exceedingly friendly with them, gave the Athenians twenty ships
at their request; and these they gave by selling them at five drachmas
apiece, for by the law it was not permitted to give them as a free
gift. Having taken these ships of which I speak and also their own,
the Athenians with seventy ships manned in all sailed to Egina, and
they were later by one day than the time agreed. 90. Nicodromos
meanwhile, as the Athenians did not come to his support at the proper
time, embarked in a ship and escaped from Egina, and with him also
went others of the Eginetans; and the Athenians gave them Sunion to
dwell in, starting from whence these men continued to plunder the
Eginetans who were in the island. 91. This happened afterwards: but at
the time of which we speak the well-to-do class among the Eginetans
prevailed over the men of the people, who had risen against them in
combination with Nicodromos, and then having got them into their power
they were bringing their prisoners forth to execution. From this there
came upon them a curse which they were not able to expiate by
sacrifice, though they devised against it all they could; but they
were driven forth from the island before the goddess became propitious
to them. For they had taken as prisoners seven hundred of the men of
the people and were bringing them forth to execution, when one of them
escaped from his bonds and fled for refuge to the entrance of the
temple of Demeter the Giver of Laws,[81] and he took hold of the latch
of the door and clung to it; and when they found that they could not
drag him from it by pulling him away, they cut off his hands and so
carried him off, and those hands remained clinging to the latch of the
door. 92. Thus did the Eginetans to one another: and when the
Athenians came, they fought against them with seventy ships, and being
worsted in the sea-fight they called to their assistance the same whom
they had summoned before, namely the Argives. These would no longer
come to their help, having cause of complaint because the ships of
Egina compelled by Cleomenes had put in to the land of Argos and their
crews had landed with the Lacedemonians; with whom also had landed men
from ships of Sikyon in this same invasion: and as a penalty for this
there was laid upon them by the Argives a fine of a thousand talents,
five hundred for each State. The Sikyonians accordingly, acknowledging
that they had committed a wrong, had made an agreement to pay a
hundred talents and be free from the penalty; the Eginetans however
did not acknowledge their wrong, but were more stubborn. For this
reason then, when they made request, none of the Argives now came to
their help at the charge of the State, but volunteers came to the
number of a thousand; and their leader was a commander named
Eurybates, a man who had practised the five contests.[82] Of these men
the greater number never returned back, but were slain by the
Athenians in Egina; and the commander himself, Eurybates, fighting in
single combat[83] killed in this manner three men and was himself
slain by the fourth, Sophanes namely of Dekeleia. 93. The Eginetans
however engaged in contest with the Athenians in ships, when these
were in disorder, and defeated them; and they took of them four ships
together with their crews.

94. So the Athenians were at war with the Eginetans; and meanwhile the
Persian was carrying forward his design, since he was put in mind ever
by his servant to remember the Athenians, and also because of the sons
of Peisistratos were near at hand and brought charges continually
against the Athenians, while at the same time Dareios himself wished
to take hold of this pretext and subdue those nations of Hellas which
had not given him earth and water. Mardonios then, since he had fared
miserably in his expedition, he removed from his command; and
appointing other generals to command he despatched them against
Eretria and Athens, namely Datis, who was a Mede by race, and
Artaphrenes the son of Artaphrenes, a nephew of the king: and he sent
them forth with the charge to reduce Athens and Eretria to slavery and
to bring the slaves back into his presence. 95. When these who had
been appointed to command came in their march from the king to the
Aleļan plain in Kilikia, taking with them a large and well-equipped
land-army, then while they were encamping there, the whole naval
armament came up, which had been appointed for several nations to
furnish; and there came to them also the ships for carrying horses,
which in the year before Dareios had ordered his tributaries to make
ready. In these they placed their horses, and having embarked the
land-army in the ships they sailed for Ionia with six hundred
triremes. After this they did not keep their ships coasting along the
mainland towards the Hellespont and Thrace, but they started from
Samos and made their voyage by the Icarian Sea[84] and between the
islands; because, as I think, they feared more than all else the
voyage round Athos, seeing that in the former year[85] while making
the passage by this way they had come to great disaster. Moreover also
Naxos compelled them, since it had not been conquered at the former
time.[86] 96. And when they had arrived at Naxos, coming against it
from the Icarian Sea (for it was against Naxos first that the Persians
intended to make expedition, remembering the former events), the
Naxians departed forthwith fleeing to the mountains, and did not await
their attack; but the Persians made slaves of those of them whom they
caught and set fire to both the temples and the town. Having so done
they put out to sea to attack the other islands.

97. While these were doing thus, the Delians also had left Delos and
fled away to Tenos; and when the armament was sailing in thither,
Datis sailed on before and did not allow the ships to anchor at the
island of Delos, but at Rhenaia on the other side of the channel; and
he himself, having found out by inquiry where the men of Delos were,
sent a herald and addressed them thus: "Holy men, why are ye fled away
and departed, having judged of me that which is not convenient? for
even I of myself have wisdom at least so far, and moreover it has been
thus commanded me by the king, not to harm at all that land in which
the two divinities were born, neither the land itself nor the
inhabitants of it. Now therefore return to your own possessions and
dwell in your island." Thus he proclaimed by a herald to the Delians;
and after this he piled up and burned upon the altar three hundred
talents' weight of frankincense. 98. Datis having done these things
sailed away with his army to fight against Eretria first, taking with
him both Ionians and Aiolians; and after he had put out to sea from
thence, Delos was moved, not having been shaken (as the Delians
reported to me) either before that time or since that down to my own
time; and this no doubt the god[86a] manifested as a portent to men of
the evils that were about to be; for in the time of Dareios the son of
Hystaspes and Xerxes the son of Dareios and Artoxerxes the son of
Xerxes, three generations following upon one another, there happened
more evils to Hellas than during the twenty other generations which
came before Dareios, some of the evils coming to it from the Persians,
and others from the leaders themselves of Hellas warring together for
supremacy. Thus it was not unreasonable that Delos should be moved,
which was before unmoved. [And in an oracle it was thus written about

 "Delos too will I move, unmoved though it hath been aforetime."][87]

Now in the Hellenic tongue the names which have been mentioned have
this meaning--Dareios means "compeller,"[88] Xerxes "warrior,"[89]
Artoxerxes "great warrior."[90] Thus then might the Hellenes rightly
call these kings in their own tongue.

99. The Barbarians then, when they had departed from Delos, touched at
the islands as they went, and from them received additional forces and
took sons of the islanders as hostages: and when in sailing round
about the islands they put in also to Carystos, seeing that the
Carystians would neither give them hostages nor consent to join in an
expedition against cities that were their neighbours, meaning Eretria
and Athens, they began to besiege them and to ravage their land; until
at last the Carystians also came over to the will of the Persians.
100. The Eretrians meanwhile being informed that the armament of the
Persians was sailing to attack them, requested the Athenians to help
them; and the Athenians did not refuse their support, but gave as
helpers those four thousand to whom had been allotted the land of the
wealthy[91] Chalkidians. The Eretrians however, as it turned out, had
no sound plan of action, for while they sent for the Athenians, they
had in their minds two different designs: some of them, that is,
proposed to leave the city and go to the heights of Eubœa; while
others of them, expecting to win gain for themselves from the Persian,
were preparing to surrender the place. Having got knowledge of how
things were as regards both these plans, Aischines the son of Nothon,
one of the leaders of the Eretrians, told the whole condition of their
affairs to those of the Athenians who had come, and entreated them to
depart and go to their own land, that they might not also perish. So
the Athenians did according to this counsel given to them by
Aischines. 101. And while these passed over to Oropos and saved
themselves, the Persians sailed on and brought their ships to land
about Temenos and Chioreai and Aigilea in the Eretrian territory; and
having taken possession of these places,[91a] forthwith they began to
disembark their horses and prepared to advance against the enemy. The
Eretrians however did not intend to come forth against them and fight;
but their endeavour was if possible to hold out by defending their
walls, since the counsel prevailed not to leave the city. Then a
violent assault was made upon the wall, and for six days there fell
many on both sides; but on the seventh day Euphorbos the son of
Alkimachos and Philagros the son of Kyneos, men of repute among the
citizens, gave up the city to the Persians. These having entered the
city plundered and set fire to the temples in retribution for the
temples which were burned at Sardis, and also reduced the people to
slavery according to the commands of Dareios.

102. Having got Eretria into their power, they stayed a few days and
then sailed for the land of Attica, pressing on[92] hard and supposing
that the Athenians would do the same as the Eretrians had done. And
since Marathon was the most convenient place in Attica for horsemen to
act and was also very near to Eretria, therefore Hippias the son of
Peisistratos was guiding them thither. 103. When the Athenians had
information of this, they too went to Marathon to the rescue of their
land; and they were led by ten generals, of whom the tenth was
Miltiades, whose father Kimon of Stesagoras had been compelled to go
into exile from Athens because of Peisistratos the son of Hippocrates:
and while he was in exile it was his fortune to win a victory at the
Olympic games with a four-horse chariot, wherein, as it happened, he
did the same thing as his half-brother Miltiades[93] had done, who had
the same mother as he. Then afterwards in the next succeeding Olympic
games he gained a victory with the same mares and allowed Peisistratos
to be proclaimed as victor; and having resigned to him the victory he
returned to his own native land under an agreement for peace. Then
after he had won with the same mares at another Olympic festival, it
was his hap to be slain by the sons of Peisistratos, Peisistratos
himself being no longer alive. These killed him near the City Hall,
having set men to lie in wait for him by night; and the burial-place
of Kimon is in the outskirts of the city, on the other side of the
road which is called the way through Coile, and just opposite him
those mares are buried which won in three Olympic games. This same
thing was done also by the mares belonging to Euagoras the Laconian,
but besides these by none others. Now the elder of the sons of Kimon,
Stesagoras, was at that time being brought up in the house of his
father's brother Miltiades in the Chersonese, while the younger son
was being brought up at Athens with Kimon himself, having been named
Miltiades after Miltiades the settler of the Chersonese. 104. This
Miltiades then at the time of which we speak had come from the
Chersonese and was a general of the Athenians, after escaping death in
two forms; for not only did the Phenicians, who had pursued after him
as far as Imbros, endeavour earnestly to take him and bring him up to
the presence of the king, but also after this, when he had escaped
from these and had come to his own native land and seemed to be in
safety from that time forth, his opponents, who had laid wait for him
there, brought him up before a court and prosecuted him for his
despotism in the Chersonese. Having escaped these also, he had then
been appointed a general of the Athenians, being elected by the

105. First of all, while they were still in the city, the generals
sent off to Sparta a herald, namely Pheidippides[94] an Athenian and
for the rest a runner of long day-courses and one who practised this
as his profession. With this man, as Pheidippides himself said and as
he made report to the Athenians, Pan chanced to meet by mount
Parthenion, which is above Tegea; and calling aloud the name of
Pheidippides, Pan bade him report to the Athenians and ask for what
reason they had no care of him, though he was well disposed to the
Athenians and had been serviceable to them on many occasions before
that time, and would be so also yet again. Believing that this tale
was true, the Athenians, when their affairs had been now prosperously
settled, established under the Acropolis a temple of Pan; and in
consequence of this message they propitiate him with sacrifice offered
every year and with a torch-race. 106. However at that time, the time
namely when he said that Pan appeared to him, this Pheidippides having
been sent by the generals was in Sparta on the next day after that on
which he left the city of the Athenians; and when he had come to the
magistrates he said: "Lacedemonians, the Athenians make request of you
to come to their help and not to allow a city most anciently
established among the Hellenes to fall into slavery by the means of
Barbarians; for even now Eretria has been enslaved, and Hellas has
become the weaker by a city of renown." He, as I say, reported to them
that with which he had been charged, and it pleased them well to come
to help the Athenians; but it was impossible for them to do so at
once, since they did not desire to break their law; for it was the
ninth day of the month, and on the ninth day they said they would not
go forth, nor until the circle of the moon should be full.[95]

107. These men were waiting for the full moon: and meanwhile Hippias
the son of Peisistratos was guiding the Barbarians in to Marathon,
after having seen on the night that was just past a vision in his
sleep of this kind,--it seemed to Hippias that he lay with his own
mother. He conjectured then from the dream that he should return to
Athens and recover his rule, and then bring his life to an end in old
age in his own land. From the dream, I say, he conjectured this; and
after this, as he guided them in, first he disembarked the slaves from
Eretria on the island belonging to the Styrians, called Aigleia;[96]
and then, as the ships came in to shore at Marathon, he moored them
there, and after the Barbarians had come from their ships to land, he
was engaged in disposing them in their places. While he was ordering
these things, it came upon him to sneeze and cough more violently than
was his wont. Then since he was advanced in years, most of his teeth
were shaken thereby, and one of these teeth he cast forth by the
violence of the cough:[97] and the tooth having fallen from him upon
the sand, he was very desirous to find it; since however the tooth was
not to be found when he searched, he groaned aloud and said to those
who were by him: "This land is not ours, nor shall we be able to make
it subject to us; but so much part in it as belonged to me the tooth

108. Hippias then conjectured that his vision had been thus fulfilled:
and meanwhile, after the Athenians had been drawn up in the sacred
enclosure of Heracles, there joined them the Plataians coming to their
help in a body: for the Plataians had given themselves to the
Athenians, and the Athenians before this time undertook many toils on
behalf of them; and this was the manner in which they gave themselves:
--Being oppressed by the Thebans, the Plataians at first desired to
give themselves to Cleomenes the son of Anaxandrides and to the
Lacedemonians, who chanced to come thither; but these did not accept
them, and said to them as follows: "We dwell too far off, and such
support as ours would be to you but cold comfort; for ye might many
times be reduced to slavery before any of us had information of it:
but we counsel you rather to give yourselves to the Athenians, who are
both neighbours and also not bad helpers." Thus the Lacedemonians
counselled, not so much on account of their goodwill to the Plataians
as because they desired that the Athenians should have trouble by
being involved in a conflict with the Bœtians. The Lacedemonians, I
say, thus counselled the men of Plataia; and they did not fail to
follow their counsel, but when the Athenians were doing sacrifice to
the twelve gods, they sat down as suppliants at the altar and so gave
themselves. Then the Thebans having been informed of these things
marched against the Plataians, and the Athenians came to their
assistance: and as they were about to join battle, the Corinthians did
not permit them to do so, but being by chance there, they reconciled
their strife; and both parties having put the matter into their hands,
they laid down boundaries for the land, with the condition that the
Thebans should leave those of the Bœotians alone who did not desire to
be reckoned with the other Bœotians. The Corinthians having given this
decision departed; but as the Athenians were going back, the Bœotians
attacked them, and having attacked them they were worsted in the
fight. Upon that the Athenians passed beyond the boundaries which the
Corinthians had set to be for the Plataians, and they made the river
Asopos itself to be the boundary of the Thebans towards the land of
Plataia and towards the district of Hysiai. The Plataians then had
given themselves to the Athenians in the manner which has been said,
and at this time they came to Marathon to bring them help.

109. Now the opinions of the generals of the Athenians were divided,
and the one party urged that they should not fight a battle, seeing
that they were too few to fight with the army of the Medes, while the
others, and among them Miltiades, advised that they should do so: and
when they were divided and the worse opinion was like to prevail,
then, since he who had been chosen by lot[98] to be polemarch of the
Athenians had a vote in addition to the ten (for in old times the
Athenians gave the polemarch an equal vote with the generals) and at
that time the polemarch was Callimachos of the deme of Aphidnai, to
him came Miltiades and said as follows: "With thee now it rests,
Callimachos, either to bring Athens under slavery, or by making her
free to leave behind thee for all the time that men shall live a
memorial such as not even Harmodios and Aristogeiton have left. For
now the Athenians have come to a danger the greatest to which they
have ever come since they were a people; and on the one hand, if they
submit to the Medes, it is determined what they shall suffer, being
delivered over to Hippias, while on the other hand, if this city shall
gain the victory, it may become the first of the cities of Hellas. How
this may happen and how it comes to thee of all men[99] to have the
decision of these matters, I am now about to tell. Of us the generals,
who are ten in number, the opinions are divided, the one party urging
that we fight a battle and the others that we do not fight. Now if we
do not, I expect that some great spirit of discord will fall upon the
minds of the Athenians and so shake them that they shall go over to
the Medes; but if we fight a battle before any unsoundness appear in
any part of the Athenian people, then we are able to gain the victory
in the fight, if the gods grant equal conditions. These things then
all belong to thee and depend on thee; for if thou attach thyself to
my opinions, thou hast both a fatherland which is free and a native
city which shall be the first among the cities of Hellas; but if thou
choose the opinion of those who are earnest against fighting, thou
shalt have the opposite of those good things of which I told thee."
110. Thus speaking Miltiades gained Callimachos to his side; and the
opinion of the polemarch being added, it was thus determined to fight
a battle. After this, those generals whose opinion was in favour of
fighting, as the turn of each one of them to command for the day[100]
came round, gave over their command to Miltiades; and he, accepting
it, would not however yet bring about a battle, until his own turn to
command had come. 111. And when it came round to him, then the
Athenians were drawn up for battle in the order which here follows:--
On the right wing the polemarch Callimachos was leader (for the custom
of the Athenians then was this, that the polemarch should have the
right wing); and he leading, next after him came the tribes in order
as they were numbered one after another, and last were drawn up the
Plataians occupying the left wing: for[101] ever since this battle,
when the Athenians offer sacrifices in the solemn assemblies[102]
which are made at the four-yearly festivals,[103] the herald of the
Athenians prays thus, "that blessings[104] may come to the Athenians
and to the Plataians both." On this occasion however, when the
Athenians were being drawn up at Marathon something of this kind was
done:--their army being made equal in length of front to that of the
Medes, came to drawn up in the middle with a depth of but few ranks,
and here their army was weakest, while each wing was strengthened with
numbers. 112. And when they had been arranged in their places and the
sacrifices proved favourable, then the Athenians were let go, and they
set forth at a run to attack the Barbarians. Now the space between the
armies was not less than eight furlongs:[105] and the Persians seeing
them advancing to the attack at a run, made preparations to receive
them; and in their minds they charged the Athenians with madness which
must be fatal, seeing that they were few and yet were pressing
forwards at a run, having neither cavalry nor archers.[106] Such was
the thought of the Barbarians; but the Athenians when all in a body
they had joined in combat with the Barbarians, fought in a memorable
fashion: for they were the first of all the Hellenes about whom we
know who went to attack the enemy at a run, and they were the first
also who endured to face the Median garments and the men who wore
them, whereas up to this time the very name of the Medes was to the
Hellenes a terror to hear. 113. Now while they fought in Marathon,
much time passed by; and in the centre of the army, where the Persians
themselves and the Sacans were drawn up, the Barbarians were winning,
--here, I say, the Barbarians had broken the ranks of their opponents
and were pursuing them inland, but on both wings the Athenians and the
Plataians severally were winning the victory; and being victorious
they left that part of the Barbarians which had been routed to fly
without molestation, and bringing together the two wings they fought
with those who had broken their centre, and the Athenians were
victorious. So they followed after the Persians as they fled,
slaughtering them, until they came to the sea; and then they called
for fire and began to take hold of the ships. 114. In this part of the
work was slain the polemarch Callimachos after having proved himself a
good man, and also one of the generals, Stesilaos the son of
Thrasylaos, was killed; and besides this Kynegeiros the son of
Euphorion while taking hold[107] there of the ornament at the stern of
a ship had his hand cut off with an axe and fell; and many others also
of the Athenians who were men of note were killed. 115. Seven of the
ships the Athenians got possession of in this manner, but with the
rest the Barbarians pushed off from land, and after taking the
captives from Eretria off the island where they had left them, they
sailed round Sunion, purposing to arrive at the city before the
Athenians. And an accusation became current among the Athenians to the
effect that they formed this design by contrivance of the
Alcmaionidai; for these, it was said, having concerted matters with
the Persians, displayed to them a shield when they had now embarked in
their ships. 116. These then, I say, were sailing round Sunion; and
meanwhile the Athenians came to the rescue back to the city as
speedily as they could, and they arrived there before the Barbarians
came; and having arrived from the temple of Heracles at Marathon they
encamped at another temple of Heracles, namely that which is in
Kynosarges. The Barbarians however came and lay with their ships in
the sea which is off Phaleron, (for this was then the seaport of the
Athenians), they anchored their ships, I say, off this place, and then
proceeded to sail back to Asia.

117. In this fight at Marathon there were slain of the Barbarians
about six thousand four hundred men, and of the Athenians a hundred
and ninety and two. Such was the number which fell on both sides; and
it happened also that a marvel occurred there of this kind:--an
Athenian, Epizelos the son of Cuphagoras, while fighting in the close
combat and proving himself a good man, was deprived of the sight of
his eyes, neither having received a blow in any part of his body nor
having been hit with a missile, and for the rest of his life from this
time he continued to be blind: and I was informed that he used to tell
about that which had happened to him a tale of this kind, namely that
it seemed to him that a tall man in full armour stood against him,
whose beard overshadowed his whole shield; and this apparition passed
him by, but killed his comrade who stood next to him. Thus, as I was
informed, Epizelos told the tale.

118. Datis, however, as he was going with his army to Asia, when he
had come to Myconos saw a vision in his sleep; and of what nature the
vision was it is not reported, but as soon as day dawned he caused a
search to be made of the ships, and finding in a Phenician ship an
image of Apollo overlaid with gold, he inquired from whence it had
been carried off. Then having been informed from what temple it came,
he sailed in his own ship to Delos: and finding that the Delians had
returned then to the island, he deposited the image in the temple and
charged the men of Delos to convey it back to Delion in the territory
of the Thebans, which is situated by the sea-coast just opposite
Chalkis. Datis having given this charge sailed away: the Delians
however did not convey the statue back, but after an interval of
twenty years the Thebans themselves brought it to Delion by reason of
an oracle. 119. Now as to those Eretrians who had been reduced to
slavery, Datis and Artaphrenes, when they reached Asia in their
voyage, brought them up to Susa; and king Dareios, though he had great
anger against the Eretrians before they were made captive, because the
Eretrians had done wrong to him unprovoked, yet when he saw that they
had been brought up to him and were in his power, he did them no more
evil, but established them as settlers in the Kissian land upon one of
his own domains, of which the name is Ardericca: and this is distant
two hundred and ten furlongs from Susa and forty from the well which
produces things of three different kinds; for they draw from it
asphalt, salt and oil, in the manner which here follows:--the liquid
is drawn with a swipe, to which there is fastened half a skin instead
of a bucket, and a man strikes this down into it and draws up, and
then pours it into a cistern, from which it runs through into another
vessel, taking three separate ways. The asphalt and the salt become
solid at once, and the oil[108] which is called by the Persians
/rhadinake/, is black and gives out a disagreeable smell. Here king
Dareios established the Eretrians as settlers; and even to my time
they continued to occupy this land, keeping still their former
language. Thus it happened with regard to the Eretrians.

120. Of the Lacedemonians there came to Athens two thousand after the
full moon, making great haste to be in time, so that they arrived in
Attica on the third day after leaving Sparta: and though they had come
too late for the battle, yet they desired to behold the Medes; and
accordingly they went out to Marathon and looked at the bodies of the
slain: then afterwards they departed home, commending the Athenians
and the work which they had done.

121. Now it is a cause of wonder to me, and I do not accept the
report, that the Alcmaionidai could ever have displayed to the
Persians a shield by a previous understanding, with the desire that
the Athenians should be under the Barbarians and under Hippias; seeing
that they are evidently proved to have been haters of despots as much
or more than Callias the son of Phainippos and father of Hipponicos,
while Callias for his part was the only man of all the Athenians who
dared, when Peisistratos was driven out of Athens, to buy his goods
offered for sale by the State, and in other ways also he contrived
against him everything that was most hostile: [122. Of this Callias it
is fitting that every one should have remembrance for many reasons:
first because of that which has been before said, namely that he was a
man of excellence in freeing his country; and then also for that which
he did at the Olympic games, wherein he gained a victory in the horse-
race and was second in the chariot-race, and he had before this been a
victor at the Pythian games, so that he was distinguished in the sight
of all Hellenes by the sums which he expended; and finally because he
showed himself a man of such liberality towards his daughters, who
were three in number; for when they came to be of ripe age for
marriage, he gave them a most magnificent dowry and also indulged
their inclinations; for whomsoever of all the Athenians each one of
them desired to choose as a husband for herself, to that man he gave
her.][109] 123, and similarly,[110] the Alcmaionidai were haters of
despots equally or more[111] than he. Therefore this is a cause of
wonder to me, and I do not admit the accusation that these they were
who displayed the shield; seeing that they were in exile from the
despots during their whole time, and that by their contrivance the
sons of Peisistratos gave up their rule. Thus it follows that they
were the men who set Athens free much more than Harmodios and
Aristogeiton, as I judge: for these my slaying Hipparchos exasperated
the rest of the family of Peisistratos, and did not at all cause the
others to cease from their despotism; but the Alcmaionidai did
evidently set Athens free, at least if these were in truth the men who
persuaded the Pythian prophetess to signify to the Lacedemonians that
they should set Athens free, as I have set forth before. 124. It may
be said however that they had some cause of complaint against the
people of the Athenians, and therefore endeavoured to betray their
native city. But on the contrary there were no men in greater repute
than they, among the Athenians at least, nor who had been more highly
honoured. Thus it is not reasonable to suppose that by them a shield
should have been displayed for any such purpose. A shield was
displayed, however; that cannot be denied, for it was done: but as to
who it was who displayed it, I am not able to say more than this.

125. Now the family of Alcmaionidai was distinguished in Athens in the
earliest times also, and from the time of Alcmaion and of Megacles
after him they became very greatly distinguished. For first Alcmaion
the son of Megacles showed himself a helper of the Lydians from Sardis
who came from Crœsus to the Oracle at Delphi, and assisted them with
zeal; and Crœsus having heard from the Lydians who went to the Oracle
that this man did him service, sent for him to Sardis; and when he
came, he offered to give him a gift of as much gold as he could carry
away at once upon his own person. With a view to this gift, its nature
being such, Alcmaion made preparations and used appliances as follows:
--he put on a large tunic leaving a deep fold in the tunic to hang
down in front, and he draw on his feet the widest boots which he could
find, and so went to the treasury to which they conducted him. Then he
fell upon a heap of gold-dust, and first he packed in by the side of
his legs so much of the gold as his boots would contain, and then he
filled the whole fold of the tunic with the gold and sprinkled some of
the gold dust on the hair of his head and took some into his mouth,
and having so done he came forth out of the treasury, with difficulty
dragging along his boots and resembling anything in the world rather
than a man; for his mouth was stuffed full, and every part of him was
swelled out: and upon Crœsus came laughter when he saw him, and he not
only gave him all that, but also presented him in addition with more
not inferior in value to that. Thus this house became exceedingly
wealthy, and thus the Alcmaion of whom I speak became a breeder of
chariot-horses and won a victory at Olympia. 126. Then in the next
generation after this, Cleisthenes the despot of Sikyon exalted the
family, so that it became of much more note among the Hellenes than it
had been formerly. For Cleisthenes the son of Arisonymos, the son of
Myron, the son of Andreas, had a daughter whose name was Agariste; and
as to her he formed a desire to find out the best man of all the
Hellenes and to assign her to him in marriage. So when the Olympic
games were being held and Cleisthenes was victor in them with a four-
horse chariot, he caused a proclamation to be made, that whosoever of
the Hellenes thought himself worthy to be the son-in-law of
Cleisthenes should come on the sixtieth day, or before that if he
would, to Sikyon; for Cleisthenes intended to conclude the marriage
within a year, reckoning from the sixtieth day. Then all those of the
Hellenes who had pride either in themselves or in their high
descent,[112] came as wooers, and for them Cleisthenes had a running-
course and a wrestling-place made and kept them expressly for their
use. 127. From Italy came Smindyrides the son of Hippocrates of
Sybaris, who of all men on earth reached the highest point of luxury
(now Sybaris at this time was in the height of its prosperity), and
Damasos of Siris, the son of that Amyris who was called the Wise;
these came from Italy: from the Ionian gulf came Amphimnestos the son
of Epistrophos of Epidamnos, this man from the Ionian gulf: from
Aitolia came Males, the brother of that Titormos who surpassed all the
Hellenes in strength and who fled from the presence of men to the
furthest extremities of the Aitolian land: from Peloponnesus, Leokedes
the son of Pheidon the despot of the Argives, that Pheidon who
established for the Peloponnesians the measures which they use, and
who went beyond all other Hellenes in wanton insolence, since he
removed from their place the presidents of the games appointed by the
Eleians and himself presided over the games at Olympia,--his son, I
say, and Amiantos the son of Lycurgos an Arcadian from Trapezus, and
Laphanes an Azanian from the city of Paios, son of that Euphorion who
(according to the story told in Arcadia) received the Dioscuroi as
guests in his house and from thenceforth was wont to entertain all men
who came, and Onomastos the son of Agaios of Elis; these, I say, came
from Peloponnesus itself: from Athens came Megacles the son of that
Alcmaion who went to Crœsus, and besides him Hippocleides the son of
Tisander, one who surpassed the other Athenians in wealth and in
comeliness of form: from Eretria, which at that time was flourishing,
came Lysanias, he alone from Eubœa: from Thessalia came Diactorides of
Crannon, one of the family of the Scopadai: and from the Molossians,
Alcon. 128. So many in number did the wooers prove to be: and when
these had come by the appointed day, Cleisthenes first inquired of
their native countries and of the descent of each one, and then
keeping them for a year he made trial continually both of their manly
virtue and of their disposition, training and temper, associating both
with each one separately and with the whole number together: and he
made trial of them both by bringing out to bodily exercises those of
them who were younger, and also especially in the common feast: for
during all the time that he kept them he did everything that could be
done, and at the same time he entertained them magnificently. Now it
chanced that those of the wooers pleased him most who had come from
Athens, and of these Hippocleides the son of Tisander was rather
preferred, both by reason of manly virtues and also because he was
connected by descent with the family of Kypselos at Corinth. 129. Then
when the appointed day came for the marriage banquet and for
Cleisthenes himself to declare whom he selected from the whole number,
Cleisthenes sacrificed a hundred oxen and feasted both the wooers
themselves and all the people of Sikyon; and when the dinner was over,
the wooers began to vie with one another both in music and in speeches
for the entertainment of the company;[113] and as the drinking went
forward and Hippocleides was very much holding the attention of the
others,[114] he bade the flute-player play for him a dance-measure;
and when the flute-player did so, he danced: and it so befell that he
pleased himself in his dancing, but Cleisthenes looked on at the whole
matter with suspicion. Then Hippocleides after a certain time bade one
bring in a table; and when the table came in, first he danced upon it
Laconian figures, and then also Attic, and thirdly he planted his head
upon the table and gesticulated with his legs. Cleisthenes meanwhile,
when he was dancing the first and the second time, though he abhorred
the thought that Hippocleides should now become his son-in-law,
because of his dancing and his shamelessness, yet restrained himself,
not desiring to break out in anger against him; but when he saw that
he thus gesticulated with his legs, he was no longer able to restrain
himself, but said: "Thou hast danced away thy marriage however,[115]
son of Tisander!" and Hippocleides answered and said: "Hippocleides
cares not!" 130, and hence comes this saying. Then Cleisthenes caused
silence to be made, and spoke to the company as follows: "Men who are
wooers of my daughter, I commend you all, and if it were possible I
would gratify you all, neither selecting one of you to be preferred,
nor rejecting the remainder. Since however it is not possible, as I am
deliberating about one maiden only, to act so as to please all,
therefore to those of you who are rejected from this marriage I give
as a gift a talent of silver to each one for the worthy estimation ye
had of me, in that ye desired to marry from my house, and for the time
of absence from your homes; and to the son of Alcmaion, Megacles, I
offer my daughter Agariste in betrothal according to the customs of
the Athenians." Thereupon Megacles said that he accepted the
betrothal, and so the marriage was determined by Cleisthenes.

131. Thus it happened as regards the judgment of the wooers, and thus
the Alcmaionidai got renown over all Hellas. And these having been
married, there was born to them that Cleisthenes who established the
tribes and the democracy for the Athenians, he being called after the
Sikyonian Cleisthenes, his mother's father; this son, I say, was born
to Megacles, and also Hippocrates: and of Hippocrates came another
Megacles and another Agariste, called after Agariste, the daughter of
Cleisthenes, who having been married to Xanthippos the son of Ariphron
and being with child, saw a vision in her sleep, and it seemed to her
that she had brought forth a lion: then after a few days she bore to
Xanthippos Pericles.

132. After the defeat at Marathon, Miltiades, who even before was well
reputed with the Athenians, came then to be in much higher estimation:
and when he asked the Athenians for seventy ships and an army with
supplies of money, not declaring to them against what land he was
intending to make an expedition, but saying that he would enrich them
greatly if they would go with him, for he would lead them to a land of
such a kind that they would easily get from it gold in abundance,--
thus saying he asked for the ships; and the Athenians, elated by these
words, delivered them over to him. 133. Then Miltiades, when he had
received the army, proceeded to sail to Paris with the pretence that
the Parians had first attacked Athens by making expedition with
triremes to Marathon in company with the Persian: this was the pretext
which he put forward, but he had also a grudge against the Parians on
account of Lysagoras the son of Tisias, who was by race of Paros, for
having accused him to Hydarnes the Persian. So when Miltiades had
arrived at the place to which he was sailing, he began to besiege the
Parians with his army, first having shut them up within their wall;
and sending in to them a herald he asked for a hundred talents, saying
that if they refused to give them, his army should not return
back[116] until it had conquered them completely. The Parians however
had no design of giving any money to Miltiades, but contrived only how
they might defend their city, devising various things besides and also
this,--wherever at any time the wall proved to be open to attack, that
point was raised when night came on to double its former height. 134.
So much of the story is reported by all the Hellenes, but as to what
followed the Parians alone report, and they say that it happened thus:
--When Miltiades was at a loss, it is said, there came a woman to
speech with him, who had been taken prisoner, a Parian by race whose
name was Timo, an under-priestess[117] of the Earth goddesses;[118]
she, they say, came into the presence of Miltiades and counselled him
that if he considered it a matter of much moment to conquer Paros, he
could do that which she should suggest to him; and upon that she told
him her meaning. He accordingly passed through to the hill which is
before the city and leapt over the fence of the temple of Demeter
Giver of Laws,[119] not being able to open the door; and then having
leapt over he went on towards the sanctuary[120] with the design of
doing something within, whether it were that he meant to lay hands on
some of the things which should not be touched, or whatever else he
intended to do; and when he had reached the door, forthwith a
shuddering fear came over him and he set off to go back the same way
as he came, and as he leapt down from the wall of rough stones his
thigh was dislocated, or, as others say, he struck his knee against
the wall. 135. Miltiades accordingly, being in a wretched case, set
forth to sail homewards, neither bringing wealth to the Athenians nor
having added to them the possession of Paros, but having besieged the
city for six-and-twenty days and laid waste the island: and the
Parians being informed that Timo the under-priestess of the goddesses
had acted as a guide to Miltiades, desired to take vengeance upon her
for this, and they sent messengers to Delphi to consult the god, so
soon as they had leisure from the siege; and these messengers they
sent to ask whether they should put to death the under-priestess of
the goddesses, who had been a guide to their enemies for the capture
of her native city and had revealed to Miltiades the mysteries which
might not be uttered to a male person. The Pythian prophetess however
forbade them, saying that Timo was not the true author of these
things, but since it was destined that Miltiades should end his life
not well, she had appeared to guide him to his evil fate. 136. Thus
the Pythian prophetess replied to the Parians: and the Athenians, when
Miltiades had returned back from Paros, began to talk of him, and
among the rest especially Xanthippos the son of Ariphron, who brought
Miltiades up before the people claiming the penalty of death and
prosecuted him for his deception of the Athenians: and Miltiades did
not himself make his own defence, although he was present, for he was
unable to do so because his thigh was mortifying; but he lay in public
view upon a bed, while his friends made a defence for him, making
mention much both of the battle which had been fought at Marathon and
of the conquest of Lemnos, namely how he had conquered Lemnos and
taken vengeance on the Pelasgians, and had delivered it over to the
Athenians: and the people came over to his part as regards the
acquittal from the penalty of death, but they imposed a fine of fifty
talents for the wrong committed: and after this Miltiades died, his
thigh having gangrened and mortified, and the fifty talents were paid
by his son Kimon.

137. Now Miltiades son of Kimon had thus taken possession of the
Lemnos:--After the Pelasgians had been cast out of Attica by the
Athenians, whether justly or unjustly,--for about this I cannot tell
except the things reported, which are these:--Hecataois on the one
hand, the son of Hegesander, said in his history that it was done
unjustly; for he said that when the Athenians saw the land which
extends below Hymettos, which they had themselves given them[121] to
dwell in, as payment for the wall built round the Acropolis in former
times, when the Athenians, I say, saw that this land was made good by
cultivation, which before was bad and worthless, they were seized with
jealousy and with longing to possess the land, and so drove them out,
not alleging any other pretext: but according to the report of the
Athenians themselves they drove them out justly; for the Pelasgians
being settled under Hymettos made this a starting-point and committed
wrong against them as follows:--the daughters and sons of the
Athenians were wont ever to go for water to the spring of Enneacrunos;
for at that time neither they nor the other Hellenes as yet had
household servants; and when these girls came, the Pelasgians in
wantonness and contempt of the Athenians would offer them violence;
and it was not enough for them even to do this, but at last they were
found in the act of plotting an attack upon the city: and the
narrators say that they herein proved themselves better men than the
Pelasgians, inasmuch as when they might have slain the Pelasgians, who
had been caught plotting against them, they did not choose to do so,
but ordered them merely to depart out of the land: and thus having
departed out of the land, the Pelasgians took possession of several
older places and especially of Lemnos. The former story is that which
was reported by Hecataios, while the latter is that which is told by
the Athenians. 138. These Pelasgians then, dwelling after that in
Lemnos, desired to take vengeance on the Athenians; and having full
knowledge also of the festivals of the Athenians, they got[122] fifty-
oared galleys and laid wait for the women of the Athenians when they
were keeping festival to Artemis in Brauron; and having carried off a
number of them from thence, they departed and sailed away home, and
taking the women to Lemnos they kept them as concubines. Now when
these women had children gradually more and more, they made it their
practice to teach their sons both the Attic tongue and the manners of
the Athenians. And these were not willing to associate with the sons
of the Pelasgian women, and moreover if any of them were struck by any
one of those, they all in a body came to the rescue and helped one
another. Moreover the boys claimed to have authority over the other
boys and got the better of them easily. Perceiving these things the
Pelasgians considered the matter; and when they took counsel together,
a fear came over them and they thought, if the boys were indeed
resolved now to help one another against the sons of the legitimate
wives, and were endeavouring already from the first to have authority
over them, what would they do when they were grown up to be men? Then
they determined to put to death the sons of the Athenian women, and
this they actually did; and in addition to them they slew their
mothers also. From this deed and from that which was done before this,
which the women did when they killed Thoas and the rest, who were
their own husbands, it has become a custom in Hellas that all deeds of
great cruelty should be called "Lemnian deeds." 139. After the
Pelasgians had killed their own sons and wives, the earth did not bear
fruit for them, nor did their women or their cattle bring forth young
as they did before; and being hard pressed by famine and by
childlessness, they sent to Delphi to ask for a release from the evils
which were upon them; and the Pythian prophetess bade them pay such
penalty to the Athenians as the Athenians themselves should appoint.
The Pelasgians came accordingly to Athens and professed that they were
willing to pay the penalty for all the wrong which they had done: and
the Athenians laid a couch in the fairest possible manner in the City
Hall, and having set by it a table covered with all good things, they
bade the Pelasgians deliver up to them their land in that condition.
Then the Pelasgians answered and said: "When with a North Wind in one
single day a ship shall accomplish the voyage from your land to ours,
then we will deliver it up," feeling assured that it was impossible
for this to happen, since Attica lies far away to the South of Lemnos.
140. Such were the events which happened then: and very many years
later, after the Chersonese which is by the Hellespont had come to be
under the Athenians, Miltiades the son of Kimon, when the Etesian
Winds blew steadily, accomplished the voyage in a ship from Elaius in
the Chersonese to Lemnos, and proclaimed to the Pelasgians that they
should depart out of the island, reminding them of the oracle, which
the Pelasgians had never expected would be accomplished for them. The
men of Hephaistia accordingly obeyed; but those of Myrina, not
admitting that the Chersonese was Attica, suffered a siege, until at
last these also submitted. Thus it was that the Athenians and
Miltiades took possession of Lemnos.


1.  {proboulous}.

2.  See i. 148.

3.  {epi keras}.

4.  {diekploon poieumenos tesi neusi di alleleon}.

5.  {tou Dareiou}: a conjecture based upon Valla's translation. The
    MSS. have {ton Dareion}.

6.  {prophasios epilabomenoi}.

6a. {en stele anagraphenai patrothen}.

7.  "were very roughly handled."

8.  {epibateuontas}.

8a. {nuktos te gar}: so Stein for {nuktos te}.

9.  {kat akres}, lit. "from the top downwards," i.e. town and citadel both.

10. See ch. 77.

11. See i. 92 and v. 36.

11a. {Kalen akten}.

12. Possibly the reading should be {Inuka}, "Inyx."

13. {ton en te naumakhie}: perhaps we should read {ten en te
    naumakhin}, "which took place in the sea-fight."

14. {en Koiloisi kaleomenoisi}.

15. {grammata didaskomenoisi}.

16. {limainouses}: a conjectural reading for {deimainouses}.

17. Lit. "and it became in fact the work of the cavalry."

18. {esagenouon}.

19. Or (according to some good MSS.) "Thelymbria."

20. Cp. iii. 120.

21. {stadioi}: the distances here mentioned are equal to a little more
    than four and a little less than fifty miles respectively.

22. {en gnome gegonos}.

23. {pituos tropon}: the old name of the town was Pityussa.

24. That is to say, Kimon was his half-brother, and Stesagoras and the
    younger Miltiades his nephews.

25. See ch. 103.

26. {delade}.

27. {eleluthee}, but the meaning must be this, and it is explained by
    the clause, {trito men gar etei k.t.l.}

28. {stadia}: see v. 52, note 40.

29. See iii. 80.

30. {entos Makedonon}, "on their side of the Macedonians."

30a. Or (according to some MSS.) "about three hundred."

31. Or "Scaptesyle." (The Medicean MS. however has {skaptes ules}, not
    {skaptesules}, as reported by Stein.)

32. {ta proiskheto aiteon}, "that which he put forward demanding it."

33. i.e. "ram."

34. {ton geraiteron}.

35. {en to demosio}.

36. This is commonly understood to mean, leaving out of account the
    god who was father of Perseus; but the reason for stopping short
    at Perseus is given afterwards, and the expression {tou theou
    apeontos} refers perhaps rather to the case of Heracles, the
    legend of whose birth is rejected by Herodotus (see ii. 43), and
    rejected also by this genealogy, which passes through Amphitryon
    up to Perseus. I take it that {tou theou apeontos} means
    "reckoning Heracles" (who is mentioned by name just below in this
    connexion) "as the son of Amphitryon and not of Zeus."

37. i.e. "of heaven."

38. {medimnon}, the Lacedemonian {medimnos} being equal to rather more
    than two bushels.

39. {tetarten Lakomiken}, quantity uncertain.

40. {proxeinous}.

41. {khoinikas}. There were 48 {khoinikes} in the {medimnos}.

42. {kotulen}.

42a. The loose manner in which this is expressed, leaving it uncertain
    whether each king was supposed by the writer to have two votes
    given for him (cp. Thuc. i. 20), or whether the double vote was
    one for each king, must of course be reproduced in the

43. {perioikon}.

44. See ch. 51.

45. {proergazomenon}: a conjectural emendation of {prosergazomenon}.

46. {tes apates te paragoge}, "by the misleading of the deception."

47. i.e. lunar months.

48. {en thoko katemeno}.

49. {pandemei}.

50. {aren}.

51. i.e. "prayed for by the people."

52. {di a}: a conjectural emendation of {dia ta}. Some Editors suppose
    that other words have dropped out.

53. {promantin}: cp. vii. III.

54. {ton splagkhnon}.

55. {tou erkeiou}.

56. {ton mataioteron logon legontes}.

57. Lit. "on the third night after the first," but the meaning is as

58. Most of the MSS. have "Astrobacos," which may be right.

59. Or "to the honour of the Lacedemonians."

60. i.e. any more than his predecessor.

61. See ch. 50.

62. {neotera epresse pregmata}.

63. {up Arkadon}: several good MSS. have {ton Arkadon}, which is
    adopted by some Editors. The meaning would be "near this city it
    is said that there is the Styx water of the Arcadians."

64. {upomargoteron}.

65. Demeter and Core.

66. The MSS. give also "Sepeia" and "Sipeia." The place is not
    elsewhere mentioned.

67. See ch. 19.

68. {duo mneai}: cp. v. 77.

69. {o theos}, i.e. Hera: cp. i. 105.

70. {kalliereumeno}.

71. {kat akres}: cp. ch. 18.

72. i.e. was acquitted of the charge brought against him.

73. {episkuthison}.

74. {bouleuesthe}: some MSS. and editions have {boulesthe},

75. {en khrono ikneumeno}.

76. i.e. take an oath to that effect.

77. See v. 80.

78. {penteteris}. The reading {penteres}, which is given by most of
    the MSS. and by several Editors, can hardly be defended.

79. {kai en gar}, "and since there was."

80. {Knoithou kaleomenos}: cp. vii. 143.

81. {thesmophorou}.

82. {pentaethlon epaskesas}.

83. {mounomakhien epaskeon}, "practising single combat," as if
    training for the games.

84. {para te Ikarion}: the use of {para} and the absence of the
    article may justify the conjecture {para te Ikarion} (or {Ikaron})
    "by Icaria" (or "Icaros"), the island from which the Icarian Sea
    had its name.

85. This perhaps should be emended, for the event referred to occurred
    two years before, cp. ch. 46 and 48. The reading {trito proteron
    etei} has been proposed.

86. See v. 33 ff.

86a. i.e. Apollo: or perhaps more generally, "God," as in ch. 27.

87. This in brackets is probably an interpolation. It is omitted by
    some of the best MSS. Some Editors suspect the genuineness of the
    next four lines also, on internal grounds.

88. {erxies}, perhaps meaning "worker."

89. {areios}.

90. {megas areios}.

91. {ippoboteon}, lit. "horse-breeding": see v. 77.

91a. Or (according to some MSS.), "having come to shore at these

92. {katergontes}: the word is not elsewhere found intransitive, yet
    it is rather difficult to supply {tous Athenaious}. Some
    alterations have been proposed, but none probable.

93. Lit. "and it happened that in winning this victory he won the same
    victory as his half-brother Miltiades." See ch. 36.

94. Or, according to some authorities, "Philippides."

95. Lit. "except the circle were full."

96. Or "Aigileia."

97. Lit. "by violence, having coughed."

98. "by the bean."

99. {es se toi}, a conjectural emendation of {es se ti}.

100. {prutaneie tes emeres}.

101. Some Editors propose to omit {gar} or alter it. If it be allowed
    to stand, the meaning must be that the importance of the place is
    testified by the commemoration mentioned.

102. {es tas panegurias}, some MSS. have {kai panegurias}, "hold
    sacrifices and solemn assemblies."

103. {penteterisi}.

104. Lit. "the good things."

105. {stadioi}: the distance would be rather over 1600 yards.

106. Whether this is thrown in here by the historian as an explanation
    of the rapid advance, or as an additional source of wonder on the
    part of the Persians at the boldness of the Athenians, is not

107. Or (according to some MSS.) "having taken hold."

108. The account of how the oil was dealt with has perhaps dropt out:
    one MS. and the Aldine edition have "the oil they collect in
    vessels, and this," etc.

109. This chapter is omitted by several of the best MSS., and is
    almost certainly an interpolation. (In the Medicean MS. it has
    been added in the margin by a later hand.)

110. Answering to "Callias for his part" at the end of ch. 121, the
    connexion being broken by the interpolated passage.

111. {ouden esson}.

112. {patre}, "family," or possibly "country," as in ch. 128.

113. {to legomeno es to meson}: perhaps only "general conversation."

114. {katekhon pollon tous allous}.

115. i.e. "though the dancing may be good."

116. {aponostesein}: some MSS. have {apanastesein}, "he would not take
    away his army thence."

117. {upozakoron}.

118. {ton khthonion theon}, i.e. Demeter and Persephone: cp. vii. 153.

119. {thesmophorou}.

120. {to megaron}.

121. {sphi autoi}: a conjectural rendering of {sphisi autoisi}, which
    can only be taken with {eousan}, meaning "belonging to them" i.e.
    the Athenians, and involves the insertion of {Pelasgoisi} or
    something equivalent with {edosan}.

122. {ktesamenoi}: some MSS. and editions have {stesamenoi}, "set
    fifty-oared galleys in place."



1. Now when the report came to Dareios the son of Hystaspes of the
battle which was fought at Marathon, the king, who even before this
had been greatly exasperated with the Athenians on account of the
attack made upon Sardis, then far more than before displayed
indignation, and was far more desirous of making a march against
Hellas. Accordingly at once he sent messengers to the various cities
and ordered that they should get ready a force, appointing to each
people to supply much more than at the former time, and not only ships
of war, but also horses and provisions and transport vessels;[1] and
when these commands were carried round, all Asia was moved for three
years, for all the best men were being enlisted for the expedition
against Hellas, and were making preparations. In the fourth year
however the Egyptians, who had been reduced to subjection by Cambyses,
revolted from the Persians; and then he was even more desirous of
marching against both these nations.

2. While Dareios was thus preparing to set out against Egypt and
against Athens, there arose a great strife among his sons about the
supreme power; and they said that he must not make his expeditions
until he had designated one of them to be king, according to the
custom of the Persians. For to Dareios already before he became king
three sons had been born of his former wife the daughter of Gobryas,
and after he became king four other sons of Atossa the daughter of
Cyrus: of the first the eldest was Artobazanes, and of those who had
been born later, Xerxes. These being not of the same mother were at
strife with one another, Artobazanes contending that he was the eldest
of all the sons, and that it was a custom maintained by all men that
the eldest should have the rule, and Xerxes arguing that he was the
son of Atossa the daughter of Cyrus, and that Cyrus was he who had won
for the Persians their freedom. 3. Now while Dareios did not as yet
declare his judgment, it chanced that Demaratos also, the son of
Ariston, had come up to Susa at this very same time, having been
deprived of the kingdom in Sparta and having laid upon himself a
sentence of exile from Lacedemon. This man, hearing of the difference
between the sons of Dareios, came (as it is reported of him) and
counselled Xerxes to say in addition to those things which he was wont
to say, that he had been born to Dareios at the time when he was
already reigning as king and was holding the supreme power over the
Persians, while Artobazanes had been born while Dareios was still in a
private station: it was not fitting therefore nor just that another
should have the honour before him; for even in Sparta, suggested
Demaratos, this was the custom, that is to say, if some of the sons
had been born first, before their father began to reign, and another
came after, born later while he was reigning, the succession of the
kingdom belonged to him who had been born later. Xerxes accordingly
made use of the suggestion of Demaratos; and Dareios perceiving that
he spoke that which was just, designated him to be king. It is my
opinion however that even without this suggestion Xerxes would have
become king, for Atossa was all-powerful. 4. Then having designated
Xerxes to the Persians as their king, Dareios wished to go on his
expeditions. However in the next year after this and after the revolt
of Egypt, it came to pass that Dareios himself died, having been king
in all six-and-thirty years; and thus he did not succeed in taking
vengeance either upon the revolted Egyptians or upon the Athenians.

5. Dareios being dead the kingdom passed to his son Xerxes. Now Xerxes
at the first was by no means anxious to make a march against Hellas,
but against Egypt he continued to gather a force. Mardonios however,
the son of Gobryas, who was a cousin of Xerxes, being sister's son to
Dareios, was ever at his side, and having power with him more than any
other of the Persians, he kept continually to such discourse as this
which follows, saying: "Master, it is not fitting that the Athenians,
after having done to the Persians very great evil, should not pay the
penalty for that which they have done. What if thou shouldest[2] at
this present time do that which thou hast in thy hands to do; and when
thou hast tamed the land of Egypt, which has broken out insolently
against us, then do thou march an army against Athens, that a good
report may be made of thee by men, and that in future every one may
beware of making expeditions against thy land." Thus far his speech
had to do with vengeance,[3] and to this he would make addition as
follows, saying that Europe was a very fair land and bore all kinds of
trees that are cultivated for fruit, and was of excellent fertility,
and such that the king alone of all mortals was worthy to possess it.
6. These things he was wont to say, since he was one who had a desire
for perilous enterprise and wished to be himself the governor of
Hellas under the king. So in time he prevailed upon Xerxes and
persuaded him to do this; for other things also assisted him and
proved helpful to him in persuading Xerxes. In the first place there
had come from Thessaly messengers sent by the Aleuadai, who were
inviting the king to come against Hellas and were showing great zeal
in his cause, (now these Aleuadai were kings of Thessaly): and then
secondly those of the sons of Peisistratos who had come up to Susa
were inviting him also, holding to the same arguments as the Aleuadai;
and moreover they offered him yet more inducement in addition to
these; for there was one Onomacritos an Athenian, who both uttered
oracles and also had collected and arranged the oracles of Musaios;[4]
and with this man they had come up, after they had first reconciled
the enmity between them. For Onomacritos had been driven forth from
Athens by Hipparchos the son of Peisistratos, having been caught by
Lasos of Hermion interpolating in the works of Musaios an oracle to
the effect that the islands which lie off Lemnos should disappear[5]
under the sea. For this reason Hipparchos drove him forth, having
before this time been very much wont to consult him. Now however he
had gone up with them; and when he had come into the presence of the
king, the sons of Peisistratos spoke of him in magnificent terms, and
he repeated some of the oracles; and if there was in them anything
which imported disaster to the Barbarians, of this he said nothing;
but choosing out of them the most fortunate things he told how it was
destined that the Hellespont should be yoked with a bridge by a
Persian, and he set forth the manner of the march. He then thus urged
Xerxes with oracles, while the sons of Peisistratos and the Aleuadai
pressed him with their advice.

7. So when Xerxes had been persuaded to make an expedition against
Hellas, then in the next year after the death of Dareios he made a
march first against those who had revolted. Having subdued these and
having reduced all Egypt to slavery much greater than it had suffered
in the reign of Dareios, he entrusted the government of it to
Achaimenes his own brother, a son of Dareios. Now this Achaimenes
being a governor of Egypt was slain afterwards by Inaros the son of
Psammetichos, a Libyan. 8. Xerxes then after the conquest of Egypt,
being about to take in hand the expedition against Athens, summoned a
chosen assembly of the best men among the Persians, that he might both
learn their opinions and himself in the presence of all declare that
which he intended to do; and when they were assembled, Xerxes spoke to
them as follows: (a) "Persians, I shall not be the first to establish
this custom in your nation, but having received it from others I shall
follow it: for as I am informed by those who are older than myself, we
never yet have kept quiet since we received this supremacy in
succession to the Medes, when Cyrus overthrew Astyages; but God thus
leads us, and for ourselves tends to good that we are busied about
many things. Now about the nations which Cyrus and Cambyses and my
father Dareios subdued and added to their possessions there is no need
for me to speak, since ye know well: and as for me, from the day when
I received by inheritance this throne upon which I sit[6] I carefully
considered always how in this honourable place I might not fall short
of those who have been before me, nor add less power to the dominion
of the Persians: and thus carefully considering I find a way by which
not only glory may be won by us, together with a land not less in
extent nor worse than that which we now possess, (and indeed more
varied in its productions), but also vengeance and retribution may be
brought about. Wherefore I have assembled you together now, in order
that I may communicate to you that which I have it in my mind to do.
(b) I design to yoke the Hellespont with a bridge, and to march an
army through Europe against Hellas, in order that I may take vengeance
on the Athenians for all the things which they have done both to the
Persians and to my father. Ye saw how my father Dareios also was
purposing to make an expedition against these men; but he has ended
his life and did not succeed in taking vengeance upon them. I however,
on behalf of him and also of the other Persians, will not cease until
I have conquered Athens and burnt it with fire; seeing that they did
wrong unprovoked to me and to my father. First they went to Sardis,
having come with Aristagoras the Milesian our slave, and they set fire
to the sacred groves and the temples; and then secondly, what things
they did to us when we disembarked in their land, at the time when
Datis and Artaphrenes were commanders of our army, ye all know well,
as I think.[7] (c) For these reasons[8] I have resolved to make an
expedition against them, and reckoning I find in the matter so many
good things as ye shall hear:--if we shall subdue these and the
neighbours of these, who dwell in the land of Pelops the Phrygian, we
shall cause the Persian land to have the same boundaries as the heaven
of Zeus; since in truth upon no land will the sun look down which
borders ours, but I with your help shall make all the lands into one
land, having passed through the whole extent of Europe. For I am
informed that things are so, namely that there is no city of men nor
any race of human beings remaining, which will be able to come to a
contest with us, when those whom I just now mentioned have been
removed out of the way. Thus both those who have committed wrong
against us will have the yoke of slavery, and also those who have not
committed wrong. (d) And ye will please me best if ye do this:--
whensoever I shall signify to you the time at which ye ought to come,
ye must appear every one of you with zeal for the service; and
whosoever shall come with a force best equipped, to him I will give
gifts such as are accounted in our land to be the most honourable.
Thus must these things be done: but that I may not seem to you to be
following my own counsel alone, I propose the matter for discussion,
bidding any one of you who desires it, declare his opinion."

Having thus spoken he ceased; 9, and after him Mardonios said:
"Master, thou dost surpass not only all the Persians who were before
thee, but also those who shall come after, since thou didst not only
attain in thy words to that which is best and truest as regards other
matters, but also thou wilt not permit the Ionians who dwell in Europe
to make a mock of us, having no just right to do so: for a strange
thing it would be if, when we have subdued and kept as our servants
Sacans, Indians, Ethiopians, Assyrians, and other nations many in
number and great, who have done no wrong to the Persians, because we
desired to add to our dominions, we should not take vengeance on the
Hellenes who committed wrong against us unprovoked. (a) Of what should
we be afraid?--what gathering of numbers, or what resources of money?
for their manner of fight we know, and as for their resources, we know
that they are feeble; and we have moreover subdued already their sons,
those I mean who are settled in our land and are called Ionians,
Aiolians, and Dorians. Moreover I myself formerly made trial of
marching against these men, being commanded thereto by thy father; and
although I marched as far as Macedonia, and fell but little short of
coming to Athens itself, no man came to oppose me in fight. (b) And
yet it is true that the Hellenes make wars, but (as I am informed)
very much without wise consideration, by reason of obstinacy and want
of skill: for when they have proclaimed war upon one another, they
find out first the fairest and smoothest place, and to this they come
down and fight; so that even the victors depart from the fight with
great loss, and as to the vanquished, of them I make no mention at
all, for they are utterly destroyed. They ought however, being men who
speak the same language, to make use of heralds and messengers and so
to take up their differences and settle them in any way rather than by
battles; but if they must absolutely war with one another, they ought
to find out each of them that place in which they themselves are
hardest to overcome, and here to make their trial. Therefore the
Hellenes, since they use no good way, when I had marched as far as the
land of Macedonia, did not come to the resolution of fighting with me.
(c) Who then is likely to set himself against thee, O king, offering
war, when thou art leading both all the multitudes of Asia and the
whole number of the ships? I for my part am of opinion that the power
of the Hellenes has not attained to such a pitch of boldness: but if
after all I should prove to be deceived in my judgment, and they
stirred up by inconsiderate folly should come to battle with us, they
would learn that we are the best of all men in the matters of war.
However that may be, let not anything be left untried; for nothing
comes of itself, but from trial all things are wont to come to men."

10. Mardonios having thus smoothed over the resolution expressed by
Xerxes had ceased speaking: and when the other Persians were silent
and did not venture to declare an opinion contrary to that which had
been proposed, then Artabanos the son of Hystaspes, being father's
brother to Xerxes and having reliance upon that, spoke as follows: (a)
"O king, if opinions opposed to one another be not spoken, it is not
possible to select the better in making the choice, but one must
accept that which has been spoken; if however opposite opinions be
uttered, this is possible; just as we do not distinguish the gold
which is free from alloy when it is alone by itself, but when we rub
it on the touchstone in comparison with other gold, then we
distinguish that which is the better. Now I gave advice to thy father
Dareios also, who was my brother, not to march against the Scythians,
men who occupied no abiding city in any part of the earth. He however,
expecting that he would subdue the Scythians who were nomads, did not
listen to me; but he made a march and came back from it with the loss
of many good men of his army. But thou, O king, art intending to march
against men who are much better than the Scythians, men who are
reported to be excellent both by sea and on land: and the thing which
is to be feared in this matter it is right that I should declare to
thee. (b) Thou sayest that thou wilt yoke the Hellespont with a bridge
and march an army through Europe to Hellas. Now supposing it chance
that we are[9] worsted either by land or by sea, or even both, for the
men are reported to be valiant in fight, (and we may judge for
ourselves that it is so, since the Athenians by themselves destroyed
that great army which came with Datis and Artaphrenes to the Attic
land),--suppose however that they do not succeed in both, yet if they
shall attack with their ships and conquer in a sea-fight, and then
sail to the Hellespont and break up the bridge, this of itself, O
king, will prove to be a great peril. (c) Not however by any native
wisdom of my own do I conjecture that this might happen: I am
conjecturing only such a misfortune as all but came upon us at the
former time, when thy father, having yoked the Bosphorus of Thracia
and made a bridge over the river Ister, had crossed over to go against
the Scythians. At that time the Scythians used every means of entreaty
to persuade the Ionians to break up the passage, to whom it had been
entrusted to guard the bridges of the Ister. At that time, if
Histiaios the despot of Miletos had followed the opinion of the other
despots and had not made opposition to them, the power of the Persians
would have been brought to an end. Yet it is a fearful thing even to
hear it reported that the whole power of the king had come to depend
upon one human creature.[10] (d) Do not thou therefore propose to go
into any such danger when there is no need, but do as I say:--at the
present time dissolve this assembly; and afterwards at whatever time
it shall seem good to thee, when thou hast considered prudently with
thyself, proclaim that which seems to thee best: for good counsel I
hold to be a very great gain; since even if anything shall prove
adverse, the counsel which has been taken is no less good, though it
has been defeated by fortune; while he who took counsel badly at
first, if good fortune should go with him has lighted on a prize by
chance, but none the less for that his counsel was bad. (e) Thou seest
how God strikes with thunderbolts the creatures which stand above the
rest and suffers them not to make a proud show; while those which are
small do not provoke him to jealousy: thou seest also how he hurls his
darts ever at those buildings which are the highest and those trees
likewise; for God is wont to cut short all those things which stand
out above the rest. Thus also a numerous army is destroyed by one of
few men in some such manner as this, namely when God having become
jealous of them casts upon them panic or thundering from heaven, then
they are destroyed utterly and not as their worth deserves; for God
suffers not any other to have high thoughts save only himself. (f)
Moreover the hastening of any matter breeds disasters, whence great
losses are wont to be produced; but in waiting there are many good
things contained, as to which, if they do not appear to be good at
first, yet one will find them to be so in course of time. (g) To thee,
O king, I give this counsel: but thou son of Gobryas, Mardonios, cease
speaking foolish words about the Hellenes, since they in no way
deserve to be spoken of with slight; for by uttering slander against
the Hellenes thou art stirring the king himself to make an expedition,
and it is to this very end that I think thou art straining all thy
endeavour. Let not this be so; for slander is a most grievous thing:
in it the wrongdoers are two, and the person who suffers wrong is one.
The slanderer does a wrong in that he speaks against one who is not
present, the other in that he is persuaded of the thing before he gets
certain knowledge of it, and he who is not present when the words are
spoken suffers wrong in the matter thus,--both because he has been
slandered by the one and because he has been believed to be bad by the
other. (h) However, if it be absolutely needful to make an expedition
against these men, come, let the king himself remain behind in the
abodes of the Persians, and let us both set to the wager our sons; and
then do thou lead an army by thyself, choosing for thyself the men
whom thou desirest, and taking an army as large as thou thinkest good:
and if matters turn out for the king as thou sayest, let my sons be
slain and let me also be slain in addition to them; but if in the way
which I predict, let thy sons suffer this, and with them thyself also,
if thou shalt return back. But if thou art not willing to undergo this
proof, but wilt by all means lead an army against Hellas, then I say
that those who are left behind in this land will hear[11] that
Mardonios, after having done a great mischief to the Persians, is torn
by dogs and birds, either in the land of the Athenians, or else
perchance thou wilt be in the land of the Lacedemonians (unless indeed
this should have come to pass even before that upon the way), and that
thou hast at length been made aware against what kind of men thou art
persuading the king to march."

11. Artabanos thus spoke; and Xerxes enraged by it made answer as
follows: "Artabanos, thou art my father's brother, and this shall save
thee from receiving any recompense such as thy foolish words deserve.
Yet I attach to thee this dishonour, seeing that thou art a coward and
spiritless, namely that thou do not march with me against Hellas, but
remain here together with the women; and I, even without thy help,
will accomplish all the things which I said: for I would I might not
be descended from Dareios, the son of Hystaspes, the son of Arsames,
the son of Ariaramnes, the son of Teļspes, or from Cyrus,[12] the son
of Cambyses, the son of Teļspes, the son of Achaimenes, if I take not
vengeance on the Athenians; since I know well that if we shall keep
quiet, yet they will not do so, but will again[13] march against our
land, if we may judge by the deeds which have been done by them to
begin with, since they both set fire to Sardis and marched upon Asia.
It is not possible therefore that either side should retire from the
quarrel, but the question before us is whether we shall do or whether
we shall suffer; whether all these regions shall come to be under the
Hellenes or all those under the Persians: for in our hostility there
is no middle course. It follows then now that it is well for us,
having suffered wrong first, to take revenge, that I may find out also
what is this terrible thing which I shall suffer if I lead an army
against these men,--men whom Pelops the Phrygian, who was the slave of
my forefathers, so subdued that even to the present day both the men
themselves and their land are called after the name of him who subdued

12. Thus far was it spoken then; but afterwards when darkness came on,
the opinion of Artabanos tormented Xerxes continually; and making
night his counsellor he found that it was by no means to his advantage
to make the march against Hellas. So when he had thus made a new
resolve, he fell asleep, and in the night he saw, as is reported by
the Persians, a vision as follows:--Xerxes thought that a man tall and
comely of shape came and stood by him and said: "Art thou indeed
changing thy counsel, O Persian, of leading an expedition against
Hellas, now that thou hast made proclamation that the Persians shall
collect an army? Thou dost not well in changing thy counsel, nor will
he who is here present with thee excuse thee from it;[13a] but as thou
didst take counsel in the day to do, by that way go." 13. After he had
said this, Xerxes thought that he who had spoken flew away; and when
day had dawned he made no account of this dream, but gathered together
the Persians whom he had assembled also the former time and said to
them these words: "Persians, pardon me that I make quick changes in my
counsel; for in judgment not yet am I come to my prime, and they who
advise me to do the things which I said, do not for any long time
leave me to myself. However, although at first when I heard the
opinion of Artabanos my youthful impulses burst out,[14] so that I
cast out unseemly words[15] against a man older than myself; yet now I
acknowledge that he is right, and I shall follow his opinion. Consider
then I have changed my resolve to march against Hellas, and do ye
remain still." 14. The Persians accordingly when they heard this were
rejoiced and made obeisance: but when night had come on, the same
dream again came and stood by Xerxes as he lay asleep and said: "Son
of Dareios, it is manifest then that thou hast resigned this
expedition before the assembly of the Persians, and that thou hast
made no account of my words, as if thou hadst heard them from no one
at all. Now therefore be well assured of this:--if thou do not make
thy march forthwith, there shall thence spring up for thee this
result, namely that, as thou didst in short time become great and
mighty, so also thou shalt speedily be again brought low." 15. Xerxes
then, being very greatly disturbed by fear of the vision, started up
from his bed and sent a messenger to summon Artabanos; to whom when he
came Xerxes spoke thus: "Artabanos, at the first I was not discreet,
when I spoke to thee foolish words on account of thy good counsel; but
after no long time I changed my mind and perceived that I ought to do
these things which thou didst suggest to me. I am not able however to
do them, although I desire it; for indeed, now that I have turned
about and changed my mind, a dream appears haunting me and by no means
approving that I should do so; and just now it has left me even with a
threat. If therefore it is God who sends it to me, and it is his
absolute will and pleasure that an army should go against Hellas, this
same dream will fly to thee also, laying upon thee a charge such as it
has laid upon me; and it occurs to my mind that this might happen
thus, namely if thou shouldst take all my attire and put it on, and
then seat thyself on my throne, and after that lie down to sleep in my
bed." 16. Xerxes spoke to him thus; and Artabanos was not willing to
obey the command at first, since he did not think himself worthy to
sit upon the royal throne; but at last being urged further he did that
which was commanded, first having spoken these words: (a) "It is
equally good in my judgment, O king, whether a man has wisdom himself
or is willing to follow the counsel of him who speaks well: and thou,
who hast attained to both these good things, art caused to err by the
communications of evil men; just as they say that the Sea, which is of
all things the most useful to men, is by blasts of winds falling upon
it prevented from doing according to its own nature. I however, when I
was evil spoken of by thee, was not so much stung with pain for this,
as because, when two opinions were laid before the Persians, the one
tending to increase wanton insolence and the other tending to check it
and saying that it was a bad thing to teach the soul to endeavour
always to have something more than the present possession,--because, I
say, when such opinions as these were laid before us, thou didst
choose that one which was the more dangerous both for thyself and for
the Persians. (b) And now that thou hast turned to the better counsel,
thou sayest that when thou art disposed to let go the expedition
against the Hellenes, a dream haunts thee sent by some god, which
forbids thee to abandon thy enterprise. Nay, but here too thou dost
err, my son, since this is not of the Deity;[16] for the dreams of
sleep which come roaming about to men, are of such nature as I shall
inform thee, being by many years older than thou. The visions of
dreams are wont to hover above us[17] in such form[18] for the most
part as the things of which we were thinking during the day; and we in
the days preceding were very much occupied with this campaign. (c) If
however after all this is not such a thing as I interpret it to be,
but is something which is concerned with God, thou hast summed the
matter up in that which thou hast said: let it appear, as thou sayest,
to me also, as to thee, and give commands. But supposing that it
desires to appear to me at all, it is not bound to appear to me any
the more if I have thy garments on me than if I have my own, nor any
more if I take my rest in thy bed than if I am in thy own; for
assuredly this thing, whatever it may be, which appears to thee in thy
sleep, is not so foolish as to suppose, when it sees me, that it is
thou, judging so because the garments are thine. That however which we
must find out now is this, namely if it will hold me in no account,
and not think fit to appear to me, whether I have my own garments or
whether I have thine, but continue still to haunt thee;[19] for if it
shall indeed haunt thee perpetually, I shall myself also be disposed
to say that it is of the Deity. But if thou hast resolved that it
shall be so, and it is not possible to turn aside this thy resolution,
but I must go to sleep in thy bed, then let it appear to me also, when
I perform these things: but until then I shall hold to the opinion
which I now have." 17. Having thus said Artabanos, expecting that he
would prove that Xerxes was speaking folly, did that which was
commanded him; and having put on the garments of Xerxes and seated
himself in the royal throne, he afterwards went to bed: and when he
had fallen asleep, the same dream came to him which used to come to
Xerxes, and standing over Artabanos spoke these words: "Art thou
indeed he who endeavours to dissuade Xerxes from making a march
against Hellas, pretending to have a care of him? However, neither in
the future nor now at the present shalt thou escape unpunished for
trying to turn away that which is destined to come to pass: and as for
Xerxes, that which he must suffer if he disobeys, hath been shown
already to the man himself." 18. Thus it seemed to Artabanos that the
dream threatened him, and at the same time was just about to burn out
his eyes with hot irons; and with a loud cry he started up from his
bed, and sitting down beside Xerxes he related to him throughout the
vision of the dream, and then said to him as follows: "I, O king, as
one who has seen before now many great things brought to their fall by
things less, urged thee not to yield in all things to the inclination
of thy youth, since I knew that it was evil to have desire after many
things; remembering on the one hand the march of Cyrus against the
Massagetai, what fortune it had, and also that of Cambyses against the
Ethiopians; and being myself one who took part with Dareios in the
campaign against the Scythians. Knowing these things I had the opinion
that thou wert to be envied of all men, so long as thou shouldest keep
still. Since however there comes a divine impulse, and, as it seems, a
destruction sent by heaven is taking hold of the Hellenes, I for my
part am both changed in myself and also I reverse my opinions; and do
thou signify to the Persians the message which is sent to thee from
God, bidding them follow the commands which were given by thee at
first with regard to the preparations to be made; and endeavour that
on thy side nothing may be wanting, since God delivers the matter into
thy hands." These things having been said, both were excited to
confidence by the vision, and so soon as it became day, Xerxes
communicated the matter to the Persians, and Artabanos, who before was
the only man who came forward to dissuade him, now came forward to
urge on the design.

19. Xerxes being thus desirous to make the expedition, there came to
him after this a third vision in his sleep, which the Magians, when
they heard it, explained to have reference to the dominion of the
whole Earth and to mean that all men should be subject to him; and the
vision was this:--Xerxes thought that he had been crowned with a
wreath of an olive-branch and that the shoots growing from the olive-
tree covered the whole Earth; and after that, the wreath, placed as it
was about his head, disappeared. When the Magians had thus interpreted
the vision, forthwith every man of the Persians who had been assembled
together departed to his own province and was zealous by all means to
perform the commands, desiring each one to receive for himself the
gifts which had been proposed: and thus Xerxes was gathering his army
together, searching every region of the continent. 20. During four
full years from the conquest of Egypt he was preparing the army and
the things that were of service for the army, and in the course of the
fifth year[20] he began his campaign with a host of great multitude.
For of all the armies of which we have knowledge this proved to be by
far the greatest; so that neither that led by Dareios against the
Scythians appears anything as compared with it, nor the Scythian host,
when the Scythians pursuing the Kimmerians made invasion of the Median
land and subdued and occupied nearly all the upper parts of Asia, for
which invasion afterwards Dareios attempted to take vengeance, nor
that led by the sons of Atreus to Ilion, to judge by that which is
reported of their expedition, nor that of the Mysians and Teucrians,
before the Trojan war, who passed over into Europe by the Bosphorus
and not only subdued all the Thracians, but came down also as far as
the Ionian Sea[21] and marched southwards to the river Peneios. 21.
All these expeditions put together, with others, if there be any,
added to them,[22] are not equal to this one alone. For what nation
did Xerxes not lead out of Asia against Hellas? and what water was not
exhausted, being drunk by his host, except only the great rivers? For
some supplied ships, and others were appointed to serve in the land-
army; to some it was appointed to furnish cavalry, and to others
vessels to carry horses, while they served in the expedition
themselves also;[23] others were ordered to furnish ships of war for
the bridges, and others again ships with provisions.

22. Then in the first place, since the former fleet had suffered
disaster in sailing round Athos, preparations had been going on for
about three years past with regard to Athos: for triremes lay at
anchor at Elaius in the Chersonese, and with this for their starting
point men of all nations belonging to the army worked at digging,
compelled by the lash; and the men went to the work regularly in
succession: moreover those who dwelt round about Athos worked also at
the digging: and Bubares the son of Megabazos and Artachaies the son
of Artaios, Persians both, were set over the work. Now Athos is a
mountain great and famous, running down to the sea and inhabited by
men: and where the mountain ends on the side of the mainland the place
is like a peninsula with an isthmus about twelve furlongs[24] across.
Here it is plain land or hills of no great size, extending from the
sea of the Acanthians to that which lies off Torone; and on this
isthmus, where Athos ends, is situated a Hellenic city called Sane:
moreover there are others beyond Sane[25] and within the peninsula of
Athos, all which at this time the Persian had resolved to make into
cities of an island and no longer of the mainland; these are, Dion,
Olophyxos, Acrothoon, Thyssos, Cleonai. 23. These are the cities which
occupy Athos: and they dug as follows, the country being divided among
the Barbarians by nations for the work:--at the city of Sane they drew
a straight line across the isthmus, and when the channel became deep,
those who stood lowest dug, while others delivered the earth as it was
dug out to other men who stood above, as upon steps, and they again to
others when it was received, until they came to those that were
highest; and these bore it away and cast it forth. Now the others
except the Phenicians had double toil by the breaking down of the
steep edges of their excavation; for since they endeavoured to make
the opening at the top and that at the bottom both of the same
measure, some such thing was likely to result, as they worked: but the
Phenicians, who are apt to show ability in their works generally, did
so in this work also; for when they had had assigned to them by lot so
much as fell to their share, they proceeded to dig, making the opening
of the excavation at the top twice as wide as the channel itself was
to be; and as the work went forward, they kept contracting the width;
so that, when they came to the bottom, their work was made of equal
width with that of the others. Now there is a meadow there, in which
there was made for them a market and a place for buying and selling;
and great quantities of corn came for them regularly from Asia, ready
ground. 24. It seems to me, making conjecture of this work, that
Xerxes when he ordered this to be dug was moved by a love of
magnificence and by a desire to make a display of his power and to
leave a memorial behind him; for though they might have drawn the
ships across the isthmus with no great labour, he bade them dig a
channel for the sea of such breadth that two triremes might sail
through, propelled side by side. To these same men to whom the digging
had been appointed, it was appointed also to make a bridge over the
river Strymon, yoking together the banks.

25. These things were being done by Xerxes thus; and meanwhile he
caused ropes also to be prepared for the bridges, made of papyrus and
of white flax,[26] appointing this to the Phenicians and Egyptians;
and also he was making preparations to store provisions for his army
on the way, that neither the army itself nor the baggage animals might
suffer from scarcity, as they made their march against Hellas.
Accordingly, when he had learnt by inquiry of the various places, he
bade them make stores where it was most convenient, carrying supplies
to different parts by merchant ships and ferry-boats from all the
countries of Asia. So they conveyed the greater part of the corn[27]
to the place which is called Leuke Acte in Thrace, while others
conveyed stores to Tyrodiza of the Perinthians, others to Doriscos,
others to Eļon on the Strymon, and others to Macedonia, the work being
distributed between them.

26. During the time that these were working at the task which had been
proposed to them, the whole land-army had been assembled together and
was marching with Xerxes to Sardis, setting forth from Critalla in
Cappadokia; for there it had been ordered that the whole army should
assemble, which was to go with Xerxes himself by the land: but which
of the governors of provinces brought the best equipped force and
received from the king the gifts proposed, I am not able to say, for I
do not know that they even came to a competition in this matter. Then
after they had crossed the river Halys and had entered Phrygia,
marching through this land they came to Kelainai, where the springs of
the river Maiander come up, and also those of another river not less
than the Maiander, whose name is Catarractes;[28] this rises in the
market-place itself of Kelainai and runs into the Maiander: and here
also is hanging up in the city the skin of Marsyas the Silenos, which
is said by the Phrygians to have been flayed off and hung up by
Apollo. 27. In this city Pythios the son of Atys, a Lydian, was
waiting for the king and entertained his whole army, as well as Xerxes
himself, with the most magnificent hospitality: moreover he professed
himself ready to supply money for the war. So when Pythios offered
money, Xerxes asked those of the Persians who were present, who
Pythios was and how much money he possessed, that he made this offer.
They said: "O king, this is he who presented thy father Dareios with
the golden plane-tree and the golden vine; and even now he is in
wealth the first of all men of whom we know, excepting thee only." 28.
Marvelling at the conclusion of these words Xerxes himself asked of
Pythios then, how much money he had; and he said: "O king, I will not
conceal the truth from thee, nor will I allege as an excuse that I do
not know my own substance, but I will enumerate it to thee exactly,
since I know the truth: for as soon as I heard that thou wert coming
down to the Sea of Hellas, desiring to give thee money for the war I
ascertained the truth, and calculating I found that I had of silver
two thousand talents, and of gold four hundred myriads[29] of daric
staters[30] all but seven thousand: and with this money I present
thee. For myself I have sufficient livelihood from my slaves and from
my estates of land." 29. Thus he said; and Xerxes was pleased by the
things which he had spoken, and replied: "Lydian host, ever since I
went forth from the Persian land I have encountered no man up to this
time who was desirous to entertain my army, or who came into my
presence and made offer of his own free will to contribute money to me
for the war, except only thee: and thou not only didst entertain my
army magnificently, but also now dost make offer of great sums of
money. To thee therefore in return I give these rewards,--I make thee
my guest-friend, and I will complete for thee the four hundred myriads
of staters by giving from myself the seven thousand, in order that thy
four hundred myriads may not fall short by seven thousand, but thou
mayest have a full sum in thy reckoning, completed thus by me. Keep
possession of that which thou hast got for thyself, and be sure to act
always thus; for if thou doest so, thou wilt have no cause to repent
either at the time or afterwards."

30. Having thus said and having accomplished his promise, he continued
his march onwards; and passing by a city of the Phrygians called Anaua
and a lake whence salt is obtained, he came to Colossai, a great city
of Phrygia, where the river Lycos falls into an opening of the earth
and disappears from view, and then after an interval of about five
furlongs it comes up to view again, and this river also flows into the
Maiander. Setting forth from Colossai towards the boundaries of the
Phrygians and Lydians, the army arrived at the city of Kydrara, where
a pillar[30a] is fixed, set up by Crœsus, which declares by an
inscription that the boundaries are there. 31. From Phrygia then he
entered Lydia; and here the road parts into two, and that which goes
to the left leads towards Caria, while that which goes to the right
leads to Sardis; and travelling by this latter road one must needs
cross the river Maiander and pass by the city of Callatebos, where men
live whose trade it is to make honey of the tamarisk-tree and of
wheat-flour. By this road went Xerxes and found a plane-tree, to which
for its beauty he gave an adornment of gold, and appointed that some
one should have charge of it always in undying succession;[31] and on
the next day he came to the city of the Lydians. 32. Having come to
Sardis he proceeded first to send heralds to Hellas, to ask for earth
and water, and also to give notice beforehand to prepare meals for the
king; except that he sent neither to Athens nor Lacedemon to ask for
earth, but to all the other States: and the reason why he sent the
second time to ask for earth and water was this,--as many as had not
given at the former time to Dareios when he sent, these he thought
would certainly give now by reason of their fear: this matter it was
about which he desired to have certain knowledge, and he sent

33. After this he made his preparations intending to march to Abydos:
and meanwhile they were bridging over the Hellespont from Asia to
Europe. Now there is in the Chersonese of the Hellespont between the
city of Sestos and Madytos, a broad foreland[32] running down into the
sea right opposite Abydos; this is the place where no long time
afterwards the Athenians under the command of Xanthippos the son of
Ariphron, having taken Arta’ctes a Persian, who was the governor of
Sestos, nailed him alive to a board with hands and feet extended (he
was the man who was wont to take women with him to the temple of
Protesilaos at Elaius and to do things there which are not lawful).
34. To this foreland they on whom this work was laid were making their
bridges, starting from Abydos, the Phenicians constructing the one
with ropes of white flax, and the Egyptians the other, which was made
with papyrus rope. Now from Abydos to the opposite shore is a distance
of seven furlongs. But when the strait had been bridged over, a great
storm came on and dashed together all the work that had been made and
broke it up. Then when Xerxes heard it he was exceedingly enraged, and
bade them scourge the Hellespont with three hundred strokes of the
lash and let down into the sea a pair of fetters. Nay, I have heard
further that he sent branders also with them to brand the Hellespont.
However this may be, he enjoined them, as they were beating, to say
Barbarian and presumptuous words as follows: "Thou bitter water, thy
master lays upon thee this penalty, because thou didst wrong him not
having suffered any wrong from him: and Xerxes the king will pass over
thee whether thou be willing or no; but with right, as it seems, no
man doeth sacrifice to thee, seeing that thou art a treacherous[33]
and briny stream." The sea he enjoined them to chastise thus, and also
he bade them cut off the heads of those who were appointed to have
charge over the bridging of the Hellespont. 36. Thus then the men did,
to whom this ungracious office belonged; and meanwhile other chief-
constructors proceeded to make the bridges; and thus they made them:--
They put together fifty-oared galleys and triremes, three hundred and
sixty to be under the bridge towards the Euxine Sea, and three hundred
and fourteen to be under the other, the vessels lying in the direction
of the stream of the Hellespont (though crosswise in respect to the
Pontus), to support the tension of the ropes.[34] They placed them
together thus, and let down very large anchors, those on the one
side[35] towards the Pontus because of the winds which blow from
within outwards, and on the other side, towards the West and the
Egean, because of the South-East[36] and South Winds. They left also
an opening for a passage through, so that any who wished might be able
to sail into the Pontus with small vessels, and also from the Pontus
outwards. Having thus done, they proceeded to stretch tight the ropes,
straining them with wooden windlasses, not now appointing the two
kinds of rope to be used apart from one another, but assigning to each
bridge two ropes of white flax and four of the papyrus ropes. The
thickness and beauty of make was the same for both, but the flaxen
ropes were heavier in proportion,[38] and of this rope a cubit weighed
one talent. When the passage was bridged over, they sawed up logs of
wood, and making them equal in length to the breadth of the bridge
they laid them above the stretched ropes, and having set them thus in
order they again fastened them above.[39] When this was done, they
carried on brushwood, and having set the brushwood also in place, they
carried on to it earth; and when they had stamped down the earth
firmly, they built a barrier along on each side, so that the baggage-
animals and horses might not be frightened by looking out over the

37. When the construction of the bridges had been finished, and the
works about Athos, both the embankments about the mouths of the
channel, which were made because of the breaking of the sea upon the
beach, that the mouths of it might not be filled up, and the channel
itself, were reported to be fully completed, then, after they had
passed the winter at Sardis, the army set forth from thence fully
equipped, at the beginning of spring, to march to Abydos; and when it
had just set forth, the Sun left his place in the heaven and was
invisible, though there was no gathering of clouds and the sky was
perfectly clear; and instead of day it became night. When Xerxes saw
and perceived this, it became a matter of concern to him; and he asked
the Magians what the appearance meant to portend. These declared that
the god was foreshowing to the Hellenes a leaving[40] of their cities,
saying that the Sun was the foreshower of events for the Hellenes, but
the Moon for the Persians. Having been thus informed, Xerxes proceeded
on the march with very great joy. 38. Then as he was leading forth his
army on its march, Pythios the Lydian, being alarmed by the appearance
in the heavens and elated by the gifts which he had received, came to
Xerxes, and said as follows: "Master, I would desire to receive from
thee a certain thing at my request, which, as it chances, is for thee
an easy thing to grant, but a great thing for me, if I obtain it."
Then Xerxes, thinking that his request would be for anything rather
than that which he actually asked, said that he would grant it, and
bade him speak and say what he desired. He then, when he heard this,
was encouraged, and spoke these words: "Master, I have, as it chances,
five sons, and it is their fortune to be all going together with thee
on the march against Hellas. Do thou, therefore, O king, have
compassion upon me, who have come to so great an age, and release from
serving in the expedition one of my sons, the eldest, in order that he
may be caretaker both of myself and of my wealth: but the other four
take with thyself, and after thou hast accomplished that which thou
hast in thy mind, mayest thou have a safe return home." 38. Then
Xerxes was exceedingly angry and made answer with these words: "Thou
wretched man, dost thou dare, when I am going on a march myself
against Hellas, and am taking my sons and my brothers and my relations
and friends, dost thou dare to make any mention of a son of thine,
seeing that thou art my slave, who ought to have been accompanying me
thyself with thy whole household and thy wife as well? Now therefore
be assured of this, that the passionate spirit of man dwells within
the ears; and when it has heard good things, it fills the body with
delight, but when it has heard the opposite things to this, it swells
up with anger. As then thou canst not boast of having surpassed the
king in conferring benefits formerly, when thou didst to us good deeds
and madest offer to do more of the same kind, so now that thou hast
turned to shamelessness, thou shalt receive not thy desert but less
than thou deservest: for thy gifts of hospitality shall rescue from
death thyself and the four others of thy sons, but thou shalt pay the
penalty with the life of the one to whom thou dost cling most." Having
answered thus, he forthwith commanded those to whom it was appointed
to do these things, to find out the eldest of the sons of Pythios and
to cut him in two in the middle; and having cut him in two, to dispose
the halves, one on the right hand of the road and the other on the
left, and that the army should pass between them by this way.

40. When these had so done, the army proceeded to pass between; and
first the baggage-bearers led the way together with their horses, and
after these the host composed of all kinds of nations mingled together
without distinction: and when more than the half had gone by, an
interval was left and these were separated from the king. For before
him went first a thousand horsemen, chosen out of all the Persians;
and after them a thousand spearmen chosen also from all the Persians,
having the points of their spears turned down to the ground; and then
ten sacred horses, called "Nesaian,"[41] with the fairest possible
trappings. Now the horses are called Nesaian for this reason:--there
is a wide plain in the land of Media which is called the Nesaian
plain, and this plain produces the great horses of which I speak.
Behind these ten horses the sacred chariot of Zeus was appointed to
go, which was drawn by eight white horses; and behind the horses again
followed on foot a charioteer holding the reins, for no human creature
mounts upon the seat of that chariot. Then behind this came Xerxes
himself in a chariot drawn by Nesaian horses, and by the side of him
rode a charioteer, whose name was Patiramphes, son of Otanes a
Persian. 41. Thus did Xerxes march forth out of Sardis; and he used to
change, whenever he was so disposed, from the chariot to a carriage.
And behind him went spearmen, the best and most noble of the Persians,
a thousand in number, holding their spear-points in the customary
way;[42] and after them another thousand horsemen chosen out from the
Persians; and after the horsemen ten thousand men chosen out from the
remainder of the Persians. This body went on foot; and of these a
thousand had upon their spears pomegranates of gold instead of the
spikes at the butt-end, and these enclosed the others round, while the
remaining nine thousand were within these and had silver pomegranates.
And those also had golden pomegranates who had their spear-points
turned towards the earth, while those who followed next after Xerxes
had golden apples. Then to follow the ten thousand there was appointed
a body of ten thousand Persian cavalry; and after the cavalry there
was an interval of as much as two furlongs. Then the rest of the host
came marching without distinction.

42. So the army proceeded on its march from Lydia to the river Caļcos
and the land of Mysia; and then setting forth from the Caļcos and
keeping the mountain of Cane on the left hand, it marched through the
region of Atarneus to the city of Carene. From this it went through
the plain of Thebe, passing by the cities of Adramytteion and
Antandros of the Pelasgians; and taking mount Ida on the left hand, it
came on to the land of Ilion. And first, when it had stopped for the
night close under mount Ida, thunder and bolts of lightning fell upon
it, and destroyed here in this place a very large number of men.[43]
43. Then when the army had come to the river Scamander,--which of all
rivers to which they had come, since they set forth from Sardis and
undertook their march, was the first of which the stream failed and
was not sufficient for the drinking of the army and of the animals
with it,--when, I say, Xerxes had come to this river, he went up to
the Citadel of Priam,[44] having a desire to see it; and having seen
it and learnt by inquiry of all those matters severally, he sacrificed
a thousand heifers to Athene of Ilion, and the Magians poured
libations in honour of the heroes: and after they had done this, a
fear fell upon the army in the night. Then at break of day he set
forth from thence, keeping on his left hand the cities of Rhoition and
Ophryneion and Dardanos, which last borders upon Abydos, and having on
the right hand the Gergith Teucrians.

44. When Xerxes had come into the midst of Abydos,[45] he had a desire
to see all the army; and there had been made purposely for him
beforehand upon a hill in this place a raised seat of white stone,[46]
which the people of Abydos had built at the command of the king given
beforehand. There he took his seat, and looking down upon the shore he
gazed both upon the land-army and the ships; and gazing upon them he
had a longing to see a contest take place between the ships; and when
it had taken place and the Phenicians of Sidon were victorious, he was
delighted both with the contest and with the whole armament. 45. And
seeing all the Hellespont covered over with the ships, and all the
shores and the plains of Abydos full of men, then Xerxes pronounced
himself a happy man, and after that he fell to weeping. 46. Artabanos
his uncle therefore perceiving him,--the same who at first boldly
declared his opinion advising Xerxes not to march against Hellas,--
this man, I say, having observed that Xerxes wept, asked as follows:
"O king, how far different from one another are the things which thou
hast done now and a short while before now! for having pronounced
thyself a happy man, thou art now shedding tears." He said: "Yea, for
after I had reckoned up, it came into my mind to feel pity at the
thought how brief was the whole life of man, seeing that of these
multitudes not one will be alive when a hundred years have gone by."
He then made answer and said: "To another evil more pitiful than this
we are made subject in the course of our life; for in the period of
life, short as it is, no man, either of these here or of others, is
made by nature so happy, that there will not come to him many times,
and not once only, the desire to be dead rather than to live; for
misfortunes falling upon us and diseases disturbing our happiness make
the time of life, though short indeed, seem long: thus, since life is
full of trouble, death has become the most acceptable refuge for man;
and God, having given him to taste of the sweetness of life, is
discovered in this matter to be full of jealousy." 47. Xerxes made
answer saying: "Artabanos, of human life, which is such as thou dost
define it to be, let us cease to speak, and do not remember evils when
we have good things in hand: but do thou declare to me this:--If the
vision of the dream had not appeared with so much evidence, wouldest
thou still be holding thy former opinion, endeavouring to prevent me
from marching against Hellas, or wouldest thou have changed from it?
Come, tell me this exactly." He answered saying: "O king, may the
vision of the dream which appeared have such fulfilment as we both
desire! but I am even to this moment full of apprehension and cannot
contain myself, taking into account many things besides, and also
seeing that two things, which are the greatest things of all, are
utterly hostile to thee." 48. To this Xerxes made answer in these
words: "Thou strangest of men,[47] of what nature are these two things
which thou sayest are utterly hostile to me? Is it that the land-army
is to be found fault with in the matter of numbers, and that the army
of the Hellenes appears to thee likely to be many times as large as
ours? or dost thou think that our fleet will fall short of theirs? or
even that both of these things together will prove true? For if thou
thinkest that in these respects our power is deficient, one might make
gathering at once of another force." 49. Then he made answer and said:
"O king, neither with this army would any one who has understanding
find fault, nor with the number of the ships; and indeed if thou shalt
assemble more, the two things of which I speak will be made thereby
yet more hostile: and these two things are--the land and the sea. For
neither in the sea is there, as I suppose, a harbour anywhere large
enough to receive this fleet of thine, if a storm should arise, and to
ensure the safety of the ships till it be over; and yet not one
alone[48] ought this harbour to be, but there should be such harbours
along the whole coast of the continent by which thou sailest; and if
there are not harbours to receive thy ships, know that accidents will
rule men and not men the accidents. Now having told thee of one of the
two things, I am about to tell thee of the other. The land, I say,
becomes hostile to thee in this way:--if nothing shall come to oppose
thee, the land is hostile to thee by so much the more in proportion as
thou shalt advance more, ever stealing on further and further,[49] for
there is no satiety of good fortune felt by men: and this I say, that
with no one to stand against thee the country traversed, growing more
and more as time goes on, will produce for thee famine. Man, however,
will be in the best condition, if when he is taking counsel he feels
fear, reckoning to suffer everything that can possibly come, but in
doing the deed he is bold." 50. Xerxes made answer in these words:
"Artabanos, reasonably dost thou set forth these matters; but do not
thou fear everything nor reckon equally for everything: for if thou
shouldest set thyself with regard to all matters which come on at any
time, to reckon for everything equally, thou wouldest never perform
any deed. It is better to have good courage about everything and to
suffer half the evils which threaten, than to have fear beforehand
about everything and not to suffer any evil at all: and if, while
contending against everything which is said, thou omit to declare the
course which is safe, thou dost incur in these matters the reproach of
failure equally with him who says the opposite to this. This then, I
say, is evenly balanced: but how should one who is but man know the
course which is safe? I think, in no way. To those then who choose to
act, for the most part gain is wont to come; but to those who reckon
for everything and shrink back, it is not much wont to come. Thou
seest the power of the Persians, to what great might it has advanced:
if then those who came to be kings before me had had opinions like to
thine, or, though not having such opinions, had had such counsellors
as thou, thou wouldest never have seen it brought forward to this
point. As it is however, by running risks they conducted it on to
this: for great power is in general gained by running great risks. We
therefore, following their example, are making our march now during
the fairest season of the year; and after we have subdued all Europe
we shall return back home, neither having met with famine anywhere nor
having suffered any other thing which is unpleasant. For first we
march bearing with us ourselves great store of food, and secondly we
shall possess the corn-crops of all the peoples to whose land and
nation we come; and we are making a march now against men who plough
the soil, and not against nomad tribes." 51. After this Artabanos
said: "O king, since thou dost urge us not to have fear of anything,
do thou I pray thee accept a counsel from me; for when speaking of
many things it is necessary to extend speech to a greater length.
Cyrus the son of Cambyses subdued all Ionia except the Athenians, so
that it was tributary to the Persians. These men therefore I counsel
thee by no means to lead against their parent stock, seeing that even
without these we are able to get the advantage over our enemies. For
supposing that they go with us, either they must prove themselves
doers of great wrong, if they join in reducing their mother city to
slavery, or doers of great right, if they join in freeing her: now if
they show themselves doers of great wrong, they bring us no very large
gain in addition; but if they show themselves doers of great right,
they are able then to cause much damage to thy army. Therefore lay to
heart also the ancient saying, how well it has been said that at the
first beginning of things the end does not completely appear." 52. To
this Xerxes made answer: "Artabanos, of all the opinions which thou
hast uttered, thou art mistaken most of all in this; seeing that thou
fearest lest the Ionians should change side, about whom we have a most
sure proof, of which thou art a witness thyself and also the rest are
witnesses who went with Dareios on his march against the Scythians,--
namely this, that the whole Persian army then came to be dependent
upon these men, whether they would destroy or whether they would save
it, and they displayed righteous dealing and trustworthiness, and
nought at all that was unfriendly. Besides this, seeing that they have
left children and wives and wealth in our land, we must not even
imagine that they will make any rebellion.[50] Fear not then this
thing either, but have a good heart and keep safe my house and my
government; for to thee of all men I entrust my sceptre of rule."

53. Having thus spoken and having sent Artabanos back to Susa, next
Xerxes summoned to his presence the men of most repute among the
Persians, and when they were come before him, he spoke to them as
follows: "Persians, I assembled you together desiring this of you,
that ye should show yourselves good men and should not disgrace the
deeds done in former times by the Persians, which are great and
glorious; but let us each one of us by himself, and all together also,
be zealous in our enterprise; for this which we labour for is a common
good for all. And I exhort you that ye preserve in the war without
relaxing your efforts, because, as I am informed, we are marching
against good men, and if we shall overcome them, there will not be any
other army of men which will ever stand against us. Now therefore let
us begin the crossing, after having made prayer to those gods who have
the Persians[51] for their allotted charge."

54. During this day then they were making preparation to cross over;
and on the next day they waited for the Sun, desiring to see him rise,
and in the meantime they offered all kinds of incense upon the bridges
and strewed the way with branches of myrtle. Then, as the Sun was
rising, Xerxes made libation from a golden cup into the sea, and
prayed to the Sun, that no accident might befall him such as should
cause him to cease from subduing Europe, until he had come to its
furthest limits. After having thus prayed he threw the cup into the
Hellespont and with it a golden mixing-bowl and a Persian sword, which
they call /akinakes/: but whether he cast them into the sea as an
offering dedicated to the Sun, or whether he had repented of his
scourging of the Hellespont and desired to present a gift to the sea
as amends for this, I cannot for certain say. 55. When Xerxes had done
this, they proceeded to cross over, the whole army both the footmen
and the horsemen going by one bridge, namely that which was on the
side of the Pontus, while the baggage-animals and the attendants went
over the other, which was towards the Egean. First the ten thousand
Persians led the way, all with wreaths, and after them came the mixed
body of the army made up of all kinds of nations: these on that day;
and on the next day, first the horsemen and those who had their spear-
points turned downwards, these also wearing wreaths; and after them
the sacred horses and the sacred chariot, and then Xerxes himself and
the spear-bearers and the thousand horsemen; and after them the rest
of the army. In the meantime the ships also put out from shore and
went over to the opposite side. I have heard however another account
which says that the king crossed over the very last of all.

56. When Xerxes had crossed over into Europe, he gazed upon the army
crossing under the lash; and his army crossed over in seven days and
seven nights, going on continuously without any pause. Then, it is
said, after Xerxes had now crossed over the Hellespont, a man of that
coast exclaimed: "Why, O Zeus, in the likeness of a Persian man and
taking for thyself the name of Xerxes instead of Zeus, art thou
proposing to lay waste Hellas, taking with thee all the nations of
men? for it was possible for thee to do so even without the help of

57. When all had crossed over, after they had set forth on their way a
great portent appeared to them, of which Xerxes made no account,
although it was easy to conjecture its meaning,--a mare gave birth to
a hare. Now the meaning of this was easy to conjecture in this way,
namely that Xerxes was about to march an army against Hellas very
proudly and magnificently, but would come back again to the place
whence he came, running for his life. There happened also a portent of
another kind while he was still at Sardis,--a mule brought forth young
and gave birth to a mule which had organs of generation of two kinds,
both those of the male and those of the female, and those of the male
were above. Xerxes however made no account of either of these
portents, but proceeded on his way, and with him the land-army. 58.
The fleet meanwhile was sailing out of the Hellespont and coasting
along, going in the opposite direction to the land-army; for the fleet
was sailing towards the West, making for the promontory of Sarpedon,
to which it had been ordered beforehand to go, and there wait for the
army; but the land-army meanwhile was making its march towards the
East and the sunrising, through the Chersonese, keeping on its right
the tomb of Helle the daughter of Athamas, and on its left the city of
Cardia, and marching through the midst of a town the name of which is
Agora.[52] Thence bending round the gulf called Melas and having
crossed over the river Melas, the stream of which did not suffice at
this time for the army but failed,--having crossed, I say, this river,
from which the gulf also has its name, it went on Westwards, passing
by Ainos a city of the Aiolians, and by the lake Stentoris, until at
last it came to Doriscos. [59] Now Doriscos is a sea-beach and plain
of great extent in Thrace, and through it flows the great river
Hebros: here a royal fortress had been built, the same which is now
called Doriscos, and a garrison of Persians had been established in it
by Dareios, ever since the time when he went on his march against the
Scythians. It seemed then to Xerxes that the place was convenient to
order his army and to number it throughout, and so he proceeded to do.
The commanders of the ships at the bidding of Xerxes had brought all
their ships, when they arrived at Doriscos, up to the sea-beach which
adjoins Doriscos, on which there is situated both Sale a city of the
Samothrakians, and also Zone, and of which the extreme point is the
promontory of Serreion, which is well known; and the region belonged
in ancient time to the Kikonians. To this beach then they had brought
in their ships, and having drawn them up on land they were letting
them get dry: and during this time he proceeded to number the army at

60. Now of the number which each separate nation supplied I am not
able to give certain information, for this is not reported by any
persons; but of the whole land-army taken together the number proved
to be one hundred and seventy myriads:[53] and they numbered them
throughout in the following manner:--they gathered together in one
place a body of ten thousand men, and packing them together[54] as
closely as they could, they drew a circle round outside: and thus
having drawn a circle round and having let the ten thousand men go
from it, they built a wall of rough stones round the circumference of
the circle, rising to the height of a man's navel. Having made this,
they caused others to go into the space which had been built round,
until they had in this manner numbered them all throughout: and after
they had numbered them, they ordered them separately by nations.

61. Now those who served were as follows:--The Persians with this
equipment:--about their heads they had soft[55] felt caps called
/tiaras/, and about their body tunics of various colours with sleeves,
presenting the appearance of iron scales like those of a fish,[56] and
about the legs trousers; and instead of the ordinary shields they had
shields of wicker-work,[57] under which hung quivers; and they had
short spears and large bows and arrows of reed, and moreover daggers
hanging by the right thigh from the girdle: and they acknowledged as
their commander Otanes the father of Amestris the wife of Xerxes. Now
these were called by the Hellenes in ancient time Kephenes; by
themselves however and by their neighbours they were called Artaians:
but when Perseus, the son of Danae and Zeus, came to Kepheus the son
of Belos[58] and took to wife his daughter Andromeda, there was born
to them a son to whom he gave the name Perses, and this son he left
behind there, for it chanced that Kepheus had no male offspring: after
him therefore this race was named. 62. The Medes served in the
expedition equipped in precisely the same manner; for this equipment
is in fact Median and not Persian: and the Medes acknowledged as their
commander Tigranes an Achaimenid. These in ancient time used to be
generally called Arians; but when Medea the Colchian came from Athens
to these Arians, they also changed their name. Thus the Medes
themselves report about themselves. The Kissians served with equipment
in other respects like that of the Persians, but instead of the felt
caps they wore fillets:[59] and of the Kissians Anaphes the son of
Otanes was commander. The Hyrcanians were armed like the Persians,
acknowledging as their leader Megapanos, the same who after these
events became governor of Babylon. 63. The Assyrians served with
helmets about their heads made of bronze or plaited in a Barbarian
style which it is not easy to describe; and they had shields and
spears, and daggers like the Egyptian knives,[60] and moreover they
had wooden clubs with knobs of iron, and corslets of linen. These are
by the Hellenes called Syrians, but by the Barbarians they have been
called always[61] Assyrians: [among these were the Chaldeans]:[62] and
the commander of them was Otaspes the son of Artachaies. 64. The
Bactrians served wearing about their heads nearly the same covering as
the Medes, and having native bows of reed and short spears. The Scaran
Scythians had about their heads caps[63] which were carried up to a
point and set upright and stiff; and they wore trousers, and carried
native bows and daggers, and besides this axes of the kind called
/sagaris/. These were called Amyrgian Sacans, being in fact Scythians;
for the Persians call all the Scythians Sacans: and of the Bactrians
and Sacans the commander was Hystaspes, the son of Dareios and of
Atossa the daughter of Cyrus. 65. The Indians wore garments made of
tree-wool, and they had bows of reed and arrows of reed with iron
points. Thus were the Indians equipped; and serving with the rest they
had been assigned to Pharnazathres the son of Artabates. 66. The
Arians[64] were equipped with Median bows, and in other respects like
the Bactrians: and of the Arians Sisamnes the son of Hydarnes was in
command. The Parthians and Chorasmians and Sogdians and Gandarians and
Dadicans served with the same equipment as the Bactrians. Of these the
commanders were, Artabazos the son of Pharnakes of the Parthians and
Chorasmians, Azanes the son of Artaios of the Sogdians, and Artyphios
the son of Artabanos of the Gandarians and Dadicans. [67] The Caspians
served wearing coats of skin[65] and having native bows of reed and
short swords:[66] thus were these equipped; and they acknowledged as
their leader Ariomardos the brother of Artyphios. The Sarangians were
conspicuous among the rest by wearing dyed garments; and they had
boots reaching up to the knee, and Median bows and spears: of these
the commander was Pherendates the son of Megabazos. The Pactyans were
wearers of skin coats[67] and had native bows and daggers: these
acknowledged as their commander Arta’ntes the son of Ithamitres. 68.
The Utians and Mycans and Paricanians were equipped like the Pactyans:
of these the commanders were, Arsamenes the son of Dareios of the
Utians and Mycans, and of the Paricanians Siromitres the son of
Oiobazos. 69. The Arabians wore loose mantles[68] girt up, and they
carried at their right side bows that bent backward[69] of great
length. The Ethiopians had skins of leopards and lions tied upon them,
and bows made of a slip[70] of palm-wood, which were of great length,
not less than four cubits, and for them small arrows of reed with a
sharpened stone at the head instead of iron, the same stone with which
they engrave seals: in addition to this they had spears, and on them
was the sharpened horn of a gazelle by way of a spear-head, and they
had also clubs with knobs upon them. Of their body they used to smear
over half with white,[71] when they went into battle, and the other
half with red.[72] Of the Arabians and the Ethiopians who dwelt above
Egypt the commander was Arsames, the son of Dareios and of Artystone,
the daughter of Cyrus, whom Dareios loved most of all his wives, and
had an image made of her of beaten gold. 70. Of the Ethiopians above
Egypt and of the Arabians the commander, I say, was Arsames; but the
Ethiopians from the direction of the sunrising (for the Ethiopians
were in two bodies) had been appointed to serve with the Indians,
being in no way different from the other Ethiopians, but in their
language and in the nature of their hair only; for the Ethiopians from
the East are straight-haired, but those of Libya have hair more thick
and woolly than that of any other men. These Ethiopians from Asia were
armed for the most part like the Indians, but they had upon their
heads the skin of a horse's forehead flayed off with the ears and the
mane, and the mane served instead of a crest, while they had the ears
of the horse set up straight and stiff: and instead of shields they
used to make defences to hold before themselves of the skins of
cranes. 71. The Libyans went with equipments of leather, and they used
javelins burnt at the point. These acknowledged as their commander
Massages the son of Oarizos. 72. The Paphlagonians served with plaited
helmets upon their heads, small shields, and spears of no great size,
and also javelins and daggers; and about their feet native boots
reaching up to the middle of the shin. The Ligyans and Matienians and
Mariandynoi and Syrians served with the same equipment as the
Paphlagonians: these Syrians are called by the Persians Cappadokians.
Of the Paphlagonians and Matienians the commander was Dotos the son of
Megasidros, and of the Mariandynoi and Lygians and Syrians, Gobryas,
who was the son of Dareios and Artystone. 73. The Phrygians had an
equipment very like that of the Paphlagonians with some slight
difference. Now the Phrygians, as the Macedonians say, used to be
called Brigians during the time that they were natives of Europe and
dwelt with the Macedonians; but after they had changed into Asia, with
their country they changed also their name and were called Phrygians.
The Armenians were armed just like the Phrygians, being settlers from
the Phrygians. Of these two together the commander was Artochmes, who
was married to a daughter of Dareios. 74. The Lydians had arms very
closely resembling those of the Hellenes. Now the Lydians were in old
time called Medonians, and they were named again after Lydos the son
of Atys, changing their former name. The Mysians had upon their heads
native helmets, and they bore small shields and used javelins burnt at
the point. These are settlers from the Lydians, and from mount Olympos
they are called Olympienoi. Of the Lydians and Mysians the commander
was Artaphrenes the son of Artaphrenes, he who invaded Marathon
together with Datis. 75. The Thracians served having fox-skins upon
their heads and tunics about their body, with loose mantles[68] of
various colours thrown round over them; and about their feet and lower
part of the leg they wore boots of deer-skin; and besides this they
had javelins and round bucklers and small daggers. These when they had
crossed over into Asia came to be called Bithynians, but formerly they
were called, as they themselves report, Strymonians, since they dwelt
upon the river Strymon; and they say that they were driven out of
their abode by the Teucrians and Mysians. Of the Thracians who lived
in Asia the commander was Bassakes the son of Artabanos. 76. ...[73]
and they had small shields of raw ox-hide, and each man carried two
hunting-spears of Lykian workmanship.[74] On their heads they wore
helmets of bronze, and to the helmets the ears and horns of an ox were
attached, in bronze, and upon them also there were crests; and the
lower part of their legs was wrapped round with red-coloured strips of
cloth. Among these men there is an Oracle of Ares. 77. The Meonian
Cabelians, who are called Lasonians, had the same equipment as the
Kilikians, and what this was I shall explain when in the course of the
catalogue I come to the array of the Kilikians. The Milyans had short
spears, and their garments were fastened on with buckles; some of them
had Lykian bows, and about their heads they had caps made of leather.
Of all these Badres the son of Hystanes was in command. 78. The
Moschoi had wooden caps upon their heads, and shields and small
spears, on which long points were set. The Tibarenians and Macronians
and Mossynoicoi served with equipment like that of the Moschoi, and
these were arrayed together under the following commanders,--the
Moschoi and Tibarenians under Ariomardos, who was the son of Dareios
and of Parmys, the daughter of Smerdis son of Cyrus; the Macronians
and Mossynoicoi under Arta’ctes the son of Cherasmis, who was governor
of Sestos on the Hellespont. 79. The Mares wore on their heads native
helmets of plaited work, and had small shields of hide and javelins;
and the Colchians wore wooden helmets about their heads, and had small
shields of raw ox-hide and short spears, and also knives. Of the Mares
and Colchians the commander was Pharandates the son of Teaspis. The
Alarodians and Saspeirians served armed like the Colchians; and of
these the commander was Masistios the son of Siromitres. 80. The
island tribes which came with the army from the Erythraian Sea,
belonging to the islands in which the king settles those who are
called the "Removed,"[75] had clothing and arms very like those of the
Medes. Of these islanders the commander was Mardontes the son of
Bagaios, who in the year after these events was a commander of the
army at Mykale and lost his life in the battle.

81. These were the nations which served in the campaign by land and
had been appointed to be among the foot-soldiers. Of this army those
who have been mentioned were commanders; and they were the men who sit
it in order by divisions and numbered it and appointed commanders of
thousands and commanders of tens of thousands, but the commanders of
hundreds and of tens were appointed by the commanders of ten
thousands; and there were others who were leaders of divisions and
nations. 82. These, I say, who have been mentioned were commanders of
the army; and over these and over the whole army together that went on
foot there were in command Mardonios the son of Gobryas,
Tritantaichmes the son of that Artabanos who gave the opinion that
they should not make the march against Hellas, Smerdomenes the son of
Otanes (both these being sons of brothers of Dareios and so cousins of
Xerxes),[76] Masistes the son of Dareios and Atossa, Gergis the son of
Ariazos, and Megabyzos the son of Zopyros. 83. These were generals of
the whole together that went on foot, excepting the ten thousand; and
of these ten thousand chosen Persians the general was Hydarnes the son
of Hydarnes; and these Persians were called "Immortals," because, if
any one of them made the number incomplete, being overcome either by
death or disease, another man was chosen to his place, and they were
never either more or fewer than ten thousand. Now of all the nations,
the Persians showed the greatest splendour of ornament and were
themselves the best men. They had equipment such as has been
mentioned, and besides this they were conspicuous among the rest for
great quantity of gold freely used; and they took with them carriages,
and in them concubines and a multitude of attendants well furnished;
and provisions for them apart from the soldiers were borne by camels
and beasts of burden.

84. The nations who serve as cavalry are these; not all however
supplied cavalry, but only as many as here follow:--the Persians
equipped in the same manner as their foot-soldiers, except that upon
their heads some of them had beaten-work of metal, either bronze or
iron. 85. There are also certain nomads called Sagartians, Persian in
race and in language and having a dress which is midway between that
of the Persians and that of the Pactyans. These furnished eight
thousand horse, and they are not accustomed to have any arms either of
bronze or of iron excepting daggers, but they use ropes twisted of
thongs, and trust to these when they go into war: and the manner of
fighting of these men is as follows:--when they come to conflict with
the enemy, they throw the ropes with nooses at the end of them, and
whatsoever the man catches by the throw,[77] whether horse or man, he
draws to himself, and they being entangled in toils are thus
destroyed. 86. This is the manner of fighting of these men, and they
were arrayed next to the Persians. The Medes had the same equipment as
their men on foot, and the Kissians likewise. The Indians were armed
in the same manner as those of them who served on foot, and they both
rode horses[78] and drove chariots, in which were harnessed horses or
wild asses. The Bactrians were equipped in the same way as those who
served on foot, and the Caspians likewise. The Libyans too were
equipped like those who served on foot, and these also all drove
chariots. So too the Caspians[79] and Paricanians were equipped like
those who served on foot, and they all rode on camels, which in
swiftness were not inferior to horses. 87. These nations alone
served[80] as cavalry, and the number of the cavalry proved to be
eight myriads,[81] apart from the camels and the chariots. Now the
rest of the cavalry was arrayed in squadrons, but the Arabians were
placed after them and last of all, for the horses could not endure the
camels, and therefore they were placed last, in order that the horses
might not be frightened. 88. The commanders of the cavalry were
Harmamithras and Tithaios sons of Datis, but the third, Pharnuches,
who was in command of the horse with them, had been left behind at
Sardis sick: for as they were setting forth from Sardis, an accident
befell him of an unwished-for kind,--as he was riding, a dog ran up
under his horse's feet, and the horse not having seen it beforehand
was frightened, and rearing up he threw Pharnuches off his back, who
falling vomited blood, and his sickness turned to a consumption. To
the horse however they forthwith at the first did as he commanded,
that is to say, the servants led him away to the place where he had
thrown his master and cut off his legs at the knees. Thus was
Pharnuches removed from his command.

89. Of the triremes the number proved to be one thousand two hundred
and seven, and these were they who furnished them:--the Phenicians,
together with the Syrians[82] who dwell in Palestine furnished three
hundred; and they were equipped thus, that is to say, they had about
their heads leathern caps made very nearly in the Hellenic fashion,
and they wore corslets of linen, and had shields without rims and
javelins. These Phenicians dwelt in ancient time, as they themselves
report, upon the Erythraian Sea, and thence they passed over and dwell
in the country along the sea coast of Syria; and this part of Syria
and all as far as Egypt is called Palestine. The Egyptians furnished
two hundred ships: these men had about their heads helmets of plaited
work, and they had hollow shields with the rims large, and spears for
sea-fighting, and large axes:[83] the greater number of them wore
corslets, and they had large knives. 90. These men were thus equipped;
and the Cyprians furnished a hundred and fifty ships, being themselves
equipped as follows,--their kings had their heads wound round with
fillets,[84] and the rest had tunics,[85] but in other respects they
were like the Hellenes. Among these there are various races as
follows,--some of them are from Salamis and Athens, others from
Arcadia, others from Kythnos, others again from Phenicia and others
from Ethiopia, as the Cyprians themselves report. 91. The Kilikians
furnished a hundred ships; and these again had about their heads
native helmets, and for shields they carried targets made of raw ox-
hide: they wore tunics[86] of wool and each man had two javelins and a
sword, this last being made very like the Egyptian knives. These in
old time were called Hypachaians, and they got their later name from
Kilix the son of Agenor, a Phenician. The Pamphylians furnished thirty
ships and were equipped in Hellenic arms. These Pamphylians are of
those who were dispersed from Troy together with Amphilochos and
Calchas. 92. The Lykians furnished fifty ships; and they were wearers
of corslets and greaves, and had bows of cornel-wood and arrows of
reeds without feathers and javelins and a goat-skin hanging over their
shoulders, and about their heads felt caps wreathed round with
feathers; also they had daggers and falchions.[87] The Lykians were
formerly called Termilai, being originally of Crete, and they got
their later name from Lycos the son of Pandion, an Athenian. 93. The
Dorians of Asia furnished thirty ships; and these had Hellenic arms
and were originally from the Peloponnese. The Carians supplied seventy
ships; and they were equipped in other respects like Hellenes but they
had also falchions and daggers. What was the former name of these has
been told in the first part of the history.[88] 94. The Ionians
furnished a hundred ships, and were equipped like Hellenes. Now the
Ionians, so long time as they dwelt in the Peloponnese, in the land
which is now called Achaia, and before the time when Danaos and Xuthos
came to the Peloponnese, were called, as the Hellenes report,
Pelasgians of the Coast-land,[89] and then Ionians after Ion the son
of Xuthos. 95. The islanders furnished seventeen ships, and were armed
like Hellenes, this also being a Pelasgian race, though afterwards it
came to be called Ionian by the same rule as the Ionians of the twelve
cities, who came from Athens. The Aiolians supplied sixty ships; and
these were equipped like Hellenes and used to be called Pelasgians in
the old time, as the Hellenes report. The Hellespontians, excepting
those of Abydos (for the men of Abydos had been appointed by the king
to stay in their place and be guards of the bridges), the rest, I say,
of those who served in the expedition from the Pontus furnished a
hundred ships, and were equipped like Hellenes: these are colonists of
the Ionians and Dorians.

96. In all the ships there served as fighting-men Persians, Medes, or
Sacans;: and of the ships, those which sailed best were furnished by
the Phenicians, and of the Phenicians the best by the men of Sidon.
Over all these men and also over those of them who were appointed to
serve in the land-army, there were for each tribe native chieftains,
of whom, since I am not compelled by the course of the inquiry,[89a] I
make no mention by the way; for in the first place the chieftains of
each separate nation were not persons worthy of mention, and then
moreover within each nation there were as many chieftains as there
were cities. These went with the expedition too not as commanders, but
like the others serving as slaves; for the generals who had the
absolute power and commanded the various nations, that is to say those
who were Persians, having already been mentioned by me. 97. Of the
naval force the following were commanders,--Ariabignes the son of
Dareios, Prexaspes the son of Aspathines, Megabazos the son of
Megabates, and Achaimenes the son of Dareios; that is to say, of the
Ionian and Carian force Ariabignes, who was the son of Dareios and of
the daughter of Gobryas; of the Egyptians Achaimenes was commander,
being brother of Xerxes by both parents; and of the rest of the
armament the other two were in command: and galleys of thirty oars and
of fifty oars, and light vessels,[90] and long[91] ships to carry
horses had been assembled together, as it proved, to the number of
three thousand. 98. Of those who sailed in the ships the men of most
note after the commanders were these,--of Sidon, Tetramnestos son of
Anysos; of Tyre, Matten[92] son of Siromos; or Arados, Merbalos son of
Agbalos; of Kilikia, Syennesis son of Oromedon; of Lykia, Kyberniscos
son of Sicas; of Cyprus, Gorgos son of Chersis and Timonax son of
Timagoras; of Caria, Histiaios son of Tymnes, Pigres son of
Hysseldomos,[93] and Damasithymos son of Candaules. 99. Of the rest of
the officers I make no mention by the way (since I am not bound to do
so), but only of Artemisia, at whom I marvel most that she joined the
expedition against Hellas, being a woman; for after her husband died,
she holding the power herself, although she had a son who was a young
man, went on the expedition impelled by high spirit and manly courage,
no necessity being laid upon her. Now her name, as I said, was
Artemisia and she was the daughter of Lygdamis, and by descent she was
of Halicarnassos on the side of her father, but of Crete by her
mother. She was ruler of the men of Halicarnassos and Cos and Nisyros
and Calydna, furnishing five ships; and she furnished ships which were
of all the fleet reputed the best after those of the Sidonians, and of
all his allies she set forth the best counsels to the king. Of the
States of which I said that she was leader I declare the people to be
all of Dorian race, those of Halicarnassos being Troizenians, and the
rest Epidaurians. So far then I have spoken of the naval force.

100. Then when Xerxes had numbered the army, and it had been arranged
in divisions, he had a mind to drive through it himself and inspect
it: and afterwards he proceeded so to do; and driving through in a
chariot by each nation, he inquired about them and his scribes wrote
down the names, until he had gone from end to end both of the horse
and of the foot. When he had done this, the ships were drawn down into
the sea, and Xerxes changing from his chariot to a ship of Sidon sat
down under a golden canopy and sailed along by the prows of the ships,
asking of all just as he had done with the land-army, and having the
answers written down. And the captains had taken their ships out to a
distance of about four hundred feet from the beach and were staying
them there, all having turned the prows of the ships towards the shore
in an even line[94] and having armed all the fighting-men as for war;
and he inspected them sailing within, between the prows of the ships
and the beach.

101. Now when he had sailed through these and had disembarked from his
ship, he sent for Demaratos the son of Ariston, who was marching with
him against Hellas; and having called him he asked as follows:
"Demaratos, now it is my pleasure to ask thee somewhat which I desire
to know. Thou art not only a Hellene, but also, as I am informed both
by thee and by the other Hellenes who come to speech with me, of a
city which is neither the least nor the feeblest of Hellas. Now
therefore declare to me this, namely whether the Hellenes will endure
to raise hands against me: for, as I suppose, even if all the Hellenes
and the remaining nations who dwell towards the West should be
gathered together, they are not strong enough in fight to endure my
attack, supposing them to be my enemies.[95] I desire however to be
informed also of thy opinion, what thou sayest about these matters."
He inquired thus, and the other made answer and said: "O king, shall I
utter the truth in speaking to thee, or that which will give
pleasure?" and he bade him utter the truth, saying that he should
suffer nothing unpleasant in consequence of this, any more than he
suffered before. 102. When Demaratos heard this, he spoke as follows:
"O king, since thou biddest me by all means utter the truth, and so
speak as one who shall not be afterwards convicted by thee of having
spoken falsely, I say this:--with Hellas poverty is ever an inbred
growth, while valour is one that has been brought in, being acquired
by intelligence and the force of law; and of it Hellas makes use ever
to avert from herself not only poverty but also servitude to a master.
Now I commend all the Hellenes who are settled in those Dorian lands,
but this which I am about to say has regard not to tall, but to the
Lacedemonians alone: of these I say, first that it is not possible
that they will ever accept thy terms, which carry with them servitude
for Hellas; and next I say that they will stand against thee in fight,
even if all the other Hellenes shall be of thy party: and as for
numbers, ask now how many they are, that they are able to do this; for
whether it chances that a thousand of them have come out into the
field, these will fight with thee, or if there be less than this, or
again if there be more." 103. Xerxes hearing this laughed, and said:
"Demaratos, what a speech is this which thou hast uttered, saying that
a thousand men will fight with this vast army! Come tell me this:--
thou sayest that thou wert thyself king of these men; wilt thou
therefore consent forthwith to fight with ten men? and yet if your
State is such throughout as thou dost describe it, thou their king
ought by your laws to stand in array against double as many as another
man; that is to say, if each of them is a match for ten men of my
army, I expect of thee that thou shouldest be a match for twenty. Thus
would be confirmed the report which is made by thee: but if ye, who
boast thus greatly are such men and in size so great only as the
Hellenes who come commonly to speech with me, thyself included, then
beware lest this which has been spoken prove but an empty vaunt. For
come, let me examine it by all that is probable: how could a thousand
or ten thousand or even fifty thousand, at least if they were all
equally free and were not ruled by one man, stand against so great an
army? since, as thou knowest, we shall be more than a thousand coming
about each one of them, supposing them to be in number five thousand.
If indeed they were ruled by one man after our fashion, they might
perhaps from fear of him become braver than it was their nature to be,
or they might go compelled by the lash to fight with greater numbers,
being themselves fewer in number; but if left at liberty, they would
do neither of these things: and I for my part suppose that, even if
equally matched in numbers, the Hellenes would hardly dare to fight
with the Persians taken alone. With us however this of which thou
speakest is found in single men,[96] not indeed often, but rarely; for
there are Persians of my spearmen who will consent to fight with three
men of the Hellenes at once: but thou hast had no experience of these
things and therefore thou speakest very much at random." 104. To this
Demaratos replied: "O king, from the first I was sure that if I
uttered the truth I should not speak that which was pleasing to thee;
since however thou didst compel me to speak the very truth, I told
thee of the matters which concern the Spartans. And yet how I am at
this present time attached to them by affection thou knowest better
than any; seeing that first they took away from me the rank and
privileges which came to me from my fathers, and then also they have
caused me to be without native land and an exile; but thy father took
me up and gave me livelihood and a house to dwell in. Surely it is not
to be supposed likely that the prudent man will thrust aside
friendliness which is offered to him, but rather that he will accept
it with full contentment.[97] And I do not profess that I am able to
fight either with ten men or with two, nay, if I had my will, I would
not even fight with one; but if there were necessity or if the cause
which urged me to the combat were a great one, I would fight most
willingly with one of these men who says that he is a match for three
of the Hellenes. So also the Lacedemonians are not inferior to any men
when fighting one by one, and they are the best of all men when
fighting in a body: for though free, yet they are not free in all
things, for over them is set Law as a master, whom they fear much more
even than thy people fear thee. It is certain at least that they do
whatsoever that master commands; and he commands ever the same thing,
that is to say, he bids them not flee out of battle from any multitude
of men, but stay in their post and win the victory or lose their life.
But if when I say these things I seem to thee to be speaking at
random, of other things for the future I prefer to be silent; and at
this time I spake only because I was compelled. May it come to pass
however according to thy mind, O king."

105. He thus made answer, and Xerxes turned the matter to laughter and
felt no anger, but dismissed him with kindness. Then after he had
conversed with him, and had appointed Mascames son of Megadostes to be
governor at this place Doriscos, removing the governor who had been
appointed by Dareios, Xerxes marched forth his army through Thrace to
invade Hellas. 106. And Mascames, whom he left behind here, proved to
be a man of such qualities that to him alone Xerxes used to send
gifts, considering him the best of all the men whom either he himself
or Dareios had appointed to be governors,--he used to send him gifts,
I say, every year, and so also did Artaxerxes the son of Xerxes to the
descendants of Mascames. For even before this march governors had been
appointed in Thrace and everywhere about the Hellespont; and these
all, both those in Thrace and in the Hellespont, were conquered by the
Hellenes after this expedition, except only the one who was at
Doriscos; but Mascames at Doriscos none were ever[98] able to conquer,
though many tried. For this reason the gifts are sent continually for
him from the king who reigns over the Persians. 107. Of those however
who were conquered by the Hellenes Xerxes did not consider any to be a
good man except only Boges, who was at Eļon: him he never ceased
commending, and he honoured very highly his children who survived him
in the land of Persia. For in truth Boges proved himself worthy of
great commendation, seeing that when he was besieged by the Athenians
under Kimon the son of Miltiades, though he might have gone forth
under a truce and so returned home to Asia, he preferred not to do
this, for fear that the king should that it was by cowardice that he
survived; and he continued to hold out till the last. Then when there
was no longer any supply of provisions within the wall, he heaped
together a great pyre, and he cut the throats of his children, his
wife, his concubines and his servants, and threw them into the fire;
and after this he scattered all the gold and silver in the city from
the wall into the river Strymon, and having so done he threw himself
into the fire. Thus he is justly commended even to this present time
by the Persians.

108. Xerxes from Doriscos was proceeding onwards to invade Hellas; and
as he went he compelled those who successively came in his way, to
join his march: for the whole country as far as Thessaly had been
reduced to subjection, as has been set forth by me before, and was
tributary under the king, having been subdued by Megabazos and
afterwards by Mardonios. And he passed in his march from Doriscos
first by the Samothrakian strongholds, of which that which is situated
furthest towards the West is a city called Mesambria. Next to this
follows Stryme, a city of the Thasians, and midway between them flows
the river Lisos, which at this time did not suffice when supplying its
water to the army of Xerxes, but the stream failed. This country was
in old time called Gallaļke, but now Briantike; however by strict
justice this also belongs to the Kikonians. 109. Having crossed over
the bed of the river Lisos after it had been dried up, he passed by
these Hellenic cities, namely Maroneia, Dicaia and Abdera. These I say
he passed by, and also the following lakes of note lying near them,--
the Ismarian lake, lying between Maroneia and Stryme; the Bistonian
lake near Dicaia, into which two rivers pour their waters, the
Trauos[99] and the Compsantos;[100] and at Abdera no lake indeed of
any note was passed by Xerxes, but the river Nestos, which flows there
into the sea. Then after passing these places he went by the cities of
the mainland,[101] near one of which there is, as it chances, a lake
of somewhere about thirty furlongs in circumference, abounding in fish
and very brackish; this the baggage-animals alone dried up, being
watered at it: and the name of this city is Pistyros.[102] 110. These
cities, I say, lying by the sea coast and belonging to Hellenes, he
passed by, leaving them on the left hand; and the tribes of Thracians
through whose country he marched were as follows, namely the Paitians,
Kikonians, Bistonians, Sapaians, Dersaians, Edonians, Satrians. Of
these they who were settled along the sea coast accompanied him with
their ships, and those of them who dwelt inland and have been
enumerated by me, were compelled to accompany him on land, except the
Satrians: 111, the Satrians however never yet became obedient to any
man, so far as we know, but they remain up to my time still free,
alone of all the Thracians; for they dwell in lofty mountains, which
are covered with forest of all kinds and with snow, and also they are
very skilful in war. These are they who possess the Oracle of
Dionysos; which Oracle is on their most lofty mountains. Of the
Satrians those who act as prophets[103] of the temple are the
Bessians; it is a prophetess[104] who utters the oracles, as at
Delphi; and beyond this there is nothing further of a remarkable

112. Xerxes having passed over the land which has been spoken of, next
after this passed the strongholds of the Pierians, of which the name
of the one is Phagres and of the other Pergamos. By this way, I say,
he made his march, going close by the walls of these, and keeping
Mount Pangaion on the right hand, which is both great and lofty and in
which are mines both of gold and of silver possessed by the Pierians
and Odomantians, and especially by the Satrians. 113. Thus passing by
the Paionians, Doberians and Paioplians, who dwell beyond Pangaion
towards the North Wind, he went on Westwards, until at last he came to
the river Strymon and the city of Eļon, of which, so long as he lived,
Boges was commander, the same about whom I was speaking a short time
back. This country about Mount Pangaion is called Phyllis, and it
extends Westwards to the river Angites, which flows into the Strymon,
and Southwards it stretches to the Strymon itself; and at this river
the Magians sacrificed for good omens, slaying white horses. 114.
Having done this and many other things in addition to this, as charms
for the river, at the Nine Ways[106] in the land of the Edonians, they
proceeded by the bridges, for they had found the Strymon already yoked
with bridges; and being informed that this place was called the Nine
Ways, they buried alive in it that number of boys and maidens,
children of the natives of the place. Now burying alive is a Persian
custom; for I am informed that Amestris also, the wife of Xerxes, when
she had grown old, made return for her own life to the god who is said
to be beneath the earth by burying twice seven children of Persians
who were men of renown.

115. As the army proceeded on its march from the Strymon, it found
after this a sea-beach stretching towards the setting of the sun, and
passed by the Hellenic city, Argilos, which was there placed. This
region and that which lies above it is called Bisaltia. Thence,
keeping on the left hand the gulf which lies of Posideion, he went
through the plain which is called the plain of Syleus, passing by
Stageiros a Hellenic city, and so came to Acanthos, taking with him as
he went each one of these tribes and also of those who dwell about
Mount Pangaion, just as he did those whom I enumerated before, having
the men who dwelt along the sea coast to serve in the ships and those
who dwelt inland to accompany him on foot. This road by which Xerxes
the king marched his army, the Thracians do not disturb nor sow crops
over, but pay very great reverence to it down to my own time. 116.
Then when he had come to Acanthos, Xerxes proclaimed a guest-
friendship with the people of Acanthos and also presented them with
the Median dress[107] and commended them, perceiving that they were
zealous to serve him in the war and hearing of that which had been
dug. 117. And while Xerxes was in Acanthos, it happened that he who
had been set over the making of the channel, Artachaies by name, died
of sickness, a man who was highly esteemed by Xerxes and belonged to
the Achaimenid family; also he was in stature the tallest of all the
Persians, falling short by only four fingers of being five royal
cubits[108] in height, and he had a voice the loudest of all men; so
that Xerxes was greatly grieved at the loss of him, and carried him
forth and buried him with great honour, and the whole army joined in
throwing up a mound for him. To this Artachaies the Acanthians by the
bidding of an oracle do sacrifice as a hero, calling upon his name in

118. King Xerxes, I say, was greatly grieved at the loss of
Artachaies: and meanwhile the Hellenes who were entertaining his army
and providing Xerxes with dinners had been brought to utter ruin, so
that they were being driven from house and home; seeing that when the
Thasians, for example, entertained the army of Xerxes and provided him
with a dinner on behalf of their towns upon the mainland, Antipater
the son of Orgeus, who had been appointed for this purpose, a man of
repute among the citizens equal to the best, reported that four
hundred talents of silver had been spent upon the dinner. 119. Just so
or nearly so in the other cities also those who were set over the
business reported the reckoning to be: for the dinner was given as
follows, having been ordered a long time beforehand, and being counted
by them a matter of great importance:--In the first place, so soon as
they heard of it from the heralds who carried round the proclamation,
the citizens in the various cities distributed corn among their
several households, and all continued to make wheat and barley meal
for many months; then they fed cattle, finding out and obtaining the
finest animals for a high price; and they kept birds both of the land
and of the water, in cages or in pools, all for the entertainment of
the army. Then again they had drinking-cups and mixing-bowls made of
gold and of silver, and all the other things which are placed upon the
table: these were made for the king himself and for those who ate at
his table; but for the rest of the army only the things appointed for
food were provided. Then whenever the army came to any place, there
was a tent pitched ready wherein Xerxes himself made his stay, while
the rest of the army remained out in the open air; and when it came to
be time for dinner, then the entertainers had labour; but the others,
after they had been satiated with food and had spent the night there,
on the next day tore up the tent and taking with them all the movable
furniture proceeded on their march, leaving nothing, but carrying all
away with them. 120. Then was uttered a word well spoken by Megacreon,
a man of Abdera, who advised those of Abdera to go in a body, both
themselves and their wives, to their temples, and to sit down as
suppliants of the gods, entreating them that for the future also they
would ward off from them the half of the evils which threatened; and
he bade them feel great thankfulness to the gods for the past events,
because king Xerxes had not thought good to take food twice in each
day; for if it had been ordered to them beforehand to prepare
breakfast also in like manner as the dinner, it would have remained
for the men of Abdera either not to await the coming of Xerxes, or if
they stayed, to be crushed by misfortune more than any other men upon
the Earth.

121. They then, I say, though hard put to it, yet were performing that
which was appointed to them; and from Acanthos Xerxes, after having
commanded the generals to wait for the fleet at Therma, let the ships
take their course apart from himself, (now this Therma is that which
is situated on the Thermaic gulf, from which also this gulf has its
name); and thus he did because he was informed that this was the
shortest way: for from Doriscos as far as Acanthos the army had been
making its march thus:--Xerxes had divided the whole land-army into
three divisions, and one of them he had set to go along the sea
accompanying the fleet, of which division Mardonios and Masistes were
commanders; another third of the army had been appointed to go by the
inland way, and of this the generals in command were Tritantaichmes
and Gergis; and meanwhile the third of the subdivisions, with which
Xerxes himself went, marched in the middle between them, and
acknowledged as its commanders Smerdomenes and Megabyzos.

122. The fleet, when it was let go by Xerxes and had sailed right
through the channel made in Athos (which went across to the gulf on
which are situated the cities of Assa, Piloros, Singos and Sarte),
having taken up a contingent from these cities also, sailed thence
with a free course to the Thermaļc gulf, and turning round Ampelos the
headland of Torone, it left on one side the following Hellenic cities,
from which it took up contingents of ships and men, namely Torone,
Galepsos, Sermyle, Mekyberna, Olynthos: this region is called
Sithonia. 123. And the fleet of Xerxes, cutting across from the
headland of Ampelos to that of Canastron,[108a] which runs out
furthest to sea of all Pallene, took up there contingents of ships and
men from Potidaia, Aphytis, Neapolis, Aige, Therambo, Skione, Mende
and Sane, for these are the cities which occupy the region which now
is called Pallene, but was formerly called Phlegra. Then sailing along
the coast of this country also the fleet continued its course towards
the place which has been mentioned before, taking up contingents also
from the cities which come next after Pallene and border upon the
Thermaļc gulf; and the names of them are these,--Lipaxos, Combreia,
Lisai, Gigonos, Campsa, Smila, Aineia; and the region in which these
cities are is called even to the present day Crossaia. Then sailing
from Aineia, with which name I brought to an end the list of the
cities, at once the fleet came into the Thermaļc gulf and to the
region of Mygdonia, and so it arrived at the aforesaid Therma and at
the cities of Sindos and Chalestra upon the river Axios. This river is
the boundary between the land of Mygdonia and Bottiaia, of which
district the narrow region which lies on the sea coast is occupied by
the cities of Ichnai and Pella.

124. Now while his naval force was encamped about the river Axios an
the city of Therma and the cities which lie between these two, waiting
for the coming of the king, Xerxes and the land-army were proceeding
from Acanthos, cutting through the middle by the shortest way[109]
with a view to reaching Therma: and he was proceeding through Paionia
and Crestonia to the river Cheidoros,[110] which beginning from the
land of the Crestonians, runs through the region of Mygdonia and comes
out alongside of the marsh which is by the river Axios. 125. As he was
proceeding by this way, lions attacked the camels which carried his
provisions; for the lions used to come down regularly by night,
leaving their own haunts, but they touched nothing else, neither beast
of burden nor man, but killed the camels only: and I marvel what was
the cause, and what was it that impelled the lions to abstain from all
else and to attack the camels only, creatures which they had never
seen before, and of which they had had no experience. 126. Now there
are in these parts both many lions and also wild oxen, those that have
the very large horns which are often brought into Hellas: and the
limit within which these lions are found is on the one side the river
Nestos, which flows through Abdera, and on the other the Achelos,
which flows through Acarnania; for neither do the East of the Nestos,
in any part of Europe before you come to this, would you see a lion,
nor again in the remaining part of the continent to the West of the
Acheloos, but they are produced in the middle space between these

127. When Xerxes had reached Therma he established the army there; and
his army encamping there occupied of the land along by the sea no less
than this,--beginning from the city of Therma and from Mygdonia it
extended as far as the river Lydias and the Haliacmon, which form the
boundary between the lands of Bottiaia and Macedonia, mingling their
waters together in one and the same stream. The Barbarians, I say,
were encamped in these regions; and of the rivers which have been
enumerated, only the river Cheidoros flowing from the Crestonian land
was insufficient for the drinking of the army and failed in its

128. Then Xerxes seeing from Therma the mountains of Thessaly, Olympos
and Ossa, that they were of very great height, and being informed that
in the midst between them there was a narrow channel, through which
flows the Peneios, and hearing also that by this way there was a good
road leading to Thessaly, formed a desire to sail thither and look at
the outlet of the Peneios, because he was meaning to march by the
upper road, through the land of the Macedonians who dwell inland,
until he came to the Perraibians, passing by the city of Gonnos; for
by this way he was informed that it was safest to go. And having
formed this desire, so also he proceeded to do; that is, he embarked
in a Sidonian ship, the same in which he used always to embark when he
wished to do anything of this kind, and he displayed a signal for the
others to put out to sea also, leaving there the land-army. Then when
Xerxes had looked at the outlet of the Peneios, he was possessed by
great wonder, and summoning his guides he asked them whether it was
possible to turn the river aside and bring it out to the sea by
another way. 129. Now it is said that Thessaly was in old time a lake,
being enclosed on all sides by very lofty mountains: for the parts of
it which lie towards the East are shut in by the ranges of Pelion and
Ossa, which join one another in their lower slopes, the parts towards
the North Wind by Olympos, those towards the West by Pindos and those
towards the mid-day and the South Wind by Othrys; and the region in
the midst, between these mountains which have been named, is Thessaly,
forming as it were a hollow. Whereas then many rivers flow into it and
among them these five of most note, namely Peneios, Apidanos,
Onochonos, Enipeus and Pamisos, these, which collect their waters from
the mountains that enclose Thessaly round, and flow into this plain,
with names separate each one, having their outflow into the sea by one
channel and that a narrow one, first mingling their waters all
together in one and the same stream; and so soon as they are mingled
together, from that point onwards the Peneios prevails with its name
over the rest and causes the others to lose their separate names. And
it is said that in ancient time, there not being yet this channel and
outflow between the mountains, these rivers, and besides these rivers
the lake Boibeļs also, had no names as they have now, but by their
waters they made Thessaly to be all sea. The Thessalians themselves
say that Poseidon made the channel through which the Peneios flows;
and reasonably they report it thus, because whosoever believes that it
is Poseidon who shakes the Earth and that the partings asunder
produced by earthquake are the work of this god, would say, if he saw
this, that it was made by Poseidon; for the parting asunder of the
mountains is the work of an earthquake, as is evident to me. 130. So
the guides, when Xerxes asked whether there was any other possible
outlet to the sea for the Peneios, said with exact knowledge of the
truth: "O king, for this river there is no other outgoing which
extends to the sea, but this alone; for all Thessaly is circled about
with mountains as with a crown." To this Xerxes is said to have
replied: "The Thessalians then are prudent men. This it appears was
that which they desired to guard against in good time[111] when they
changed their counsel,[112] reflecting on this especially besides
other things, namely that they had a country which, it appears, is
easy to conquer and may quickly be taken: for it would have been
necessary only to let the river flow over their land by making an
embankment to keep it from going through the narrow channel and so
diverting the course by which now it flows, in order to put all
Thessaly under water except the mountains." This he said in reference
to the sons of Aleuas, because they, being Thessalians, were the first
of the Hellenes who gave themselves over to the king; for Xerxes
thought that they offered him friendship on behalf of their whole
nation. Having said thus and having looked at the place, he sailed
back to Therma.

131. He then was staying in the region of Pieria many days, for the
road over the mountains of Macedonia was being cut meanwhile by a
third part of his army, that all the host might pass over by this way
into the land of the Perraibians: and now the heralds returned who had
been sent to Hellas to demand the gift of earth, some empty-handed and
others bearing earth and water. 132. And among those who gave that
which was demanded were the following, namely the Thessalians,
Dolopians, Enianians,[113] Perraibians, Locrians, Megnesians, Malians,
Achaians of Phthiotis, and Thebans, with the rest of the Bœotians also
excepting the Thespians and Plataians. Against these the Hellenes who
took up war with the Barbarian made an oath; and the oath was this,--
that whosoever being Hellenes had given themselves over to the
Persian, not being compelled, these, if their own affairs should come
to a good conclusion, they would dedicate as an offering[114] to the
god at Delphi. 133. Thus ran the oath which was taken by the Hellenes:
Xerxes however had not sent to Athens or to Sparta heralds to demand
the gift of earth, and for this reason, namely because at the former
time when Dareios had sent for this very purpose, the one people threw
the men who made the demand into the pit[115] and the others into a
well, and bade them take from thence earth and water and bear them to
the king. For this reason Xerxes did not send men to make this demand.
And what evil thing[116] came upon the Athenians for having done this
to the heralds, I am not able to say, except indeed that their land
and city were laid waste; but I do not think that this happened for
that cause: 134, on the Lacedemonians however the wrath fell of
Talthybios, the herald of Agamemnon; for in Sparta there is a temple
of Talthybios, and there are also descendants of Talthybios called
Talthybiads, to whom have been given as a right all the missions of
heralds which go from Sparta; and after this event it was not possible
for the Spartans when they sacrificed to obtain favourable omens. This
was the case with them for a long time; and as the Lacedemonians were
grieved and regarded it as a great misfortune, and general assemblies
were repeatedly gathered together and proclamation made, asking if any
one of the Lacedemonians was willing to die for Sparta, at length
Sperthias the son of Aneristos and Bulis the son of Nicolaos, Spartans
of noble birth and in wealth attaining to the first rank, voluntarily
submitted to pay the penalty to Xerxes for the heralds of Dareios
which had perished at Sparta. Thus the Spartans sent these to the
Medes to be put to death. 135. And not only the courage then shown by
these men is worthy of admiration, but also the following sayings in
addition: for as they were on their way to Susa they came to Hydarnes
(now Hydarnes was a Persian by race and commander of those who dwelt
on the sea coasts of Asia), and he offered them hospitality and
entertained them; and while they were his guests he asked them as
follows: "Lacedemonians, why is it that ye flee from becoming friends
to the king? for ye may see that the king knows how to honour good
men, when ye look at me and at my fortunes. So also ye, Lacedemonians,
if ye gave yourselves to the king, since ye have the reputation with
him already of being good men, would have rule each one of you over
Hellenic land by the gift of the king." To this they made answer thus:
"Hydarnes, thy counsel with regard to us is not equally balanced,[117]
for thou givest counsel having made trial indeed of the one thing, but
being without experience of the other: thou knowest well what it is to
be a slave, but thou hast never yet made trial of freedom, whether it
is pleasant to the taste or no; for if thou shouldest make trial of
it, thou wouldest then counsel us to fight for it not with spears only
but also with axes." 136. Thus they answered Hydarnes; and then, after
they had gone up to Susa and had come into the presence of the king,
first when the spearmen of the guard commanded them and endeavoured to
compel them by force to do obeisance to the king by falling down
before him, they said that they would not do any such deed, though
they should be pushed down by them head foremost; for it was not their
custom to do obeisance to a man, and it was not for this that they had
come. Then when they had resisted this, next they spoke these words or
words to this effect: "O king of the Medes, the Lacedemonians sent us
in place of the heralds who were slain in Sparta, to pay the penalty
for their lives." When they said this, Xerxes moved by a spirit of
magnanimity replied that he would not be like the Lacedemonians; for
they had violated the rules which prevailed among all men by slaying
heralds, but he would not do that himself which he blamed them for
having done, nor would he free the Lacedemonians from their guilt by
slaying these in return. 137. Thus the wrath of Talthybios ceased for
the time being, even though the Spartans had done no more than this
and although Sperthias and Bulis returned back to Sparta; but a long
time after this it was roused again during the war between the
Peloponnesians and Athenians, as the Lacedemonians report. This I
perceive to have been most evidently the act of the Deity: for in that
the wrath of Talthybios fell upon messengers and did not cease until
it had been fully satisfied, so much was but in accordance with
justice; but that it happened to come upon the sons of these men who
went up to the king on account of the wrath, namely upon Nicolaos the
son of Bulis and Aneristos the son of Sperthias (the same who
conquered the men of Halieis, who came from Tiryns, by sailing into
their harbour with a merchant ship filled with fighting men),--by this
it is evident to me that the matter came to pass by the act of the
Deity caused by this wrath. For these men, sent by the Lacedemonians
as envoys to Asia, having been betrayed by Sitalkes the son of Teres
king of the Thracians and by Nymphodoros the son of Pythes a man of
Abdera, were captured at Bisanthe on the Hellespont; and then having
been carried away to Attica they were put to death by the Athenians,
and with them also Aristeas the son of Adeimantos the Corinthian.
These things happened many years after the expedition of the king; and
I return now to the former narrative.

138. Now the march of the king's army was in name against Athens, but
in fact it was going against all Hellas: and the Hellenes being
informed of this long before were not all equally affected by it; for
some of them having given earth and water to the Persian had
confidence, supposing that they would suffer no hurt from the
Barbarian; while others not having given were in great terror, seeing
that there were not ships existing in Hellas which were capable as
regards number of receiving the invader in fight, and seeing that the
greater part of the States were not willing to take up the war, but
adopted readily the side of the Medes. 139. And here I am compelled by
necessity to declare an opinion which in the eyes of most men would
seem to be invidious, but nevertheless I will not abstain from saying
that which I see evidently to be the truth. If the Athenians had been
seized with fear of the danger which threatened them and had left
their land,[118] or again, without leaving their land, had stayed and
given themselves up to Xerxes, none would have made any attempt by sea
to oppose the king. If then none had opposed Xerxes by sea, it would
have happened on the land somewhat thus:--even if many tunics of
walls[119] had been thrown across the Isthmus by the Peloponnesians,
the Lacedemonians would have been deserted by their allies, not
voluntarily but of necessity, since these would have been conquered
city after city by the naval force of the Barbarian, and so they would
have been left alone: and having been left alone and having displayed
great deeds of valour, they would have met their death nobly. Either
they would have suffered this fate, or before this, seeing the other
Hellenes also taking the side of the Medes, they would have made an
agreement with Xerxes; and thus in either case Hellas would have come
to be under the rule of the Persians: for as to the good to be got
from the walls thrown across the Isthmus, I am unable to discover what
it would have been, when the king had command of the sea. As it is
however, if a man should say that the Athenians proved to be the
saviours of Hellas, he would not fail to hit the truth; for to
whichever side these turned, to that the balance was likely to
incline: and these were they who, preferring that Hellas should
continue to exist in freedom, roused up all of Hellas which remained,
so much, that is, as had not gone over to the Medes, and (after the
gods at least) these were they who repelled the king. Nor did fearful
oracles, which came from Delphi and cast them into dread, induce them
to leave Hellas, but they stayed behind and endured to receive the
invader of their land. 140. For the Athenians had sent men to Delphi
to inquire and were preparing to consult the Oracle; and after these
had performed the usual rites in the sacred precincts, when they had
entered the sanctuary[120] and were sitting down there, the Pythian
prophetess, whose name was Aristonike, uttered to them this oracle:

 "Why do ye sit, O ye wretched? Flee thou[121] to the uttermost limits,
  Leaving thy home and the heights of the wheel-round city behind thee!
  Lo, there remaineth now nor the head nor the body in safety,--
  Neither the feet below nor the hands nor the middle are left thee,--
  All are destroyed[122] together; for fire and the passionate War-god,[123]
  Urging the Syrian[124] car to speed, doth hurl them[125] to ruin.
  Not thine alone, he shall cause many more great strongholds to perish,
  Yes, many temples of gods to the ravening fire shall deliver,--
  Temples which stand now surely with sweat of their terror down-streaming,
  Quaking with dread; and lo! from the topmost roof to the pavement
  Dark blood trickles, forecasting the dire unavoidable evil.
  Forth with you, forth from the shrine, and steep your soul in the sorrow![126]

141. Hearing this the men who had been sent by the Athenians to
consult the Oracle were very greatly distressed; and as they were
despairing by reason of the evil which had been prophesied to them,
Timon the son of Androbulos, a man of the Delphians in reputation
equal to the first, counselled them to take a suppliant's bough and to
approach the second time and consult the Oracle as suppliants. The
Athenians did as he advised and said: "Lord,[127] we pray thee utter
to us some better oracle about our native land, having respect to
these suppliant boughs which we have come to thee bearing; otherwise
surely we will not depart away from the sanctuary, but will remain
here where we are now, even until we bring our lives to an end." When
they spoke these words, the prophetess gave them a second oracle as

 "Pallas cannot prevail to appease great Zeus in Olympos,
  Though she with words very many and wiles close-woven entreat him.
  But I will tell thee this more, and will clench it with steel adamantine:
  Then when all else shall be taken, whatever the boundary[128] of Kecrops
  Holdeth within, and the dark ravines of divinest Kithairon,
  A bulwark of wood at the last Zeus grants to the Trito-born goddess
  Sole to remain unwasted, which thee and thy children shall profit.
  Stay thou not there for the horsemen to come and the footmen unnumbered;
  Stay thou not still for the host from the mainland to come, but retire thee,
  Turning thy back to the foe, for yet thou shalt face him hereafter.
  Salamis, thou the divine, thou shalt cause sons of women to perish,
  Or when the grain[129] is scattered or when it is gathered together."

142. This seemed to them to be (as in truth it was) a milder utterance
than the former one; therefore they had it written down and departed
with it to Athens: and when the messengers after their return made
report to the people, many various opinions were expressed by persons
inquiring into the meaning of the oracle, and among them these,
standing most in opposition to one another:--some of the elder men
said they thought that the god had prophesied to them that the
Acropolis should survive; for the Acropolis of the Athenians was in
old time fenced with a thorn hedge; and they conjectured accordingly
that this saying about the "bulwark of wood" referred to the fence:
others on the contrary said that the god meant by this their ships,
and they advised to leave all else and get ready these. Now they who
said that the ships were the bulwark of wood were shaken in their
interpretation by the two last verses which the prophetess uttered:

 "Salamis, thou the divine, thou shalt cause sons of women to perish,
  Or when the grain is scattered or when it is gathered together."

In reference to these verses the opinions of those who said that the
ships were the bulwark of wood were disturbed; for the interpreters of
oracles took these to mean that it was fated for them, having got
ready for a sea-fight, to suffer defeat round about Salamis. 143. Now
there was one man of the Athenians who had lately been coming forward
to take a place among the first, whose name was Themistocles, called
son of Neocles. This man said that the interpreters of oracles did not
make right conjecture of the whole, and he spoke as follows, saying
that if these words that had been uttered referred really to the
Athenians, he did not think it would have been so mildly expressed in
the oracle, but rather thus, "Salamis, thou the merciless," instead of
"Salamis, thou the divine," at least if its settlers were destined to
perish round about it: but in truth the oracle had been spoken by the
god with reference to the enemy, if one understood it rightly, and not
to the Athenians: therefore he counselled them to get ready to fight a
battle by sea, for in this was their bulwark of wood. When
Themistocles declared his opinion thus, the Athenians judged that this
was to be preferred by them rather than the advice of the interpreters
of oracles, who bade them not make ready for a sea-fight, nor in short
raise their hands at all in opposition, but leave the land of Attica
and settle in some other. 144. Another opinion too of Themistocles
before this one proved the best at the right moment, when the
Athenians, having got large sums of money in the public treasury,
which had come in to them from the mines which are at Laureion, were
intending to share it among themselves, taking each in turn the sum of
ten drachmas. Then Themistocles persuaded the Athenians to give up
this plan of division and to make for themselves with this money two
hundred ships for the war, meaning by that the war with the Eginetans:
for this war having arisen[130] proved in fact the salvation of Hellas
at that time, by compelling the Athenians to become a naval power. And
the ships, not having been used for the purpose for which they had
been made, thus proved of service at need to Hellas. These ships then,
I say, the Athenians had already, having built them beforehand, and it
was necessary in addition to these to construct others. They resolved
then, when they took counsel after the oracle was given, to receive
the Barbarian invading Hellas with their ships in full force,
following the commands of the god, in combination with those of the
Hellenes who were willing to join them.

145. These oracles had been given before to the Athenians: and when
those Hellenes who had the better mind about Hellas[131] came together
to one place, and considered their affairs and interchanged assurances
with one another, then deliberating together they thought it well
first of all things to reconcile the enmities and bring to an end the
wars which they had with one another. Now there were wars engaged[132]
between others also, and especially between the Athenians and the
Eginetans. After this, being informed that Xerxes was with his army at
Sardis, they determined to send spies to Asia to make observation of
the power of the king; and moreover they resolved to send envoys to
Argos to form an alliance against the Persian, and to send others to
Sicily to Gelon the son of Deinomenes and also to Corcyra, to urge
them to come to the assistance of Hellas, and others again to Crete;
for they made it their aim that if possible the Hellenic race might
unite in one, and that they might join all together and act towards
the same end, since dangers were threatening all the Hellenes equally.
Now the power of Gelon was said to be great, far greater than any
other Hellenic power.

146. When they had thus resolved, they reconciled their enmities and
then sent first three men as spies to Asia. These having come to
Sardis and having got knowledge about the king's army, were
discovered, and after having been examined by the generals of the
land-army were being led off to die. For these men, I say, death had
been determined; but Xerxes, being informed of this, found fault with
the decision of the generals and sent some of the spearmen of his
guard, enjoining them, if they should find the spies yet alive, to
bring them to his presence. So having found them yet surviving they
brought them into the presence of the king; and upon that Xerxes,
being informed for what purpose they had come, commanded the spearmen
to lead them round and to show them the whole army both foot and
horse, and when they should have had their fill of looking at these
things, to let them go unhurt to whatsoever land they desired. 147.
Such was the command which he gave, adding at the same time this
saying, namely that if the spies had been put to death, the Hellenes
would not have been informed beforehand of his power, how far beyond
description it was; while on the other hand by putting to death three
men they would not very greatly have damaged the enemy; but when these
returned back to Hellas, he thought it likely that the Hellenes,
hearing of his power, would deliver up their freedom to him
themselves, before the expedition took place which was being set in
motion; and thus there would be no need for them to have the labour of
marching an army against them. This opinion of his is like his manner
of thinking at other times;[133] for when Xerxes was in Abydos, he saw
vessels which carried corn from the Pontus sailing out through the
Hellespont on their way to Egina and the Peloponnese. Those then who
sat by his side, being informed that the ships belonged to the enemy,
were prepared to capture them, and were looking to the king to see
when he would give the word; but Xerxes asked about them whither the
men were sailing, and they replied: "Master, to thy foes, conveying to
them corn": he then made answer and said: "Are we not also sailing to
the same place as these men, furnished with corn as well as with other
things necessary? How then do these wrong us, since they are conveying
provisions for our use?"

148. The spies then, having thus looked at everything and after that
having been dismissed, returned back to Europe: and meanwhile those of
the Hellenes who had sworn alliance against the Persian, after the
sending forth of the spies proceeded to send envoys next to Argos. Now
the Argives report that the matters concerning themselves took place
as follows:--They were informed, they say, at the very first of the
movement which was being set on foot by the Barbarian against Hellas;
and having been informed of this and perceiving that the Hellenes
would endeavour to get their alliance against the Persians, they had
sent messengers to inquire of the god at Delphi, and to ask how they
should act in order that it might be best for themselves: because
lately there had been slain of them six thousand men by the
Lacedemonians and by Cleomenes the son of Anaxandrides,[134] and this
in fact was the reason that they were sending to inquire: and when
they inquired, the Pythian prophetess made answer to them as follows:

 "Thou to thy neighbours a foe, by the gods immortal beloved,
  Keep thou thy spear[135] within bounds, and sit well-guarded behind it:
  Guard well the head, and the head shall preserve the limbs and the body."

Thus, they say, the Pythian prophetess had replied to them before
this; and afterwards when the messengers of the Hellenes came, as I
said, to Argos, they entered the Council-chamber and spoke that which
had been enjoined to them; and to that which was said the Council
replied that the Argives were ready to do as they were requested, on
condition that they got peace made with the Lacedemonians for thirty
years and that they had half the leadership of the whole confederacy:
and yet by strict right (they said) the whole leadership fell to their
share, but nevertheless it was sufficient for them to have half. 149.
Thus they report that the Council made answer, although the oracle
forbade them to make the alliance with the Hellenes; and they were
anxious, they say, that a truce from hostilities for thirty years
should be made, although they feared the oracle, in order, as they
allege, that their sons might grow to manhood in these years; whereas
if a truce did not exist, they had fear that, supposing another
disaster should come upon them in fighting against the Persian in
addition to that which had befallen them already, they might be for
all future time subject to the Lacedemonians. To that which was spoken
by the Council those of the envoys who were of Sparta replied, that as
to the truce they would refer the matter to their public
assembly,[136] but as to the leadership they had themselves been
commissioned to make reply, and did in fact say this, namely that they
had two kings, while the Argives had one; and it was not possible to
remove either of the two who were of Sparta from the leadership, but
there was nothing to prevent the Argive king from having an equal vote
with each of their two. Then, say the Argives, they could not endure
the grasping selfishness of the Spartans, but chose to be ruled by the
Barbarians rather than to yield at all to the Lacedemonians; and they
gave notice to the envoys to depart out of the territory of the
Argives before sunset, or, if not, they would be dealt with as

150. The Argives themselves report so much about these matters: but
there is another story reported in Hellas to the effect that Xerxes
sent a herald to Argos before he set forth to make an expedition
against Hellas, and this herald, they say, when he had come, spoke as
follows: "Men of Argos, king Xerxes says to you these things:--We hold
that Perses, from whom we are descended, was the son of Perseus, the
son of Danae, and was born of the daughter of Kepheus, Andromeda; and
according to this it would seem that we are descended from you. It is
not fitting then that we should go forth on an expedition against
those from whom we trace our descent, nor that ye should set
yourselves in opposition to us by rendering assistance to others; but
it is fitting that ye keep still and remain by yourselves: for if
things happen according to my mind, I shall not esteem any people to
be of greater consequence than you." Having heard this the Argives, it
is said, considered it a great matter; and therefore at first they
made no offer of help nor did they ask for any share; but afterwards,
when the Hellenes tried to get them on their side, then, since they
knew well that the Lacedemonians would not give them a share in the
command, they asked for this merely in order that they might have a
pretext for remaining still. 151. Also some of the Hellenes report
that the following event, in agreement with this account, came to pass
many years after these things:--there happened, they say, to be in
Susa the city of Memnon[137] envoys of the Athenians come about some
other matter, namely Callias the son of Hipponicos and the others who
went up with him; and the Argives at that very time had also sent
envoys to Susa, and these asked Artoxerxes the son of Xerxes, whether
the friendship which they had formed with Xerxes still remained
unbroken, if they themselves desired to maintain it,[138] or whether
they were esteemed by him to be enemies; and king Artoxerxes said that
it most certainly remained unbroken, and that there was no city which
he considered to be more his friend than Argos. 152. Now whether
Xerxes did indeed send a herald to Argos saying that which has been
reported, and whether envoys of the Argives who had gone up to Susa
inquired of Artoxerxes concerning friendship, I am not able to say for
certain; nor do I declare any opinion about the matters in question
other than that which the Argives themselves report: but I know this
much, that if all the nations of men should bring together into one
place the evils which they have suffered themselves, desiring to make
exchange with their neighbours, each people of them, when they had
examined closely the evils suffered by their fellows, would gladly
carry away back with them those which they had brought.[139] Thus it
is not the Argives who have acted most basely of all. I however am
bound to report that which is reported, though I am not bound
altogether to believe it; and let this saying be considered to hold
good as regards every narrative in the history: for I must add that
this also is reported, namely that the Argives were actually those who
invited the Persian to invade Hellas, because their war with the
Lacedemonians had had an evil issue, being willing to suffer anything
whatever rather than the trouble which was then upon them.

153. That which concerns the Argives has now been said: and meanwhile
envoys had come to Sicily from the allies, to confer with Gelon, among
whom was also Syagros from the Lacedemonians. Now the ancestor of this
Gelon, he who was at Gela as a settler,[140] was a native of the
island of Telos, which lies off Triopion; and when Gela was founded by
the Lindians of Rhodes and by Antiphemos, he was not left behind. Then
in course of time his descendants became and continued to be priests
of the mysteries of the Earth goddesses,[141] an office which was
acquired by Telines one of their ancestors in the following manner:--
certain of the men of Gela, being worsted in a party struggle, had
fled to Mactorion, the city which stands above Gela: these men Telines
brought back to Gela from exile with no force of men but only with the
sacred rites of these goddesses; but from whom he received them, or
whether he obtained them for himself,[142] this I am not able to say;
trusting in these however, he brought the men back from exile, on the
condition that his descendants should be priests of the mysteries of
the goddesses. To me it has caused wonder also that Telines should
have been able to perform so great a deed, considering that which I am
told; for such deeds, I think, are not apt to proceed from every man,
but from one who has a brave spirit and manly vigour, whereas Telines
is said by the dwellers in Sicily to have been on the contrary a man
of effeminate character and rather poor spirit. 154. He then had thus
obtained the privilege of which I speak: and when Cleander the son of
Pantares brought his life to an end, having been despot of Gela for
seven years and being killed at last by Sabyllos a man of Gela, then
Hippocrates succeeded to the monarchy, who was brother of Cleander.
And while Hippocrates was despot, Gelon, who was a descendant of
Telines the priest of the mysteries, was spearman of the guard[143] to
Hippocrates with many others and among them Ainesidemos the son of
Pataicos. Then after no long time he was appointed by reason of valour
to be commander of the whole cavalry; for when Hippocrates besieged
successively the cities of Callipolis, Naxos, Zancle, Leontini, and
also Syracuse and many towns of the Barbarians, in these wars Gelon
showed himself a most brilliant warrior; and of the cities which I
just now mentioned, not one except Syracuse escaped being reduced to
subjection by Hippocrates: the Syracusans however, after they had been
defeated in battle at the river Eloros, were rescued by the
Corinthians and Corcyreans; these rescued them and brought the quarrel
to a settlement on this condition, namely that the Syracusans should
deliver up Camarina to Hippocrates. Now Camarina used in ancient time
to belong to the men of Syracuse. 155. Then when it was the fate of
Hippocrates also, after having been despot for the same number of
years as his brother Cleander, to be killed at the city of Hybla,
whither he had gone on an expedition against the Sikelians, then Gelon
made a pretence of helping the sons of Hippocrates, Eucleides and
Cleander, when the citizens were no longer willing to submit; but
actually, when he had been victorious in a battle over the men of
Gela, he robbed the sons of Hippocrates of the power and was ruler
himself. After this stroke of fortune Gelon restored those of the
Syracusans who were called "land-holders,"[144] after they had been
driven into exile by the common people and by their own slaves, who
were called Kyllyrians,[145] these, I say, he restored from the city
of Casmene to Syracuse, and so got possession of this last city also,
for the common people of Syracuse, when Gelon came against them,
delivered up to him their city and themselves. 156. So after he had
received Syracuse into his power, he made less account of Gela, of
which he was ruler also in addition, and he gave it in charge to
Hieron his brother, while he proceeded to strengthen Syracuse. So
forthwith that city rose and shot up to prosperity; for in the first
place he brought all those of Camarina to Syracuse and made them
citizens, and razed to the ground the city of Camarina; then secondly
he did the same to more than half of the men of Gela, as he had done
to those of Camarina: and as regards the Megarians of Sicily, when
they were besieged and had surrendered by capitulation, the well-to-do
men[146] of them, though they had stirred up war with him and expected
to be put to death for this reason, he brought to Syracuse and made
them citizens, but the common people of the Megarians, who had no
share in the guilt of this war and did not expect that they would
suffer any evil, these also he brought to Syracuse and sold them as
slaves to be carried away from Sicily: and the same thing he did
moreover to the men of Euboia in Sicily, making a distinction between
them: and he dealt thus with these two cities because he thought that
a body of commons was a most unpleasant element in the State.

157. In the manner then which has been described Gelon had become a
powerful despot; and at this time when the envoys of the Hellenes had
arrived at Syracuse, they came to speech with him and said as follows:
"The Lacedemonians and their allies sent us to get thee to be on our
side against the Barbarian; for we suppose that thou art certainly
informed of him who is about to invade Hellas, namely that a Persian
is designing to bridge over the Hellespont, and to make an expedition
against Hellas, leading against us out of Asia all the armies of the
East, under colour of marching upon Athens, but in fact meaning to
bring all Hellas to subjection under him. Do thou therefore, seeing
that[147] thou hast attained to a great power and hast no small
portion of Hellas for thy share, being the ruler of Sicily, come to
the assistance of those who are endeavouring to free Hellas, and join
in making her free; for if all Hellas be gathered together in one, it
forms a great body, and we are made a match in fight for those who are
coming against us; but if some of us go over to the enemy and others
are not willing to help, and the sound portion of Hellas is
consequently small, there is at once in this a danger that all Hellas
may fall to ruin. For do not thou hope that if the Persian shall
overcome us in battle he will not come to thee, but guard thyself
against this beforehand; for in coming to our assistance thou art
helping thyself; and the matter which is wisely planned has for the
most part a good issue afterwards." 158. The envoys spoke thus; and
Gelon was very vehement with them, speaking to them as follows:
"Hellenes, a selfish speech is this, with which ye have ventured to
come and invite me to be your ally against the Barbarian; whereas ye
yourselves, when I in former time requested of you to join with me in
fighting against an army of Barbarians, contention having arisen
between me and the Carthaginians, and when I charged you to exact
vengeance of the men of Egesta for the death of Dorieos the son of
Anaxandrides,[148] while at the same time I offered to help in setting
free the trading-places, from which great advantages and gains have
been reaped by you,--ye, I say, then neither for my own sake came to
my assistance, nor in order to exact vengeance for the death of
Dorieos; and, so far as ye are concerned, all these parts are even now
under the rule of Barbarians. But since it turned out well for us and
came to a better issue, now that the war has come round and reached
you, there has at last arisen in your minds a recollection of Gelon.
However, though I have met with contempt at your hands, I will not act
like you; but I am prepared to come to your assistance, supplying two
hundred triremes and twenty thousand hoplites, with two thousand
horsemen, two thousand bowmen, two thousand slingers and two thousand
light-armed men to run beside the horsemen; and moreover I will
undertake to supply corn for the whole army of the Hellenes, until we
have finished the war. These things I engage to supply on this
condition, namely that I shall be commander and leader of the Hellenes
against the Barbarian; but on any other condition I will neither come
myself nor will I send others." 159. Hearing this Syagros could not
contain himself but spoke these words: "Deeply, I trow, would
Agamemnon son of Pelops lament,[149] if he heard that the Spartans had
had the leadership taken away from them by Gelon and by the
Syracusans. Nay, but make thou no further mention of this condition,
namely that we should deliver the leadership to thee; but if thou art
desirous to come to the assistance of Hellas, know that thou wilt be
under the command of the Lacedemonians; and if thou dost indeed claim
not to be under command, come not thou to our help at all."

160. To this Gelon, seeing that the speech of Syagros was adverse, set
forth to them his last proposal thus: "Stranger from Sparta,
reproaches sinking into the heart of a man are wont to rouse his
spirit in anger against them; thou however, though thou hast uttered
insults against me in thy speech, wilt not bring me to show myself
unseemly in my reply. But whereas ye so strongly lay claim to the
leadership, it were fitting that I should lay claim to it more than
ye, seeing that I am the leader of an army many times as large and of
ships many more. Since however this condition is so distasteful to
you,[150] we will recede somewhat from our former proposal. Suppose
that ye should be leaders of the land-army and I of the fleet; or if
it pleases you to lead the sea-forces, I am willing to be leader of
those on land; and either ye must be contented with these terms or go
away without the alliance which I have to give." 161. Gelon, I say,
made these offers, and the envoy of the Athenians, answering before
that of the Lacedemonians, replied to him as follows: "O king of the
Syracusans, it was not of a leader that Hellas was in want when it
sent us to thee, but of an army. Thou however dost not set before us
the hope that thou wilt send an army, except thou have the leadership
of Hellas; and thou art striving how thou mayest become commander of
the armies of Hellas. So long then as it was thy demand to be leader
of the whole army of the Hellenes, it was sufficient for us Athenians
to keep silence, knowing that the Lacedemonian would be able to make
defence even for us both; but now, since being repulsed from the
demand for the whole thou art requesting to be commander of the naval
force, we tell that thus it is:--not even if the Lacedemonian shall
permit thee to be commander of it, will we permit thee; for this at
least is our own, if the Lacedemonians do not themselves desire to
have it. With these, if they desire to be the leaders, we do not
contend; but none others beside ourselves shall we permit to be in
command of the ships: for then to no purpose should we be possessors
of a sea-force larger than any other which belongs to the Hellenes,
if, being Athenians, we should yield the leadership to Syracusans, we
who boast of a race which is the most ancient of all and who are of
all the Hellenes the only people who have not changed from one land to
another; to whom also belonged a man whom Homer the Epic poet said was
the best of all who came to Ilion in drawing up an army and setting it
in array.[151] Thus we are not justly to be reproached if we say these
things." 162. To this Gelon made answer thus: "Stranger of Athens, it
would seem that ye have the commanders, but that ye will not have the
men to be commanded. Since then ye will not at all give way, but
desire to have the whole, it were well that ye should depart home as
quickly as possible and report to the Hellenes that the spring has
been taken out of their year." Now this is the meaning of the saying:
--evidently the spring is the noblest part of the year; and so he
meant to say that his army was the noblest part of the army of the
Hellenes: for Hellas therefore, deprived of his alliance, it was, he
said, as if the spring had been taken out of the year.[152]

163. The envoys of the Hellenes, having thus had conference with
Gelon, sailed away; and Gelon upon this, fearing on the one hand about
the Hellenes, lest they should not be able to overcome the Barbarian,
and on the other hand considering it monstrous and not to be endured
that he should come to Peloponnesus and be under the command of the
Lacedemonians, seeing that he was despot of Sicily, gave up the
thought of this way and followed another: for so soon as he was
informed that the Persian had crossed over the Hellespont, he sent
Cadmos the son of Skythes, a man of Cos, with three fifty-oared
galleys to Delphi, bearing large sums of money and friendly proposals,
to wait there and see how the battle would fall out: and if the
Barbarian should be victorious, he was to give him the money and also
to offer him earth and water from those over whom Gelon had rule; but
if the Hellenes should be victorious, he was bidden to bring it back.
164. Now this Cadmos before these events, having received from his
father in a prosperous state the government[153] of the people of Cos,
had voluntarily and with no danger threatening, but moved merely by
uprightness of nature, placed the government in the hands of the
people of Cos[154] and had departed to Sicily, where he took from[155]
the Samians and newly colonised the city of Zancle, which had changed
its name to Messene. This same Cadmos, having come thither in such
manner as I have said, Gelon was now sending, having selected him on
account of the integrity which in other matters he had himself found
to be in him; and this man, in addition to the other upright acts
which had been done by him, left also this to be remembered, which was
not the least of them: for having got into his hands that great sum of
money which Gelon entrusted to his charge, though he might have taken
possession of it himself he did not choose to do so; but when the
Hellenes had got the better in the sea-fight and Xerxes had marched
away and departed, he also returned to Sicily bringing back with him
the whole sum of money.

165. The story which here follows is also reported by those who dwell
in Sicily, namely that, even though he was to be under the command of
the Lacedemonians, Gelon would have come to the assistance of the
Hellenes, but that Terillos, the son of Crinippos and despot of
Himera, having been driven out of Himera by Theron the son of
Ainesidemos[156] the ruler of the Agrigentines, was just at this very
time bringing in an army of Phenicians, Libyans, Iberians, Ligurians,
Elisycans, Sardinians and Corsicans, to the number of thirty
myriads,[157] with Amilcas the son of Annon king of the Carthaginians
as their commander, whom Terillos had persuaded partly by reason of
his own guest-friendship, and especially by the zealous assistance of
Anaxilaos the son of Cretines, who was despot of Rhegion, and who to
help his father-in-law endeavoured to bring in Amilcas to Sicily, and
had given him his sons as hostages; for Anaxilaos was married to the
daughter of Terillos, whose name was Kydippe. Thus it was, they say,
that Gelon was not able to come to the assistance of the Hellenes, and
sent therefore the money to Delphi. 166. In addition to this they
report also that, as it happened, Gelon and Theron were victorious
over Amilcas the Carthaginian on the very same day when the Hellenes
were victorious at Salamis over the Persian. And this Amilcas, who was
a Carthaginian on the father's side but on the mother's Syracusan, and
who had become king of the Carthaginians by merit, when the engagement
took place and he was being worsted in the battle, disappeared, as I
am informed; for neither alive nor dead did he appear again anywhere
upon the earth, though Gelon used all diligence in the search for him.
167. Moreover there is also this story reported by the Carthaginians
themselves, who therein relate that which is probable in itself,
namely that while the Barbarians fought with the Hellenes in Sicily
from the early morning till late in the afternoon (for to such a
length the combat is said to have been protracted), during this time
Amilcas was remaining in the camp and was making sacrifices to get
good omens of success, offering whole bodies of victims upon a great
pyre: and when he saw that there was a rout of his own army, he being
then, as it chanced, in the act of pouring a libation over the
victims, threw himself into the fire, and thus he was burnt up and
disappeared. Amilcas then having disappeared, whether it was in such a
manner as this, as it is reported by the Phenicians, or in some other
way,[159] the Carthaginians both offer sacrifices to him now, and also
they made memorials of him then in all the cities of their colonies,
and the greatest in Carthage itself.

168. So far of the affairs of Sicily: and as for the Corcyreans, they
made answer to the envoys as follows, afterwards acting as I shall
tell: for the same men who had gone to Sicily endeavoured also to
obtain the help of these, saying the same things which they said to
Gelon; and the Corcyreans at the time engaged to send a force and to
help in the defence, declaring that they must not permit Hellas to be
ruined without an effort on their part, for if it should suffer
disaster, they would be reduced to subjection from the very first day;
but they must give assistance so far as lay in their power. Thus
speciously they made reply; but when the time came to send help, they
manned sixty ships, having other intentions in their minds, and after
making much difficulty they put out to sea and reached Peloponnese;
and then near Pylos and Tainaron in the land of the Lacedemonians they
kept their ships at anchor, waiting, as Gelon did, to see how the war
would turn out: for they did not expect that the Hellenes would
overcome, but thought that the Persian would gain the victory over
them with ease and be ruler of all Hellas. Accordingly they were
acting of set purpose, in order that they might be able to say to the
Persian some such words as these: "O king, when the Hellenes
endeavoured to obtain our help for this war, we, who have a power
which is not the smallest of all, and could have supplied a contingent
of ships in number not the smallest, but after the Athenians the
largest, did not choose to oppose thee or to do anything which was not
to thy mind." By speaking thus they hoped that they would obtain some
advantage over the rest, and so it would have happened, as I am of
opinion: while they had for the Hellenes an excuse ready made, that
namely of which they actually made use: for when the Hellenes
reproached them because they did not come to help, they said that they
had manned sixty triremes, but had not been able to get past Malea
owing to the Etesian Winds; therefore it was that they had not come to
Salamis, nor was it by any want of courage on their part that they had
been left of the sea-fight.

169. These then evaded the request of the Hellenes thus: but the
Cretans, when those of the Hellenes who had been appointed to deal
with these endeavoured to obtain their help, did thus, that is to say,
they joined together and sent men to inquire of the god at Delphi
whether it would be better for them if they gave assistance to Hellas:
and the Pythian prophetess answered: "Ye fools, do ye think those woes
too few,[160] which Minos sent upon you in his wrath,[161] because of
the assistance that ye gave to Menelaos? seeing that, whereas they did
not join with you in taking vengeance for his death in Camicos, ye
nevertheless joined with them in taking vengeance for the woman who by
a Barbarian was carried off from Sparta." When the Cretans heard this
answer reported, they abstained from the giving of assistance. 170.
For the story goes that Minos, having come to Sicania, which is now
called Sicily, in search of Daidalos, died there by a violent death;
and after a time the Cretans, urged thereto by a god, all except the
men of Polichne and Praisos, came with a great armament to Sicania and
besieged for seven years the city of Camicos, which in my time was
occupied by the Agrigentines; and at last not being able either to
capture it or to remain before it, because they were hard pressed by
famine, they departed and went away. And when, as they sailed, they
came to be off the coast of Iapygia, a great storm seized them and
cast them away upon the coast; and their vessels being dashed to
pieces, they, since they saw no longer any way of coming to Crete,
founded there the city of Hyria; and there they stayed and were
changed so that they became instead of Cretans, Messapians of Iapygia,
and instead of islanders, dwellers on the mainland: then from the city
of Hyria they founded those other settlements which the Tarentines
long afterwards endeavoured to destroy and suffer great disaster in
that enterprise, so that this in fact proved to be the greatest
slaughter of Hellenes that is known to us, and not only of the
Tarentines themselves but of those citizens of Rhegion who were
compelled by Mikythos the son of Choiros to go to the assistance of
the Tarentines, and of whom there were slain in this manner three
thousand men: of the Tarentines themselves however, who were slain
there, there was no numbering made. This Mikythos, who was a servant
of Anaxilaos, had been left by him in charge of Rhegion; and he it was
who after being driven out of Rhegion took up his abode at Tegea of
the Arcadians and dedicated those many statues at Olympia. 171. This
of the men of Rhegion and of the Tarentines has been an episode[162]
in my narrative: in Crete however, as the men of Praisos report, after
it had been thus stripped of inhabitants, settlements were made by
various nations, but especially by Hellenes; and in the next
generation but one after the death of Minos came the Trojan war, in
which the Cretans proved not the most contemptible of those who came
to assist Menelaos. Then after this, when they had returned home from
Troy, famine and pestilence came upon both the men and their cattle,
until at last Crete was stripped of its inhabitants for the second
time, and a third population of Cretans now occupy it together with
those which were left of the former inhabitants. The Pythian
prophetess, I say, by calling these things to their minds stopped them
from giving assistance to the Hellenes, though they desired to do so.

172. As for the Thessalians, they at first had taken the side of the
Persians against their will, and they gave proof that they were not
pleased by that which the Aleuadai were designing; for so soon as they
heard that the Persian was about to cross over into Europe, they sent
envoys to the Isthmus: now at the Isthmus were assembled
representatives of Hellas chosen by the cities which had the better
mind about Hellas: having come then to these, the envoys of the
Thessalians said: "Hellenes, ye must guard the pass by Olympos, in
order that both Thessaly and the whole of Hellas may be sheltered from
the war. We are prepared to join with you in guarding it, but ye must
send a large force as well as we; for if ye shall not send, be assured
that we shall make agreement with the Persian; since it is not right
that we, standing as outposts so far in advance of the rest of Hellas,
should perish alone in your defence: and not being willing[163] to
come to our help, ye cannot apply to us any force to compel
inability;[164] but we shall endeavour to devise some means of safety
for ourselves." 173. Thus spoke the Thessalians; and the Hellenes upon
this resolved to send to Thessaly by sea an army of men on foot to
guard the pass: and when the army was assembled it set sail through
Euripos, and having come to Alos in the Achaian land, it disembarked
there and marched into Thessaly leaving the ships behind at Alos, and
arrived at Tempe, the pass which leads from lower Macedonia into
Thessaly by the river Peneios, going between the mountains of Olympos
and Ossa. There the Hellenes encamped, being assembled to the number
of about ten thousand hoplites, and to them was added the cavalry of
the Thessalians; and the commander of the Lacedemonians was Euainetos
the son of Carenos, who had been chosen from the polemarchs,[165] not
being of the royal house, and of the Athenians Themistocles the son of
Neocles. They remained however but few days here, for envoys came from
Alexander the son of Amyntas the Macedonian, who advised them to
depart thence and not to remain in the pass and be trodden under foot
by the invading host, signifying to them at the same time both the
great numbers of the army and the ships which they had. When these
gave them this counsel, they followed the advice, for they thought
that the counsel was good, and the Macedonian was evidently well-
disposed towards them. Also, as I think, it was fear that persuaded
them to it, when they were informed that there was another pass
besides this to the Thessalian land by upper Macedonia through the
Perraibians and by the city of Gonnos, the way by which the army of
Xerxes did in fact make its entrance. So the Hellenes went down to
their ships again and made their way back to the Isthmus.

174. Such was the expedition to Thessaly, which took place when the
king was about to cross over from Asia to Europe and was already at
Abydos. So the Thessalians, being stripped of allies, upon this took
the side of the Medes with a good will and no longer half-heartedly,
so that in the course of events they proved very serviceable to the

175. When the Hellenes had returned to the Isthmus, they deliberated,
having regard to that which had been said by Alexander, where and in
what regions they should set the war on foot: and the opinion which
prevailed was to guard the pass at Thermopylai; for it was seen to be
narrower than that leading into Thessaly, and at the same time it was
single,[166] and nearer also to their own land; and as for the path by
means of which were taken those of the Hellenes who were taken by the
enemy at Thermopylai, they did not even know of its existence until
they were informed by the people of Trachis after they had come to
Thermopylai. This pass then they resolved to guard, and not permit the
Barbarian to go by into Hellas; and they resolved that the fleet
should sail to Artemision in the territory of Histiaia: for these
points are near to one another, so that each division of their forces
could have information of what was happening to the other. And the
places are so situated as I shall describe. 176. As to Artemision
first, coming out of the Thracian Sea the space is contracted from
great width to that narrow channel which lies between the island of
Skiathos and the mainland of Magnesia; and after the strait there
follows at once in Eubœa the sea-beach called Artemision, upon which
there is a temple of Artemis. Then secondly the passage into Hellas by
Trechis is, where it is narrowest, but fifty feet wide: it is not here
however that the narrowest part of this whole region lies, but in
front of Thermopylai and also behind it, consisting of a single wheel-
track only[167] both by Alpenoi, which lies behind Thermopylai and
again by the river Phoinix near the town of Anthela there is no space
but a single wheel-track only: and on the West of Thermopylai there is
a mountain which is impassable and precipitous, rising up to a great
height and extending towards the range of Oite, while on the East of
the road the sea with swampy pools succeeds at once. In this passage
there are hot springs, which the natives of the place call the
"Pots,"[168] and an altar of Heracles is set up near them. Moreover a
wall had once been built at this pass, and in old times there was a
gate set in it; which wall was built by the Phokians, who were struck
with fear because the Thessalians had come from the land of the
Thesprotians to settle in the Aiolian land, the same which they now
possess. Since then the Thessalians, as they supposed, were attempting
to subdue them, the Phokians guarded themselves against this
beforehand; and at that time they let the water of the hot springs run
over the passage, that the place might be converted into a ravine, and
devised every means that the Thessalians might not make invasion of
their land. Now the ancient wall had been built long before, and the
greater part of it was by that time in ruins from lapse of time; the
Hellenes however resolved to set it up again, and at this spot to
repel the Barbarian from Hellas: and very near the road there is a
village called Alpenoi, from which the Hellenes counted on getting

177. These places then the Hellenes perceived to be such as their
purpose required; for they considered everything beforehand and
calculated that the Barbarians would not be able to take advantage
either of superior numbers or of cavalry, and therefore they resolved
here to receive the invader of Hellas: and when they were informed
that the Persian was in Pieria, they broke up from the Isthmus and set
forth for the campaign, some going to Thermopylai by land, and others
making for Artemision by sea.

178. The Hellenes, I say, were coming to the rescue with speed, having
been appointed to their several places: and meanwhile the men of
Delphi consulted the Oracle of the god on behalf of themselves and on
behalf of Hellas, being struck with dread; and a reply was given them
that they should pray to the Winds, for these would be powerful
helpers of Hellas in fight. So the Delphians, having accepted the
oracle, first reported the answer which had been given them to those
of the Hellenes who desired to be free; and having reported this to
them at a time when they were in great dread of the Barbarian, they
laid up for themselves an immortal store of gratitude: then after this
the men of Delphi established an altar for the Winds in Thuia, where
is the sacred enclosure of Thuia the daughter of Kephisos, after whom
moreover this place has its name; and also they approached them with

179. The Delphians then according to the oracle even to this day make
propitiary offerings to the Winds: and meanwhile the fleet of Xerxes
setting forth from the city of Therma had passed over with ten of its
ships, which were those that sailed best, straight towards Skiathos,
where three Hellenic ships, a Troizenian, an Eginetan and an Athenian,
were keeping watch in advance. When the crews of these caught sight of
the ships of the Barbarians, they set off to make their escape: 180,
and the ship of Troizen, of which Prexinos was in command, was pursued
and captured at once by the Barbarians; who upon that took the man who
was most distinguished by beauty among the fighting-men on board of
her,[169] and cut his throat at the prow of the ship, making a good
omen for themselves of the first of the Hellenes whom they had
captured who was pre-eminent for beauty. The name of this man who was
sacrificed was Leon, and perhaps he had also his name to thank in some
degree for what befell him. 181. The ship of Egina however, of which
Asonides was master, even gave them some trouble to capture it, seeing
that Pytheas the son of Ischenoös served as a fighting-man on board of
her, who proved himself a most valiant man on this day; for when the
ship was being taken, he held out fighting until he was hacked all to
pieces: and as when he had fallen he did not die, but had still breath
in him, the Persians who served as fighting-men on board the ships,
because of his valour used all diligence to save his life, both
applying unguents of myrrh to heal his wounds and also wrapping him up
in bands of the finest linen; and when they came back to their own
main body, they showed him to all the army, making a marvel of him and
giving him good treatment; but the rest whom they had taken in this
ship they treated as slaves. 182. Two of the three ships, I say, were
captured thus; but the third, of which Phormos an Athenian was master,
ran ashore in its flight at the mouth of the river Peneios; and the
Barbarians got possession of the vessel but not of the crew; for so
soon as the Athenians had run the ship ashore, they leapt out of her,
and passing through Thessaly made their way to Athens.

183. Of these things the Hellenes who were stationed at Artemision
were informed by fire-signals from Skiathos; and being informed of
them and being struck with fear, they removed their place of anchorage
from Atermision to Chalkis, intending to guard the Euripos, but
leaving at the same time watchers by day[170] on the heights of Eubœa.
Of the ten ships of the Barbarians three sailed up to the reef called
Myrmex,[171] which lies between Skiathos and Magnesia; and when the
Barbarians had there erected a stone pillar, which for that purpose
they brought to the reef, they set forth with their main body[172]
from Therma, the difficulties of the passage having now been cleared
away, and sailed thither with all their ships, having let eleven days
go by since the king set forth on his march from Therma. Now of this
reef lying exactly in the middle of the fairway they were informed by
Pammon of Skyros. Sailing then throughout the day the Barbarians
accomplished the voyage to Sepias in Magnesia and to the sea-beach
which is between the city of Casthanaia and the headland of Sepias.

184. So far as this place and so far as Thermopylai the army was
exempt from calamity; and the number was then still, as I find by
computation, this:--Of the ships which came from Asia, which were one
thousand two hundred and seven, the original number of the crews
supplied by the several nations I find to have been twenty-four
myriads and also in addition to them one thousand four hundred,[173]
if one reckons at the rate of two hundred men to each ship: and on
board of each of these ships there served as fighting-men,[174]
besides the fighting-men belonging to its own nation in each case,
thirty men who were Persians, Medes, or Sacans; and this amounts to
three myriads six thousand two hundred and ten[175] in addition to the
others. I will add also to this and to the former number the crews of
the fifty-oared galleys, assuming that there were eighty men, more or
less,[176] in each one. Of these vessels there were gathered together,
as was before said, three thousand: it would follow therefore that
there were in them four-and-twenty myriads[177] of men. This was the
naval force which came from Asia, amounting in all to fifty-one
myriads and also seven thousand six hundred and ten in addition.[178]
Then of the footmen there had been found to be a hundred and seventy
myriads,[179] and of the horsemen eight myriads:[180] and I will add
also to these the Arabian camel-drivers and the Libyan drivers of
chariots, assuming them to amount to twenty thousand men. The result
is then that the number of the ships' crews combined with that of the
land-army amounts to two hundred and thirty-one myriads and also in
addition seven thousand six hundred and ten.[181] This is the
statement of the Army which was brought up out of Asia itself, without
counting the attendants which accompanied it or the corn-transports
and the men who sailed in these. 185. There is still to be reckoned,
in addition to all this which has been summed up, the force which was
being led from Europe; and of this we must give a probable
estimate.[182] The Hellenes of Thrace and of the islands which lie off
the coast of Thrace supplied a hundred and twenty ships; from which
ships there results a sum of twenty-four thousand men: and as regards
the land-force which was supplied by the Thracians, Paionians,
Eordians, Bottiaians, the race which inhabits Chalkidike, the
Brygians, Pierians, Macedonians, Perraibians, Enianians,[183]
Dolopians, Magnesians, Achaians, and all those who dwell in the coast-
region of Thrace, of these various nations I estimate that there were
thirty myriads.[184] These myriads then added to those from Asia make
a total sum of two hundred and sixty-four myriads of fighting men and
in addition to these sixteen hundred and ten.[185] 186. Such being the
number of this body of fighting-men,[186] the attendants who went with
these and the men who were in the small vessels[187] which carried
corn, and again in the other vessels which sailed with the army, these
I suppose were not less in number but more than the fighting men. I
assume them to be equal in number with these, and neither at all more
nor less; and so, being supposed equal in number with the fighting
body, they make up the same number of myriads as they. Thus five
hundred and twenty-eight myriads three thousand two hundred and
twenty[188] was the number of men whom Xerxes son of Dareios led as
far as Sepias and Thermopylai. 187. This is the number of the whole
army of Xerxes; but of the women who made bread for it, and of the
concubines and eunuchs no man can state any exact number, nor again of
the draught-animals and other beasts of burden or of the Indian
hounds, which accompanied it, could any one state the number by reason
of their multitude: so that it does not occur to me to wonder that the
streams of some rivers should have failed them, but I wonder rather
how the provisions were sufficient to feed so many myriads; for I find
on computation that if each man received a quart[189] of wheat every
day and nothing more, there would be expended every day eleven myriads
of /medimnoi/[190] and three hundred and forty /medimnoi/ besides: and
here I am not reckoning anything for the women, eunuchs, baggage-
animals, or dogs. Of all these men, amounting to so many myriads, not
one was for beauty and stature more worthy than Xerxes himself to
possess this power.

188. The fleet, I say, set forth and sailed: and when it had put in to
land in the region of Magnesia at the beach which is between the city
of Casthanaia and the headland of Sepias, the first of the ships which
came lay moored by the land and the others rode at anchor behind them;
for, as the beach was not large in extent, they lay at anchor with
prows projecting[191] towards the sea in an order which was eight
ships deep. For that night they lay thus; but at early dawn, after
clear sky and windless calm, the sea began to be violently agitated
and a great storm fell upon them with a strong East[192] Wind, that
wind which they who dwell about those parts call Hellespontias. Now as
many of them as perceived that the wind was rising and who were so
moored that it was possible for them to do so, drew up their ships on
land before the storm came, and both they and their ships escaped; but
as for those of the ships which it caught out at sea, some it cast
away at the place called Ipnoi[193] in Pelion and others on the beach,
while some were wrecked on the headland of Sepias itself, others at
the city of Meliboia, and others were thrown up on shore[194] at
Casthanaia: and the violence of the storm could not be resisted. 189.
There is a story reported that the Athenians had called upon Boreas to
aid them, by suggestion of an oracle, because there had come to them
another utterance of the god bidding them call upon their brother by
marriage to be their helper. Now according to the story of the
Hellenes Boreas has a wife who is of Attica, Oreithuia the daughter of
Erechththeus. By reason of this affinity, I say, the Athenians,
according to the tale which has gone abroad, conjectured that their
"brother by marriage" was Boreas, and when they perceived the wind
rising, as they lay with their ships at Chalkis in Eubœa, or even
before that, they offered sacrifices and called upon Boreas and
Oreithuia to assist them and to destroy the ships of the Barbarians,
as they had done before round about mount Athos. Whether it was for
this reason that the wind Boreas fell upon the Barbarians while they
lay at anchor, I am not able to say; but however that may be, the
Athenians report that Boreas had come to their help in former times,
and that at this time he accomplished those things for them of which I
speak; and when they had returned home they set up a temple dedicated
to Boreas by the river Ilissos.

190. In this disaster the number of the ships which were lost was not
less than four hundred, according to the report of those who state the
number which is lowest, with men innumerable and an immense quantity
of valuable things; insomuch that to Ameinocles the son of Cretines, a
Magnesian who held lands about Sepias, this shipwreck proved very
gainful; for he picked up many cups of gold which were thrown up
afterwards on the shore, and many also of silver, and found treasure-
chests[195] which had belonged to the Persians, and made acquisition
of other things of gold[196] more than can be described. This man
however, though he became very wealthy by the things which he found,
yet in other respects was not fortunate; for he too suffered
misfortune, being troubled by the slaying of a child.[197] 191. Of the
corn-transplants and other vessels which perished there was no
numbering made; and so great was the loss that the commanders of the
fleet, being struck with fear lest the Thessalians should attack them
now that they had been brought into an evil plight, threw round their
camp a lofty palisade built of the fragments of wreck. For the storm
continued during three days; but at last the Magians, making sacrifice
of victims and singing incantations to appease the Wind by
enchantments,[198] and in addition to this, offering to Thetis and the
Nereļds, caused it to cease on the fourth day, or else for some other
reason it abated of its own will. Now they offered sacrifice to
Thetis, being informed by the Ionians of the story that she was
carried off from the place by Peleus, and that the whole headland of
Sepias belonged to her and to the other Nereļds. 192. The storm then
had ceased on the fourth day; and meanwhile the day-watchers had run
down from the heights of Eubœa on the day after the first storm began,
and were keeping the Hellenes informed of all that had happened as
regards the shipwreck. They then, being informed of it, prayed first
to Poseidon the Saviour and poured libations, and then they hastened
to go back to Artemision, expecting that there would be but a very few
ships of the enemy left to come against them. 193. They, I say, came
for the second time and lay with their ships about Artemision: and
from that time even to this they preserve the use of the surname
"Saviour" for Poseidon. Meanwhile the Barbarians, when the wind had
ceased and the swell of the sea had calmed down, drew their ships into
the sea and sailed on along the shore of the mainland, and having
rounded the extremity of Magnesia they sailed straight into the gulf
which leads towards Pagasai. In this gulf of Magnesia there is a place
where it is said that Heracles was left behind by Jason and his
comrades, having been sent from the Argo to fetch water, at the time
when they were sailing for the fleece to Aia in the land of Colchis:
for from that place they designed, when they had taken in water, to
loose[199] their ship into the open sea; and from this the place has
come to have the name Aphetai. Here then the fleet of Xerxes took up
its moorings.

194. Now it chanced that fifteen of these ships put out to sea a good
deal later than the rest, and they happened to catch sight of the
ships of the Hellenes at Artemision. These ships the Barbarians
supposed to be their own, and they sailed thither accordingly and fell
among the enemy. Of these the commander was Sandokes the son of
Thamasios, the governor of Kyme in Aiolia, whom before this time king
Dareios had taken and crucified (he being one of the Royal Judges) for
this reason,[199a] namely that Sandokes had pronounced judgment
unjustly for money. So then after he was hung up, Dareios reckoned and
found that more good services had been done by him to the royal house
than were equal to his offences; and having found this, and perceived
that he had himself acted with more haste than wisdom, he let him go.
Thus he escaped from king Dareios, and did not perish but survived;
now, however, when he sailed in toward the Hellenes, he was destined
not to escape the second time; for when the Hellenes saw them sailing
up, perceiving the mistake which was being made they put out against
them and captured them without difficulty. 195. Sailing in one of
these ships Aridolis was captured, the despot of Alabanda in Caria,
and in another the Paphian commander Penthylos son of Demonoös, who
brought twelve ships from Paphos, but had lost eleven of them in the
storm which had come on by Sepias, and now was captured sailing in
towards Artemision with the one which had escaped. These men the
Hellenes sent away in bonds to the Isthmus of the Corinthians, after
having inquired of them that which they desired to learn of the army
of Xerxes.

196. The fleet of the Barbarians then, except the fifteen ships of
which I said that Sandokes was in command, had arrived at Aphetai; and
Xerxes meanwhile with the land-army, having marched through Thessalia
and Achaia, had already entered the land of the Malians two days
before,[200] after having held in Thessaly a contest for his own
horses, making trial also of the Thessalian cavalry, because he was
informed that it was the best of all among the Hellenes; and in this
trial the horses of Hellas were far surpassed by the others. Now of
the rivers in Thessalia the Onochonos alone failed to suffice by its
stream for the drinking of the army; but of the rivers which flow in
Achaia even that which is the largest of them, namely Epidanos, even
this, I say, held out but barely.

197. When Xerxes had reached Alos of Achaia, the guides who gave him
information of the way, wishing to inform him fully of everything,
reported to him a legend of the place, the things, namely, which have
to do with the temple of Zeus Laphystios;[201] how Athamas the son of
Aiolos contrived death for Phrixos, having taken counsel with Ino, and
after this how by command of an oracle the Achaians propose to his
descendants the following tasks to be performed:--whosoever is the
eldest of this race, on him they lay an injunction that he is
forbidden to enter the City Hall,[202] and they themselves keep watch;
now the City Hall is called by the Achaians the "Hall of the
People";[203] and if he enter it, it may not be that he shall come
forth until he is about to be sacrificed. They related moreover in
addition to this, that many of these who were about to be sacrificed
had before now run away and departed to another land, because they
were afraid; and if afterwards in course of time they returned to
their own land and were caught, they were placed[204] in the City
Hall: and they told how the man is sacrificed all thickly covered with
wreaths, and with what form of procession he is brought forth to the
sacrifice. This is done to the descendants of Kytissoros the son of
Phrixos, because, when the Achaians were making of Athamas the son of
Aiolos a victim to purge the sins of the land according to the command
of an oracle, and were just about to sacrifice him, this Kytissoros
coming from Aia of the Colchians rescued him; and having done so he
brought the wrath of the gods upon his own descendants. Having heard
these things, Xerxes, when he came to the sacred grove, both abstained
from entering it himself, and gave the command to his whole army to so
likewise; and he paid reverence both to the house and to the sacred
enclosure of the descendants of Athamas.

198. These then are the things which happened in Thessalia and in
Achaia; and from these regions he proceeded to the Malian land, going
along by a gulf of the sea, in which there is an ebb and flow of the
tide every day. Round about this gulf there is a level space, which in
parts is broad but in other parts very narrow; and mountains lofty and
inaccessible surrounding this place enclose the whole land of Malis
and are called the rocks of Trachis. The first city upon this gulf as
one goes from Achaia is Antikyra, by which the river Spercheios
flowing from the land of the Enianians[205] runs out into the sea. At
a distance of twenty furlongs[206] or thereabouts from this river
there is another, of which the name is Dyras; this is said to have
appeared that it might bring assistance to Heracles when he was
burning: then again at a distance of twenty furlongs from this there
is another river called Melas. 199. From this river Melas the city of
Trachis is distant five furlongs; and here, in the parts where Trachis
is situated, is even the widest portion of all this district, as
regards the space from the mountains to the sea; for the plain has an
extent of twenty-two thousand /plethra/.[207] In the mountain-range
which encloses the land of Trachis there is a cleft to the South of
Trachis itself; and through this cleft the river Asopos flows, and
runs along by the foot of the mountain. 200. There is also another
river called Phoinix, to the South of the Asopos, of no great size,
which flowing from these mountains runs out into the Asopos; and at
the river Phoinix is the narrowest place, for here has been
constructed a road with a single wheel-track only. Then from the river
Phoinix it is a distance of fifteen furlongs to Thermopylai; and in
the space between the river Phoinix and Thermopylai there is a village
called Anthela, by which the river Asopos flows, and so runs out into
the sea; and about this village there is a wide space in which is set
up a temple dedicated to Demeter of the Amphictyons, and there are
seats for the Amphictyonic councillors and a temple dedicated to
Amphictyon himself.

201. King Xerxes, I say, was encamped within the region of Trachis in
the land of the Malians, and the Hellenes within the pass. This place
is called by the Hellenes in general Thermopylai, but by the natives
of the place and those who dwell in the country round it is called
Pylai. Both sides then were encamped hereabout, and the one had
command of all that lies beyond Trachis[208] in the direction of the
North Wind, and the others of that which tends towards the South Wind
and the mid-day on this side of the continent.[209]

202. These were the Hellenes who awaited the attack of the Persian in
this place:--of the Spartans three hundred hoplites; of the men of
Tegea and Mantineia a thousand, half from each place, from Orchomenos
in Arcadia a hundred and twenty, and from the rest of Arcadia a
thousand,--of the Arcadians so many; from Corinth four hundred, from
Phlius two hundred, and of the men of Mykene eighty: these were they
who came from the Peloponnese; and from the Bœotians seven hundred of
the Thespians, and of the Thebans four hundred. 203. In addition to
these the Locrians of Opus had been summoned to come in their full
force, and of the Phokians a thousand: for the Hellenes had of
themselves sent a summons to them, saying by messengers that they had
come as forerunners of the others, that the rest of the allies were to
be expected every day, that their sea was safely guarded, being
watched by the Athenians and the Eginetans and by those who had been
appointed to serve in the fleet, and that they need fear nothing: for
he was not a god, they said, who was coming to attack Hellas, but a
man; and there was no mortal, nor would be any, with those fortunes
evil had not been mingled at his very birth, and the greatest evils
for the greatest men; therefore he also who was marching against them,
being mortal, would be destined to fail of his expectation. They
accordingly, hearing this, came to the assistance of the others at

204. Of these troops, although there were other commanders also
according to the State to which each belonged, yet he who was most
held in regard and who was leader of the whole army was the
Lacedemonian Leonidas son of Anaxandrides, son of Leon, son of
Eurycratides, son of Anaxander, son of Eurycrates, son of Polydoros,
son of Alcamenes, son of Teleclos, son of Archelaos, son of
Hegesilaos, son of Doryssos, son of Leobotes, son of Echestratos, son
of Agis, son of Eurysthenes, son of Aristodemos, son of Aristomachos,
son of Cleodaios, son of Hyllos, son of Heracles; who had obtained the
kingdom of Sparta contrary to expectation. 205. For as he had two
brothers each older than himself, namely Cleomenes and Dorieos, he had
been far removed from the thought of becoming king. Since however
Cleomenes had died without male child, and Dorieos was then no longer
alive, but he also had brought his life to an end in Sicily,[210] thus
the kingdom came to Leonidas, both because was of elder birth than
Cleombrotos (for Cleombrotos was the youngest of the sons of
Anaxandrides) and also because he had in marriage the daughter of
Cleomenes. He then at this time went to Thermopylai, having chosen the
three hundred who were appointed by law[211] and men who chanced to
have sons; and he took with him besides, before he arrived, those
Thebans whom I mentioned when I reckoned them in the number of the
troops, of whom the commander was Leontiades the son of Eurymachos:
and for this reason Leonidas was anxious to take up these with him of
all the Hellenes, namely because accusations had been strongly brought
against them that they were taking the side of the Medes; therefore he
summoned them to the war, desiring to know whether they would send
troops with them or whether they would openly renounce the alliance of
the Hellenes; and they sent men, having other thoughts in their mind
the while.

206. These with Leonidas the Spartans had sent out first, in order
that seeing them the other allies might join in the campaign, and for
fear that they also might take the side of the Medes, if they heard
that the Spartans were putting off their action. Afterwards, however,
when they had kept the festival, (for the festival of the Carneia
stood in their way), they intended then to leave a garrison in Sparta
and to come to help in full force with speed: and just so also the
rest of the allies had thought of doing themselves; for it chanced
that the Olympic festival fell at the same time as these events.
Accordingly, since they did not suppose that the fighting in
Thermopylai would so soon be decided, they sent only the forerunners
of their force. 207. These, I say, had intended to do thus: and
meanwhile the Hellenes at Thermopylai, when the Persian had come near
to the pass, were in dread, and deliberated about making retreat from
their position. To the rest of the Peloponnesians then it seemed best
that they should go to the Peloponnese and hold the Isthmus in guard;
but Leonidas, when the Phokians and Locrians were indignant at this
opinion, gave his vote for remaining there, and for sending at the
same time messengers to the several States bidding them to come up to
help them, since they were but few to repel the army of the Medes.

208. As they were thus deliberating, Xerxes sent a scout on horseback
to see how many they were in number and what they were doing; for he
had heard while he was yet in Thessaly that there had been assembled
in this place a small force, and that the leaders of it were
Lacedemonians together with Leonidas, who was of the race of Heracles.
And when the horseman had ridden up towards their camp, he looked upon
them and had a view not indeed of the whole of their army, for of
those which were posted within the wall, which they had repaired and
were keeping a guard, it was not possible to have a view, but he
observed those who were outside, whose station was in front of the
wall; and it chanced at that time that the Lacedemonians were they who
were posted outside. So then he saw some of the men practising
athletic exercises and some combing their long hair: and as he looked
upon these things he marvelled, and at the same time he observed their
number: and when he had observed all exactly, he rode back unmolested,
for no one attempted to pursue him and he found himself treated with
much indifference. And when he returned he reported to Xerxes all that
which he had seen. 209. Hearing this Xerxes was not able to conjecture
the truth about the matter, namely that they were preparing themselves
to die and to deal death to the enemy so far as they might; but it
seemed to him that they were acting in a manner merely ridiculous; and
therefore he sent for Demaratos the son of Ariston, who was in his
camp, and when he came, Xerxes asked him of these things severally,
desiring to discover what this was which the Lacedemonians were doing:
and he said: "Thou didst hear from my mouth at a former time, when we
were setting forth to go against Hellas, the things concerning these
men; and having heard them thou madest me an object of laughter,
because I told thee of these things which I perceived would come to
pass; for to me it is the greatest of all ends to speak the truth
continually before thee, O king. Hear then now also: these men have
come to fight with us for the passage, and this is it that they are
preparing to do; for they have a custom which is as follows;--whenever
they are about to put their lives in peril, then they attend to the
arrangement of their hair. Be assured however, that if thou shalt
subdue these and the rest of them which remain behind in Sparta, there
is no other race of men which will await thy onset, O king, or will
raise hands against thee: for now thou art about to fight against the
noblest kingdom and city of those which are among the Hellenes, and
the best men." To Xerxes that which was said seemed to be utterly
incredible, and he asked again a second time in what manner being so
few they would fight with his host. He said; "O king, deal with me as
with a liar, if thou find not that these things come to pass as I

210. Thus saying he did not convince Xerxes, who let four days go by,
expecting always that they would take to flight; but on the fifth day,
when they did not depart but remained, being obstinate, as he thought,
in impudence and folly, he was enraged and sent against them the Medes
and the Kissians, charging them to take the men alive and bring them
into his presence. Then when the Medes moved forward and attacked the
Hellenes, there fell many of them, and others kept coming up
continually, and they were not driven back, though suffering great
loss: and they made it evident to every man, and to the king himself
not least of all, that human beings are many but men are few. This
combat went on throughout the day: 211, and when the Medes were being
roughly handled, then these retired from the battle, and the Persians,
those namely whom the king called "Immortals," of whom Hydarnes was
commander, took their place and came to the attack, supposing that
they at least would easily overcome the enemy. When however these also
engaged in combat with the Hellenes, they gained no more success than
the Median troops but the same as they, seeing that they were fighting
in a place with a narrow passage, using shorter spears than the
Hellenes, and not being able to take advantage of their superior
numbers. The Lacedemonians meanwhile were fighting in a memorable
fashion, and besides other things of which they made display, being
men perfectly skilled in fighting opposed to men who were unskilled,
they would turn their backs to the enemy and make a pretence of taking
to flight; and the Barbarians, seeing them thus taking a flight, would
follow after them with shouting and clashing of arms: then the
Lacedemonians, when they were being caught up, turned and faced the
Barbarians; and thus turning round they would slay innumerable
multitudes of the Persians; and there fell also at these times a few
of the Spartans themselves. So, as the Persians were not able to
obtain any success by making trial of the entrance and attacking it by
divisions and every way, they retired back. 212. And during these
onsets it is said that the king, looking on, three times leapt up from
his seat, struck with fear for his army. Thus they contended then: and
on the following day the Barbarians strove with no better success; for
because the men opposed to them were few in number, they engaged in
battle with the expectation that they would be found to be disabled
and would not be capable any longer of raising their hands against
them in fight. The Hellenes however were ordered by companies as well
as by nations, and they fought successively each in turn, excepting
the Phokians, for these were posted upon the mountain to guard the
path. So the Persians, finding nothing different from that which they
had seen on the former day, retired back from the fight.

213. Then when the king was in a strait as to what he should do in the
matter before him, Epialtes the son of Eurydemos, a Malian, came to
speech with him, supposing that he would win a very great reward from
the king; and this man told him of the path which leads over the
mountain to Thermopylai, and brought about the destruction of those
Hellenes who remained in that place. Afterwards from fear of the
Lacedemonians he fled to Thessaly, and when he had fled, a price was
proclaimed for his life by the Deputies,[212] when the Amphictyons met
for their assembly at Pylai.[213] Then some time afterwards having
returned to Antikyra he was slain by Athenades a man of Trachis. Now
this Athenades killed Epialtes for another cause, which I shall set
forth in the following part of the history,[214] but he was honoured
for it none the less by the Lacedemonians. 214. Thus Epialtes after
these events was slain: there is however another tale told, that
Onetes the son of Phanagoras, a man of Carystos, and Corydallos of
Antikyra were those who showed the Persians the way round the
mountain; but this I can by no means accept: for first we must judge
by this fact, namely that the Deputies of the Hellenes did not
proclaim a price for the lives of Onetes and Corydallos, but for that
of Epialtes the Trachinian, having surely obtained the most exact
information of the matter; and secondly we know that Epialtes was an
exile from his country to avoid this charge. True it is indeed that
Onetes might know of this path, even though he were not a Malian, if
he had had much intercourse with the country; but Epialtes it was who
led them round the mountain by the path, and him therefore I write
down as the guilty man.

215. Xerxes accordingly, being pleased by that which Epialtes engaged
to accomplish, at once with great joy proceeded to send Hydarnes and
the men of whom Hydarnes was commander;[215] and they set forth from
the camp about the time when the lamps are lit. This path of which we
speak had been discovered by the Malians who dwell in that land, and
having discovered it they led the Thessalians by it against the
Phokians, at the time when the Phokians had fenced the pass with a
wall and thus were sheltered from the attacks upon them: so long ago
as this had the pass been proved by the Malians to be of no
value.[216] And this path lies as follows:--it begins from the river
Asopos, which flows through the cleft, and the name of this mountain
and of the path is the same, namely Anopaia; and this Anopaia
stretches over the ridge of the mountain and ends by the town of
Alpenos, which is the first town of the Locrians towards Malis, and by
the stone called Black Buttocks[217] and the seats of the Kercopes,
where is the very narrowest part. 217. By this path thus situated the
Persians after crossing over the Asopos proceeded all through the
night, having on their right hand the mountains of the Oitaians and on
the left those of the Trachinians: and when dawn appeared, they had
reached the summit of the mountain. In this part of the mountain there
were, as I have before shown, a thousand hoplites of the Phokians
keeping guard, to protect their own country and to keep the path: for
while the pass below was guarded by those whom I have mentioned, the
path over the mountain was guarded by the Phokians, who had undertaken
the business for Leonidas by their own offer. 218. While the Persians
were ascending they were concealed from these, since all the mountain
was covered with oak-trees; and the Phokians became aware of them
after they had made the ascent as follows:--the day was calm, and not
a little noise was made by the Persians, as was likely when leaves
were lying spread upon the ground under their feet; upon which the
Phokians started up and began to put on their arms, and by this time
the Barbarians were close upon them. These, when they saw men arming
themselves, fell into wonder, for they were expecting that no one
would appear to oppose them, and instead of that they had met with an
armed force. Then Hydarnes, seized with fear lest the Phokians should
be Lacedemonians, asked Epialtes of what people the force was; and
being accurately informed he set the Persians in order for battle. The
Phokians however, when they were hit by the arrows of the enemy, which
flew thickly, fled and got away at once to the topmost peak of the
mountain, fully assured that it was against them that the enemy had
designed to come,[218] and here they were ready to meet death. These,
I say, were in this mind; but the Persians meanwhile with Epialtes and
Hydarnes made no account of the Phokians, but descended the mountain
with all speed.

219. To the Hellenes who were in Thermopylai first the soothsayer
Megistias, after looking into the victims which were sacrificed,
declared the death which was to come to them at dawn of day; and
afterwards deserters brought the report[219] of the Persians having
gone round. These signified it to them while it was yet night, and
thirdly came the day-watchers, who had run down from the heights when
day was already dawning. Then the Hellenes deliberated, and their
opinions were divided; for some urged that they should not desert
their post, while others opposed this counsel. After this they
departed from their assembly,[220] and some went away and dispersed
each to their several cities, while others of them were ready to
remain there together with Leonidas. 220. However it is reported also
that Leonidas himself sent them away, having a care that they might
not perish, but thinking that it was not seemly for himself and for
the Spartans who were present to leave the post to which they had come
at first to keep guard there. I am inclined rather to be of this
latter opinion,[221] namely that because Leonidas perceived that the
allies were out of heart and did not desire to face the danger with
him to the end, he ordered them to depart, but held that for himself
to go away was not honourable, whereas if he remained, a great fame of
him would be left behind, and the prosperity of Sparta would not be
blotted out: for an oracle had been given by the Pythian prophetess to
the Spartans, when they consulted about this war at the time when it
was being first set on foot, to the effect that either Lacedemon must
be destroyed by the Barbarians, or their king must lose his life. This
reply the prophetess gave them in hexameter verses, and it ran thus:

 "But as for you, ye men who in wide-spaced Sparta inhabit,
  Either your glorious city is sacked by the children of Perses,
  Or, if it be not so, then a king of the stock Heracleian
  Dead shall be mourned for by all in the boundaries of broad Lacedemon.
  Him[222] nor the might of bulls nor the raging of lions shall hinder;
  For he hath might as of Zeus; and I say he shall not be restrained,
  Till one of the other of these he have utterly torn and divided."[223]

I am of opinion that Leonidas considering these things and desiring to
lay up for himself glory above all the other Spartans,[224] dismissed
the allies, rather than that those who departed did so in such
disorderly fashion, because they were divided in opinion. 221. Of this
the following has been to my mind a proof as convincing as any other,
namely that Leonidas is known to have endeavoured to dismiss the
soothsayer also who accompanied this army, Megistias the Acarnanian,
who was said to be descended from Melampus, that he might not perish
with them after he had declared from the victims that which was about
to come to pass for them. He however when he was bidden to go would
not himself depart, but sent away his son who was with him in the
army, besides whom he had no other child.

222. The allies then who were dismissed departed and went away,
obeying the word of Leonidas, and only the Thespians and the Thebans
remained behind with the Lacedemonians. Of these the Thebans stayed
against their will and not because they desired it, for Leonidas kept
them, counting them as hostages; but the Thespians very willingly, for
they said that they would not depart and leave Leonidas and those with
him, but they stayed behind and died with them. The commander of these
was Demophilos the son of Diadromes.

223. Xerxes meanwhile, having made libations at sunrise, stayed for
some time, until about the hour when the market fills, and then made
an advance upon them; for thus it had been enjoined by Epialtes,
seeing that the descent of the mountain is shorter and the space to be
passed over much less than the going round and the ascent. The
Barbarians accordingly with Xerxes were advancing to the attack; and
the Hellenes with Leonidas, feeling that they were going forth to
death, now advanced out much further than at first into the broader
part of the defile; for when the fence of the wall was being
guarded,[225] they on the former days fought retiring before the enemy
into the narrow part of the pass; but now they engaged with them
outside the narrows, and very many of the Barbarians fell: for behind
them the leaders of the divisions with scourges in their hands were
striking each man, ever urging them on to the front. Many of them then
were driven into the sea and perished, and many more still were
trodden down while yet alive by one another, and there was no
reckoning of the number that perished: for knowing the death which was
about to come upon them by reason of those who were going round the
mountain, they[226] displayed upon the Barbarians all the strength
which they had, to its greatest extent, disregarding danger and acting
as if possessed by a spirit of recklessness. 224. Now by this time the
spears of the greater number of them were broken, so it chanced, in
this combat, and they were slaying the Persians with their swords; and
in this fighting fell Leonidas, having proved himself a very good man,
and others also of the Spartans with him, men of note, of whose names
I was informed as of men who had proved themselves worthy, and indeed
I was told also the names of all the three hundred. Moreover of the
Persians there fell here, besides many others of note, especially two
sons of Dareios, Abrocomes and Hyperanthes, born to Dareios of
Phratagune the daughter of Artanes: now Artanes was the brother of
king Dareios and the son of Hystaspes, the son of Arsames; and he in
giving his daughter in marriage to Dareios gave also with her all his
substance, because she was his only child. 225. Two brothers of
Xerxes, I say, fell here fighting; and meanwhile over the body of
Leonidas there arose a great struggle between the Persians and the
Lacedemonians, until the Hellenes by valour dragged this away from the
enemy and turned their opponents to flight four times. This conflict
continued until those who had gone with Epialtes came up; and when the
Hellenes learnt that these had come, from that moment the nature of
the combat was changed; for they retired backwards to the narrow part
of the way, and having passed by the wall they went and placed
themselves upon the hillock,[227] all in a body together except only
the Thebans: now this hillock is in the entrance, where now the stone
lion is placed for Leonidas. On this spot while defending themselves
with daggers, that is those who still had them left, and also with
hands and with teeth, they were overwhelmed by the missiles of the
Barbarians, some of these having followed directly after them and
destroyed the fence of the wall, while others had come round and stood
about them on all sides.

226. Such were the proofs of valour given by the Lacedemonians and
Thespians; yet the Spartan Dienekes is said to have proved himself the
best man of all, the same who, as they report, uttered this saying
before they engaged battle with the Medes:--being informed by one of
the men of Trachis that when the Barbarians discharged their arrows
they obscured the light of the sun by the multitude of the arrows, so
great was the number of their host, he was not dismayed by this, but
making small account of the number of the Medes, he said that their
guest from Trachis brought them very good news, for if the Medes
obscured the light of the sun, the battle against them would be in the
shade and not in the sun. 227. This and other sayings of this kind
they report that Dienekes the Lacedemonian left as memorials of
himself; and after him the bravest they say of the Lacedemonians were
two brothers Alpheos and Maron, sons of Orsiphantos. Of the Thespians
the man who gained most honour was named Dithyrambos son of

228. The men were buried were they fell; and for these, as well as for
those who were slain before being sent away[228] by Leonidas, there is
an inscription which runs thus:

 "Here once, facing in fight three hundred myriads of foemen,
    Thousands four did contend, men of the Peloponnese."

This is the inscription for the whole body; and for the Spartans
separately there is this:

 "Stranger, report this word, we pray, to the Spartans, that lying
    Here in this spot we remain, faithfully keeping their laws."[229]

This, I say, for the Lacedemonians; and for the soothsayer as follows:

 "This is the tomb of Megistias renowned, whom the Median foemen,
    Where Sperchios doth flow, slew when they forded the stream;
  Soothsayer he, who then knowing clearly the fates that were coming,
    Did not endure in the fray Sparta's good leaders to leave."

The Amphictyons it was who honoured them with inscriptions and
memorial pillars, excepting only in the case of the inscription to the
soothsayer; but that of the soothsayer Megistias was inscribed by
Simonides the son of Leoprepes on account of guest-friendship.

229. Two of these three hundred, it is said, namely Eurystos and
Aristodemos, who, if they had made agreement with one another, might
either have come safe home to Sparta together (seeing that they had
been dismissed from the camp by Leonidas and were lying at Alpenoi
with disease of the eyes, suffering extremely), or again, if they had
not wished to return home, they might have been slain together with
the rest,--when they might, I say, have done either one of these two
things, would not agree together; but the two being divided in
opinion, Eurystos, it is said, when he was informed that the Persians
had gone round, asked for his arms and having put them on ordered his
Helot to lead him to those who were fighting; and after he had led him
thither, the man who had led him ran away and departed, but Eurystos
plunged into the thick of the fighting, and so lost his life: but
Aristodemos was left behind fainting.[230] Now if either Aristodemos
had been ill[231] alone, and so had returned home to Sparta, or the
men had both of them come back together, I do not suppose that the
Spartans would have displayed any anger against them; but in this
case, as the one of them had lost his life and the other, clinging to
an excuse which the first also might have used,[232] had not been
willing to die, it necessarily happened that the Spartans had great
indignation against Aristodemos. 230. Some say that Aristodemos came
safe to Sparta in this manner, and on a pretext such as I have said;
but others, that he had been sent as a messenger from the camp, and
when he might have come up in time to find the battle going on, was
not willing to do so, but stayed upon the road and so saved his life,
while his fellow-messenger reached the battle and was slain. 213. When
Aristodemos, I say, had returned home to Lacedemon, he had reproach
and dishonour;[233] and that which he suffered by way of dishonour was
this,--no one of the Spartans would either give him light for a fire
or speak with him, and he had reproach in that he was called
Aristodemos the coward.[234] 232. He however in the battle at Plataia
repaired all the guilt that was charged against him: but it is
reported that another man also survived of these three hundred, whose
name was Pantites, having been sent as a messenger to Thessaly, and
this man, when he returned back to Sparta and found himself
dishonoured, is said to have strangled himself.

233. The Thebans however, of whom the commander was Leontiades, being
with the Hellenes had continued for some time to fight against the
king's army, constrained by necessity; but when they saw that the
fortunes of the Persians were prevailing, then and not before, while
the Hellenes with Leonidas were making their way with speed to the
hillock, they separated from these and holding out their hands came
near to the Barbarians, saying at the same time that which was most
true, namely that they were on the side of the Medes and that they had
been among the first to give earth and water to the king; and moreover
that they had come to Thermopylai constrained by necessity, and were
blameless for the loss which had been inflicted upon the king: so that
thus saying they preserved their lives, for they had also the
Thessalians to bear witness to these words. However, they did not
altogether meet with good fortune, for some had even been slain as
they had been approaching, and when they had come and the Barbarians
had them in their power, the greater number of them were branded by
command of Xerxes with the royal marks, beginning with their leader
Leontiades, the same whose son Eurymachos was afterwards slain by the
Plataians, when he had been made commander of four hundred Thebans and
had seized the city of the Plataians.[235]

234. Thus did the Hellenes at Thermopylai contend in fight; and Xerxes
summoned Demaratos and inquired of him, having first said this:
"Demaratos, thou art a good man; and this I conclude by the truth of
thy words, for all that thou saidest turned out so as thou didst say.
Now, however, tell me how many in number are the remaining
Lacedemonians, and of them how many are like these in matters of war;
or are they so even all of them?" He said: "O king, the number of all
the Lacedemonians is great and their cities are many, but that which
thou desirest to learn, thou shalt know. There is in Lacedemon the
city of Sparta, having about eight thousand men; and these are all
equal to those who fought here: the other Lacedemonians are not equal
to these, but they are good men too." To this Xerxes said: "Demaratos,
in what manner shall we with least labour get the better of these men?
Come set forth to us this; for thou knowest the courses of their
counsels,[236] seeing that thou wert once their king." 235. He made
answer: "O king, if thou dost in very earnest take counsel with me, it
is right that I declare to thee the best thing. What if thou shouldest
send three hundred ships from thy fleet to attack the Laconian land?
Now there is lying near it an island named Kythera, about which
Chilon, who was a very wise man among us, said that it would be a
greater gain for the Spartans that it should be sunk under the sea
than that it should remain above it; for he always anticipated that
something would happen from it of such a kind as I am now setting
forth to thee: not that he knew of thy armament beforehand, but that
he feared equally every armament of men. Let thy forces then set forth
from this island and keep the Lacedemonians in fear; and while they
have a war of their own close at their doors, there will be no fear
for thee from them that when the remainder of Hellas is being
conquered by the land-army, they will come to the rescue there. Then
after the remainder of Hellas has been reduced to subjection, from
that moment the Lacedemonian power will be left alone and therefore
feeble. If however thou shalt not do this, I will tell thee what thou
must look for. There is a narrow isthmus leading to the Peloponnese,
and in this place thou must look that other battles will be fought
more severe than those which have taken place, seeing that all the
Peloponnesians have sworn to a league against thee: but if thou shalt
do the other thing of which I spoke, this isthmus and the cities
within it will come over to thy side without a battle." 236. After him
spoke Achaimenes, brother of Xerxes and also commander of the fleet,
who chanced to have been present at this discourse and was afraid lest
Xerxes should be persuaded to do this: "O king," he said, "I see that
thou art admitting the speech of a man who envies thy good fortune, or
is even a traitor to thy cause: for in truth the Hellenes delight in
such a temper as this; they envy a man for his good luck, and they
hate that which is stronger than themselves. And if, besides other
misfortunes which we have upon us, seeing that four hundred of our
ships[237] have suffered wreck, thou shalt send away another three
hundred from the station of the fleet to sail round Peloponnese, then
thy antagonists become a match for thee in fight; whereas while it is
all assembled together our fleet is hard for them to deal with, and
they will not be at all a match for thee: and moreover the whole sea-
force will support the land-force and be supported by it, if they
proceed onwards together; but if thou shalt divide them, neither wilt
thou be of service to them nor they to thee. My determination is
rather to set thy affairs in good order[238] and not to consider the
affairs of the enemy, either where they will set on foot the war or
what they will do or how many in number they are; for it is sufficient
that they should themselves take thought for themselves, and we for
ourselves likewise: and if the Lacedemonians come to stand against the
Persians in fight, they will assuredly not heal the wound from which
they are now suffering."[239] 237. To him Xerxes made answer as
follows: "Achaimenes, I think that thou speakest well, and so will I
do; but Demaratos speaks that which he believes to be best for me,
though his opinion is defeated by thine: for I will not certainly
admit that which thou saidest, namely that he is not well-disposed to
my cause, judging both by what was said by him before this, and also
by that which is the truth, namely that though one citizen envies
another for his good fortune and shows enmity to him by his
silence,[240] nor would a citizen when a fellow-citizen consulted him
suggest that which seemed to him the best, unless he had attained to a
great height of virtue, and such men doubtless are few; yet guest-
friend to guest-friend in prosperity is well-disposed as nothing else
on earth, and if his friend should consult him, he would give him the
best counsel. Thus then as regards the evil-speaking against
Demaratos, that is to say about one who is my guest-friend, I bid
every one abstain from it in the future."

238. Having thus said Xerxes passed in review the bodies of the dead;
and as for Leonidas, hearing that he had been the king and commander
of the Lacedemonians he bade them cut off his head and crucify him.
And it has been made plain to me by many proofs besides, but by none
more strongly than by this, that king Xerxes was enraged with Leonidas
while alive more than with any other man on earth; for otherwise he
would never have done this outrage to his corpse; since of all the men
whom I know, the Persians are accustomed most to honour those who are
good men in war. They then to whom it was appointed to do these
things, proceeded to do so.

239. I will return now to that point of my narrative where it remained
unfinished.[241] The Lacedemonians had been informed before all others
that the king was preparing an expedition against Hellas; and thus it
happened that they sent to the Oracle at Delphi, where that reply was
given them which I reported shortly before this. And they got this
information in a strange manner; for Demaratos the son of Ariston
after he had fled for refuge to the Medes was not friendly to the
Lacedemonians, as I am of opinion and as likelihood suggests
supporting my opinion; but it is open to any man to make conjecture
whether he did this thing which follows in a friendly spirit or in
malicious triumph over them. When Xerxes had resolved to make a
campaign against Hellas, Demaratos, being in Susa and having been
informed of this, had a desire to report it to the Lacedemonians. Now
in no other way was he able to signify it, for there was danger that
he should be discovered, but he contrived thus, that is to say, he
took a folding tablet and scraped off the wax which was upon it, and
then he wrote the design of the king upon the wood of the tablet, and
having done so he melted the wax and poured it over the writing, so
that the tablet (being carried without writing upon it) might not
cause any trouble to be given by the keepers of the road. Then when it
had arrived at Lacedemon, the Lacedemonians were not able to make
conjecture of the matter; until at last, as I am informed, Gorgo, the
daughter of Cleomenes and wife of Leonidas, suggested a plan of which
she had herself thought, bidding them scrape the wax and they would
find writing upon the wood; and doing as she said they found the
writing and read it, and after that they sent notice to the other
Hellenes. These things are said to have come to pass in this


1.  {kai ploia}, for transport of horses and also of provisions:
    however these words are omitted in some of the best MSS.

2.  {all ei}: this is the reading of the better class of MSS. The rest
    have {alla}, which with {pressois} could only express a wish for
    success, and not an exhortation to action.

3.  {outos men oi o logos en timoros}: the words may mean "this manner
    of discourse was helpful for his purpose."

4.  {khresmologon e kai diatheten khresmon ton Mousaiou}.

5.  {aphanizoiato}, representing the present tense {aphanizontai} in
    the oracle.

6.  {ton thronon touton}: most MSS. have {ton thronon, touto}.

7.  {epistasthe kou pantes}: the MSS. have {ta epistasthe kou pantes},
    which is given by most Editors. In that case {oia erxan} would be
    an exclamation, "What evils they did to us, . . . things which ye
    all know well, I think."

8.  {touton mentoi eineka}: it is hardly possible here to give
    {mentoi} its usual meaning: Stein in his latest edition reads
    {touton men toinun}.

9.  {suneneike}: Stein reads {suneneike se}, "supposing that thou art

10. {ep andri ge eni}, as opposed to a god.

11. {akousesthai tina psemi ton k.t.l.}, "each one of those who are
    left behind."

12. {kai Kurou}, a conjectural emendation of {tou Kurou}. The text of
    the MSS. enumerates all these as one continuous line of ascent. It
    is clear however that the enumeration is in fact of two separate
    lines, which combine in Teļspes, the line of ascent through the
    father Dareios being, Dareios, Hystaspes, Arsames, Ariamnes,
    Teļspes, and through the mother, Atossa, Cyrus, Cambyses, Teļspes.

13. {kai mala}: perhaps, "even."

13a. Lit. "nor is he present who will excuse thee."

14. Lit. "my youth boiled over."

15. Lit. "words more unseemly than was right."

16. {all oude tauta esti o pai theia}.

17. {peplanesthai}.

18. {autai}: a correction of {autai}.

19. {se de epiphoitesei}: the better MSS. have {oude epiphoitesei},
    which is adopted by Stein.

20. {pempto de etei anomeno}.

21. {ton Ionion}.

22. {kai oud ei eperai pros tautesi prosgenomenai}: some MSS. read
    {oud eterai pros tautesi genomenai}, which is adopted (with
    variations) by some Editors. The meaning would be "not all these,
    nor others which happened in addition to these, were equal to this

23. {ama strateuomenoisi}: {ama} is omitted in some MSS.

24. {stadion}, and so throughout.

25. {entos Sanes}: some MSS. read {ektos Sanes}, which is adopted by
    Stein, who translates "beyond Sane, but on this side of Mount
    Athos": this however will not suit the case of all the towns
    mentioned, e.g. Acrothoon, and {ton Athen} just below clearly
    means the whole peninsula.

26. {leukolinou}.

27. {ton de on pleiston}: if this reading is right, {siton} must be
    understood, and some MSS. read {allon} for {alla} in the sentence
    above. Stein in his latest edition reads {siton} instead of

28. Lit. "the name of which happens to be Catarractes."

29. i.e. 4,000,000.

30. The {stater dareikos} was of nearly pure gold (cp. iv. 166),
    weighing about 124 grains.

30a. {stele}, i.e. a square block of stone.

31. {athanato andri}, taken by some to mean one of the body of

32. {akte pakhea}: some inferior MSS. read {akte trakhea}, and hence
    some Editors have {akte trekhea}, "a rugged foreland."

33. {dolero}: some Editors read {tholero}, "turbid," by conjecture.

34. The meaning is much disputed. I understand Herodotus to state that
    though the vessels lay of course in the direction of the stream
    from the Hellespont, that is presenting their prows (or sterns) to
    the stream, yet this did not mean that they pointed straight
    towards the Propontis and Euxine; for the stream after passing
    Sestos runs almost from North to South with even a slight tendency
    to the East (hence {eurou} a few lines further on), so that ships
    lying in the stream would point in a line cutting at right angles
    that of the longer axis (from East to West) of the Pontus and
    Propontis. This is the meaning of {epikarsios} elsewhere in
    Herodotus (i. 180 and iv. 101), and it would be rash to assign to
    it any other meaning here. It is true however that the expression
    {pros esperes} is used loosely below for the side toward the
    Egean. For {anakokheue} a subject must probably be supplied from
    the clause {pentekonterous--sunthentes}, "that it (i.e. the
    combination of ships) might support etc.," and {ton tonon ton
    oplon} may either mean as below "the stretched ropes," or "the
    tension of the ropes," which would be relieved by the support: the
    latter meaning seems to me preferable.

    Mr. Whitelaw suggests to me that {epikarsios} ({epi kar}) may mean
    rather "head-foremost," which seems to be its meaning in Homer
    (Odyss. ix. 70), and from which might be obtained the idea of
    intersection, one line running straight up against another, which
    it has in other passages. In that case it would here mean "heading
    towards the Pontus."

35. {tas men pros tou Pontou tes eteres}. Most commentators would
    supply {gephures} with {tes eteres}, but evidently both bridges
    must have been anchored on both sides.

36. {eurou}: Stein adopts the conjecture {zephurou}.

37. {ton pentekonteron kai triereon trikhou}: the MSS. give {ton
    pentekonteron kai trikhou}, "between the fifty-oared galleys in as
    many as three places," but it is strange that the fifty-oared
    galleys should be mentioned alone, and there seems no need of
    {kai} with {trikhou}. Stein reads {ton pentekonteron kai triereon}
    (omitting {trikhou} altogether), and this may be right.

38. i.e. in proportion to the quantity: there was of course a greater
    weight altogether of the papyrus rope.

39. {autis epezeugnuon}.

40. {ekleipsin}: cp. {eklipon} above.

41. Or, according to some MSS., "Nisaian."

42. i.e. not downwards.

43. {tina autou sukhnon omilon}.

44. {to Priamou Pergamon}.

45. {en Abudo mese}: some inferior authorities (followed by most
    Editors) omit {mese}: but the district seems to be spoken of, as
    just above.

46. {proexedre lothou leukou}: some kind of portico or /loggia/ seems
    to be meant.

47. {daimonie andoon}.

48. {ena auton}.

49. {to proso aiei kleptomenos}: "stealing thy advance continually,"
    i.e. "advancing insensibly further." Some take {kleptomenos} as
    passive, "insensibly lured on further."

50. {neoteron ti poiesein}.

51. Or, according to some MSS., "the Persian land."

52. Lit. "the name of which happens to be Agora."

53. i.e. 1,700,000.

54. {sunnaxantes}: a conjectural emendation very generally adopted of
    {sunaxantes} or {sunapsantes}.

55. {apageas}, i.e. not stiffly standing up; the opposite to
    {pepeguias} (ch. 64).

56. {lepidos siderees opsin ikhthueideos}: many Editors suppose that
    some words have dropped out. The {kithon} spoken of may have been
    a coat of armour, but elsewhere the body armour {thorex} is
    clearly distinguished from the {kithon}, see ix. 22.

57. {gerra}: cp. ix. 61 and 102.

58. Cp. i. 7.

59. {mitrephoroi esan}: the {mitre} was perhaps a kind of turban.

60. {tesi Aiguptiesi}, apparently {makhairesi} is meant to be
    supplied: cp. ch. 91.

61. {eklethesan}, "were called" from the first.

62. These words are by some Editors thought to be an interpolation.
    The Chaldeans in fact had become a caste of priests, cp. i. 181.

63. {kurbasias}: supposed to be the same as the /tiara/ (cp. v. 49),
    but in this case stiff and upright.

64. i.e. Areians, cp. iii. 93.

65. {sisurnas}: cp. iv. 109.

66. {akinakas}.

67. {sisurnophoroi}.

68. {zeiras}.

69. {toxa palintona}.

70. {spathes}, which perhaps means the stem of the leaf.

71. {gupso}, "white chalk."

72. {milto}, "red ochre."

73. Some words have apparently been lost containing the name of the
    nation to which the following description applies. It is suggested
    that this might be either the Chalybians or the Pisidians.

74. {lukioergeas}, an emendation from Athenęus of {lukoergeas} (or
    {lukergeas}), which might perhaps mean "for wolf-hunting."

75. {anastpastous}: cp. iii. 93.

76. Some Editors place this clause before the words: "and Smerdomenes
    the son of Otanes," for we do not hear of Otanes or Smerdomenes
    elsewhere as brother and nephew of Dareios. On the other hand
    Mardonios was son of the /sister/ of Dareios.

77. {tukhe}, "hits."

78. {keletas}, "single horses."

79. This name is apparently placed here wrongly. It has been proposed
    to read {Kaspeiroi} or {Paktues}.

80. {ippeue}: the greater number of MSS. have {ippeuei} here as at the
    beginning of ch. 84, to which this is a reference back, but with a
    difference of meaning. There the author seemed to begin with the
    intention of giving a full list of the cavalry force of the
    Persian Empire, and then confined his account to those actually
    present on this occasion, whereas here the word in combination
    with {mouna} refers only to those just enumerated.

81. i.e. 80,000.

82. {Suroisi}, see note on ii. 104.

83. {tukous}, which appears to mean ordinarily a tool for stone-

84. {mitresi}, perhaps "turbans."

85. {kithonas}: there is some probability in the suggestion of
    {kitarias} here, for we should expect mention of a head-covering,
    and the word {kitaris} (which is explained to mean the same as
    {tiara}), is quoted by Pollux as occurring in Herodotus.

86. {kithonas}.

87. {drepana}, "reaping-hooks," cp. v. 112.

88. See i. 171.

89. {Pelasgoi Aigialees}.

90. {kerkouroi}.

91. {makra}: some MSS. and editions have {smikra}, "small."

92. Or "Mapen."

93. Or "Seldomos."

94. {metopedon}.

95. {me oentes arthmioi}. This is generally taken to mean, "unless
    they were of one mind together"; but that would very much weaken
    the force of the remark, and {arthmios} elsewhere is the opposite
    of {polemios}, cp. vi. 83 and ix. 9, 37. Xerxes professes enmity
    only against those who had refused to give the tokens of

96. {men mounoisi}: these words are omitted in some good MSS., and
    {mounoisi} has perhaps been introduced from the preceding
    sentence. The thing referred to in {touto} is the power of
    fighting in single combat with many at once, which Demaratos is
    supposed to have claimed for the whole community of the Spartans.

97. {stergein malista}.

98. {oudamoi ko}.

99. Or, "Strauos."

100. Or, "Compsatos."

101. {tas epeirotidas polis}: it is not clear why these are thus
    distinguished. Stein suggests {Thasion tas epeirotidas polis}, cp.
    ch. 118; and if that be the true reading {ion} is probably a
    remnant of {Thasion} after {khoras}.

102. Or, "Pistiros."

103. {oi propheteountes}, i.e. those who interpret the utterances of
    the Oracle, cp. viii. 36.

104. {promantis}.

105. {kai ouden poikiloteron}, an expression of which the meaning is
    not quite clear; perhaps "and the oracles are not at all more
    obscure," cp. Eur. Phœn. 470 and Hel. 711 (quoted by Bähr).

106. "Ennea Hodoi."

107. Cp. iii. 84.

108. The "royal cubit" is about 20 inches; the {daktulos}, "finger's
    breadth," is rather less than ¾ inch.

109. Or, "Cape Canastraion."

110. Or "Echeidoros": so it is usually called, but not by any MS.
    here, and by a few only in ch. 127.

111. {pro mesogaian tamnon tes odou}: cp. iv. 12 and ix. 89.

112. Cp. ch. 6 and 174: but it does not appear that the Aleuadai, of
    whom Xerxes is here speaking, ever thought of resistance, and
    perhaps {gnosimakheontes} means, "when they submitted without

113. Some MSS. have {Ainienes} for {Enienes}.

114. {dekateusai}: there is sufficient authority for this rendering of
    {dekateuein}, and it seems better here than to understand the word
    to refer only to a "tithing" of goods.

115. {es to barathron}, the place of execution at Athens.

116. "undesirable thing."

117. {ouk ex isou}: i.e. it is one-sided, because the speaker has had
    experience of only one of the alternatives.

118. Cp. ch. 143 (end), and viii. 62.

119. {teikheon kithones}, a poetical expression, quoted perhaps from
    some oracle; and if so, {kithon} may here have the Epic sense of a
    "coat of mail," equivalent to {thorex} in i. 181: see ch. 61, note

120. {to megaron}.

121. The form of address changes abruptly to the singular number,
    referring to the Athenian people.

122. {azela}, probably for {aionla}, which has been proposed as a
    correction: or possibly "wretched."

123. {oxus Ares}.

124. i.e. Assyrian, cp. ch. 63.

125. {min}, i.e. the city, to which belong the head, feet, and body
    which have been mentioned.

126. {kakois d' epikidnate thumon}: this might perhaps mean (as it is
    taken by several Editors), "show a courageous soul in your
    troubles," but that would hardly suit with the discouraging tone
    of the context.

127. {onax}, cp. iv. 15.

128. {ouros}: the word might of course be for {oros}, "mountain," and
{Kekropos ouros} would then mean the Acropolis (so it is understood by
Stein and others), but the combination with Kithairon makes it
probable that the reference is to the boundaries of Attica, and this
seems more in accordance with the reference to it in viii. 53.

129. {Demeteros}.

130. {sustas}, "having been joined" cp. viii. 142.

131. {ton peri ten Ellada Ellenon ta ameino phroneonton}: the MSS.
    have {ton} also after {Ellenon}, which would mean "those of the
    Hellenes in Hellas itself, who were of the better mind;" but the
    expression {ton ta ameino phroneouseon peri ten Ellada} occurs in
    ch. 172. Some Editors omit {Ellenon} as well as {ton}.

132. {egkekremenoi} (from {egkerannumi}, cp. v. 124), a conjectural
    emendation (by Reiske) of {egkekhremenoi}. Others have conjectured
    {egkekheiremenoi} or {egegermenoi}.

133. {te ge alle}: many Editors adopt the conjecture {tede alle} "is
    like the following, which he expressed on another occasion."

134. See vi. 77. This calamity had occurred about fourteen years
    before, and it was not in order to recover from this that the
    Argives wished now for a thirty years' truce; but warned by this
    they desired (they said) to guard against the consequence of a
    similar disaster in fighting with the Persians, against whom,
    according to their own account, they were going to defend
    themselves independently. So great was their fear of this that,
    "though fearing the oracle," they were willing to disobey it on
    certain conditions.

135. {probalaion}, cp. {probolous}, ch. 76.

136. {es tous pleunas}.

137. Cp. v. 53.

138. {ethelousi}: this is omitted in most of the MSS., but contained
    in several of the best. Many Editors have omitted it.

139. {ta oikeia kaka} seems to mean the grievances which each has
    against his neighbours, "if all the nations of men should bring
    together into one place their own grievances against their
    neighbours, desiring to make a settlement with them, each people,
    when they had examined closely the grievances of others against
    themselves, would gladly carry away back with them those which
    they had brought," judging that they had offended others more than
    they had suffered themselves.

140. {oiketor o en Gele}: some Editors read by conjecture {oiketor eon
    Geles}, others {oiketor en Gele}.

141. {iropsantai ton khthonion theon}: cp. vi. 134.

142. i.e. by direct inspiration.

143. {en dorupsoros}: the MSS. have {os en dorupsoros}. Some Editors
    mark a lacuna.

144. {gamorous}, the name given to the highest class of citizens.

145. Or, "Killyrians." They were conquered Sicanians, in the position
    of the Spartan Helots.

146. {pakheas}: cp. v. 30.

147. {gar}: inserted conjecturally by many Editors.

148. See v. 46.

149. {e ke meg oimexeie}, the beginning of a Homeric hexameter, cp.
    Il. vii. 125.

150. Or, "since your speech is so adverse."

151. See Il. ii. 552.

152. Some Editors mark this explanation "Now this is the meaning--
    year," as interpolated.

153. {purannida}.

154. {es meson Kooisi katatheis ten arkhen}.

155. {para Samion}: this is the reading of the best MSS.: others have
    {meta Samion}, "together with the Samians," which is adopted by
    many Editors. There can be little doubt however that the Skythes
    mentioned in vi. 23 was the father of this Cadmos, and we know
    from Thuc. vi. 4 that the Samians were deprived of the town soon
    after they had taken it, by Anaxilaos, who gave it the name of
    Messene, and no doubt put Cadmos in possession of it, as the son
    of the former king.

156. Cp. ch. 154.

157. i.e. 300,000.

159. The MSS. add either {os Karkhedonioi}, or {os Karkhedonioi kai
    Surekosioi}, but the testimony of the Carthaginians has just been
    given, {os Phoinikes legousi}, and the Syracusans professed to be
    unable to discover anything of him at all. Most of the Editors
    omit or alter the words.

160. {epimemphesthe}: some Editors have tried corrections, e.g. {ou ti
    memnesthe}, "do ye not remember," or {epimemnesthe}, "remember";
    but cp. viii. 106, {oste se me mempsasthai ten . . . diken}.

161. {osa umin . . . Minos epempse menion dakrumata}. The oracle would
    seem to have been in iambic verse.

162. {parentheke}.

163. {ou boulomenoi}, apparently equivalent to {me boulemenoi}.

164. Cp. viii. 111.

165. i.e. the six commanders of divisions {morai} in the Spartan army.

166. {mia}: for this most MSS. have {ama}. Perhaps the true reading is
    {ama mia}.

167. {amaxitos moune}, cp. ch. 200.

168. {Khutrous}.

169. {ton epibateon autes}.

170. {emeroskopous}: perhaps simply "scouts," cp. ch. 219, by which it
    would seem that they were at their posts by night also, though
    naturally they would not see much except by day.

171. i.e. "Ant."

172. {autoi}.

173. i.e. 241,400.

174. {epebateuon}.

175. 36,210.

176. {o ti pleon en auton e elasson}. In ch. 97, which is referred to
    just above, these ships are stated to have been of many different
    kinds, and not only fifty-oared galleys.

177. 240,000.

178. 517,610.

179. 1,700,000: see ch. 60.

180. 80,000.

181. 2,317,610.

182. {dokesin de dei legein}.

183. Some MSS. have {Ainienes} for {Enienes}.

184. 300,000.

185. 2,641,610.

186. {tou makhimou toutou}.

187. {akatoisi}.

188. 5,283,220.

189. {khoinika}, the usual daily allowance.

190. The {medimnos} is about a bushel and a half, and is equal to 48
    {khoinikes}. The reckoning here of 110,340 {medimnoi} is wrong,
    owing apparently to the setting down of some numbers in the
    quotient which were in fact part of the dividend.

191. {prokrossai ormeonto es ponton}: the meaning of {prokrossai} is
    doubtful, but the introduction of the word is probably due to a
    reminiscence of Homer, Il. xiv. 35, where the ships are described
    as drawn up in rows one behind the other on shore, and where
    {prokrossas} is often explained to mean {klimakedon}, i.e. either
    in steps one behind the other owing to the rise of the beach, or
    in the arrangement of the /quincunx/. Probably in this passage the
    idea is rather of the prows projecting in rows like battlements
    {krossai}, and this is the sense in which the word is used by
    Herodotus elsewhere (iv. 152). The word {krossai} however is used
    for the successively rising stages of the pyramids (ii. 125), and
    {prokrossos} may mean simply "in a row," or "one behind the
    other," which would suit all passages in which it occurs, and
    would explain the expression {prokrossoi pheromenoi epi ton
    kindunon}, quoted by Athenęus.

192. {apeliotes}. Evidently, from its name {Ellespontias} and from its
    being afterwards called {Boreas}, it was actually a North-East

193. i.e. "Ovens."

194. {exebrassonto}.

195. {thesaurous}.

196. The word {khrusea}, "of gold," is omitted by some Editors.

197. "in his case also {kai touton} there was an unpleasing misfortune
    of the slaying of a child {paidophonos} which troubled him," i.e.
    he like others had misfortunes to temper his prosperity.

198. {goesi}, (from a supposed word {goe}): a correction of {geosi},
    "by enchanters," which is retained by Stein. Some read {khoesi},
    "with libations," others {boesi}, "with cries."

199. {aphesein}, whence the name {Aphetai} was supposed to be derived.

199a. Or, "had crucified . . . having convicted him of the following
    charge, namely," etc. Cp. iii. 35 (end).

200. {tritaios}. According to the usual meaning of the word the sense
    should be "on the third day after" entering Thessaly, but the
    distance was much greater than a two-days' march.

201. i.e. "the Devourer."

202. {Prutaneiou}, "Hall of the Magistrates."

203. {leiton}.

204. {estellonto}: many Editors, following inferior MSS., read
    {eselthontes} and make changes in the rest of the sentence.

205. Some MSS. have {Ainienon} for {Enienon}.

206. {stadion}.

207. {diskhilia te gar kai dismuria plethra tou pediou esti}. If the
    text is right, the {plethron} must here be a measure of area. The
    amount will then be about 5000 acres.

208. {mekhri Trekhinos}, "up to Trachis," which was the Southern

209. {to epi tautes tes epeirou}. I take {to epi tautes} to be an
    adverbial expression like {tes eteres} in ch. 36, for I cannot
    think that the rendering "towards this continent" is satisfactory.

210. See v. 45.

211. {tous katesteotas}. There is a reference to the body of 300 so
    called {ippeis} (cp. i. 67), who were appointed to accompany the
    king in war; but we must suppose that on special occasions the
    king made up this appointed number by selection, and that in this
    case those were preferred who had sons to keep up the family.
    Others (including Grote) understand {tous katesteotas} to mean
    "men of mature age."

212. {ton Pulagoron}.

213. {es ten Pulaien}.

214. An indication that the historian intended to carry his work
    further than the year 479.

215. See ch. 83.

216. {ek te tosou de katededekto eousa ouden khreste Melieusi}, i.e.
    {e esbole}.

217. {Melampugon}.

218. Lit. "had set out to go at first."

219. Lit. "and afterwards deserters were they who reported."

220. {diakrithentes}.

221. {taute kai mallon te gnome pleistos eimi}.

222. i.e. the Persian.

223. {prin tond eteron dia panta dasetai}: i.e. either the city or the

224. {mounon Spartieteon}: some Editors (following Plutarch) read
    {mounon Spartieteon}, "lay up for the Spartans glory above all
    other nations."

225. {to men gar eruma tou teikheos ephulasseto, oi de k.t.l.}

226. i.e. the Lacedemonians.

227. {izonto epi ton kolonon}.

228. Some Editors insert {tous} after {e}, "before those who were sent
    away by Leonidas had departed."

229. {remasi}.

230. {leipopsukheonta}, a word which refers properly to bodily
    weakness. It has been proposed to read {philopsukheonta}, "loving
    his life," cp. vi. 29.

231. {algesanta}: some good MSS. have {alogesanta}, which is adopted
    by Stein, "had in his ill-reckoning returned alone."

232. {tes autes ekhomenou prophasios}.

233. {atimien}.

234. {o tresas}.

235. Thuc. ii. 2 ff.

236. {tas diexodous ton bouleumaton}, cp. iii. 156.

237. {ton vees k.t.l.}: some Editors insert {ek} before {ton}, "by
    which four hundred ships have suffered shipwreck."

238. {ta seoutou de tithemenos eu gnomen ekho}: for {ekho} some
    inferior MSS. have {ekhe}, which is adopted by several Editors,
    "Rather set thy affairs in good order and determine not to
    consider," etc.

239. {to pareon troma}, i.e. their defeat.

240. {kai esti dusmenes te sige}. Some commentators understand {te
    sige} to mean "secretly," like {sige}, viii. 74.

241. See ch. 220.

242. Many Editors pronounce the last chapter to be an interpolation,
    but perhaps with hardly sufficient reason.



1. Those of the Hellenes who had been appointed to serve in the fleet
were these:--the Athenians furnished a hundred and twenty-seven ships,
and the Plataians moved by valour and zeal for the service, although
they had had no practice in seamanship, yet joined with the Athenians
in manning their ships. The Corinthians furnished forty ships, the
Megarians twenty; the Chalkidians manned twenty ships with which the
Athenians furnished them;[1] the Eginetans furnished eighteen ships,
the Sikyonians twelve, the Lacedemonians ten, the Epidaurians eight,
the Eretrians seven, the Troizenians five, the Styrians two, the
Keļans two ships[2] and two fifty-oared galleys, while the Locrians of
Opus came also to the assistance of the rest with seven fifty-oared

2. These were those who joined in the expedition to Artemision, and I
have mentioned them according to the number[3] of the ships which they
severally supplied: so the number of the ships which were assembled at
Artemision was (apart from the fifty-oared galleys) two hundred and
seventy-one: and the commander who had the supreme power was furnished
by the Spartans, namely Eurybiades son of Eurycleides, since the
allies said that they would not follow the lead of the Athenians, but
unless a Lacedemonian were leader they would break up the expedition
which was to be made: 3, for it had come to be said at first, even
before they sent to Sicily to obtain allies, that the fleet ought to
be placed in the charge of the Athenians. So as the allies opposed
this, the Athenians yielded, having it much at heart that Hellas
should be saved, and perceiving that if they should have disagreement
with one another about the leadership, Hellas would perish: and herein
they judged rightly, for disagreement between those of the same race
is worse than war undertaken with one consent by as much as war is
worse than peace. Being assured then of this truth, they did not
contend, but gave way for so long time as they were urgently in need
of the allies; and that this was so their conduct proved; for when,
after repelling the Persian from themselves, they were now contending
for his land and no longer for their own, they alleged the insolence
of Pausanias as a pretext and took away the leadership from the
Lacedemonians. This however took place afterwards. 4. But at this time
these Hellenes also who had come to Artemision,[4] when they saw that
a great number of ships had put in to Aphetai and that everything was
filled with their armament, were struck with fear, because the
fortunes of the Barbarians had different issue from that which they
expected, and they deliberated about retreating from Artemision to the
inner parts of Hellas. And the Eubœans perceiving that they were so
deliberating, asked Eurybiades to stay there by them for a short time,
until they should have removed out of their land their children, and
their households; and as they did not persuade him, they went
elsewhere and persuaded Themistocles the commander of the Athenians by
a payment of thirty talents, the condition being that the fleet should
stay and fight the sea-battle in front of Eubœa. 5. Themistocles then
caused the Hellenes to stay in the following manner:--to Eurybiades he
imparted five talents of the sum with the pretence that he was giving
it from himself; and when Eurybiades had been persuaded by him to
change his resolution, Adeimantos son of Okytos, the Corinthian
commander, was the only one of all the others who still made a
struggle, saying that he would sail away from Artemision and would not
stay with the others: to him therefore Themistocles said with an oath:
"Thou at least shalt not leave us, for I will give thee greater gifts
than the king of the Medes would send to thee, if thou shouldest
desert thy allies." Thus he spoke, and at the same time he sent to the
ship of Adeimantos three talents of silver. So these all[5] had been
persuaded by gifts to change their resolution, and at the same time
the request of the Eubœans had been gratified and Themistocles himself
gained money; and it was not known that he had the rest of the money,
but those who received a share of this money were fully persuaded that
it had come from the Athenian State for this purpose.

6. Thus they remained in Eubœa and fought a sea-battle; and it came to
pass as follows:--when the Barbarians had arrived at Aphetai about the
beginning of the afternoon, having been informed even before they came
that a few ships of the Hellenes were stationed about Artemision and
now seeing them for themselves, they were eager to attack them, to see
if they could capture them. Now they did not think it good yet to sail
against them directly for this reason,--for fear namely that the
Hellenes, when they saw them sailing against them, should set forth to
take flight and darkness should come upon them in their flight; and so
they were likely (thought the Persians)[6] to get away; whereas it was
right, according to their calculation, that not even the fire-
bearer[7] should escape and save his life. 7. With a view to this then
they contrived as follows:--of the whole number of their ships they
parted off two hundred and sent them round to sail by Caphereus and
round Geriastos to the Euripos, going outside Skiathos so that they
might not be sighted by the enemy as they sailed round Eubœa: and
their purpose was that with these coming up by that way, and blocking
the enemies' retreat, and themselves advancing against them directly,
they might surround them on all sides. Having formed this plan they
proceeded to send off the ships which were appointed for this, and
they themselves had no design of attacking the Hellenes on that day
nor until the signal agreed upon should be displayed to them by those
who were sailing round, to show that they had arrived. These ships, I
say, they were sending round, and meanwhile they were numbering the
rest at Aphetai.

8. During this time, while these were numbering their ships, it
happened thus:--there was in that camp a man of Skione named Skyllias,
as a diver the best of all the men of that time, who also in the
shipwreck which took place by Pelion had saved for the Persians many
of their goods and many of them also he had acquired for himself: this
Skyllias it appears had had an intention even before this of deserting
to the side of the Hellenes, but it had not been possible for him to
do so then. In what manner after this attempt he did actually come to
the Hellenes, I am not able to say with certainty, but I marvel if the
tale is true which is reported; for it is said that he dived into the
sea at Aphetai and did not come up till he reached Artemision, having
traversed here somewhere about eighty furlongs through the sea. Now
there are told about this man several other tales which seem likely to
be false, but some also which are true: about this matter however let
it be stated as my opinion that he came to Artemision in a boat. Then
when he had come, he forthwith informed the commanders about the
shipwreck, how it had come to pass, and of the ships which had been
sent away to go round Eubœa. 9. Hearing this the Hellenes considered
the matter with one another; and after many things had been spoken,
the prevailing opinion was that they should remain there that day and
encamp on shore, and then, when midnight was past, they should set
forth and go to meet those ships which were sailing round. After this
however, as no one sailed out to attack them, they waited for the
coming of the late hours of the afternoon and sailed out themselves to
attack the Barbarians, desiring to make a trial both of their manner
of fighting and of the trick of breaking their line.[8] 10. And seeing
them sailing thus against them with few ships, not only the others in
the army of Xerxes but also their commanders judged them to be moved
by mere madness, and they themselves also put out their ships to sea,
supposing that they would easily capture them: and their expectation
was reasonable enough, since they saw that the ships of the Hellenes
were few, while theirs were many times as numerous and sailed better.
Setting their mind then on this, they came round and enclosed them in
the middle. Then so many of the Ionians as were kindly disposed to the
Hellenes and were serving in the expedition against their will,
counted it a matter of great grief to themselves when they saw them
being surrounded and felt assured that not one of them would return
home, so feeble did they think the power of the Hellenes to be; while
those to whom that which was happening was a source of pleasure, were
vying with one another, each one endeavouring to be the first to take
an Athenian ship and receive gifts from the king: for in their camps
there was more report of the Athenians than of any others. 11. The
Hellenes meanwhile, when the signal was given, first set themselves
with prows facing the Barbarians and drew the sterns of their ships
together in the middle; and when the signal was given a second time,
although shut off in a small space and prow against prow,[9] they set
to work vigorously; and they captured thirty ships of the Barbarians
and also Philaon the son of Chersis, the brother of Gorgos kind of the
Salaminians, who was a man of great repute in the army. Now the first
of the Hellenes who captured a ship of the enemy was an Athenian,
Lycomedes the son of Aischraios, and he received the prize for valour.
So these, as they were contending in this sea-fight with doubtful
result, were parted from one another by the coming on of night. The
Hellenes accordingly sailed away to Artemision and the Barbarians to
Aphetai, the contest having been widely different from their
expectation. In this sea-fight Antidoros of Lemnos alone of the
Hellenes who were with the king deserted to the side of the Hellenes,
and the Athenians on account of this deed gave him a piece of land in

12. When the darkness had come on, although the season was the middle
of summer, yet there came on very abundant rain, which lasted through
the whole of the night, with crashing thunder[10] from Mount Pelion;
and the dead bodies and pieces of wreck were cast up at Aphetai and
became entangled round the prows of the ships and struck against the
blades of the oars: and the men of the army who were there, hearing
these things became afraid, expecting that they would certainly
perish, to such troubles had they come; for before they had had even
breathing space after the shipwreck and the storm which had arisen off
Mount Pelion, there had come upon them a hard sea-fight, and after the
sea-fight a violent storm of rain and strong streams rushing to the
sea and crashing thunder. 13. These then had such a night as I have
said; and meanwhile those of them who had been appointed to sail round
Eubœa experienced the very same night, but against them it raged much
more fiercely, inasmuch as it fell upon them while they were making
their course in the open sea. And the end of it proved distressful[11]
to them; for when the storm and the rain together came upon them as
they sailed, being then off the "Hollows" of Eubœa,[12] they were
borne by the wind not knowing by what way they were carried, and were
cast away upon the rocks. And all this was being brought about by God
in order that the Persian force might be made more equal to that of
the Hellenes and might not be by very much the larger. 14. These then,
I say, were perishing about the Hollows of Eubœa, and meanwhile the
Barbarians at Aphetai, when day had dawned upon them, of which they
were glad, were keeping their ships quiet, and were satisfied in their
evil plight to remain still for the present time; but to the Hellenes
there came as a reinforcement three-and-fifty Athenian ships. The
coming of these gave them more courage, and at the same time they were
encouraged also by a report that those of the Barbarians who had been
sailing round Eubœa had all been destroyed by the storm that had taken
place. They waited then for the same time of day as before, and then
they sailed and fell upon some Kilikian ships; and having destroyed
these, they sailed away when the darkness came on, and returned to

15. On the third day the commanders of the Barbarians, being
exceedingly indignant that so small a number of ships should thus do
them damage, and fearing what Xerxes might do, did not wait this time
for the Hellenes to begin the fight, but passed the word of command
and put out their ships to sea about the middle of the day. Now it so
happened that these battles at sea and the battles on land at
Thermopylai took place on the same days; and for those who fought by
sea the whole aim of the fighting was concerned with the channel of
Euripos, just as the aim of Leonidas and of his band was to guard the
pass: the Hellenes accordingly exhorted one another not to let the
Barbarians go by into Hellas; while these cheered one another on to
destroy the fleet of the Hellenes and to get possession of the
straits. 16. Now while the forces of Xerxes were sailing in order
towards them, the Hellenes kept quiet at Artemision; and the
Barbarians, having made a crescent of their ships that they might
enclose them, were endeavouring to surround them. Then the Hellenes
put out to sea and engaged with them; and in this battle the two sides
were nearly equal to one another; for the fleet of Xerxes by reason of
its great size and numbers suffered damage from itself, since the
ships were thrown into confusion and ran into one another:
nevertheless it stood out and did not give way, for they disdained to
be turned to flight by so few ships. Many ships therefore of the
Hellenes were destroyed and many men perished, but many more ships and
men of the Barbarians. Thus contending they parted and went each to
their own place. 17. In this sea-fight the Egyptians did best of the
men who fought for Xerxes; and these, besides other great deeds which
they displayed, captured five ships of the Hellenes together with
their crews: while of the Hellenes those who did best on this day were
the Athenians, and of the Athenians Cleinias the son of Alkibiades,
who was serving with two hundred man and a ship of his own, furnishing
the expense at his own proper cost.

18. Having parted, both sides gladly hastened to their moorings; and
after they had separated and got away out of the sea-fight, although
the Hellenes had possession of the bodies of the dead and of the
wrecks of the ships, yet having suffered severely[13] (and especially
the Athenians, of whose ships half had been disabled), they were
deliberating now about retreating to the inner parts of Hellas. 19.
Themistocles however had conceived that if there should be detached
from the force of the Barbarians the Ionian and Carian nations, they
would be able to overcome the rest; and when the people of Eubœa were
driving their flocks down to that sea,[14] he assembled the generals
and said to them that he thought he had a device by which he hoped to
cause the best of the king's allies to leave him. This matter he
revealed to that extent only; and with regard to their present
circumstances, he said that they must do as follows:--every one must
slaughter of the flocks of the Eubœans as many as he wanted, for it
was better that their army should have them than the enemy; moreover
he advised that each one should command his own men to kindle a fire:
and as for the time of their departure he would see to it in such wise
that they should come safe to Hellas. This they were content to do,
and forthwith when they had kindled a fire they turned their attention
to the flocks. 20. For in fact the Eubœans, neglecting the oracle of
Bakis as if it had no meaning at all, had neither carried away
anything from their land nor laid in any store of provisions with a
view to war coming upon them, and by their conduct moreover they had
brought trouble upon themselves.[15] For the oracle uttered by Bakis
about these matters runs as follows:

 "Mark, when a man, a Barbarian, shall yoke the Sea with papyrus,
  Then do thou plan to remove the loud-bleating goats from Eubœa."

In the evils which at this time were either upon them or soon to be
expected they might feel not a little sorry that they had paid no
attention to these lines.

21. While these were thus engaged, there came to them the scout from
Trachis: for there was at Artemision a scout named Polyas, by birth of
Antikyra, to whom it had been appointed, if the fleet should be
disabled,[16] to signify this to those at Thermopylai, and he had a
vessel equipped and ready for this purpose; and similarly there was
with Leonidas Abronichos son of Lysicles, an Athenian, ready to carry
news to those at Artemision with a thirty-oared galley, if any
disaster should happen to the land-army. This Abronichos then had
arrived, and he proceeded to signify to them that which had come to
pass about Leonidas and his army; and then when they were informed of
it no longer put off their retreat, but set forth in the order in
which they were severally posted, the Corinthians first and the
Athenians last. 22. Themistocles however selected those ships of the
Athenians which sailed best, and went round to the springs of
drinking-water, cutting inscriptions on the stones there, which the
Ionians read when they came to Artemision on the following day. These
inscriptions ran thus: "Ionians, ye act not rightly in making
expedition against the fathers of your race and endeavouring to
enslave Hellas. Best of all were it that ye should come and be on our
side; but if that may not be done by you, stand aside even now from
the combat against us and ask the Carians to do the same as ye. If
however neither of these two things is possible to be done, and ye are
bound down by too strong compulsion to be able to make revolt, then in
the action, when we engage battle, be purposely slack, remember that
ye are descended from us and that our quarrel with the Barbarian took
its rise at the first from you." Themistocles wrote thus, having, as I
suppose, two things together in his mind, namely that either the
inscriptions might elude the notice of the king and cause the Ionians
to change and come over to the side on which he was, or that having
been reported and denounced to Xerxes they might cause the Ionians to
be distrusted by him, and so he might keep them apart from the sea-

Themistocles then had set these inscriptions: and to the Barbarians
there came immediately after these things a man of Histaia in a boat
bringing word of the retreat of the Hellenes from Artemision. They
however, not believing it, kept the messenger under guard and sent
swift-sailing ships to look on before. Then these having reported the
facts, at last as daylight was spreading over the sky, the whole
armament sailed in a body to Artemision; and having stayed at this
place till mid-day, after this they sailed to Histaia, and there
arrived they took possession of the city of Histaia and overran all
the villages which lie along the coast in the region of Ellopia, which
is the land of Histaia.

24. While they were there, Xerxes, after he had made his dispositions
with regard to the bodies of the dead, sent a herald to the fleet: and
the dispositions which he made beforehand were as follows:--for all
those of his army who were lying dead at Thermopylai, (and there were
as many as twenty thousand in all), with the exception of about a
thousand whom he left, he dug trenches and buried them, laying over
them leaves and heaping earth upon them, that they might not be seen
by the men of the fleet. Then when the herald had gone over to
Histaia, he gathered an assembly of the whole force and spoke these
words: "Allies, king Xerxes grants permission to any one of you who
desires it, to leave his post and to come and see how he fights
against those most senseless men who looked to overcome the power of
the king." 25. When the herald had proclaimed this, then boats were of
all things most in request, so many were they who desired to see this
sight; and when they had passed over they went through the dead bodies
and looked at them: and every one supposed that those who were lying
there were all Lacedemonians or Thespians, though the Helots also were
among those that they saw: however, they who had passed over did not
fail to perceive that Xerxes had done that which I mentioned about the
bodies of his own dead; for in truth it was a thing to cause laughter
even: on the one side there were seen a thousand dead bodies lying,
while the others lay all gathered together in the same place, four
thousand[17] of them. During this day then they busied themselves with
looking, and on the day after this they sailed back to the ships at
Histaia, while Xerxes and his army set forth upon their march.

26. There had come also to them a few deserters from Arcadia, men in
want of livelihood and desiring to be employed. These the Persians
brought into the king's presence and inquired about the Hellenes, what
they were doing; and one man it was who asked them this for all the
rest. They told them that the Hellenes were keeping the Olympic
festival and were looking on at a contest of athletics and
horsemanship. He then inquired again, what was the prize proposed to
them, for the sake of which they contended; and they told them of the
wreath of olive which is given. Then Tigranes[18] the son of Artabanos
uttered a thought which was most noble, though thereby he incurred
from the king the reproach of cowardice: for hearing that the prize
was a wreath and not money, he could not endure to keep silence, but
in the presence of all he spoke these words: "Ah! Mardonios, what kind
of men are these against whom thou hast brought us to fight, who make
their contest not for money but for honour!" Thus was it spoken by
this man.

27. In the meantime, so soon as the disaster at Thermopylai had come
about, the Thessalians sent a herald forthwith to the Phokians,
against whom they had a grudge always, but especially because of the
latest disaster which they had suffered: for when both the Thessalians
themselves and their allies had invaded the Phokian land not many
years before this expedition of the king, they had been defeated by
the Phokians and handled by them roughly. For the Phokians had been
shut up in Mount Parnassos having with them a soothsayer, Tellias the
Eleian; and this Tellias contrived for them a device of the following
kind:--he took six hundred men, the best of the Phokians, and whitened
them over with chalk, both themselves and their armour, and then he
attacked the Thessalians by night, telling the Phokians beforehand to
slay every man whom they should see not coloured over with white. So
not only the sentinels of the Thessalians, who saw these first, were
terrified by them, supposing it to be something portentous and other
than it was, but also after the sentinels the main body of their army;
so that the Phokians remained in possession of four thousand bodies of
slain men and shields; of which last they dedicated half at Abai and
half at Delphi; and from the tithe of booty got by this battle were
made the large statues which are contending for the tripod in front of
the temple[19] at Delphi, and others similar to these are dedicated as
an offering at Abai. 28. Thus had the Phokians done to the Thessalian
footmen, when they were besieged by them; and they had done
irreparable hurt to their cavalry also, when this had invaded their
land: for in the pass which is by Hyampolis they had dug a great
trench and laid down in it empty wine-jars; and then having carried
earth and laid it on the top and made it like the rest of the ground,
they waited for the Thessalians to invade their land. These supposing
that they would make short work with the Phokians,[20] riding in full
course fell upon the wine-jars; and there the legs of their horses
were utterly crippled. 29. Bearing then a grudge for both of these
things, the Thessalians sent a herald and addressed them thus:
"Phokians, we advise you to be more disposed now to change your minds
and to admit that ye are not on a level with us: for in former times
among the Hellenes, so long as it pleased us to be on that side, we
always had the preference over you, and now we have such great power
with the Barbarian that it rests with us to cause you to be deprived
of your land and to be sold into slavery also. We however, though we
have all the power in our hands, do not bear malice, but let there be
paid to us fifty talents of silver in return for this, and we will
engage to avert the dangers which threaten to come upon your land."
30. Thus the Thessalians proposed to them; for the Phokians alone of
all the people in those parts were not taking the side of the Medes,
and this for no other reason, as I conjecture, but only because of
their enmity with the Thessalians; and if the Thessalians had
supported the cause of the Hellenes, I am of opinion that the Phokians
would have been on the side of the Medes. When the Thessalians
proposed this, they said that they would not give the money, and that
it was open to them to take the Median side just as much as the
Thessalians, if they desired it for other reasons; but they would not
with their own will be traitors to Hellas.

31. When these words were reported, then the Thessalians, moved with
anger against the Phokians, became guides to the Barbarian to show him
the way: and from the land of Trachis they entered Doris; for a narrow
strip[21] of the Dorian territory extends this way, about thirty
furlongs in breadth, lying between Malis and Phokis, the region which
was in ancient time called Dryopis; this land is the mother-country of
the Dorians in Peloponnese. Now the Barbarians did not lay waste this
land of Doris when they entered it, for the people of it were taking
the side of the Medes, and also the Thessalians did not desire it. 32.
When however from Doris they entered Phokis, they did not indeed
capture the Phokians themselves; for some of them had gone up to the
heights of Parnassos,--and that summit of Parnassos is very convenient
to receive a large number, which lies by itself near the city of Neon,
the name of it being Tithorea,--to this, I say, some of them had
carried up their goods and gone up themselves; but most of them had
conveyed their goods out to the Ozolian Locrians, to the city of
Amphissa, which is situated above the Crissaian plain. The Barbarians
however overran the whole land of Phokis, for so the Thessalians led
their army, and all that they came to as they marched they burned or
cut down, and delivered to the flames both the cities and the temples:
33, for they laid everything waste, proceeding this way by the river
Kephisos, and they destroyed the city of Drymos by fire, and also the
following, namely Charadra, Erochos, Tethronion, Amphikaia, Neon,
Pedieis, Triteis, Elateia, Hyampolis, Parapotamioi and Abai, at which
last-named place there was a temple of Apollo, wealthy and furnished
with treasuries and votive offerings in abundance; and there was then,
as there is even now, the seat of an Oracle there: this temple they
plundered and burnt. Some also of the Phokians they pursued and
captured upon the mountains, and some women they did to death by
repeated outrage.

34. Passing by Parapotamioi the Barbarians came to Panopeus, and from
this point onwards their army was separated and went different ways.
The largest and strongest part of the army, proceeding with Xerxes
himself against Athens, entered the land of the Bœotians, coming into
the territory of Orchomenos. Now the general body of the Bœotians was
taking the side of the Medes, and their cities were being kept by
Macedonians appointed for each, who had been sent by Alexander; and
they were keeping them this aim, namely in order to make it plain to
Xerxes that the Bœotians were disposed to be on the side of the Medes.
35. These, I say, of the Barbarians took their way in this direction;
but others of them with guides had set forth to go to the temple at
Delphi, keeping Parnassos on their right hand: and all the parts of
Phokis over which these marched they ravaged; for they set fire to the
towns of Panopeus and Daulis and Aiolis. And for this reason they
marched in that direction, parted off from the rest of the army,
namely in order that they might plunder the temple at Delphi and
deliver over the treasures there to king Xerxes: and Xerxes was well
acquainted with all that there was in it of any account, better, I am
told, than with the things which he had left in his own house at home,
seeing that many constantly reported of them, and especially of the
votive offerings of Crœsus the son of Alyattes. 36. Meanwhile the
Delphians, having been informed of this, had been brought to extreme
fear; and being in great terror they consulted the Oracle about the
sacred things, whether they should bury them in the earth or carry
them forth to another land; but the god forbade them to meddle with
these, saying that he was able by himself to take care of his own.
Hearing this they began to take thought for themselves, and they sent
their children and women over to Achaia on the other side of the sea,
while most of the men themselves ascended up towards the summits of
Parnassos and carried their property to the Corykian cave, while
others departed for refuge to Amphissa of the Locrians. In short the
Delphians had all left the town excepting sixty men and the prophet of
the Oracle.[22] 37. When the Barbarians had come near and could see
the temple, then the prophet, whose name was Akeratos, saw before the
cell[23] arms lying laid out, having been brought forth out of the
sanctuary,[24] which were sacred and on which it was not permitted to
any man to lay hands. He then was going to announce the portent to
those of the Delphians who were stil there, but when the Barbarians
pressing onwards came opposite the temple of Athene Pronaia, there
happened to them in addition portents yet greater than that which had
come to pass before: for though that too was a marvel, that arms of
war should appear of themselves laid forth outside the cell, yet this,
which happened straightway after that, is worthy of marvel even beyond
all other prodigies. When the Barbarians in their approach were
opposite the temple of Athene Pronaia, at this point of time from the
heaven there fell thunderbolts upon them, and from Parnassos two crags
were broken away and rushed down upon them with a great crashing noise
falling upon many of them, while from the temple of Pronaia there was
heard a shout, and a battle-cry was raised. 38. All these things
having come together, there fell fear upon the Barbarians; and the
Delphians having perceived that they were flying, came down after them
and slew a great number of them; and those who survived fled straight
to Bœotia. These who returned of the Barbarians reported, as I am
informed, that in addition to this which we have said they saw also
other miraculous things; for two men (they said) in full armour and of
stature more than human followed them slaying and pursuing. 39. These
two the Delphians say were the native heroes Phylacos and Autonoös,
whose sacred enclosures are about the temple, that of Phylacos being
close by the side of the road above the temple of Pronaia and that of
Autonoös near Castalia under the peak called Hyampeia. Moreover the
rocks which fell from Parnassos were still preserved even to my time,
lying in the sacred enclosure of Athene Pronaia, into which they fell
when they rushed through the ranks of the Barbarians. Such departure
had these men from the temple.

40. Meanwhile the fleet of the Hellenes after leaving Artemision put
in to land at Salamis at the request of the Athenians: and for this
reason the Athenians requested them to put in to Salamis, namely in
order that they might remove out of Attica to a place of safety their
children and their wives, and also deliberate what they would have to
do; for in their present case they meant to take counsel afresh,
because they had been deceived in their expectation. For they had
thought to find the Peloponnesians in full force waiting for the
Barbarians in Bœotia; they found however nothing of this, but they
were informed on the contrary that the Peloponnesians were fortifying
the Isthmus with a wall, valuing above all things the safety of the
Peloponnese and keeping this in guard; and that they were disposed to
let all else go. Being informed of this, the Athenians therefore made
request of them to put in to Salamis. 41. The others then put in their
ships to land at Salamis, but the Athenians went over to their own
land; and after their coming they made a proclamation that every one
of the Athenians should endeavour to save his children and household
as best he could. So the greater number sent them to Troizen, but
others to Egina, and others to Salamis, and they were urgent to put
these out of danger, both because they desired to obey the oracle and
also especially for another reason, which was this:--the Athenians say
that a great serpent lives in the temple[25] and guards the Acropolis;
and they not only say this, but also they set forth for it monthly
offerings, as if it were really there; and the offering consists of a
honey-cake. This honey-cake, which before used always to be consumed,
was at this time left untouched. When the priestess had signified
this, the Athenians left the city much more and with greater eagerness
than before, seeing that the goddess also had (as they supposed) left
the Acropolis. Then when all their belongings had been removed out of
danger, they sailed to the encampment of the fleet.

42. When those who came from Artemision had put their ships in to land
at Salamis, the remainder of the naval force of the Hellenes, being
informed of this, came over gradually to join them[26] from Troizen:
for they had been ordered beforehand to assemble at Pogon, which is
the harbour of the Troizenians. There were assembled accordingly now
many more ships than those which were in the sea-fight at Artemision,
and from more cities. Over the whole was set as admiral the same man
as at Artemision, namely Eurybiades the son of Eurycleides, a Spartan
but not of the royal house; the Athenians however supplied by far the
greatest number of ships and those which sailed the best. 43. The
following were those who joined the muster:--From Peloponnese the
Lacedemonians furnishing sixteen ships, the Corinthians furnishing the
same complement as at Artemision, the Sikyonians furnishing fifteen
ships, the Epidaurians ten, the Troizenians five, the men of
Hermion[26a] three, these all, except the Hermionians, being of Doric
and Makednian[27] race and having made their last migration from
Erineos and Pindos and the land of Dryopis;[28] but the people of
Hermion are Dryopians, driven out by Heracles and the Malians from the
land which is now called Doris. 44. These were the Peloponnesians who
joined the fleet, and those of the mainland outside the Peloponnese
were as follows:--the Athenians, furnishing a number larger than all
the rest,[29] namely one hundred and eighty ships, and serving alone,
since the Plataians did not take part with the Athenians in the sea-
fight at Salamis, because when the Hellenes were departing from
Artemision and come near Chalkis, the Plataians disembarked on the
opposite shore of Bœotia and proceeded to the removal of their
households. So being engaged in saving these, they had been left
behind. As for the Athenians, in the time when the Pelasgians occupied
that which is now called Hellas, they were Pelasgians, being named
Cranaoi, and in the time of king Kecrops they came to be called
Kecropidai; then when Erechtheus had succeeded to his power, they had
their name changed to Athenians; and after Ion the son of Xuthos
became commander[30] of the Athenians, they got the name from him of
Ionians. 45. The Megarians furnished the same complement as at
Artermision; the Amprakiots came to the assistance of the rest with
seven ships, and the Leucadians with three, these being by race
Dorians from Corinth. 46. Of the islanders the Eginetans furnished
thirty; these had also other ships manned, but with them they were
guarding their own land, while with the thirty which sailed best they
joined in the sea-fight at Salamis. Now the Eginetans are Dorians from
Epidauros, and their island had formerly the name of Oinone. After the
Eginetans came the Chalkidians with the twenty ships which were at
Artemision, and the Eretrians with their seven: these are Ionians.
Next the Keļans, furnishing the same as before and being by race
Ionians from Athens. The Naxians furnished four ships, they having
been sent out by the citizens of their State to join the Persians,
like the other islanders; but neglecting these commands they had come
to the Hellenes, urged thereto by Democritos, a man of repute among
the citizens and at that time commander of a trireme. Now the Naxians
are Ionians coming originally from Athens. The Styrians furnished the
same ships as at Artemision, and the men of Kythnos one ship and one
fifty-oared galley, these both being Dryopians. Also the Seriphians,
the Siphnians and the Melians served with the rest; for they alone of
the islanders had not given earth and water to the Barbarian. 47.
These all who have been named dwelt inside the land of the
Thesprotians and the river Acheron; for the Thesprotians border upon
the land of the Amprakiots and Leucadians, and these were they who
came from the greatest distance to serve: but of those who dwell
outside these limits the men of Croton were the only people who came
to the assistance of Hellas in her danger; and these sent one ship, of
whom the commander was Pha’los, a man who had three times won
victories at the Pythian games. Now the men of Croton are by descent
Achaians. 48. All the rest who served in the fleet furnished triremes,
but the Melians, Siphnian and Seriphians fifty-oared galleys: the
Melians, who are by descent from Lacedemon, furnished two, the
Siphnians and Seriphians, who are Ionians from Athens, each one. And
the whole number of the ships, apart from the fifty-oared galleys, was
three hundred and seventy-eight.[31]

49. When the commanders had assembled at Salamis from the States which
have been mentioned, they began to deliberate, Eurybiades having
proposed that any one who desired it should declare his opinion as to
where he thought it most convenient to fight a sea-battle in those
regions of which they had command; for Attica had already been let go,
and he was now proposing the question about the other regions. And the
opinions of the speakers for the most part agreed that they should
sail to the Isthmus and there fight a sea-battle in defence of the
Peloponnese, arguing that if they should be defeated in the sea-
battle, supposing them to be at Salamis they would be blockaded in an
island, where no help would come to them, but at the Isthmus they
would be able to land where their own men were. 50. While the
commanders from the Peloponnese argued thus, an Athenian had come in
reporting that the Barbarians were arrived in Attica and that all the
land was being laid waste with fire. For the army which directed its
march through Bœotia in company with Xerxes, after it had burnt the
city of the Thespians (the inhabitants having left it and gone to the
Peloponnese) and that of the Plataians likewise, had now come to
Athens and was laying waste everything in those regions. Now he had
burnt Thespiai[31a] and Plataia because he was informed by the Thebans
that these were not taking the side of the Medes. 51. So in three
months from the crossing of the Hellespont, whence the Barbarians
began their march, after having stayed there one month while they
crossed over into Europe, they had reached Attica, in the year when
Calliades was archon of the Athenians. And they took the lower city,
which was deserted, and then they found that there were still a few
Athenians left in the temple, either stewards of the temple or needy
persons, who had barred the entrance to the Acropolis with doors and
with a palisade of timber and endeavoured to defend themselves against
the attacks of the enemy, being men who had not gone out to Salamis
partly because of their poverty, and also because they thought that
they alone had discovered the meaning of the oracle which the Pythian
prophetess had uttered to them, namely that the "bulwark of wood"
should be impregnable, and supposed that this was in fact the safe
refuge according to the oracle, and not the ships. 52. So the Persians
taking their post upon the rising ground opposite the Acropolis, which
the Athenians call the Hill of Ares,[32] proceeded to besiege them in
this fashion, that is they put tow round about their arrows and
lighted it, and then shot them against the palisade. The Athenians who
were besieged continued to defend themselves nevertheless, although
they had come to the extremity of distress and their palisade had
played them false; nor would they accept proposals for surrender, when
the sons of Peisistratos brought them forward: but endeavouring to
defend themselves they contrived several contrivances against the
enemy, and among the rest they rolled down large stones when the
Barbarians approached the gates; so that for a long time Xerxes was in
a difficulty, not being able to capture them. 53. In time however
there appeared for the Barbarians a way of approach after their
difficulties, since by the oracle it was destined that all of Attica
which is on the mainland should come to be under the Persians. Thus
then it happened that on the front side[33] of the Acropolis behind
the gates and the way up to the entrance, in a place where no one was
keeping guard, nor would one have supposed that any man could ascend
by this way, here men ascended by the temple of Aglauros the daughter
of Kecrops, although indeed the place is precipitous: and when the
Athenians saw that they had ascended up to the Acropolis, some of them
threw themselves down from the wall and perished, while others took
refuge in the sanctuary[34] of the temple. Then those of the Persians
who had ascended went first to the gates, and after opening these they
proceeded to kill the suppliants; and when all had been slain by them,
they plundered the temple and set fire to the whole of the Acropolis.

54. Then Xerxes, having fully taken possession of Athens, sent to Susa
a mounted messenger to report to Artabanos the good success which they
had. And on the next day after sending the herald he called together
the exiles of the Athenians who were accompanying him, and bade them
go up to the Acropolis and sacrifice the victims after their own
manner; whether it was that he had seen some vision of a dream which
caused him to give this command, or whether perchance he had a scruple
in his mind because he had set fire to the temple. The Athenian exiles
did accordingly that which was commanded them: 55, and the reason why
I made mention of this I will here declare:--there is in this
Acropolis a temple[35] of Erechtheus, who is said to have been born of
the Earth, and in this there is an olive-tree and a sea, which
(according to the story told by the Athenians) Poseidon and Athene,
when they contended for the land, set as witnesses of themselves. Now
it happened to this olive-tree to be set on fire with the rest of the
temple by the Barbarians; and on the next day after the conflagration
those of the Athenians who were commanded by the king to offer
sacrifice, saw when they had gone up to the temple that a shoot had
run up from the stock of the tree about a cubit in length. These then
made report of this.

56. The Hellenes meanwhile at Salamis, when it was announced to them
how it had been as regards the Acropolis of the Athenians, were
disturbed so greatly that some of the commanders did not even wait for
the question to be decided which had been proposed, but began to go
hastily to their ships and to put up their sails, meaning to make off
with speed; and by those of them who remained behind it was finally
decided to fight at sea in defence of the Isthmus. So night came on,
and they having been dismissed from the council were going to their
ships: 57, and when Themistocles had come to his ship, Mnesiphilos an
Athenian asked him what they had resolved; and being informed by him
that it had been determined to take out the ships to the Isthmus and
fight a battle by sea in defence of the Peloponnese, he said: "Then,
if they set sail with the ships from Salamis, thou wilt not fight any
more sea-battles at all for the fatherland, for they will all take
their way to their several cities and neither Eurybiades nor any other
man will be able to detain them or to prevent the fleet from being
dispersed: and Hellas will perish by reason of evil counsels. But if
there by any means, go thou and try to unsettle that which has been
resolved, if perchance thou mayest persuade Eurybiades to change his
plans, so as to stay here." 58. This advice very much commended itself
to Themistocles; and without making any answer he went to the ship of
Eurybiades. Having come thither he said that he desired to communicate
to him a matter which concerned the common good; and Eurybiades bade
him come into his ship and speak, if he desired to say anything. Then
Themistocles sitting down beside him repeated to him all those things
which he had heard Mnesiphilos say, making as if they were his own
thoughts, and adding to them many others; until at last by urgent
request he persuaded him to come out of his ship and gather the
commanders to the council. 59. So when they were gathered together,
before Eurybiades proposed the discussion of the things for which he
had assembled the commanders, Themistocles spoke with much
vehemence[36] being very eager to gain his end; and as he was
speaking, the Corinthian commander, Adeimantos the son of Okytos,
said: "Themistocles, at the games those who stand forth for the
contest before the due time are beaten with rods." He justifying
himself said: "Yes, but those who remain behind are not crowned." 60.
At that time he made answer mildly to the Corinthian; and to
Eurybiades he said not now any of those things which he had said
before, to the effect that if they should set sail from Salamis they
would disperse in different directions; for it was not seemly for him
to bring charges against the allies in their presence: but he held to
another way of reasoning, saying: "Now it is in thy power to save
Hellas, if thou wilt follow my advice, which is to stay here and here
to fight a sea-battle, and if thou wilt not follow the advice of those
among these men who bid thee remove the ships to the Isthmus. For hear
both ways, and then set them in comparison. If thou engage battle at
the Isthmus, thou wilt fight in an open sea, into which it is by no
means convenient for us that we go to fight, seeing that we have ships
which are heavier and fewer in number than those of the enemy. Then
secondly thou wilt give up to destruction Salamis and Megara and
Egina, even if we have success in all else; for with their fleet will
come also the land-army, and thus thou wilt thyself lead them to the
Peloponnese and wilt risk the safety of all Hellas. If however thou
shalt do as I say, thou wilt find therein all the advantages which I
shall tell thee of:--in the first place by engaging in a narrow place
with few ships against many, if the fighting has that issue which it
is reasonable to expect, we shall have very much the better; for to
fight a sea-fight in a narrow space is for our advantage, but to fight
in a wide open space is for theirs. Then again Salamis will be
preserved, whither our children and our wives have been removed for
safety; and moreover there is this also secured thereby, to which ye
are most of all attached, namely that by remaining here thou wilt
fight in defence of the Peloponnese as much as if the fight were at
the Isthmus; and thou wilt not lead the enemy to Peloponnese, if thou
art wise. Then if that which I expect come to pass and we gain a
victory with our ships, the Barbarians will not come to you at the
Isthmus nor will they advance further than Attica, but they will
retire in disorder; and we shall be the gainers by the preservation of
Megara and Egina and Salamis, at which place too an oracle tells us
that we shall get the victory over our enemies.[37] Now when men take
counsel reasonably for themselves, reasonable issues are wont as a
rule to come, but if they do not take counsel reasonably, then God is
not wont generally to attach himself to the judgment of men." 61. When
Themistocles thus spoke, the Corinthian Adeimantos inveighed against
him for the second time, bidding him to be silent because he had no
native land, and urging Eurybiades not to put to the vote the proposal
of one who was a citizen of no city; for he said that Themistocles
might bring opinions before the council if he could show a city
belonging to him, but otherwise not. This objection he made against
him because Athens had been taken and was held by the enemy. Then
Themistocles said many evil things of him and of the Corinthians both,
and declared also that he himself and his countrymen had in truth a
city and a land larger than that of the Corinthians, so long as they
had two hundred ships fully manned; for none of the Hellenes would be
able to repel the Athenians if they came to fight against them. 62.
Signifying this he turned then to Eurybiades and spoke yet more
urgently: "If thou wilt remain here, and remaining here wilt show
thyself a good man, well; but if not, thou wilt bring about the
overthrow of Hellas, for upon the ships depends all our power in the
war. Nay, but do as I advise. If, however, thou shalt not do so, we
shall forthwith take up our households and voyage to Siris in Italy,
which is ours already of old and the oracles say that it is destined
to be colonised by us; and ye, when ye are left alone and deprived of
allies such as we are, will remember my words." 63. When Themistocles
thus spoke, Eurybiades was persuaded to change his mind; and, as I
think, he changed his mind chiefly from fear lest the Athenians should
depart and leave them, if he should take the ships to the Isthmus; for
if the Athenians left them and departed, the rest would be no longer
able to fight with the enemy. He chose then this counsel, to stay in
that place and decide matters there by a sea-fight.

64. Thus those at Salamis, after having skirmished with one another in
speech, were making preparations for a sea-fight there, since
Eurybiades had so determined: and as day was coming on, at the same
time when the sun rose there was an earthquake felt both on the land
and on the sea: and they determined to pray to the gods and to call
upon the sons of Aiacos to be their helpers. And as they had
determined, so also they did; for when they had prayed to all the
gods, they called Ajax and Telamon to their help from Salamis, where
the fleet was,[38] and sent a ship to Egina to bring Aiacos himself
and the rest of the sons of Aiacos.

65. Moreover Dicaios the son of Theokydes, an Athenian, who was an
exile and had become of great repute among the Medes at this time,
declared that when the Attic land was being ravaged by the land-army
of Xerxes, having been deserted by the Athenians, he happened then to
be in company with Demaratos the Lacedemonian in the Thriasian plain;
and he saw a cloud of dust going up from Eleusis, as if made by a
company of about thirty thousand men, and they wondered at the cloud
of dust, by what men it was caused. Then forthwith they heard a sound
of voices, and Dicaios perceived that the sound was the mystic cry
/Iacchos/; but Demaratos, having no knowledge of the sacred rites
which are done at Eleusis, asked him what this was that uttered the
sound, and he said: "Demaratos, it cannot be but that some great
destruction is about to come to the army of the king: for as to this,
it is very manifest, seeing that Attica is deserted, that this which
utters the sound is of the gods, and that it is going from Eleusis to
help the Athenians and their allies: if then it shall come down in the
Peloponnese, there is danger for the king himself and for the army
which is upon the mainland, but if it shall direct its course towards
the ships which are at Salamis, the king will be in danger of losing
his fleet. This feast the Athenians celebrate every year to the Mother
and the Daughter;[39] and he that desires it, both of them and of the
other Hellenes, is initiated in the mysteries; and the sound of voices
which thou hearest is the cry /Iacchos/ which they utter at this
feast." To this Demaratos said: "Keep silence and tell not this tale
to any other man; for if these words of thine be reported to the king,
thou wilt surely lose thy head, and neither I nor any other man upon
earth will be able to save thee: but keep thou quiet, and about this
expedition the gods will provide." He then thus advised, and after the
cloud of dust and the sound of voices there came a mist which was
borne aloft and carried towards Salamis to the camp of the Hellenes:
and thus they learnt (said he) that the fleet of Xerxes was destined
to be destroyed. Such was the report made by Dicaios the son of
Theodykes, appealing to Demaratos and others also as witnesses.

66. Meanwhile those who were appointed to serve in the fleet of
Xerxes, having gazed in Trachis upon the disaster of the Lacedemonians
and having passed over from thence to Histiaia, after staying three
days sailed through Euripos, and in other three days they had reached
Phaleron. And, as I suppose, they made their attack upon Athens not
fewer in number both by land and sea than when they had arrived at
Sepias and at Thermopylai: for against those of them who perished by
reason of the storm and those who were slain at Thermopylai and in the
sea-fights at Artemision, I will set those who at that time were not
yet accompanying the king, the Malians, Dorians, Locrians, and
Bœotians (who accompanied him in a body, except the Thespians and
Plataians), and moreover those of Carystos, Andros, and Tenos, with
all the other islanders except the five cities of which I mentioned
the names before; for the more the Persian advanced towards the centre
of Hellas, the more nations accompanied him.

67. So then, when all these had come to Athens except the Parians (now
the Parians had remained behind at Kythnos waiting to see how the war
would turn out),--when all the rest, I say, had come to Phaleron, then
Xerxes himself came down to the ships desiring to visit them and to
learn the opinions of those who sailed in them: and when he had come
and was set in a conspicuous place, then those who were despots of
their own nations or commanders of divisions being sent for came
before him from their ships, and took their seats as the king had
assigned rank to each one, first the king of Sidon, then he of Tyre,
and after them the rest: and when they were seated in due order,
Xerxes sent Mardonios and inquired, making trial of each one, whether
he should fight a battle by sea. 68. So when Mardonios went round
asking them, beginning with the king of Sidon, the others gave their
opinions all to the same effect, advising him to fight a battle by
sea, but Artemisia spoke these words:--(a) "Tell the king I pray thee,
Mardonios, that I, who have proved myself not to be the worst in the
sea-fights which have been fought near Eubœa, and have displayed deeds
not inferior to those of others, speak to him thus: Master, it is
right that I set forth the opinion which I really have, and say that
which I happen to think best for thy cause: and this I say,--spare thy
ships and do not make a sea-fight; for the men are as much stronger
than thy men by sea, as men are stronger than women. And why must thou
needs run the risk of sea-battles? Hast thou not Athens in thy
possession, for the sake of which thou didst set forth on thy march,
and also the rest of Hellas? and no man stands in thy way to resist,
but those who did stand against thee came off as it was fitting that
they should. (b) Now the manner in which I think the affairs of thy
adversaries will have their issue, I will declare. If thou do not
hasten to make a sea-fight, but keep thy ships here by the land,
either remaining here thyself or even advancing on to the Peloponnese,
that which thou hast come to do, O master, will easily be effected;
for the Hellenes are not able to hold out against thee for any long
time, but thou wilt soon disperse them and they will take flight to
their several cities: since neither have they provisions with them in
this island, as I am informed, nor is it probable that if thou shalt
march thy land-army against the Peloponnese, they who have come from
thence will remain still; for these will have no care to fight a
battle in defence of Athens. (c) If however thou hasten to fight
forthwith, I fear that damage done to the fleet may ruin the land-army
also. Moreover, O king, consider also this, that the servants of good
men are apt to grow bad, but those of bad men good; and thou, who art
of all men the best, hast bad servants, namely those who are reckoned
as allies, Egyptians and Cyprians and Kilikians and Pamphylians, in
whom there is no profit." 69. When she thus spoke to Mardonios, those
who were friendly to Artemisia were grieved at her words, supposing
that she would suffer some evil from the king because she urged him
not to fight at sea; while those who had envy and jealousy of her,
because she had been honoured above all the allies, were rejoiced at
the opposition,[40] supposing that she would now be ruined. When
however the opinions were reported to Xerxes, he was greatly pleased
with the opinion of Artemisia; and whereas even before this he thought
her excellent, he commended her now yet more. Nevertheless he gave
orders to follow the advice of the greater number, thinking that when
they fought by Eubœa they were purposely slack, because he was not
himself present with them, whereas now he had made himself ready to
look on while they fought a sea-battle.

70. So when they passed the word to put out to sea, they brought their
ships out to Salamis and quietly ranged themselves along the shore in
their several positions. At that time the daylight was not sufficient
for them to engage battle, for night had come on; but they made their
preparations to fight on the following day. Meanwhile the Hellenes
were possessed by fear and dismay, especially those who were from
Peloponnese: and these were dismayed because remaining in Salamis they
were to fight a battle on behalf of the land of the Athenians, and
being defeated they would be cut off from escape and blockaded in an
island, leaving their own land unguarded. And indeed the land-army of
the Barbarians was marching forward during that very night towards the
Peloponnese. 71. Yet every means had been taken that the Barbarians
might not be able to enter Peloponnesus by land: for as soon as the
Peloponnesians heard that Leonidas and his company had perished at
Thermopylai, they came together quickly from the cities and took post
at the Isthmus, and over them was set as commander Cleombrotos, the
son of Anaxandrides and brother of Leonidas. These being posted at the
Isthmus had destroyed the Skironian way, and after this (having so
determined in counsel with one another) they began to build a wall
across the Isthmus; and as they were many myriads[41] and every man
joined in the work, the work proceeded fast; for stones and bricks and
pieces of timber and baskets full of sand were carried to it
continually, and they who had thus come to help paused not at all in
their work either by night or by day. 72. Now those of the Hellenes
who came in full force to the Isthmus to help their country were
these,--the Lacedemonians, the Arcadians of every division, the
Eleians, Corinthians, Sikyonians, Epidaurians, Phliasians, Troizenians
and Hermionians. These were they who came to the help of Hellas in her
danger and who had apprehension for her, while the rest of the
Peloponnesians showed no care: and the Olympic and Carneian festivals
had by this time gone by. 73. Now Peloponnesus is inhabited by seven
races; and of these, two are natives of the soil and are settled now
in the place where they dwelt of old, namely the Arcadians and the
Kynurians; and one race, that of the Achaians, though it did not
remove from the Peloponnese, yet removed in former time from its own
land and dwells now in that which was not its own. The remaining
races, four in number, have come in from without, namely the Dorians,
Aitolians, Dryopians and Lemnians. Of the Dorians there are many
cities and of great renown; of the Aitolians, Elis alone; of the
Dryopians, Hermion[42] and Asine, which latter is opposite Cardamyle
in the Laconian land; and of the Lemnians, all the Paroreatai. The
Kynurians, who are natives of the soil, seem alone to be Ionians, but
they have become Dorians completely because they are subject to the
Argives and by lapse of time, being originally citizens of Orneai or
the dwellers in the country round Orneai.[43] Of these seven nations
the remaining cities, except those which I enumerated just now, stood
aside and did nothing; and if one may be allowed to speak freely, in
thus standing aside they were in fact taking the side of the Medes.

74. Those at the Isthmus were struggling with the labour which I have
said, since now they were running a course in which their very being
was at stake, and they did not look to have any brilliant success with
their ships: while those who were at Salamis, though informed of this
work, were yet dismayed, not fearing so much for themselves as for
Peloponnesus. For some time then they spoke of it in private, one man
standing by another, and they marvelled at the ill-counsel of
Eurybiades; but at last it broke out publicly. A meeting accordingly
was held, and much was spoken about the same points as before, some
saying that they ought to sail away to Peloponnesus and run the risk
in defence of that, and not stay and fight for a land which had been
captured by the enemy, while the Athenians, Eginetans and Megarians
urged that they should stay there and defend themselves. 75. Then
Themistocles, when his opinion was like to be defeated by the
Peloponnesians, secretly went forth from the assembly, and having gone
out he sent a man to the encampment of the Medes in a boat, charging
him with that which he must say: this man's name was Sikinnos, and he
was a servant of Themistocles and tutor to his children; and after
these events Themistocles entered him as a Thespian citizen, when the
Thespians were admitting new citizens, and made him a wealthy man. He
at this time came with a boat and said to the commanders of the
Barbarians these words: "The commander of the Athenians sent me
privately without the knowledge of the other Hellenes (for, as it
chances, he is disposed to the cause of the king, and desires rather
that your side should gain the victory than that of the Hellenes), to
inform you that the Hellenes are planning to take flight, having been
struck with dismay; and now it is possible for you to execute a most
noble work, if ye do not permit them to flee away: for they are not of
one mind with one another and they will not stand against you in
fight, but ye shall see them fighting a battle by sea with one
another, those who are disposed to your side against those who are
not." 76. He then having signified to them this, departed out of the
way; and they, thinking that the message deserved credit, landed first
a large number of Persians in the small island of Psyttaleia, which
lies between Salamis and the mainland; and then, as midnight came on,
they put out the Western wing of their fleet to sea, circling round
towards Salamis, and also those stationed about Keos and Kynosura put
out their ships to sea; and they occupied all the passage with their
ships as far as Munychia. And for this reason they put out their
ships, namely in order that the Hellenes might not even be permitted
to get away, but being cut off in Salamis might pay the penalty for
the contests at Artemision: and they disembarked men of the Persians
on the small island called Psyttaleia for this reason, namely that
when the fight should take place, these might save the men of one side
and destroy those of the other, since there especially it was likely
that the men and the wrecks of ships would be cast up on shore, for
the island lay in the way of the sea-fight which was to be. These
things they did in silence, that the enemy might not have information
of them.

77. They then were making their preparations thus in the night without
having taken any sleep at all: and with regard to oracles, I am not
able to make objections against them that they are not true, for I do
not desire to attempt to overthrow the credit of them when they speak
clearly, looking at such matters as these which here follow:

 "But when with ships they shall join the sacred strand of the goddess,
  Artemis golden-sword-girded, and thee, wave-washed Kynosura,
  Urged by a maddening hope,[44] having given rich Athens to plunder,
  Then shall Justice divine quell Riot, of Insolence first-born,[45]
  Longing to overthrow all things[46] and terribly panting for bloodhshed:
  Brass shall encounter with brass, and Ares the sea shall empurple,
  Tinging its waves with the blood: then a day of freedom for Hellas
  Cometh from wide-seeing Zeus[47] and from Victory, lady and mother."[48]

Looking to such things as this, and when Bakis speaks so clearly, I do
not venture myself to make any objections about oracles, nor can I
admit them from others.

78. Now between the commanders that were at Salamis there came to be
great contention of speech and they did not yet know that the
Barbarians were surrounding them with their ships, but they thought
that they were still in their place as they saw them disposed in the
day. 79. Then while the commanders were engaged in strife, there came
over from Egina Aristeides the son of Lysimachos, an Athenian who had
been ostracised by the people, a man whom I hold (according to that
which I hear of his character) to have been the best and most upright
of all Athenians. This man came into the council and called forth
Themistocles, who was to him not a friend, but an enemy to the last
degree; but because of the greatness of the present troubles he let
those matters be forgotten and called him forth, desiring to
communicate with him. Now he had heard beforehand that the
Peloponnesians were pressing to take the ships away to the Isthmus. So
when Themistocles came forth to him, Aristeides spoke these words:
"Both at other times when occasion arises, and also especially at this
time we ought to carry on rivalry as to which of us shall do more
service to our country. And I tell thee now that it is indifferent
whether the Peloponnesians say many words or few about sailing away
from hence; for having been myself an eye-witness I tell thee that now
not even if the Corinthians and Eurybiades himself desire to sail out,
will they be able; for we are encompassed round by the enemy. Go thou
in then, and signify this to them." 80. He made answer as follows:
"Thou advisest very well,[49] and also the news which thou hast
brought is good, since thou art come having witnessed with thine own
eyes that which I desired might come to pass: for know that this which
is being done by the Medes is of my suggestion; because, when the
Hellenes would not come to a battle of their own will, it was
necessary to bring them over to us against their will. Do thou
however, since thou art come bearing good news, thyself report it to
them; for if I say these things, I shall be thought to speak that
which I have myself invented, and I shall not persuade them, but they
will think that the Barbarians are not doing so. Do thou thyself
however come forward to speak, and declare to them how things are; and
when thou hast declared this, if they are persuaded, that will be the
best thing, but if this is not credible to them, it will be the same
thing so far as concerns us, for they will no longer be able to take
to flight, if we are encompassed on all sides, as thou sayest." 81.
Aristeides accordingly came forward and told them this, saying that he
had come from Egina and had with difficulty escaped without being
perceived by those who were blockading them; for the whole encampment
of the Hellenes was encompassed by the ships of Xerxes; and he
counselled them to get ready to defend themselves. He then having thus
spoken retired, and among them again there arose dispute, for the
greater number of the commanders did not believe that which was
reported to them: 83, and while these were doubting, there came a
trireme manned by Tenians, deserting from the enemy, of which the
commander was Panaitios the son of Sosimenes, which brought them the
whole truth. For this deed the Tenians were inscribed at Delphi on the
tripod among those who had conquered the Barbarians. With the ship
which deserted at Salamis and the Lemnian ship which deserted before
and came to Artemision, the naval force of the Hellenes was completed
to the number of three hundred and eighty ships, for before this two
ships were yet wanting to make up this number.

83. The Hellenes then, since they believed that which was said by the
Tenians, were preparing for a sea-fight: and as the dawn appeared,
they made an assembly of those who fought on board the ships[50] and
addressed them, Themistocles making a speech which was eloquent beyond
the rest; and the substance of it was to set forth all that is better
as opposed to that which is worse, of the several things which arise
in the nature and constitution of man; and having exhorted them to
choose the better,[51] and thus having wound up his speech, he bade
them embark in their ships. These then proceeded to embark, and there
came in meanwhile the trireme from Egina which had gone away to bring
the sons of Aiacos. 84. Then the Hellenes put out all their ships, and
while they were putting out from shore, the Barbarians attacked them
forthwith. Now the other Hellenes began backing their ships and were
about to run them aground, but Ameinias of Pallene, an Athenian, put
forth with his ship and charged one of the enemy; and his ship being
entangled in combat and the men not being able to get away, the others
joined in the fight to assist Ameinias. The Athenians say that the
beginning of the battle was made thus, but the Eginetans say that the
ship which went away to Egina to bring the sons of Aiacos was that
which began the fight. It is also reported that an apparition of a
woman was seen by them, and that having appeared she encouraged them
to the fight so that the whole of the army of the Hellenes heard it,
first having reproached them in these words: "Madmen,[52] how far will
ye yet back your ships?"

85. Opposite the Athenians had been ranged the Phenicians, for these
occupied the wing towards Eleusis and the West, and opposite the
Lacedemonians were the Ionians, who occupied the wing which extended
to the East and to Piręus. Of them however a few were purposely slack
in the fight according to the injunctions of Themistocles,[53] but the
greater number were not so. I might mention now the names of many
captains of ships who destroyed ships of the Hellenes, but I will make
no use of their names except in the case of Theomestor, the son of
Androdamas and Phylacos the son of Histiaios, of Samos both: and for
this reason I make mention of these and not of the rest, because
Theomestor on account of this deed became despot of Samos, appointed
by the Persians, and Phylacos was recorded as a benefactor of the king
and received much land as a reward. Now the benefactors of the king
are called in the Persian tongue /orosangai/. 86. Thus it was with
these; but the greater number of their ships were disabled at Salamis,
being destroyed some by the Athenians and others by the Eginetans: for
since the Hellenes fought in order and ranged in their places, while
the Barbarians were no longer ranged in order nor did anything with
design, it was likely that there would be some such result as in fact
followed. Yet on this day they surpassed themselves much more than
when they fought by Eubœa, every one being eager and fearing Xerxes,
and each man thinking that the king was looking especially at him. 87.
As regards the rest I cannot speak of them separately, or say
precisely how the Barbarians or the Hellenes individually contended in
the fight; but with regard to Artemisia that which happened was this,
whence she gained yet more esteem than before from the king.--When the
affairs of the king had come to great confusion, at this crisis a ship
of Artemisia was being pursued by an Athenian ship; and as she was not
able to escape, for in front of her were other ships of her own side,
while her ship, as it chanced, was furthest advanced towards the
enemy, she resolved what she would do, and it proved also much to her
advantage to have done so. While she was being pursued by the Athenian
ship she charged with full career against a ship of her own side
manned by Calyndians and in which the king of the Calyndians
Damasithymos was embarked. Now, even though it be true that she had
had some strife with him before, while they were still about the
Hellespont, yet I am not able to say whether she did this by
intention, or whether the Calyndian ship happened by chance to fall in
her way. Having charged against it however and sunk it, she enjoyed
good fortune and got for herself good in two ways; for first the
captain of the Athenian ship, when he saw her charge against a ship
manned by Barbarians, turned away and went after others, supposing
that the ship of Artemisia was either a Hellenic ship or was deserting
from the Barbarians and fighting for the Hellenes, 88,--first, I say,
it was her fortune to have this, namely to escape and not suffer
destruction; and then secondly it happened that though she had done
mischief, she yet gained great reputation by this thing with Xerxes.
For it is said that the king looking on at the fight perceived that
her ship had charged the other; and one of those present said:
"Master, dost thou see Artemisia, how well she is fighting, and how
she sank even now a ship of the enemy?" He asked whether this was in
truth the deed of Artemisia, and they said that it was; for (they
declared) they knew very well the sign of her ship: and that which was
destroyed they thought surely was one of the enemy; for besides other
things which happened fortunately for her, as I have said, there was
this also, namely that not one of the crew of the Calyndian ship
survived to become her accuser. And Xerxes in answer to that which was
said to him is reported to have uttered these words: "My men have
become women, and my women men." Thus it is said that Xerxes spoke.
89. And meanwhile in this struggle there was slain the commander
Ariabignes, son of Dareios and brother of Xerxes, and there were slain
too many others of note of the Persians and Medes and also of the
allies; and of the Hellenes on their part a few; for since they knew
how to swim, those whose ships were destroyed and who were not slain
in hand-to-hand conflict swam over to Salamis; but of the Barbarians
the greater number perished in the sea, not being able to swim. And
when the first ships turned to flight, then it was that the largest
number perished, for those who were stationed behind, while
endeavouring to pass with their ships to the front in order that they
also might display some deed of valour for the king to see, ran into
the ships of their own side as they fled.

90. It happened also in the course of this confusion that some of the
Phenicians, whose ships had been destroyed, came to the king and
accused the Ionians, saying that by means of them their ships had been
lost, and that they had been traitors to the cause. Now it so came
about that not only the commanders of the Ionians did not lose their
lives, but the Phenicians who accused them received a reward such as I
shall tell. While these men were yet speaking thus, a Samothrakian
ship charged against an Athenian ship: and as the Athenian ship was
being sunk by it, an Eginetan ship came up against the Samothrakian
vessel and ran it down. Then the Samothrakians, being skilful javelin-
throwers, by hurling cleared off the fighting-men from the ship which
had wrecked theirs and then embarked upon it and took possession of
it. This event saved the Ionians from punishment; for when Xerxes saw
that they had performed a great exploit, he turned to the Phenicians
(for he was exceedingly vexed and disposed to find fault with all) and
bade cut off their heads, in order that they might not, after having
been cowards themselves, accuse others who were better men than they.
For whensoever Xerxes (sitting just under the mountain opposite
Salamis, which is called Aigaleos) saw any one of his own side display
a deed of valour in the sea-fight, he inquired about him who had done
it, and the scribes recorded the name of the ship's captain with that
of his father and the city from whence he came. Moreover also
Ariaramnes, a Persian who was present, shared[54] the fate of the
Phenicians, being their friend. They[55] then proceeded to deal with
the Phenicians.

91. In the meantime, as the Barbarians turned to flight and were
sailing out towards Phaleron, the Eginetans waited for them in the
passage and displayed memorable actions: for while the Athenians in
the confused tumult were disabling both those ships which resisted and
those which were fleeing, the Eginetans were destroying those which
attempted to sail away; and whenever any escaped the Athenians, they
went in full course and fell among the Eginetans. 92. Then there met
one another the ship of Themistocles, which was pursuing a ship of the
enemy, and that of Polycritos the son of Crios the Eginetan. This last
had charged against a ship of Sidon, the same that had taken the
Eginetan vessel which was keeping watch in advance at Skiathos,[56]
and in which sailed Pytheas the son of Ischenoös, whom the Persians
kept in their ship, all cut to pieces as he was, making a marvel of
his valour. The Sidonian ship then was captured bearing with it this
man as well as the Persians of whom I spoke, so that Pytheas thus came
safe to Egina. Now when Polycritos looked at the Athenian vessel he
recognised when he saw it the sign of the admiral's ship, and shouting
out he addressed Themistocles with mockery about the accusation
brought against the Eginetans of taking the side of the Medes,[57] and
reproached him. This taunt Polycritos threw out against Themistocles
after he had charged against the ship of Sidon. And meanwhile those
Barbarians whose ships had escaped destruction fled and came to
Phaleron to be under cover of the land-army.

93. In this sea-fight the Eginetans were of all the Hellenes the best
reported of, and next to them the Athenians; and of the individual men
the Eginetan Polycritos and the Athenians Eumenes of Anagyrus and
Ameinias of Pallene, the man who had pursued after Artemisia. Now if
he had known that Artemisia was sailing in this ship, he would not
have ceased until either he had taken her or had been taken himself;
for orders had been given to the Athenian captains, and moreover a
prize was offered of ten thousand drachmas for the man who should take
her alive; since they thought it intolerable that a woman should make
an expedition against Athens. She then, as has been said before, had
made her escape; and the others also, whose ships had escaped
destruction, were at Phaleron.

94. As regards Adeimantos the commander of the Corinthians, the
Athenians say that forthwith at the beginning when the ships were
engaging in the fight, being struck with panic and terror he put up
his sails and fled away; and the Corinthians, when they saw the
admiral's ship fleeing, departed likewise: and after this, as the
story goes, when they came in their flight opposite to the temple of
Athene Skiras in the land of Salamis, there fell in with them by
divine guidance a light vessel,[58] which no one was ever found to
have sent, and which approached the Corinthians at a time when they
knew nothing of that which was happening with the fleet. And by this
it is conjectured[59] that the matter was of the Deity; for when they
came near to the ships, the men in the light vessel said these words:
"Adeimantos, thou hast turned thy ships away and hast set forth to
flee, deserting the cause of the Hellenes, while they are in truth
gaining a victory and getting the better of their foes as much as they
desired." When they said this, since Adeimantos doubted of it, they
spoke a second time and said that they might be taken as hostages and
slain, if the Hellenes should prove not to be gaining the victory.
Then he turned his ship back, he and the others with him, and they
reached the camp when the work was finished. Such is the report spread
by the Athenians against these: the Corinthians however do not allow
this to be so, but hold that they were among the first in the sea-
fight; and the rest of Hellas also bears witness on their side.

95. Aristeides moreover the son of Lysimachos, the Athenian, of whom I
made mention also shortly before this as a very good man, he in this
tumult which had arisen about Salamis did as follows:--taking with him
a number of the hoplites of Athenian race who had been ranged along
the shore of the land of Salamis, with them he disembarked on the
island of Psyttaleia; and these slew all the Persians who were in this

96. When the sea-fight had been broken off, the Hellenes towed in to
Salamis so many of the wrecks as chanced to be still about there, and
held themselves ready for another sea-fight, expecting that the king
would yet make use of the ships which remained unhurt; but many of the
wrecks were taken by the West Wind and borne to that strand in Attica
which is called Colias; so as to fulfil[60] not only all that other
oracle which was spoken about this sea-fight by Bakis and Musaios, but
also especially, with reference to the wrecks cast up here, that which
had been spoken in an oracle many years before these events by
Lysistratos, an Athenian who uttered oracles, and which had not been
observed by any of the Hellenes:

 "Then shall the Colian women with firewood of oars roast barley."[61]

This was destined to come to pass after the king had marched away.

97. When Xerxes perceived the disaster which had come upon him, he
feared lest some one of the Ionians should suggest to the Hellenes, or
they should themselves form the idea, to sail to the Hellespont and
break up the bridges; and so he might be cut off in Europe and run the
risk of perishing utterly: therefore he began to consider about taking
flight. He desired however that his intention should not be perceived
either by the Hellenes or by those of his own side; therefore he
attempted to construct a mole going across to Salamis, and he bound
together Phenician merchant vessels in order that they might serve him
both for a bridge and a wall, and made preparations for fighting as if
he were going to have another battle by sea. Seeing him do so, all the
rest made sure that he had got himself ready in earnest and intended
to stay and fight; but Mardonios did not fail to perceive the true
meaning of all these things, being by experience very well versed in
his way of thinking.

98. While Xerxes was doing thus, he sent a messenger to the Persians,
to announce the calamity which had come upon them. Now there is
nothing mortal which accomplishes a journey with more speed than these
messengers, so skilfully has this been invented by the Persians: for
they say that according to the number of days of which the entire
journey consists, so many horses and men are set at intervals, each
man and horse appointed for a day's journey. These neither snow nor
rain nor heat nor darkness of night prevents from accomplishing each
one the task proposed to him, with the very utmost speed. The first
then rides and delivers the message with which he is charged to the
second, and the second to the third; and after that it goes through
them handed from one to the other,[62] as in the torch-race among the
Hellenes, which they perform for Hephaistos. This kind of running of
their horses the Persians call /angareion/. 99. The first message then
which came to Susa, announcing that Xerxes had Athens in his
possession, so greatly rejoiced the Persians who had been left behind,
that they strewed all the ways with myrtle boughs and offered incense
perpetually, and themselves continued in sacrifices and feasting. The
second message however, which came to them after this, so greatly
disturbed them that they all tore their garments and gave themselves
up to crying and lamentation without stint, laying the blame upon
Mardonios: and this the Persians did not so much because they were
grieved about the ships, as because they feared for Xerxes himself.

100. As regards the Persians this went on for all the time which
intervened, until the coming of Xerxes himself caused them to cease:
and Mardonios seeing that Xerxes was greatly troubled by reason of the
sea-fight, and suspecting that he was meaning to take flight from
Athens, considered with regard to himself that he would have to suffer
punishment for having persuaded the king to make an expedition against
Hellas, and that it was better for him to run the risk of either
subduing Hellas or ending his own life honourably, placing his safety
in suspense for a great end,[63] though his opinion was rather that he
would subdue Hellas;--he reckoned up these things, I say, and
addressed his speech to the king as follows: "Master, be not thou
grieved, nor feel great trouble on account of this thing which has
come to pass; for it is not upon a contest of timbers that all our
fortunes depend, but of men and of horses: and none of these who
suppose now that all has been achieved by them will attempt to
disembark from the ships and stand against thee, nor will any in this
mainland do so; but those who did stand against us paid the penalty.
If therefore thou thinkest this good to do, let us forthwith attempt
the Peloponnese, or if thou thinkest good to hold back, we may do
that. Do not despond however, for there is no way of escape for the
Hellenes to avoid being thy slaves, after they have first given an
account of that which they did to thee both now and at former times.
Thus it were best to do; but if thou hast indeed resolved to retire
thyself and to withdraw thy army, I have another counsel to offer for
that case too. Do not thou, O king, let the Persians be an object of
laughter to the Hellenes; for none of thy affairs have suffered by
means of the Persians, nor wilt thou be able to mention any place
where we proved ourselves cowards: but if Phenicians or Egyptians or
Cyprians or Kilikians proved themselves cowards, the calamity which
followed does not belong to the Persians in any way. Now therefore,
since it is not the Persians who are guilty towards thee, follow my
counsel. If thou hast determined not to remain here, retire thou to
thine own abode, taking with thee the main body of the army, and it
must then be for me to deliver over to thee Hellas reduced to
subjection, choosing for this purpose thirty myriads[64] from the
army." 101. Hearing this Xerxes was rejoiced and delighted so far as
he might be after his misfortunes,[65] and to Mardonios he said that
when he had taken counsel he would reply and say which of these two
things he would do. So when he was taking counsel with those of the
Persians who were called to be his advisers,[66] it seemed good to him
to send for Artemisia also to give him counsel, because at the former
time she alone had showed herself to have perception of that which
ought to be done. So when Artemisia had come, Xerxes removed from him
all the rest, both the Persian councillors and also the spearmen of
the guard and spoke to her thus: "Mardonios bids me stay here and make
an attempt on the Peloponnese, saying that the Persians and the land-
army are not guilty of any share in my calamity, and that they would
gladly give me proof of this. He bids me therefore either do this or,
if not, he desires himself to choose thirty myriads from the army and
to deliver over to me Hellas reduced to subjection; and he bids me
withdraw with the rest of the army to my own abode. Do thou therefore,
as thou didst well advise about the sea-fight which was fought, urging
that we should not bring it on, so also now advise me which of these
things I shall do, that I may succeed in determining well." 102. He
thus consulted her, and she spoke these words: "O king, it is hard for
me to succeed in saying the best things when one asks me for counsel;
yet it seems good to me at the present that thou shouldest retire back
and leave Mardonios here, if he desires it and undertakes to do this,
together with those whom he desires to have: for on the one hand if he
subdue those whom he says that he desires to subdue, and if those
matters succeed well which he has in mind when he thus speaks, the
deed will after all be thine, master, seeing that thy slaves achieved
it: and on the other hand if the opposite shall come to pass of that
which Mardonios intends, it will be no great misfortune, seeing that
thou wilt thyself remain safe, and also the power in those parts[67]
which concerns thy house:[68] for if thou shalt remain safe with thy
house, many contests many times over repeated will the Hellenes have
to pass through for their own existence.[69] Of Mardonios however, if
he suffer any disaster, no account will be made; and if the Hellenes
conquer they gain a victory which is no victory, having destroyed one
who is but thy slave. Thou however wilt retire having done that for
which thou didst make thy march, that is to say, having delivered
Athens to the fire."

103. With this advice Xerxes was greatly delighted, since she
succeeded in saying that very thing which he himself was meaning to
do: for not even if all the men and all the women in the world had
been counselling him to remain, would he have done so, as I think, so
much had he been struck with terror. He commended Artemisia therefore
and sent her away to conduct his sons to Ephesos, for there were
certain bastard sons of his which accompanied him. 104. With these
sons he sent Hermotimos to have charge of them, who was by race of
Pedasa and was in the estimation of the king second to none of the
eunuchs. [Now the Pedasians dwell above Halicarnassos, and at this
Pedasa a thing happens as follows:--whenever to the whole number of
those who dwell about this city some trouble is about to come within a
certain time, then the priestess of Athene in that place gets a long
beard; and this has happened to them twice before now. 105. Of these
Pedasians was Hermotimos.][70] And this man of all persons whom we
know up to this time obtained the greatest revenge for a wrong done to
him. For he had been captured by enemies and was being sold, and
Panionios a man of Chios bought him, one who had set himself to gain
his livelihood by the most impious practices; for whenever he obtained
boys who possessed some beauty, he would make eunuchs of them, and
then taking them to Sardis or Ephesos sold them for large sums of
money, since with the Barbarians eunuchs are held to be of more value
for all matters of trust than those who are not eunuchs. Panionios
then, I say, made eunuchs of many others, since by this he got his
livelihood, and also of this man about whom I speak: and Hermotimos,
being not in everything unfortunate, was sent from Sardis to the king
with other gifts, and as time went on he came to be honoured more than
all the other eunuchs in the sight of Xerxes. 106. And when the king,
being at that time in Sardis, was setting the Persian army in motion
to march against Athens, then Hermotimos, having gone down for some
business to that part of Mysia which the Chians occupy and which is
called Atarneus, found there Panionios: and having recognised him he
spoke to him many friendly words, first recounting to him all the good
things which he had by his means, and next making promises in return
for this, and saying how many good things he would do for him, if he
would bring his household and dwell in that land; so that Panionios
gladly accepting his proposals brought his children and his wife.
Then, when he had caught him together with his whole house, Hermotimos
spoke as follows: "O thou, who of all men that ever lived up to this
time didst gain thy substance by the most impious deeds, what evil did
either I myself or any of my forefathers do either to thee or to any
of thine, that thou didst make me to be that which is nought instead
of a man? Didst thou suppose that thou wouldest escape the notice of
the gods for such things as then thou didst devise? They however
following the rule of justice delivered[71] thee into my hands, since
thou hadst done impious deeds; so that thou shalt not have reason to
find fault with the penalty which shall be inflicted upon thee by me."
When he had thus reproached him, the man's sons were brought into his
presence and Panionios was compelled to make eunuchs of his own sons,
who were four in number, and being compelled he did so; and then when
he had so done, the sons were compelled to do the same thing to him.
Thus vengeance by the hands of Hermotimos[72] overtook Panionios.

107. When Xerxes had entrusted his sons to Artemisia to carry them
back to Ephesos, he called Mardonios and bade him choose of the army
whom he would, and make his deeds, if possible, correspond to his
words. During this day then things went so far; and in the night on
the command of the king the leaders of the fleet began to withdraw
their ships from Phaleron to the Hellespont, as quickly as they might
each one, to guard the bridges for the king to pass over. And when the
Barbarians were near Zoster as they sailed, then seeing the small
points of rock which stretch out to sea from this part of the
mainland, they thought that these were ships and fled for a good
distance. In time however, perceiving that they were not ships but
points of rock, they assembled together again and continued on their

108. When day dawned, the Hellenes, seeing that the land-army was
staying still in its place, supposed that the ships also were about
Phaleron; and thinking that they would fight another sea-battle, they
made preparations to repel them. When however they were informed that
the ships had departed, forthwith upon this they thought it good to
pursue after them. They pursued therefore as far as Andros, but did
not get a sight of the fleet of Xerxes; and when they had come to
Andros, they deliberated what they should do. Themistocles then
declared as his opinion that they should take their course through the
islands and pursue after the ships, and afterwards sail straight to
the Hellespont to break up the bridges; but Eurybiades expressed the
opposite opinion to this, saying that if they should break up the
floating-bridges, they would therein do[73] the greatest possible evil
to Hellas: for if the Persian should be cut off and compelled to
remain in Europe, he would endeavour not to remain still, since if he
remained still, neither could any of his affairs go forward, nor would
any way of returning home appear; but his army would perish of hunger:
whereas if he made the attempt and persevered in it, all Europe might
be brought over to him, city by city and nation by nation, the
inhabitants being either conquered[74] or surrendering on terms before
they were conquered: moreover they would have for food the crops of
the Hellenes which grew year by year. He thought however that
conquered in the sea-fight the Persian would not stay in Europe, and
therefore he might be allowed to flee until in his flight he came to
his own land. Then after that they might begin the contest for the
land which belonged to the Persian. To this opinion the commanders of
the other Peloponnesians adhered also. 109. When Themistocles
perceived that he would not be able to persuade them, or at least the
greater number of them, to sail to the Hellespont, he changed his
counsel[75] and turning to the Athenians (for these were grieved most
at the escape of the enemy and were anxious to sail to the Hellespont
even by themselves alone,[76] if the others were not willing) to them
he spoke as follows: "I myself also have been present before now on
many occasions, and have heard of many more, on which something of
this kind came to pass, namely that men who were forced into great
straits, after they had been defeated fought again and repaired their
former disaster: and as for us, since we have won as a prize from
fortune the existence of ourselves and of Hellas by repelling from our
land so great a cloud of men, let us not pursue enemies who flee from
us: for of these things not we were the doors, but the gods and
heroes, who grudged that one man should become king of both Asia and
of Europe, and he a man unholy and presumptuous, one who made no
difference between things sacred and things profane,[77] burning and
casting down the images of the gods, and who also scourged the Sea and
let down into it fetters. But as things are at present, it is well
that we should now remain in Hellas and look after ourselves and our
households; and let each man repair his house, and have a care for
sowing his land, after he has completely driven away the Barbarian:
and then at the beginning of the spring let us sail down towards the
Hellespont and Ionia." Thus he spoke, intending to lay up for himself
a store of gratitude with the Persian, in order that if after all any
evil should come upon him at the hands of the Athenians, he might have
a place of refuge: and this was in fact that which came to pass.

110. Themistocles then speaking thus endeavoured to deceive them, and
the Athenians followed his advice: for he had had the reputation even
in former times of being a man of ability[78] and he had now proved
himself to be in truth both able and of good judgment; therefore they
were ready in every way to follow his advice when he spoke. So when
these had been persuaded by him, forthwith after this Themistocles
sent men with a vessel, whom he trusted to keep silence, to whatever
test they might be brought, of that which he himself charged them to
tell the king; and of them Sikinnos his servant again was one. When
these came to Attica, the rest stayed behind in the ship, while
Sikinnos went up to Xerxes and spoke these words: "Themistocles the
son of Neocles sent me, who is commander of the Athenians, and of all
the allies the best and ablest man, to tell thee that Themistocles the
Athenian, desiring to be of service to thee, held back the Hellenes
when they were desirous to pursue after thy ships and to destroy the
bridges on the Hellespont. Now therefore thou mayest make thy way home
quite undisturbed." They having signified this sailed away again.

111. The Hellenes meanwhile, having resolved not to pursue after the
ships of the Barbarians further, nor to sail to the Hellespont to
break up the passage, were investing Andros intending to take it: for
the Andrians were the first of the islanders who, being asked by
Themistocles for money, refused to give it: and when Themistocles made
proposals to them and said that the Athenians had come having on their
side two great deities, Persuasion and Compulsion, and therefore they
must by all means give them money, they replied to this that not
without reason, as it now appeared, was Athens great and prosperous,
since the Athenians were well supplied with serviceable deities; but
as for the Andrians, they were poor,[79] having in this respect
attained to the greatest eminence, and there were two unprofitable
deities which never left their island but always remained attached to
the place, Poverty, namely, and Helplessness: and the Andrians being
possessed of these deities would not give money; for never could the
power of the Athenians get the better of their inability.[80] 112.
These, I say, having thus made answer and having refused to give the
money, were being besieged: and Themistocles not ceasing in his desire
for gain sent threatening messages to the other islands and asked them
for money by the same envoys, employing those whom he had before sent
to the king;[81] and he said that if they did not give that which was
demanded of them, he would bring the fleet of the Hellenes against
them to besiege and take them. Thus saying he collected great sums of
money from the Carystians and the Parians, who being informed how
Andros was being besieged, because it had taken the side of the Medes,
and how Themistocles was held in more regard than any of the other
commanders, sent money for fear of this. Whether any others of the
islanders also gave money I am not able to say, but I think that some
others gave and not these alone. Yet to the Carystians at least there
was no respite from the evil on this account, but the Parians escaped
the attack, because they propitiated Themistocles with money. Thus
Themistocles with Andros as his starting-point was acquiring sums of
money for himself from the men of the islands without the knowledge of
the other commanders.

113. Xerxes meanwhile with his army stayed for a few days after the
sea-fight, and then they all began to march forth towards Bœotia by
the same way by which they had come: for Mardonios thought both that
it was well for him to escort the king on his way, and also that it
was now too late in the year to carry on the war; it was better, he
thought, to winter in Thessaly and then at the beginning of spring to
attempt the Peloponnese. When he came to Thessaly, then Mardonios
chose out for himself first all those Persians who are called
"Immortals," except only their commander Hydarnes (for Hydarnes said
that he would not be left behind by the king), and after them of the
other Persians those who wore cuirasses, and the body of a thousand
horse: also the Medes, Sacans, Bactrians and Indians, foot and
horsemen both.[82] These nations he chose in the mass,[83] but from
the other allies he selected by few at a time, choosing whose who had
fine appearance of those of whom he knew that they had done good
service. From the Persians he chose more than from any other single
nation, and these wore collars of twisted metal and bracelets; and
after them came the Medes, who in fact were not inferior in number to
the Persians, but only in bodily strength. The result was that there
were thirty myriads in all, including cavalry.

114. During this time, while Mardonios was selecting his army and
Xerxes was in Thessaly, there had come an oracle from Delphi to the
Lacedemonians, bidding them ask satisfaction from Xerxes for the
murder of Leonidas and accept that which should be given by him. The
Spartans therefore sent a herald as quickly as possible, who having
found the whole army still in Thessaly came into the presence of
Xerxes and spoke these words: "O king of the Medes, the Lacedemonians
and the sons of Heracles of Sparta demand of thee satisfaction for
murder, because thou didst kill their king, fighting in defence of
Hellas." He laughed and then kept silence some time, and after that
pointing to Mardonios, who happened to be standing by him, he said:
"Then Mardonios here shall give them satisfaction, such as is fitting
for them to have." 115. The herald accordingly accepted the utterance
and departed; and Xerxes leaving Mardonios in Thessaly went on himself
in haste to the Hellespont and arrived at the passage where the
crossing was in five-and-thirty days, bringing back next to nothing,
as one may say,[84] of his army: and whithersoever they came on the
march and to whatever nation, they seized the crops of that people and
used them for provisions; and if they found no crops, then they took
the grass which was growing up from the earth, and stripped off the
bark from the trees and plucked down the leaves and devoured them,
alike of the cultivated trees and of those growing wild; and they left
nothing behind them: thus they did by reason of famine. Then plague
too seized upon the army and dysentery, which destroyed them by the
way, and some of them also who were sick the king left behind, laying
charge upon the cities where at the time he chanced to be in his
march, to take care of them and support them: of these he left some in
Thessaly, and some at Siris in Paionia, and some in Macedonia. In
these parts too he had left behind him the sacred chariot of Zeus,
when he was marching against Hellas; but on his return he did not
receive it back: for the Paionians had given it to the Thracians, and
when Xerxes asked for it again, they said that the mares while at
pasture had been carried off by the Thracians of the upper country,
who dwelt about the source of the Strymon. 116. Here also a Thracian,
the king of the Bisaltians and of the Crestonian land, did a deed of
surpassing horror; for he had said that he would not himself be
subject to Xerxes with his own will and had gone away up to Mount
Rhodope, and also he had forbidden his sons to go on the march against
Hellas. They however, either because they cared not for his command,
or else because a desire came upon them to see the war, went on the
march with the Persian: and when they returned all unhurt, being six
in number, their father plucked out their eyes for this cause. 117.
They then received this reward: and as to the Persians, when passing
on from Thrace they came to the passage, they crossed over the
Hellespont in haste to Abydos by means of the ships, for they did not
find the floating-bridges still stretched across but broken up by a
storm. While staying there for a time they had distributed to them an
allowance of food more abundant than they had had by the way, and from
satisfying their hunger without restraint and also from the changes of
water there died many of those in the army who had remained safe till
then. The rest arrived with Xerxes at Sardis.

118. There is also another story reported as follows, namely that when
Xerxes on his march away from Athens came to Eļon on the Strymon, from
that point he did not continue further to make marches by road, but
delivered his army to Hydarnes to lead back to the Hellespont, while
he himself embarked in a Phenician ship and set forth for Asia; and as
he sailed he was seized by a wind from the Strymon,[85] violent and
raising great waves; and since he was tossed by the storm more and
more, the ship being heavily laden (for there were upon the deck great
numbers of Persians, those namely who went with Xerxes), the king upon
that falling into fear shouted aloud and asked the pilot whether there
were for them any means of safety. He said: "Master, there are none,
unless some way be found of freeing ourselves of the excessive number
of passengers." Then it is said that Xerxes, when he heard this, spoke
thus: "Persians, now let each one of you show that he has care for the
king; for my safety, as it seems, depends upon you." He, they say,
thus spoke, and they made obeisance to him and leapt out into the sea;
and so the ship being lightened came safe to Asia. As soon as they had
landed Xerxes, they say, first presented the pilot with a wreath of
gold, because he had saved the life of the king, and then cut off his
head, because he had caused the death of many of the Persians. 119.
This other story, I say, is reported about the return of Xerxes, but I
for my part can by no means believe it, either in other respects or as
regards this which is said to have happened to the Persians; for if
this which I have related had in truth been said by the pilot to
Xerxes, not one person's opinion in ten thousand will differ from mine
that the king would have done some such thing as this, that is to say,
he would have caused those who were upon the deck to go down below
into the hold, seeing that they were Persians of the highest rank
among the Persians; and of the rowers, who were Phenicians, he would
have thrown out into the sea a number equal to the number of those. In
fact however, as I have said before, he made his return to Asia
together with the rest of the army by road. 120. And this also which
follows is a strong witness that it was so; for Xerxes is known to
have come to Abdera on his way back, and to have made with them a
guest-friendship and presented them with a Persian sword of gold and a
gold-spangled tiara: and as the men of Abdera themselves say (though I
for my part can by no means believe it), he loosed his girdle for the
first time during his flight back from Athens, considering himself to
be in security. Now Abdera is situated further towards the Hellespont
than the river Strymon and Eļon, from which place the story says that
he embarked in the ship.

121. The Hellenes meanwhile, when it proved that they were not able to
conquer Andros, turned towards Carystos, and having laid waste the
land of that people they departed and went to Salamis. First then for
the gods they chose out first-fruits of the spoil, and among them
three Persian triremes, one to be dedicated as an offering at the
Isthmus, which remained there still up to my time, another at Sunion,
and the third to Ajax in Salamis where they were. After this they
divided the spoil among themselves and sent the first-fruits[86] to
Delphi, of which was made a statue holding in its hand the beak of a
ship and in height measuring twelve cubits. This statue stood in the
same place with the golden statue of Alexander the Macedonian. 122.
Then when the Hellenes had sent first-fruits to Delphi, they asked the
god on behalf of all whether the first-fruits which he had received
were fully sufficient and acceptable to him. He said that from the
Hellenes he had received enough, but not from the Eginetans, and from
them he demanded the offering of their prize of valour for the sea-
fight at Salamis. Hearing this the Eginetans dedicated golden stars,
three in number, upon a ship's mast of bronze, which are placed in the
corner[87] close to the mixing-bowl of Crœsus. 123. After the division
of the spoil the Hellenes sailed to the Isthmus, to give the prize of
valour to him who of all the Hellenes had proved himself the most
worthy during this war: and when they had come thither and the
commanders distributed[88] their votes at the altar of Poseidon,
selecting from the whole number the first and the second in merit,
then every one of them gave in his vote for himself, each man thinking
that he himself had been the best; but for the second place the
greater number of votes came out in agreement, assigning that to
Themistocles. They then were left alone in their votes, while
Themistocles in regard to the second place surpassed the rest by far:
124, and although the Hellenes would not give decision of this by
reason of envy, but sailed away each to their own city without
deciding, yet Themistocles was loudly reported of and was esteemed
throughout Hellas to be the man who was the ablest[89] by far of the
Hellenes: and since he had not received honour from those who had
fought at Salamis, although he was the first in the voting, he went
forthwith after this to Lacedemon, desiring to receive honour there;
and the Lacedemonians received him well and gave him great honours. As
a prize of valour they gave to Eurybiades a wreath of olive; and for
ability and skill they gave to Themistocles also a wreath of olive,
and presented him besides with the chariot which was judged to be the
best in Sparta. So having much commended him, they escorted him on his
departure with three hundred picked men of the Spartans, the same who
are called the "horsemen,"[90] as far as the boundaries of Tegea: and
he is the only man of all we know to whom the Spartans ever gave
escort on his way. 125. When however he had come to Athens from
Lacedemon, Timodemos of Aphidnai, one of the opponents of
Themistocles, but in other respects not among the men of distinction,
maddened by envy attacked him, bringing forward against him his going
to Lacedemon, and saying that it was on account of Athens that he had
those marks of honour which he had from the Lacedemonians, and not on
his own account. Then, as Timodemos continued ceaselessly to repeat
this, Themistocles said: "I tell thee thus it is:--if I had been a
native of Belbina[91] I should never have been thus honoured by the
Spartans; but neither wouldest thou, my friend, for all that thou art
an Athenian." So far then went these matters.

126. Artabazos meanwhile the son of Pharnakes, a man who was held in
esteem among the Persians even before this and came to be so yet more
after the events about Plataia, was escorting the king as far as the
passage with six myriads[92] of that army which Mardonios had selected
for himself; and when the king was in Asia and Artabazos on his march
back came near to Pallene, finding that Mardonios was wintering in
Thessaly and Macedonia and was not at present urgent with him to come
and join the rest of the army, he thought it not good to pass by
without reducing the Potidaians to slavery, whom he had found in
revolt: for the men of Potidaia, when the king had marched by them and
when the fleet of the Persians had departed in flight from Salamis,
had openly made revolt from the Barbarians; and so also had the others
done who occupy Pallene. 127. So upon this Artabazos began to besiege
Potidaia, and suspecting that the men of Olynthos also were intending
revolt from the king, he began to besiege this city too, which was
occupied by Bottiaians who had been driven away from the Thermaian
gulf by the Macedonians. So when he had taken these men by siege, he
brought them forth to a lake and slew them[93] there; and the city he
delivered to Critobulos of Torone to have in charge, and to the
natives of Chalkidike; and thus it was that the Chalkidians got
possession of Olynthos. 128. Having taken this city Artabazos set
himself to attack Potidaia with vigour, and as he was setting himself
earnestly to this work, Timoxeinos the commander of the troops from
Skione concerted with him to give up the town by treachery. Now in
what manner he did this at the first, I for my part am not able to
say, for this is not reported; at last however it happened as follows.
Whenever either Timoxeinos wrote a paper wishing to send it to
Artabazos, or Artabazos wishing to send one to Timoxeinos, they wound
it round by the finger-notches[94] of an arrow, and then, putting
feathers over the paper, they shot it to a place agreed upon between
them. It came however to be found out that Timoxeinos was attempting
by treachery to give up Potidaia; for Artabazos, shooting an arrow at
the place agreed upon, missed this spot and struck a man of Potidaia
in the shoulder; and when he was struck, a crowd came about him, as is
apt to happen when there is fighting, and they forthwith took the
arrow and having discovered the paper carried it to the commanders.
Now there was present an allied force of the other men of Pallene
also. Then when the commanders had read the paper and discovered who
was guilty of the treachery, they resolved not openly to convict[95]
Timoxeinos of treachery, for the sake of the city of Skione, lest the
men of Skione should be esteemed traitors for all time to come. 129.
He then in such a manner as this had been discovered; and when three
months had gone by while Artabazos was besieging the town, there came
to be a great ebb of the sea backwards, which lasted for a long time;
and the Barbarians, seeing that shallow water had been produced,
endeavoured to get by into the peninsula of Pallene,[96] but when they
had passed through two fifth-parts of the distance, and yet three-
fifths remained, which they must pass through before they were within
Pallene, then there came upon them a great flood-tide of the sea,
higher than ever before, as the natives of the place say, though high
tides come often. So those of them who could not swim perished, and
those who could were slain by the men of Potidaia who put out to them
in boats. The cause of the high tide and flood and of that which
befell the Persians was this, as the Potidaians say, namely that these
same Persians who perished by means of the sea had committed impiety
towards the temple of Poseidon and his image in the suburb of their
town; and in saying that this was the cause, in my opinion they say
well. The survivors of his army Artabazos led away to Thessaly to join
Mardonios. Thus it fared with these who escorted the king on his way.

130. The fleet of Xerxes, so much of it as remained, when it had
touched Asia in its flight from Salamis, and had conveyed the king and
his army over from the Chersonese to Abydos, passed the winter at
Kyme: and when spring dawned upon it, it assembled early at Samos,
where some of the ships had even passed the winter; and most of the
Persians and Medes still served as fighting-men on board of them.[97]
To be commanders of them there came Mardontes the son of Bagaios, and
Arta’ntes the son of Artachaies, and with them also Ithamitres was in
joint command, who was brother's son to Arta’ntes and had been added
by the choice of Arta’ntes himself. They then, since they had suffered
a heavy blow, did not advance further up towards the West, nor did any
one compel them to do so; but they remained still in Samos and kept
watch over Ionia, lest it should revolt, having three hundred ships
including those of the Ionians; and they did not expect that the
Hellenes on their part would come to Ionia, but thought that it would
satisfy them to guard their own land, judging from the fact that they
had not pursued after them in their flight from Salamis but were well
contented then to depart homewards. As regards the sea then their
spirit was broken, but on land they thought that Mardonios would get
much the advantage. So they being at Samos were taking counsel to do
some damage if they could to their enemies, and at the same time they
were listening for news how the affairs of Mardonios would fall out.

131. The Hellenes on their part were roused both by the coming on of
spring and by the presence of Mardonios in Thessaly. Their land-army
had not yet begun to assemble, when the fleet arrived at Egina, in
number one hundred and ten ships, and the commander and admiral was
Leotychides, who was the son of Menares, the son of Hegesilaos, the
son of Hippocratides, the son of Leotychides, the son of Anaxilaos,
the son of Archidemos, the son of Anaxandriddes, the son of
Theopompos, the son of Nicander, the son of Charilaos,[98] the son of
Eunomos, the son of Polydectes, the son of Prytanis, the son of
Euryphon,[99] the son of Procles, the son of Aristodemos, the son of
Aristomachos, the son of Cleodaios, the son of Hyllos, the son of
Heracles, being of the other royal house.[100] These all, except the
two[101] enumerated first after Leotychides, had been kings of Sparta.
And of the Athenians the commander was Xanthippos the son of Ariphon.
132. When all the ships had arrived at Egina, there came Ionian envoys
to the camp of the Hellenes, who also came a short time before this to
Sparta and asked the Lacedemonians to set Ionia free; and of them one
was Herodotus the son of Basileides. These had banded themselves
together and had plotted to put to death Strattis the despot of Chios,
being originally seven in number; but when one of those who took part
with them gave information of it and they were discovered to be
plotting against him, then the remaining six escaped from Chios and
came both to Sparta and also at this time to Egina, asking the
Hellenes to sail over to Ionia: but they with difficulty brought them
forward as far as Delos; for the parts beyond this were all fearful to
the Hellenes, since they were without experience of those regions and
everything seemed to them to be filled with armed force, while their
persuasion was that it was as long a voyage to Samos as to the Pillars
of Heracles. Thus at the same time it so chanced that the Barbarians
dared sail no further up towards the West than Samos, being smitten
with fear, and the Hellenes no further down towards the East than
Delos, when the Chians made request of them. So fear was guard of the
space which lay between them.

133. The Hellenes, I say, sailed to Delos; and Mardonios meanwhile had
been wintering in Thessaly. From thence he sent round a man, a native
of Europos, whose name was Mys, to the various Oracles, charging him
to go everywhere to consult,[102] wherever they[103] were permitted to
make trial of the Oracles. What he desired to find out from the
Oracles when he gave this charge, I am not able to say, for that is
not reported; but I conceive for my part that he sent to consult about
his present affairs and not about other things. 134. This Mys is known
to have come to Lebadeia and to have persuaded by payment of money one
of the natives of the place to go down to Trophonios, and also he came
to the Oracle at Abai of the Phokians; and moreover when he came for
the first time to Thebes, he not only consulted the Ismenian Apollo,--
there one may consult just as at Olympia with victims,--but also by
payment he persuaded a stranger who was not a Theban, and induced him
to lie down to sleep in the temple of Amphiaraos. In this temple no
one of the Thebans is permitted to seek divination, and that for the
following reason:--Amphiaraos dealing by oracles bade them choose
which they would of these two things, either to have him as a diviner
or else as an ally in war, abstaining from the other use; and they
chose that he should be their ally in war: for this reason it is not
permitted to any of the Thebans to lie down to sleep in that temple.
135. After this a thing which to me is a very great marvel is said by
the Thebans to have come to pass:--it seems that this man Mys of
Europos, as he journeyed round to all the Oracles, came also to the
sacred enclosure of the Ptoan Apollo. This temple is called "Ptoon,"
and belongs to the Thebans, and it lies above the lake Copaļs at the
foot of the mountains, close to the town of Acraiphia. When the man
called Mys came to this temple with three men chosen from the
citizens[104] in his company, who were sent by the public authority to
write down that which the god should utter in his divination,
forthwith it is said the prophet[105] of the god began to give the
oracle in a Barbarian tongue; and while those of the Thebans who
accompanied him were full of wonder, hearing a Barbarian instead of
the Hellenic tongue, and did not know what to make of the matter
before them, it is said that the man of Europos, Mys, snatched from
them the tablet which they bore and wrote upon it that which was being
spoken by the prophet; and he said that the prophet was giving his
answer in the Carian tongue: and then when he had written it, he went
away and departed to Thessaly.

136. Mardonios having read that which the Oracles uttered, whatever
that was, after this sent as an envoy to Athens Alexander the son of
Amyntas, the Macedonian, both because the Persians were connected with
him by marriage, (for Gygaia the sister of Alexander and daughter of
Amyntas had been married to a Persian Bubares,[106] and from her had
been born to him that Amyntas who lived in Asia, having the name of
his mother's father, to whom the king gave Alabanda,[107] a great city
of Phrygia, to possess), and also Mardonios was sending him because he
was informed that Alexander was a public guest-friend and benefactor
of the Athenians; for by this means he thought that he would be most
likely to gain over the Athenians to his side, about whom he heard
that they were a numerous people and brave in war, and of whom he knew
moreover that these were they who more than any others had brought
about the disasters which had befallen the Persians by sea. Therefore
if these should be added to him, he thought that he should easily have
command of the sea (and this in fact would have been the case), while
on land he supposed himself to be already much superior in force. Thus
he reckoned that his power would be much greater than that of the
Hellenes. Perhaps also the Oracles told him this beforehand,
counselling him to make the Athenian his ally, and so he was sending
in obedience to their advice.

137. Now of this Alexander the seventh ancestor[108] was that
Perdiccas who first became despot of the Macedonians, and that in the
manner which here follows:--From Argos there fled to the Illyrians
three brothers of the descendents of Temenos, Gauanes, Aėropos, and
Perdiccas; and passing over from the Illyrians into the upper parts of
Macedonia they came to the city of Lebaia. There they became farm-
servants for pay in the household of the king, one pasturing horses,
the second oxen, and the youngest of them, namely Perdiccas, the
smaller kinds of cattle; for[109] in ancient times even those who were
rulers over men[110] were poor in money, and not the common people
only; and the wife of the king cooked for them their food herself. And
whenever she baked, the loaf of the boy their servant, namely
Perdiccas, became double as large as by nature it should be. When this
happened constantly in the same manner, she told it to her husband,
and he when he heard it conceived forthwith that this was a portent
and tended to something great. He summoned the farm-servants
therefore, and gave notice to them to depart out of his land; and they
said that it was right that before they went forth they should receive
the wages which were due. Now it chanced that the sun was shining into
the house down through the opening which received the smoke, and the
king when he heard about the wages said, being infatuated by a divine
power: "I pay you then this for wages, and it is such as ye deserve,"
pointing to the sunlight. So then Gauanes and Aėropos the elder
brothers stood struck with amazement when they heard this, but the
boy, who happened to have in his hand a knife, said these words: "We
accept, O king, that which thou dost give;" and he traced a line with
his knife round the sunlight on the floor of the house, and having
traced the line round he thrice drew of the sunlight into his bosom,
and after that he departed both himself and his fellows. 138. They
then were going away, and to the king one of those who sat by him at
table told what manner of thing the boy had done, and how the youngest
of them had taken that which was given with some design: and he
hearing this and being moved with anger, sent after them horsemen to
slay them. Now there is a river in this land to which the descendents
of these men from Argos sacrifice as a saviour. This river, so soon as
the sons of Temenos had passed over it, began to flow with such great
volume of water that the horsemen became unable to pass over. So the
brothers, having come to another region of Macedonia, took up their
dwelling near the so-called gardens of Midas the son of Gordias, where
roses grow wild which have each one sixty petals and excel all others
in perfume. In these gardens too Silenos was captured, as is reported
by the Macedonians: and above the gardens is situated a mountain
called Bermion, which is inaccessible by reason of the cold. Having
taken possession of that region, they made this their starting-point,
and proceeded to subdue also the rest of Macedonia. 139. From this
Perdiccas the descent of Alexander was as follows:--Alexander was the
son of Amyntas, Amyntas was the son of Alketes, the father of Alketes
was Aėropos, of him Philip, of Philip Argaios, and of this last the
father was Perdiccas, who first obtained the kingdom.

140. Thus then, I say, Alexander the son of Amyntas was descended; and
when he came to Athens sent from Mardonios, he spoke as follows: (a)
"Athenians, Mardonios speaks these words:--There has come to me a
message from the king which speaks in this manner:--To the Athenians I
remit all the offences which were committed against me: and now,
Mardonios, thus do,--first give them back their own land; then let
them choose for themselves another in addition to this, whichsoever
they desire, remaining independent; and set up for them again all
their temples, which I set on fire, provided that they consent to make
a treaty with me. This message having come to me, it is necessary for
me to do so, unless by your means I am prevented: and thus I speak to
you now:--Why are ye so mad as to raise up war against the king? since
neither will ye overcome him, nor are ye able to hold out against him
for ever: for ye saw the multitude of the host of Xerxes and their
deeds, and ye are informed also of the power which is with me at the
present time; so that even if ye overcome and conquer us (of which ye
can have no hope if ye are rightly minded), another power will come
many times as large. Do not ye then desire to match yourselves with
the king, and so to be both deprived of your land and for ever running
a course for your own lives; but make peace with him: and ye have a
most honourable occasion to make peace, since the king has himself set
out upon this road: agree to a league with us then without fraud or
deceit, and remain free. (b) These things Mardonios charged me to say
to you, O Athenians; and as for me, I will say nothing of the goodwill
towards you on my part, for ye would not learn that now for the first
time; but I ask of you to do as Mardonios says, since I perceive that
ye will not be able to war with Xerxes for ever,--if I perceived in
you ability to do this, I should never have come to you speaking these
words,--for the power of the king is above that of a man and his arm
is very long. If therefore ye do not make an agreement forthwith, when
they offer you great things as the terms on which they are willing to
make a treaty, I have fear on your behalf, seeing that ye dwell more
upon the highway than any of your allies, and are exposed ever to
destruction alone, the land which ye possess being parted off from the
rest and lying between the armies which are contending together.[111]
Nay, but be persuaded, for this is a matter of great consequence to
you, that to you alone of the Hellenes the great king remits the
offences committed and desires to become a friend."

141. Thus spoke Alexander; and the Lacedemonians having been informed
that Alexander had come to Athens to bring the Athenians to make a
treaty with the Barbarians, and remembering the oracles, who it was
destined that they together with the other Dorians should be driven
forth out of the Peloponnese by the Medes and the Athenians combined,
had been very greatly afraid lest the Athenians should make a treaty
with the Persians; and forthwith they had resolved to send envoys. It
happened moreover that they were introduced at the same time with
Alexander;[112] for the Athenians had waited for them, protracting the
time, because they were well assured that the Lacedemonians would hear
that an envoy had come from the Barbarians to make a treaty, and that
having heard it they would themselves send envoys with all speed. They
acted therefore of set purpose, so as to let the Lacedemonians see
their inclination. 142. So when Alexander had ceased speaking, the
envoys from Sparta followed him forthwith and said: "As for us, the
Lacedemonians sent us to ask of you not to make any change in that
which concerns Hellas, nor to accept proposals from the Barbarian;
since this is not just in any way nor honourable for any of the
Hellenes to do, but least of all for you, and that for many reasons.
Ye were they who stirred up this war, when we by no means willed it;
and the contest came about for your dominion, but now it extends even
to the whole of Hellas. Besides this it is by no means to be endured
that ye Athenians, who are the authors of all this, should prove to be
the cause of slavery to the Hellenes, seeing that ye ever from ancient
time also have been known as the liberators of many. We feel sympathy
however with you for your sufferings and because ye were deprived of
your crops twice and have had your substance ruined now for a long
time. In compensation for this the Lacedemonians and their allies make
offer to support your wives and all those of your households who are
unfitted for war, so long as this war shall last: but let not
Alexander the Macedonian persuade you, making smooth the speech of
Mardonios; for these things are fitting for him to do, since being
himself a despot he is working in league with a despot: for you
however they are not fitting to do, if ye chance to be rightly minded;
for ye know that in Barbarians there is neither faith nor truth at

Thus spoke the envoys: 143, and to Alexander the Athenians made answer
thus: "Even of ourselves we know so much, that the Mede has a power
many times as numerous as ours; so that there is no need for thee to
cast this up against us. Nevertheless because we long for liberty we
shall defend ourselves as we may be able: and do not thou endeavour to
persuade us to make a treaty with the Barbarian, for we on our part
shall not be persuaded. And now report to Mardonios that the Athenians
say thus:--So long as the Sun goes on the same course by which he goes
now, we will never make an agreement with Xerxes; but we will go forth
to defend ourselves[113] against him, trusting in the gods and the
heroes as allies, for whom he had no respect when he set fire to their
houses and to their sacred images. And in the future do not thou
appear before the Athenians with any such proposals as these, nor
think that thou art rendering them good service in advising them to do
that which is not lawful; for we do not desire that thou shouldest
suffer anything unpleasant at the hands of the Athenians, who art
their public guest and friend." 144. To Alexander they thus made
answer, but to the envoys from Sparta as follows: "That the
Lacedemonians should be afraid lest we should make a treaty with the
Barbarian was natural no doubt;[114] but it seems to be an unworthy
fear for men who know so well the spirit of the Athenians, namely that
there is neither so great quantity of gold anywhere upon the earth,
nor any land so much excelling in beauty and goodness, that we should
be willing to accept it and enslave Hellas by taking the side of the
Medes. For many and great are the reasons which hinder us from doing
this, even though we should desire it; first and greatest the images
and houses of the gods set on fire or reduced to ruin, which we must
necessarily avenge to the very utmost rather than make an agreement
with him who did these deeds; then secondly there is the bond of
Hellenic race, by which we are of one blood and of one speech, the
common temples of the gods and the common sacrifices, the manners of
life which are the same for all; to these it would not be well that
the Athenians should become traitors. And be assured of this, if by
any chance ye were not assured of it before, that so long as one of
the Athenians remains alive, we will never make an agreement with
Xerxes. We admire however the forethought which ye had with regard to
us, in that ye took thought for us who have had our substance
destroyed, and are willing to support the members of our households;
and so far as ye are concerned, the kindness has been fully performed:
but we shall continue to endure as we may, and not be a trouble in any
way to you. Now therefore, with full conviction this is so, send out
an army as speedily as ye may: for, as we conjecture, the Barbarian
will be here invading our land at no far distant time but so soon as
he shall be informed of the message sent, namely that we shall do none
of those things which he desired of us. Therefore before he arrives
here in Attica, it is fitting that ye come to our rescue quickly in
Bœotia." Thus the Athenians made answer, and upon that the envoys went
away back to Sparta.


1.  See v. 77.

2.  i.e. triremes.

3.  {os to plethos ekastoi ton neon pareikhonto}: some read by
    conjecture {oson to plethos k.t.l.}

4.  Perhaps "also" refers to the case of those who had come to
    Thermopylai, cp. vii. 207. Others translate, "these Hellenes who
    had come /after all/ to Artemision," i.e. after all the doubt and

5.  {pantes}: some MSS. have {plegentes}, which is adopted by most
    Editors, "smitten by bribes."

6.  {dethen}, with ironical sense.

7.  {mede purphoron}: the {purphoros} had charge of the fire brought
    for sacrifices from the altar of Zeus Agetor at Sparta, and
    ordinarily his person would be regarded as sacred; hence the
    proverb {oude purphoros esothe}, used of an utter defeat.

8.  {tou diekploou}.

9.  {kata stoma}.

10. {sklerai brontai}: the adjective means "harsh-sounding."

11. {akhari}.

12. {ta Koila tes Euboies}.

13. "having been roughly handled."

14. {epi ten thalassan tauten}: some MSS. read {taute} for {tauten},
    which is to be taken with {sullexas}, "he assembled the generals

15. {peripetea epoiesanto sphisi autoisi ta pregmata}.

16. {paleseie}, a word which does not occur elsewhere, and is
    explained by Hesychius as equivalent to {diaphtharein}. Various
    emendations have been proposed, and Valla seems to have had the
    reading {apelaseie}, for he says /discessisset/. Stein explains
    {paleseie} (as from {pale}) "should contend."

17. Some suppose the number "four thousand" is interpolated by
    misunderstanding of the inscription in vii. 228; and it seems
    hardly possible that the dead were so many as four thousand,
    unless at least half were Helots.

18. Some MSS. have "Tritantaichmes," which is adopted by many Editors.

19. {neou}.

20. {os anarpasomenoi tous Phokeas}: cp. ix. 60.

21. {podeon steinos}, like the neck of a wineskin; cp. ii. 121, note

22. {tou propheten}, the interpreter of the utterances of the

23. {neou}.

24. {megarou}.

25. i.e. of Athene Polias, the Erechtheion; so throughout this

26. {sunerree}, "kept flowing together."

26a. Or, "Hermione."

27. See i. 56.

28. See ch. 31.

29. {pros pantas tous allous}, "in comparison with all the rest," cp.
    iii. 94.

30. {stratarkheo}: a vague expression, because being introduced after
    Kecrops he could not have the title of king.

31. The number obtained by adding up the separate contingents is 366.
    Many Editors suppose that the ships with which the Eginetans were
    guarding their own coast (ch. 46) are counted here, and quote the
    authority of Pausanias for the statement that the Eginetans
    supplied more ships than any others except the Athenians. Stein
    suggests the insertion of the number twelve in ch. 46.

31a. Or, "Thespeia."

32. i.e. "Areopagus."

33. i.e. the North side.

34. {megaron}.

35. {neos}.

36. {pollos en en tois logois}: cp. ix. 91.

37. See vii. 141-143.

38. {autothen ik Salaminos}.

39. {te Metri kai te Koure}, Demeter and Persephone.

40. {te anakrisi}: cp. {anakrinomenous}, ix. 56. Some Editors,
    following inferior MSS., read {te krisi}, "at the judgment

41. {muriadon}, "ten thousands."

42. Or, "Hermione."

43. {oi perioikoi}: some Editors omit the article and translate "and
    these are the so-called Orneates or dwellers round (Argos),"
    Orneates being a name for the {perioikoi} of Argos, derived from
    the conquered city of Orneai.

44. {elpidi mainomene}, "with a mad hope."

45. {krateron Koron Ubrios uion}.

46. {dokeunt ana panta tithesthai}: the MSS. have also {pithesthai}.
    Possibly {tithesthai} might stand, though {anatithesthai} is not
    found elsewhere in this sense. Stein adopts in his last edition
    the conjecture {piesthai}, "swallow up."

47. {Kronides}.

48. {potnia Nike}.

49. i.e. about rivalry.

50. {ton epibateon}.

51. Many Editors reading {osa de} and {parainesas de}, make the stop
    after {antitithemena}: "and in all that is produced in the nature
    and constitution of man he exhorted them to choose the better."

52. {o daimonioi}, "strange men."

53. See ch. 22.

54. {pros de eti kai proselabeto}: the MSS. have {prosebaleto}. Most
    Editors translate, "Moreover Ariamnes . . . contributed to the
    fate of the Phenicians, being a friend (of the Ionians);" but this
    does not seem possible unless we read {philos eon Iosi} (or
    {Ionon}). Valla translates nearly as I have done. (It does not
    appear that {prosballesthai} is found elsewhere in the sense of

55. i.e. they who were commanded to execute them.

56. See vii. 179, 181.

57. See vi. 49, etc., and 73.

58. {keleta}.

59. {sumballontai}: the Athenians apparently are spoken of, for they
    alone believed the story.

60. {apoplesai}: this is the reading of the MSS.; but many Editors
    adopt corrections ({apoplesthai} or {apoplesthenai}). The subject
    to {apoplesai} is to be found in the preceding sentence and the
    connexion with {ton te allon panta k.t.l.} is a loose one. This in
    fact is added as an afterthought, the idea being originally to
    call attention simply to the fulfilment of the oracle of

61. {phruxousi}: a conjectural emendation, adopted by most Editors, of
    {phrixousi}, "will shudder (at the sight of oars)."

62. {kat allon kai allon}: the MSS. have {kat allon}, but Valla's
    rendering is "alium atque alium."

63. {uper megalon aiorethenta}.

64. i.e. 300,000.

65. {os ek kakon}: some translate, "thinking that he had escaped from
    his troubles."

66. {toisi epikletoisi}, cp. vii. 8 and ix. 42.

67. i.e. Asia, as opposed to "these parts."

68. Stein would take {peri oikon ton son} with {oudemia sumphore}, but
    the order of words is against this.

69. {pollous pollakis agonas drameontai peri spheon auton}.

70. See i. 175. The manner of the repetition and some points in the
    diction raise suspicion that the passage is interpolated here; and
    so it is held to be by most Editors. In i. 175 we find {tris}
    instead of {dis}.

71. {upegagon}, cp. vi. 72, with the idea of bringing before a court
    for punishment, not "by underhand means," as it is understood by
    Larcher and Bähr.

72. "vengeance and Hermotimos."

73. {spheis . . . ergasaiato}: the MSS. read {sphi} (one {spheas}) and
    {ergasaito}, and this is retained by some Editors.

74. "taken."

75. {metabalon}: others translate, "he turned from them to the
    Athenians"; but cp. vii. 52. The words {pros tous Athenaious} are
    resumed by {sphi} with {elege}.

76. {kai epi spheon auton balomenoi}, "even at their own venture," cp.
    iii. 71.

77. {ta idia}, "things belonging to private persons."

78. {sophos}.

79. {geopeinas}, "poor in land."

80. It seems necessary to insert {an} with {einai}. For the sentiment
    cp. vii. 172.

81. {khreomenos toisi kai pros basilea ekhresato}. This is the reading
    of the best MSS.: the rest have {khreomenos logoisi toisi kai pros
    Andrious ekhresato}, "using the same language as he had before
    used to the Andrians."

82. {kai ten allen ippon}: some MSS. omit {allen}.

83. {ola}, i.e. not the whole number of them, but great masses without
    individual selection.

84. {ouden meros os eipein}.

85. {anemon Strumonien}, "the wind called Strymonias."

86. {ta akrothinia}, i.e. the tithe.

87. i.e. the corner of the entrance-hall, {epi tou proneiou tes
    gonies}, i. 51.

88. {dienemon}: some understand this to mean "distributed the voting
    tablets," and some MSS. read {dienemonto}, "distributed among
    themselves," which is adopted by many Editors.

89. {sophotatos}.

90. See i. 67.

91. A small island near Attica, taken here as the type of
    insignificance. To suppose that Timodemos was connected with it is
    quite unnecessary. The story in Plutarch about the Seriphian is

92. i.e. 60,000.

93. {katesphaxe}, "cut their throats."

94. {para tas gluphidas}: some Editors read {peri tas gluphidas} on
    the authority of Ęneas Tacticus. The {gluphides} are probably
    notches which give a hold for the fingers as they draw back the

95. {kataplexai}, "strike down" by the charge.

96. The way was shut against them ordinarily by the town of Potidaia,
    which occupied the isthmus.

97. i.e. most of those who before served as {epibatai} (vii. 96)
    continued to serve still. The sentence is usually translated, "of
    those who served as fighting-men in them the greater number were
    Persians or Medes," and this may be right.

98. The MSS. have "Charilos" or "Charillos."

99. Some Editors read "Eurypon," which is the form found elsewhere.

100. Cp. vii. 204.

101. {duon}. It seems certain that the number required here is seven
    and not two, and the emendation {epta} for {duon} ({z} for {b}) is
    approved by several Editors.

102. {khresomenon}: the best MSS. read {khresamenon}, which is
    retained by Stein, with the meaning "charging him to consult the
    Oracles everywhere . . . and then return."

103. i.e. Mardonios and the Persians.

104. i.e. Theban citizens.

105. {promantin}: he is afterwards called {prophetes}.

106. Cp. v. 21.

107. Some Editors would read "Alabastra." Alabanda was a Carian town.

108. Counting Alexander himself as one.

109. {esan gar}: this is the reading of the best MSS.: others have
    {esan de}. Stein (reading {esan gar}) places this clause after the
    next, "The wife of the king herself baked their bread, for in
    ancient times, etc." This transposition is unnecessary; for it
    would be easy to understand it as a comment on the statement that
    three members of the royal house of Argos became farm-servants.

110. {ai turannides ton anthropon}.

111. {exaireton metaikhmion te ten gun ektemenon}: there are
    variations of reading and punctuation in the MSS.

112. {sunepipte oste omou spheon ginesthai ten katastasin}, i.e. their
    introduction before the assembly, cp. iii. 46.

113. {epeximen amunomenoi}, which possibly might be translated, "we
    will continue to defend ourselves."

114. {karta anthropeion}.



1. Mardonios, when Alexander had returned back and had signified to
him that which was said by the Athenians, set forth from Thessaly and
began to lead his army with all diligence towards Athens: and to
whatever land he came, he took up with him the people of that land.
The leaders of Thessaly meanwhile did not repent of all that which had
been done already, but on the contrary they urged on the Persian yet
much more; and Thorax of Larissa had joined in escorting Xerxes in his
flight and at this time he openly offered Mardonios passage to invade
Hellas. 2. Then when the army in its march came to Bœotia, the Thebans
endeavoured to detain Mardonios, and counselled him saying that there
was no region more convenient for him to have his encampment than
that; and they urged him not to advance further, but to sit down there
and endeavour to subdue to himself the whole of Hellas without
fighting: for to overcome the Hellenes by open force when they were
united, as at the former time they were of one accord together,[1] was
a difficult task even for the whole world combined, "but," they
proceeded, "if thou wilt do that which we advise, with little labour
thou wilt have in thy power all their plans of resistance.[2] Send
money to the men who have power in their cities, and thus sending thou
wilt divide Hellas into two parties: after that thou wilt with ease
subdue by the help of thy party those who are not inclined to thy
side." 3. Thus they advised, but he did not follow their counsel; for
there had instilled itself into him a great desire to take Athens for
the second time, partly from obstinacy[3] and partly because he meant
to signify to the king in Sardis that he was in possession of Athens
by beacon-fires through the islands. However he did not even at this
time find the Athenians there when he came to Attica; but he was
informed that the greater number were either in Salamis or in the
ships, and he captured the city finding it deserted. Now the capture
of the city by the king had taken place ten months before the later
expedition of Mardonios against it.

4. When Mardonios had come to Athens, he sent to Salamis Morychides a
man of the Hellespont, bearing the same proposals as Alexander the
Macedonian had brought over to the Athenians. These he sent for the
second time, being aware beforehand that the dispositions of the
Athenians were not friendly, but hoping that they would give way and
leave their obstinacy, since the Attic land had been captured by the
enemy and was in his power. 5. For this reason he sent Morychides to
Salamis; and he came before the Council[4] and reported the words of
Mardonios. Then one of the Councillors, Lykidas, expressed the opinion
that it was better to receive the proposal which Morychides brought
before them and refer it to the assembly of the people.[5] He, I say,
uttered this opinion, whether because he had received money from
Mardonios, or because this was his own inclination: however the
Athenians forthwith, both those of the Council and those outside, when
they heard of it, were very indignant, and they came about Lykidas and
stoned him to death; but the Hellespontian Morychides they dismissed
unhurt. Then when there had arisen much uproar in Salamis about
Lykidas, the women of the Athenians heard of that which was being
done, and one woman passing the word to another and one taking another
with her, they went of their own accord to the house of Lykidas and
stoned his wife and his children to death.

6. The Athenians had passed over to Salamis as follows:--So long as
they were looking that an army should come from the Peloponnese to
help them, they remained in Attica; but as those in Peloponnesus acted
very slowly and with much delay, while the invader was said to be
already in Bœotia, they accordingly removed everything out of danger,
and themselves passed over to Salamis; and at the same time they sent
envoys to Lacedemon to reproach the Lacedemonians for having permitted
the Barbarian to invade Attica and for not having gone to Bœotia to
meet him in company with them, and also to remind them how many things
the Persian had promised to give the Athenians if they changed sides;
bidding the envoys warn them that if they did not help the Athenians,
the Athenians would find some shelter[6] for themselves. 7. For the
Lacedemonians in fact were keeping a feast during this time, and
celebrating the Hyakinthia; and they held it of the greatest
consequence to provide for the things which concerned the god, while
at the same time their wall which they had been building at the
Isthmus was just at this moment being completed with battlements. And
when the envoys from the Athenians came to Lacedemon, bringing with
them also envoys from Megara and Plataia, they came in before the
Ephors and said as follows: "The Athenians sent us saying that the
king of the Medes not only offers to give us back our land, but also
desires to make us his allies on fair and equal terms without deceit
or treachery,[7] and is desirous moreover to give us another land in
addition to our own, whichsoever we shall ourselves choose. We
however, having respect for Zeus of the Hellenes and disdaining to be
traitors to Hellas, did not agree but refused, although we were
unjustly dealt with by the other Hellenes and left to destruction, and
although we knew that it was more profitable to make a treaty with the
Persian than to carry on war: nor shall we make a treaty at any future
time, if we have our own will. Thus sincerely is our duty done towards
the Hellenes:[8] but as for you, after having come then to great dread
lest we should make a treaty with the Persian, so soon as ye learnt
certainly what our spirit was, namely that we should never betray
Hellas, and because your wall across the Isthmus is all but finished,
now ye make no account of the Athenians, but having agreed with us to
come to Bœotia to oppose the Persian, ye have now deserted us, and ye
permitted the Barbarian moreover to make invasion of Attica. For the
present then the Athenians have anger against you, for ye did not do
as was fitting to be done: and now they bid[9] you with all speed send
out an army together with us, in order that we may receive the
Barbarian in the land of Attica; for since we failed of Bœotia, the
most suitable place to fight in our land is the Thriasian plain." 8.
When the Ephors heard this they deferred their reply to the next day,
and then on the next day to the succeeding one; and this they did even
for ten days, deferring the matter from day to day, while during this
time the whole body of the Peloponnesians were building the wall over
the Isthmus with great diligence and were just about to complete it.
Now I am not able to say why, when Alexander the Macedonian had come
to Athens, they were so very anxious lest the Athenians should take
the side of the Medes, whereas now they had no care about it, except
indeed that their wall over the Isthmus had now been built, and they
thought they had no need of the Athenians any more; whereas when
Alexander came to Attica the wall had not yet been completed, but they
were working at it in great dread of the Persians. 9. At last however
the answer was given and the going forth of the Spartans took place in
the following manner:--on the day before that which was appointed for
the last hearing of the envoys, Chileos a man of Tegea, who of all
strangers had most influence in Lacedemon, heard from the Ephors all
that which the Athenians were saying; and he, it seems, said to them
these words: "Thus the matter stands, Ephors:--if the Athenians are
not friendly with us but are allies of the Barbarian, then though a
strong wall may have been built across the Isthmus, yet a wide door
has been opened for the Persian into Peloponnesus. Listen to their
request, however, before the Athenians resolve upon something else
tending to the fall of Hellas." 10. Thus he counselled them, and they
forthwith took his words to heart; and saying nothing to the envoys
who had come from the cities, while yet it was night they sent out
five thousand Spartans, with no less than seven of the Helots set to
attend upon each man of them,[9a] appointing Pausanias the son of
Cleombrotos to lead them forth. Now the leadership belonged to
Pleistarchos the son of Leonidas; but he was yet a boy, and the other
was his guardian and cousin: for Cleombrotos, the father of Pausanias
and son of Anaxandrides, was no longer alive, but when he had led home
from the Isthmus the army which had built the wall, no long time after
this he died. Now the reason why Cleombrotos led home the army from
the Isthmus was this:--as he was offering sacrifice for fighting
against the Persian, the sun was darkened in the heaven. And Pausanias
chose as commander in addition to himself Euryanax the son of Dorieos,
a man of the same house. 11. So Pausanias with his army had gone forth
out of Sparta; and the envoys, when day had come, not knowing anything
of this going forth, came in before the Ephors meaning to depart also,
each to his own State: and when they had come in before them they said
these words: "Ye, O Lacedemonians, are remaining here and celebrating
this Hyakinthia and disporting yourselves, having left your allies to
destruction; and the Athenians being wronged by you and for want of
allies will make peace with the Persians on such terms as they can:
and having made peace, evidently we become allies of the king, and
therefore we shall join with him in expeditions against any land to
which the Persians may lead us; and ye will learn then what shall be
the issue for you of this matter." When the envoys spoke these words,
the Ephors said and confirmed it with an oath, that they supposed by
this time the men were at Orestheion on their way against the
strangers: for they used to call the Barbarians "strangers."[10] So
they, not knowing of the matter, asked the meaning of these words, and
asking they learnt all the truth; so that they were struck with
amazement and set forth as quickly as possible in pursuit; and
together with them five thousand chosen hoplites of the Lacedemonian
"dwellers in the country round"[11] did the same thing also.

12. They then, I say, were hastening towards the Isthmus; and the
Argives so soon as they heard that Pausanias with his army had gone
forth from Sparta, sent as a herald to Attica the best whom they could
find of the long-distance runners,[12] because they had before of
their own motion engaged for Mardonios that they would stop the
Spartans from going forth: and the herald when he came to Athens spoke
as follows: "Mardonios, the Argives sent me to tell thee that the
young men have gone forth from Lacedemon, and that the Argives are not
able to stop them from going forth: with regard to this therefore may
it be thy fortune to take measures well."[13] 13. He having spoken
thus departed and went back; and Mardonios was by no means anxious any
more to remain in Attica when he heard this message. Before he was
informed of this he had been waiting, because he desired to know the
news from the Athenians as to what they were about to do; and he had
not been injuring or laying waste the land of Attica, because he hoped
always that they would make a treaty with him; but as he did not
persuade them, being now informed of everything he began to retire out
of the country before the force of Pausanias arrived at the Isthmus,
having first set fire to Athens and cast down and destroyed whatever
was left standing of the walls, houses or temples. Now he marched away
for this cause, namely first because Attica was not a land where
horsemen could act freely, and also because, if he should be defeated
in a battle in Attica, there was no way of retreat except by a narrow
pass, so that a few men could stop them. He intended therefore to
retreat to Thebes, and engage battle near to a friendly city and to a
country where horsemen could act freely.

14. Mardonios then was retiring out of the way, and when he was
already upon a road a message came to him saying that another body of
troops in advance of the rest[14] had come to Megara, consisting of a
thousand Lacedemonians. Being thus informed he took counsel with
himself, desiring if possible first to capture these. Therefore he
turned back and proceeded to lead his army towards Megara, and the
cavalry going in advance of the rest overran the Megaran land: this
was the furthest land in Europe towards the sun-setting to which this
Persian army came. 15. After this a message came to Mardonios that the
Hellenes were assembled at the Isthmus; therefore he marched back by
Dekeleia, for the chiefs of Bœotia[15] had sent for those of the
Asopians who dwelt near the line of march, and these were his guides
along the road to Sphendaleis and thence to Tanagra. So having
encamped for the night at Tanagra and on the next day having directed
his march to Scolos, he was within the land of the Thebans. Then he
proceeded to cut down the trees in the lands of the Thebans, although
they were on the side of the Medes, moved not at all by enmity to
them, but pressed by urgent necessity both to make a defence for his
camp, and also he was making it for a refuge, in case that when he
engaged battle things should not turn out for him as he desired. Now
the encampment of his army extended from Erythrai along by Hysiai and
reached the river Asopos: he was not however making the wall to extend
so far as this, but with each face measuring somewhere about ten

16. While the Barbarians were engaged upon this work, Attaginos the
son of Phyrnon, a Theban, having made magnificent preparations invited
to an entertainment Mardonios himself and fifty of the Persians who
were of most account; and these being invited came; and the dinner was
given at Thebes. Now this which follows I heard from Thersander, an
Orchomenian and a man of very high repute in Orchomenos. This
Thersander said that he too was invited by Attaginos to this dinner,
and there were invited also fifty men of the Thebans, and their host
did not place them to recline[17] separately each nation by
themselves, but a Persian and a Theban upon every couch. Then when
dinner was over, as they were drinking pledges to one another,[18] the
Persian who shared a couch with him speaking in the Hellenic tongue
asked him of what place he was, and he answered that he was of
Orchomenos. The other said: "Since now thou hast become my table-
companion and the sharer of my libation, I desire to leave behind with
thee a memorial of my opinion, in order that thou thyself also mayest
know beforehand and be able to take such counsels for thyself as may
be profitable. Dost thou see these Persians who are feasting here, and
the army which we left behind encamped upon the river? Of all these,
when a little time has gone by, thou shalt see but very few
surviving." While the Persian said these words he shed many tears, as
Thersander reported; and he marvelling at his speech said to him:
"Surely then it is right to tell Mardonios and to those of the
Persians who after him are held in regard." He upon this said:
"Friend, that which is destined to come from God, it is impossible for
a man to avert; for no man is willing to follow counsel, even when one
speaks that which is reasonable. And these things which I say many of
us Persians know well; yet we go with the rest being bound in the
bonds of necessity: and the most hateful grief of all human griefs is
this, to have knowledge of the truth but no power over the event."[19]
These things I heard from Thersander of Orchomenos, and in addition to
them this also, namely that he told them to various persons forthwith,
before the battle took place at Plataia.

17. Mardonios then being encamped in Bœotia, the rest of the Hellenes
who lived in these parts and took the side of the Medes were all
supplying troops and had joined in the invasion of Attica, but the
Phokians alone had not joined in the invasion,--the Phokians, I say,
for these too were now actively[20] taking the side of the Medes, not
of their own will however, but by compulsion. Not many days however
after the arrival of Mardonios at Thebes, there came of them a
thousand hoplites, and their leader was Harmokydes, the man who was of
most repute among their citizens. When these too came to Thebes,
Mardonios sent horsemen and bade the Phokians take up their position
by themselves in the plain. After they had so done, forthwith the
whole cavalry appeared; and upon this there went a rumour[21] through
the army of Hellenes which was with the Medes that the cavalry was
about to shoot them down with javelins, and this same report went
through the Phokians themselves also. Then their commander Harmokydes
exhorted them, speaking as follows: "Phokians, it is manifest that
these men are meaning to deliver us to a death which we may plainly
foresee,[22] because we have been falsely accused by the Thessalians,
as I conjecture: now therefore it is right that every one of you prove
himself a good man; for it is better to bring our lives to an end
doing deeds of valour and defending ourselves, than to be destroyed by
a dishonourable death offering ourselves for the slaughter. Let each
man of them learn that they are Barbarians and that we, against whom
they contrived murder, are Hellenes." 18. While he was thus exhorting
them, the horsemen having encompassed them round were riding towards
them as if to destroy them; and they were already aiming their
missiles as if about to discharge them, nay some perhaps did discharge
them: and meanwhile the Phokians stood facing them gathered together
and with their ranks closed as much as possible every way. Then the
horsemen turned and rode away back. Now I am not able to say for
certain whether they came to destroy the Phokians at the request of
the Thessalians, and then when they saw them turn to defence they
feared lest they also might suffer some loss, and therefore rode away
back, for so Mardonios had commanded them; or whether on the other
hand he desired to make trial of them and to see if they had in them
any warlike spirit. Then, when the horsemen had ridden away back,
Mardonios sent a herald and spoke to them as follows: "Be of good
courage, Phokians, for ye proved yourselves good men, and not as I was
informed. Now therefore carry on this way with zeal, for ye will not
surpass in benefits either myself or the king." Thus far it happened
as regards the Phokians.

19. When the Lacedemonians came to the Isthmus they encamped upon it,
and hearing this the rest of the Peloponnesians who favoured the
better cause, and some also because they saw the Spartans going out,
did not think it right to be behind the Lacedemonians in their going
forth. So from the Isthmus, when the sacrifices had proved favourable,
they marched all together and came to Eleusis; and having performed
sacrifices there also, when the signs were favourable they marched
onwards, and the Athenians together with them, who had passed over
from Salamis and had joined them at Eleusis. And then they had come to
Erythrai in Bœotia, then they learnt that the Barbarians were
encamping on the Asopos, and having perceived this they ranged
themselves over against them on the lower slopes of Kithairon. 20.
Then Mardonios, as the Hellenes did not descend into the plain, sent
towards them all his cavalry, of which the commander was Masistios (by
the Hellenes called Makistios), a man of reputation among the
Persians, who had a Nesaian horse with a bridle of gold and in other
respects finely caparisoned. So when the horsemen had ridden up to the
Hellenes they attacked them by squadrons, and attacking[23] they did
them much mischief, and moreover in contempt they called them women.
21. Now it happened by chance that the Megarians were posted in the
place which was the most assailable of the whole position and to which
the cavalry could best approach: so as the cavalry were making their
attacks, the Megarians being hard pressed sent a herald to the
commanders of the Hellenes, and the herald having come spoke these
words: "The Megarians say:--we, O allies, are not able by ourselves to
sustain the attacks of the Persian cavalry, keeping this position
where we took post at the first; nay, even hitherto by endurance and
valour alone have we held out against them, hard pressed as we are:
and now unless ye shall send some others to take up our position in
succession to us, know that we shall leave the position in which we
now are." The herald brought report to them thus; and upon this
Pausanias made trial of the Hellenes, whether any others would
voluntarily offer to go to this place and post themselves there in
succession to the Megarians: and when the rest were not desirous to
go, the Athenians undertook the task, and of the Athenians those three
hundred picked men of whom Olympidoros the son of Lampon was captain.
22. These they were who undertook the task and were posted at Erythrai
in advance of the other Hellenes who ere there present, having chosen
to go with them the bow-men also. For some time then they fought, and
at last an end was set to the fighting in the following manner:--while
the cavalry was attacking by squadrons, the horse of Masistios, going
in advance of the rest, was struck in the side by an arrow, and
feeling pain he reared upright and threw Masistios off; and when he
had fallen, the Athenians forthwith pressed upon him; and his horse
they took and himself, as he made resistance, they slew, though at
first they could not, for his equipment was of this kind,--he wore a
cuirass of gold scales underneath, and over the cuirass he had put on
a crimson tunic. So as they struck upon the cuirass they could effect
nothing, until some one, perceiving what the matter was, thrust into
his eye. Then at length he fell and died; and by some means the other
men of the cavalry had not observed this take place, for they neither
saw him when he had fallen from his horse nor when he was being slain,
and while the retreat and the turn[24] were being made, they did not
perceive that which was happening; but when they had stopped their
horses, then at once they missed him, since there was no one to
command them; and when they perceived what had happened, they passed
the word to one another and all rode together, that they might if
possible recover the body. 23. The Athenians upon that, seeing that
the cavalry were riding to attack them no longer by squadrons but all
together, shouted to the rest of the army to help them. Then while the
whole number of those on foot were coming to their help, there arose a
sharp fight for the body; and so long as the three hundred were alone
they had much the worse and were about to abandon the body, but when
the mass of the army came to their help, then the horsemen no longer
sustained the fight, nor did they succeed in recovering the body; and
besides him they lost others of their number also. Then they drew off
about two furlongs away and deliberated what they should do; and it
seemed good to them, as they had no commander, to ride back to
Mardonios. 24. When the cavalry arrived at the camp, the whole army
and also Mardonios made great mourning for Masistios, cutting off
their own hair and that of their horses and baggage-animals and giving
way to lamentation without stint; for all Bœotia was filled with the
sound of it, because one had perished who after Mardonios was of the
most account with the Persians and with the king. 25. The Barbarians
then were paying honours in their own manner to Masistios slain: but
the Hellenes, when they had sustained the attack of the cavalry and
having sustained it had driven them back, were much more encouraged;
and first they put the dead body in a cart and conveyed it along their
ranks; and the body was a sight worth seeing for its size and beauty,
wherefore also the men left their places in the ranks and went one
after the other[25] to gaze upon Masistios. After this they resolved
to come down further towards Plataia; for the region of Plataia was
seen to be much more convenient for them to encamp in than that of
Erythrai, both for other reasons and because it is better watered. To
this region then and to the spring Gargaphia, which is in this region,
they resolved that they must come, and encamp in their several posts.
So they took up their arms and went by the lower slopes of Kithairon
past Hysiai to the Plataian land; and having there arrived they posted
themselves according to their several nations near the spring
Gargaphia and the sacred enclosure of Androcrates the hero, over low
hills or level ground.

26. Then in the arranging of the several posts there arose a
contention of much argument[25a] between the Tegeans and the
Athenians; for they each claimed to occupy the other wing of the
army[26] themselves, alleging deeds both new and old. The Tegeans on
the one hand said as follows: "We have been always judged worthy of
this post by the whole body of allies in all the common expeditions
which the Peloponnesians have made before this, whether in old times
or but lately, ever since that time when the sons of Heracles
endeavoured after the death of Eurystheus to return to the
Peloponnese. This honour we gained at that time by reason of the
following event:--When with the Achaians and the Ionians who were then
in Peloponnesus we had come out to the Isthmus to give assistance and
were encamped opposite those who desired to return, then it is said
that Hyllos made a speech saying that it was not right that the one
army should risk its safety by engaging battle with the other, and
urging that that man of the army of the Peloponnesians whom they
should judge to be the best of them should fight in single combat with
himself on terms concerted between them. The Peloponnesians then
resolved that this should be done; and they made oath with one another
on this condition,--that if Hyllos should conquer the leader of the
Peloponnesians, then the sons of Heracles should return to their
father's heritage; but he should be conquered, then on the other hand
the sons of Heracles should depart and lead away their army, and not
within a hundred years attempt to return to the Peloponnese. There was
selected then of all the allies, he himself making a voluntary offer,
Echemos the son of Aėropos, the son of Phegeus,[27] who was our
commander and king: and he fought a single combat and slew Hyllos. By
reason of this deed we obtained among the Peloponnesians of that time,
besides many other great privileges which we still possess, this also
of always leading the other wing of the army, when a common expedition
is made. To you, Lacedemonians, we make no opposition, but we give you
freedom of choice, and allow you to command whichever wing ye desire;
but of the other we say that it belongs to us to be the leaders as in
former time: and apart from this deed which has been related, we are
more worthy than the Athenians to have this post; for in many glorious
contests have we contended against you, O Spartans, and in many also
against others. Therefore it is just that we have the other wing
rather than the Athenians; for they have not achieved deeds such as
ours, either new or old." 27. Thus they spoke, and the Athenians
replied as follows: "Though we know that this gathering was assembled
for battle with the Barbarian and not for speech, yet since the Tegean
has proposed to us as a task to speak of things both old and new, the
deeds of merit namely which by each of our two nations have been
achieved in all time, it is necessary for us to point out to you
whence it comes that to us, who have been brave men always, it belongs
as a heritage rather than to the Arcadians to have the chief place.
First as to the sons of Heracles, whose leader they say that they slew
at the Isthmus, these in the former time, when they were driven away
by all the Hellenes to whom they came flying from slavery under those
of Mykene, we alone received; and joining with them we subdued the
insolence of Eurystheus. having conquered in fight those who then
dwelt in Peloponnesus. Again when the Argives who with Polyneikes
marched against Thebes, had been slain and were lying unburied, we
declare that we marched an army against the Cadmeians and recovered
the dead bodies and gave them burial in our own land at Eleusis. We
have moreover another glorious deed performed against the Amazons who
invaded once the Attic land, coming from the river Thermodon: and in
the toils of Troy we were not inferior to any. But it is of no profit
to make mention of these things; for on the one hand, though we were
brave men in those times, we might now have become worthless, and on
the other hand even though we were then worthless, yet now we might be
better. Let it suffice therefore about ancient deeds; but if by us no
other deed has been displayed (as many there have been and glorious,
not less than by any other people of the Hellenes), yet even by reason
of the deed wrought at Marathon alone we are worthy to have this
privilege and others besides this, seeing that we alone of all the
Hellenes fought in single combat with the Persian, and having
undertaken so great a deed we overcame and conquered six-and-forty
nations.[28] Are we not worthy then to have this post by reason of
that deed alone? However, since at such a time as this it is not
fitting to contend for post, we are ready to follow your saying, O
Lacedemonians, as to where ye think it most convenient that we should
stand and opposite to whom; for wheresoever we are posted, we shall
endeavour to be brave men. Prescribe to us therefore and we shall
obey." They made answer thus; and the whole body of the Lacedemonians
shouted aloud that the Athenians were more worthy to occupy the wing
than the Arcadians. Thus the Athenians obtained the wing, and overcame
the Tegeans.

28. After this the Hellenes were ranged as follows, both those of them
who came in continually afterwards[29] and those who had come at the
first. The right wing was held by ten thousand Lacedemonians; and of
these the five thousand who were Spartans were attended by thirty-five
thousand Helots serving as light-armed troops, seven of them appointed
for each man.[30] To stand next to themselves the Spartans chose the
Tegeans, both to do them honour and also because of their valour; and
of these there were one thousand five hundred hoplites. After these
were stationed five thousand Corinthians, and they had obtained
permission from Pausanias that the three hundred who were present of
the men of Potidaia in Pallene should stand by their side. Next to
these were stationed six hundred Arcadians of Orchomenos; and to these
three thousand Sikyonians. Next after these were eight hundred
Epidaurians: by the side of these were ranged a thousand Troizenians:
next to the Troizenians two hundred Lepreates: next to these four
hundred of the men of Mikene and Tiryns; and then a thousand
Phliasians. By the side of these stood three hundred Hermionians; and
next to the Hermionians were stationed six hundred Eretrians and
Styrians; next to these four hundred Chalkidians; and to these five
hundred men of Amprakia. After these stood eight hundred Leucadians
and Anactorians; and next to them two hundred from Pale in
Kephallenia. After these were ranged five hundred Eginetans; by their
side three thousand Megarians; and next to these six hundred
Plataians. Last, or if you will first, were ranged the Athenians,
occupying the left wing, eight thousand in number, and the commander
of them was Aristeides the son of Lysimachos. 29. These all, excepting
those who were appointed to attend the Spartans, seven for each man,
were hoplites, being in number altogether three myriads eight thousand
and seven hundred.[31] This was the whole number of hoplites who were
assembled against the Barbarian; and the number of the light-armed was
as follows:--of the Spartan division thirty-five thousand men,
reckoning at the rate of seven for each man, and of these every one
was equipped for fighting; and the light-armed troops of the rest of
the Lacedemonians and of the other Hellenes, being about one for each
man, amounted to thirty-four thousand five hundred. 30. Of the light-
armed fighting men the whole number then was six myriads nine thousand
and five hundred;[32] and of the whole Hellenic force which assembled
at Plataia the number (including both the hoplites and the light-armed
fighting men) was eleven myriads[33] all but one thousand eight
hundred men; and with the Thespians who were present the number of
eleven myriads was fully made up; for there were present also in the
army those of the Thespians who survived, being in number about one
thousand eight hundred, and these too were without heavy arms.[34]
These then having been ranged in order were encamped on the river

31. Meanwhile the Barbarians with Mardonios, when they had
sufficiently mourned for Masistios, being informed that the Hellenes
were at Plataia came themselves also to that part of the Asopos which
flows there; and having arrived there, they were ranged against the
enemy by Mardonios thus:--against the Lacedemonians he stationed the
Persians; and since the Persians were much superior in numbers, they
were arrayed in deeper ranks than those, and notwithstanding this they
extended in front of the Tegeans also: and he ranged them in this
manner,--all the strongest part of that body he selected from the rest
and stationed it opposite to the Lacedemonians, but the weaker part he
ranged by their side opposite to the Tegeans. This he did on the
information and suggestion of the Thebans. Then next to the Persians
he ranged the Medes; and these extended in front of the Corinthians,
Potidaians, Orchomenians and Sikyonians. Next to the Medes he ranged
the Bactrians; and these extended in front of the Epidaurians,
Troizenians, Lepreates, Tirynthians, Mykenians and Phliasians. After
the Bactrians he stationed the Indians; and these extended in front of
the Hermionians, Eretrians, Styrians and Chalkidians. Next to the
Indians he ranged the Sacans, who extended in front of the men of
Amprakia, the Anactorians, Leucadians, Palians and Eginetans. Next to
the Sacans and opposite to the Athenians, Plataians and Megarians, he
ranged the Bœotians, Locrians, Malians, Thessalians, and the thousand
men of the Phokians: for not all the Phokians had taken the side of
the Medes, but some of them were even supporting the cause of the
Hellenes, being shut up in Parnassos; and setting out from thence they
plundered from the army of Mardonios and from those of the Hellenes
who were with him. He ranged the Macedonians also and those who dwell
about the borders of Thessaly opposite to the Athenians. 32. These
which have been named were the greatest of the nations who were
arrayed in order by Mardonios, those, I mean, which were the most
renowned and of greatest consideration: but there were in his army
also men of several other nations mingled together, of the Phrygians,
Thracians, Mysians, Paionians, and the rest; and among them also some
Ethiopians, and of the Egyptians those called Hermotybians and
Calasirians,[35] carrying knives,[36] who of all the Egyptians are the
only warriors. These men, while he was yet at Phaleron, he had caused
to disembark from the ships in which they served as fighting-men; for
the Egyptians had not been appointed to serve in the land-army which
came with Xerxes to Athens. Of the Barbarians then there were thirty
myriads,[37] as has been declared before; but of the Hellenes who were
allies of Mardonios no man knows what the number was, for they were
not numbered; but by conjecture I judge that these were assembled to
the number of five myriads. These who were placed in array side by
side were on foot; and the cavalry was ranged apart from them in a
separate body.

33. When all had been drawn up by nations and by divisions, then on
the next day they offered sacrifice on both sides. For the Hellenes
Tisamenos the son of Antiochos was he who offered sacrifice, for he it
was who accompanied this army as diviner. This man the Lacedemonians
had made to be one of their own people, being an Eleian and of the
race of the Iamidai:[38] for when Tisamenos was seeking divination at
Delphi concerning issue, the Pythian prophetess made answer to him
that he should win five of the greatest contests. He accordingly,
missing the meaning of the oracle, began to attend to athletic games,
supposing that he should win contests of athletics; and he practised
for the "five contests"[39] and came within one fall of winning a
victory at the Olympic games,[40] being set to contend with Hieronymos
of Andros. The Lacedemonians however perceived that the oracle given
to Tisamenos had reference not to athletic but to martial contests,
and they endeavoured to persuade Tisamenos by payment of money, and to
make him a leader in their wars together with the kings of the race of
Heracles. He then, seeing that the Spartans set much store on gaining
him over as a friend, having perceived this, I say, he raised his
price and signified to them that he would do as they desired, if they
would make him a citizen of their State and give him full rights, but
for no other payment. The Spartans at first when they heard this
displayed indignation and altogether gave up their request, but at
last, when great terror was hanging over them of this Persian
armament, they gave way[41] and consented. He then perceiving that
they had changed their minds, said that he could not now be satisfied
even so, nor with these terms alone; but it was necessary that his
brother Hegias also should be made a Spartan citizen on the same terms
as he himself became one. 34. By saying this he followed the example
of Melampus in his request,[42] if one may compare royal power with
mere citizenship; for Melampus on his part, when the women in Argos
had been seized by madness, and the Argives endeavoured to hire him to
come from Pylos and to cause their women to cease from the malady,
proposed as payment for himself the half of the royal power; and the
Argives did not suffer this, but departed: and afterwards, when more
of their women became mad, at length they accepted that which Melampus
had proposed, and went to offer him this: but he then seeing that they
had changed their minds, increased his demand, and said that he would
not do that which they desired unless they gave to his brother Bias
also the third share in the royal power.[43] And the Argives, being
driven into straits, consented to this also. 35. Just so the Spartans
also, being very much in need of Tisamenos, agreed with him on any
terms which he desired: and when the Spartans had agreed to this
demand also, then Tisamenos the Eleian, having become a Spartan, had
part with them in winning five of the greatest contests as their
diviner: and these were the only men who ever were made fellow-
citizens of the Spartans. Now the five contests were these: one and
the first of them was this at Plataia; and after this the contest at
Tegea, which took place with the Tegeans and the Argives; then that at
Dipaieis against all the Arcadians except the Mantineians; after that
the contest with the Messenians at Ithome;[44] and last of all that
which took place at Tanagra against the Athenians and Argives. This, I
say, was accomplished last of the five contests.

36. This Tisamenos was acting now as diviner for the Hellenes in the
Plataian land, being brought by the Spartans. Now to the Hellenes the
sacrifices were of good omen if they defended themselves only, but not
if they crossed the Asopos and began a battle; 37, and Mardonios too,
who was eager to begin a battle, found the sacrifices not favourable
to this design, but they were of good omen to him also if he defended
himself only; for he too used the Hellenic manner of sacrifice, having
as diviner Hegesistratos an Eleian and the most famous of the
Telliadai, whom before these events the Spartans had taken and bound,
in order to put him to death, because they had suffered much mischief
from him. He then being in this evil case, seeing that he was running
a course for his life and was likely moreover to suffer much torment
before his death, had done a deed such as may hardly be believed.
Being made fast on a block bound with iron, he obtained an iron tool,
which in some way had been brought in, and contrived forthwith a deed
the most courageous of any that we know: for having first calculated
how the remaining portion of his foot might be got out of the block,
he cut away the flat of his own foot,[45] and after that, since he was
guarded still by warders, he broke through the wall and so ran away to
Tegea, travelling during the nights and in the daytime entering a wood
and resting there; so that, though the Lacedemonians searched for him
in full force, he arrived at Tegea on the third night; and the
Lacedemonians were possessed by great wonder both at his courage, when
they saw the piece of the foot that was cut off lying there, and also
because they were not able to find him. So he at that time having thus
escaped them took refuge at Tegea, which then was not friendly with
the Lacedemonians; and when he was healed and had procured for himself
a wooden foot, he became an open enemy of the Lacedemonians. However
in the end the enmity into which he had fallen with the Lacedemonians
was not to his advantage; for he was caught by them while practising
divination in Zakynthos, and was put to death.

38. However the death of Hegesistratos took place later than the
events at Plataia, and he was now at the Asopos, having been hired by
Mardonions for no mean sum, sacrificing and displaying zeal for his
cause both on account of his enmity with the Lacedemonians and on
account of the gain which he got: but as the sacrifices were not
favourable for a battle either for the Persians themselves or for
those Hellenes who were with them (for these also had a diviner for
themselves, Hippomachos a Leucadian), and as the Hellenes had men
constantly flowing in and were becoming more in number, Timagenides
the son of Herpys, a Theban, counselled Mardonios to set a guard on
the pass of Kithairon, saying that the Hellenes were constantly
flowing in every day and that he would thus cut off large numbers. 39.
Eight days had now passed while they had been sitting opposite to one
another, when he gave this counsel to Mardonios; and Mardonios,
perceiving that the advice was good, sent the cavalry when night came
on to the pass of Kithairon leading towards Plataia, which the
Bœotians call the "Three Heads"[46] and the Athenians the "Oak
Heads."[47] Having been thus sent, the cavalry did not come without
effect, for they caught five hundred baggage-animals coming out into
the plain, which were bearing provisions from Peloponnesus to the
army, and also the men who accompanied the carts: and having taken
this prize the Persians proceeded to slaughter them without sparing
either beast or man; and when they were satiated with killing they
surrounded the rest and drove them into the camp to Mardonios.

40. After this deed they spent two days more, neither side wishing to
begin a battle; for the Barbarians advanced as far as the Asopos to
make trial of the Hellenes, but neither side would cross the river.
However the cavalry of Mardonios made attacks continually and did
damage to the Hellenes; for the Thebans, being very strong on the side
of the Medes, carried on the war with vigour, and always directed them
up to the moment of fighting; and after this the Persians and Medes
took up the work and were they who displayed valour in their turn.

41. For ten days then nothing more was done than this; but when the
eleventh day had come, while they still sat opposite to one another at
Plataia, the Hellenes having by this time grown much more numerous and
Mardonios being greatly vexed at the delay of action, then Mardonios
the son of Gobryas and Artabazos the son of Pharnakes, who was
esteemed by Xerxes as few of the Persians were besides, came to speech
with one another; and as they conferred, the opinions they expressed
were these,--that of Artabazos, that they must put the whole army in
motion as soon as possible and go to the walls of the Thebans, whither
great stores of corn had been brought in for them and fodder for their
beasts; and that they should settle there quietly and get their
business done as follows:--they had, he said, great quantities of
gold, both coined and uncoined, and also of silver and of drinking-
cups; and these he advised they should send about to the Hellenes
without stint, more especially to those of the Hellenes who were
leaders in their several cities; and these, he said, would speedily
deliver up their freedom: and he advised that they should not run the
risk of a battle. His opinion then was the same as that of the
Thebans,[48] for he as well as they had some true foresight: but the
opinion of Mardonios was more vehement and more obstinate, and he was
by no means disposed to yield; for he said that he thought their army
far superior to that of the Hellenes, and he gave as his opinion that
they should engage battle as quickly as possible and not allow them to
assemble in still greater numbers than were already assembled; and as
for the sacrifices of Hegesistratos, they should leave them alone and
not endeavour to force a good sign, but follow the custom of the
Persians and engage battle. 42. When he so expressed his judgment,
none opposed him, and thus his opinion prevailed; for he and not
Artabazos had the command of the army given him by the king. He
summoned therefore the commanders of the divisions and the generals of
those Hellenes who were with him, and asked whether they knew of any
oracle regarding the Persians, which said that they should be
destroyed in Hellas; and when those summoned to council[49] were
silent, some not knowing the oracles and others knowing them but not
esteeming it safe to speak, Mardonios himself said: "Since then ye
either know nothing or do not venture to speak, I will tell you, since
I know very well. There is an oracle saying that the Persians are
destined when they come to Hellas to plunder the temple at Delphi, and
having plundered it to perish every one of them. We therefore, just
because we know this, will not go to that temple nor will we attempt
to plunder it; and for this cause we shall not perish. So many of you
therefore as chance to wish well to the Persians, have joy so far as
regards this matter, and be assured that we shall overcome the
Hellenes." Having spoken to them thus, he next commanded to prepare
everything and to set all in order, since at dawn of the next day a
battle would be fought.

43. Now this oracle, which Mardonios said referred to the Persians, I
know for my part was composed with reference with the Illyrians and
the army of the Enchelians, and not with reference to the Persians at
all. However, the oracle which was composed by Bakis with reference to
this battle,

 "The gathering of Hellenes together and cry of Barbarian voices,
  Where the Thermodon flows, by the banks of grassy Asopos;
  Here very many shall fall ere destiny gave them to perish,
  Medes bow-bearing in fight, when the fatal day shall approach them,"--

these sayings, and others like them composed by Musaios, I know had
reference to the Persians. Now the river Thermodon flows between
Tanagra and Glisas.

44. After the inquiry about the oracles and the exhortation given by
Mardonios night came on and the guards were set: and when night was
far advanced, and it seemed that there was quiet everywhere in the
camps, and that the men were in their deepest sleep, then Alexander
the son of Amyntas, commander and king of the Macedonians, rode his
horse up to the guard-posts of the Athenians and requested that he
might have speech with their generals. So while the greater number of
the guards stayed at their posts, some ran to the generals, and when
they reached them they said that a man had come riding on a horse out
of the camp of the Medes, who discovered nothing further, but only
named the generals and said that he desired to have speech with them.
45. Having heard this, forthwith they accompanied the men to the
guard-posts, and when they had arrived there, Alexander thus spoke to
them: "Athenians, I lay up these words of mine as a trust to you,
charging you to keep them secret and tell them to no one except only
to Pausanias, lest ye bring me to ruin: for I should not utter them if
I did not care greatly for the general safety of Hellas, seeing that I
am a Hellene myself by original descent and I should not wish to see
Hellas enslaved instead of free. I say then that Mardonios and his
army cannot get the offerings to be according to their mind,[50] for
otherwise ye would long ago have fought. Now however he has resolved
to let the offerings alone and to bring on a battle at dawn of day;
for, as I conjecture, he fears lest ye should assemble in greater
numbers. Therefore prepare yourselves; and if after all Mardonios
should put off the battle and not bring it on, stay where ye are and
hold out patiently; for they have provisions only for a few days
remaining. And if this way shall have its issue according to your
mind, then each one of you ought to remember me also concerning
liberation,[51] since I have done for the sake of the Hellenes so
hazardous a deed by reason of my zeal for you, desiring to show you
the design of Mardonios, in order that the Barbarians may not fall
upon you when ye are not as yet expecting them: and I am Alexander the
Macedonian." Thus having spoken he rode away back to the camp and to
his own position.

46. Then the generals of the Athenians came to the right wing and told
Pausanias that which they had heard from Alexander. Upon this saying
he being struck with fear of the Persians spoke as follows: "Since
then at dawn the battle comes on, it is right that ye, Athenians,
should take your stand opposite to the Persians, and we opposite to
the Bœotians and those Hellenes who are now posted against you; and
for this reason, namely because ye are acquainted with the Medes and
with their manner of fighting, having fought with them at Marathon,
whereas we have had no experience of these men and are without
knowledge of them; for not one of the Spartans has made trial of the
Medes in fight, but of the Bœotians and Thessalians we have had
experience. It is right therefore that ye should take up your arms and
come to this wing of the army, and that we should go to the left
wing." In answer to this the Athenians spoke as follows: "To ourselves
also long ago at the very first, when we saw that the Persians were
being ranged opposite to you, it occurred to us to say these very
things, which ye now bring forward before we have uttered them; but we
feared lest these words might not be pleasing to you. Since however ye
yourselves have made mention of this, know that your words have caused
us pleasure, and that we are ready to do this which ye say." 47. Both
then were content to do this, and as dawn appeared they began to
change their positions with one another: and the Bœotians perceiving
that which was being done reported it to Mardonios, who, when he heard
it, forthwith himself also endeavoured to change positions, bringing
the Persians along so as to be against the Lacedemonians: and when
Pausanias learnt that this was being done, he perceived that he was
not unobserved, and he led the Spartans back again to the right wing;
and just so also did Mardonios upon his left.

48. When they had been thus brought to their former positions,
Mardonios sent a herald to the Spartans and said as follows:
"Lacedemonians, ye are said forsooth by those who are here to be very
good men, and they have admiration for you because ye do not flee in
war nor leave your post, but stay there and either destroy your
enemies or perish yourselves. In this however, as it now appears,
there is no truth; for before we engaged battle and came to hand-to-
hand conflict we saw you already flee and leave your station, desiring
to make the trial with the Athenians first, while ye ranged yourselves
opposite to our slaves. These are not at all the deeds of good men in
war, but we were deceived in you very greatly; for we expected by
reason of your renown that ye would send a herald to us, challenging
us and desiring to fight with the Persians alone; but though we on our
part were ready to do this, we did not find that ye said anything of
this kind, but rather that ye cowered with fear. Now therefore since
ye were not the first to say this, we are the first. Why do we not
forthwith fight,[52] ye on behalf of the Hellenes, since ye have the
reputation of being the best, and we on behalf of the Barbarians, with
equal numbers on both sides? and if we think it good that the others
should fight also, then let them fight afterwards; and if on the other
hand we should not think it good, but think it sufficient that we
alone should fight, then let us fight it out to the end, and
whichsoever of us shall be the victors, let these be counted as
victorious with their whole army." 49. The herald having thus spoken
waited for some time, and then, as no one made him any answer, he
departed and went back; and having returned he signified to Mardonios
that which had happened to him. Mardonios then being greatly rejoiced
and elated by his empty[53] victory, sent the cavalry to attack the
Hellenes: and when the horsemen had ridden to attack them, they did
damage to the whole army of the Hellenes by hurling javelins against
them and shooting with bows, being mounted archers and hard therefore
to fight against: and they disturbed and choked up the spring
Gargaphia, from which the whole army of the Hellenes was drawing its
water. Now the Lacedemonians alone were posted near this spring, and
it was at some distance from the rest of the Hellenes, according as
they chanced to be posted, while the Asopos was near at hand; but when
they were kept away from the Asopos, then they used to go backwards
and forwards to this spring; for they were not permitted by the
horsemen and archers to fetch water from the river. 50. Such then
being the condition of things, the generals of the Hellenes, since the
army had been cut off from its water and was being harassed by the
cavalry, assembled to consult about these and other things, coming to
Pausanias upon the right wing: for other things too troubled them yet
more than these of which we have spoken, since they no longer had
provisions, and their attendants who had been sent to Peloponnese for
the purpose of getting them had been cut off by the cavalry and were
not able to reach the camp. 51. It was resolved then by the generals
in council with one another, that if the Persians put off the battle
for that day, they would go to the Island. This is distant ten
furlongs[54] from the Asopos and the spring Gargaphia, where they were
then encamped, and is in front of the city of the Plataians: and if it
be asked how there can be an island on the mainland, thus it is[55]:--
the river parts in two above, as it flows from Kithairon down to the
plain, keeping a distance of about three furlongs between its streams,
and after that it joins again in one stream; and the name of it is
Oėroe, said by the natives of the country to be the daughter of
Asopos. To this place of which I speak they determined to remove, in
order that they might be able to get an abundant supply of water and
that the cavalry might not do them damage, as now when they were right
opposite. And they proposed to remove when the second watch of the
night should have come, so that the Persians might not see them set
forth and harass them with the cavalry pursuing. They proposed also,
after they had arrived at this place, round which, as I say, Oėroe the
daughter of Asopos flows, parting into two streams[56] as she runs
from Kithairon, to send half the army to Kithairon during this same
night, in order to take up their attendants who had gone to get the
supplies of provisions; for these were cut off from them in Kithairon.

52. Having thus resolved, during the whole of that day they had
trouble unceasingly, while the cavalry pressed upon them; but when the
day drew to a close and the attacks of the cavalry had ceased, then as
it was becoming night and the time had arrived at which it had been
agreed that they should retire from their place, the greater number of
them set forth and began to retire, not however keeping it in mind to
go to the place which had been agreed upon; but on the contrary, when
they had begun to move, they readily took occasion to flee[57] from
the cavalry towards the city of the Plataians, and in their flight
they came as far as the temple of Hera, which temple is in front of
the city of the Plataians at a distance of twenty furlongs from the
spring Gargaphia; and when they had there arrived they halted in front
of the temple. 53. These then were encamping about the temple of Hera;
and Pausanias, seeing that they were retiring from the camp, gave the
word to the Lacedemonians also to take up their arms and go after the
others who were preceding them, supposing that these were going to the
place to which they had agreed to go. Then, when all the other
commanders were ready to obey Pausanias, Amompharetos the son of
Poliades, the commander of the Pitanate division,[58] said that he
would not flee from the strangers, nor with his own will would he
disgrace Sparta; and he expressed wonder at seeing that which was
being done, not having been present at the former discussion. And
Pausanias and Euryanax were greatly disturbed that he did not obey
them and still more that they should be compelled to leave the
Pitanate division behind, since he thus refused;[59] for they feared
that if they should leave it in order to do that which they had agreed
with the other Hellenes, both Amompharetos himself would perish being
left behind and also the men with him. With this thought they kept the
Lacedemonian force from moving, and meanwhile they endeavoured to
persuade him that it was not right for him to do so. 54. They then
were exhorting Amompharetos, who had been left behind alone of the
Lacedemonians and Tegeans; and meanwhile the Athenians were keeping
themselves quiet in the place where they had been posted, knowing the
spirit of the Lacedemonians, that they were apt to say otherwise than
they really meant;[60] and when the army began to move, they sent a
horseman from their own body to see whether the Spartans were
attempting to set forth, or whether they had in truth no design at all
to retire; and they bade him ask Pausanias what they ought to do. 55.
So when the herald came to the Lacedemonians, he saw that they were
still in their place and that the chiefs of them had come to strife
with one another: for when Euryanax and Pausanias both exhorted
Amompharetos not to run the risk of remaining behind with his men,
alone of all the Lacedemonians, they did not at all persuade him, and
at last they had come to downright strife; and meanwhile the herald of
the Athenians had arrived and was standing by them. And Amompharetos
in his contention took a piece of rock in both his hands and placed it
at the feet of Pausanias, saying that with this pebble he gave his
vote not to fly from the strangers, meaning the Barbarians.[61]
Pausanias then, calling him a madman and one who was not in his right
senses, bade tell the state of their affairs to the Athenian
herald,[62] who was asking that which he had been charged to ask; and
at the same time he requested the Athenians to come towards the
Lacedemonians and to do in regard to the retreat the same as they did.
56. He then went away back to the Athenians; and as the dawn of day
found them yet disputing with one another, Pausanias, who had remained
still throughout all this time, gave the signal, and led away all the
rest over the low hills, supposing that Amonpharetos would not stay
behind when the other Lacedemonians departed (in which he was in fact
right); and with them also went the Tegeans. Meanwhile the Athenians,
following the commands which were given them, were going in the
direction opposite to that of the Lacedemonians; for these were
clinging to the hills and the lower slope of Kithairon from fear of
the cavalry, while the Athenians were marching below in the direction
of the plain. 57. As for Amonpharetos, he did not at first believe
that Pausanias would ever venture to leave him and his men behind, and
he stuck to it that they should stay there and not leave their post;
but when Pausanias and his troops were well in front, then he
perceived that they had actually left him behind, and he made his
division take up their arms and led them slowly towards the main body.
This, when it had got away about ten furlongs, stayed for the division
of Amompharetos, halting at the river Moloeis and the place called
Argiopion, where also there stands a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter:
and it stayed there for this reason, namely in order that of
Amonpharetos and his division should not leave the place where they
had been posted, but should remain there, it might be able to come
back to their assistance. So Amompharetos and his men were coming up
to join them, and the cavalry also of the Barbarians was at the same
time beginning to attack them in full force: for the horsemen did on
this day as they had been wont to do every day; and seeing the place
vacant in which the Hellenes had been posted on the former days, they
rode their horses on continually further, and as soon as they came up
with them they began to attack them.

58. Then Mardonios, when he was informed that the Hellenes had
departed during the night, and when he saw their place deserted,
called Thorax of Larissa and his brothers Eurypylos and Thrasydeios,
and said: "Sons of Aleuas, will ye yet say anything,[63] now that ye
see these places deserted? For ye who dwell near them were wont to say
that the Lacedemonians did not fly from a battle, but were men
unsurpassed in war; and these men ye not only saw before this changing
from their post, but now we all of us see that they have run away
during the past night; and by this they showed clearly, when the time
came for them to contend in battle with those who were in truth the
best of all men, that after all they were men of no worth, who had
been making a display of valour among Hellenes, a worthless race. As
for you, since ye had had no experience of the Persians, I for my part
was very ready to excuse you when ye praised these, of whom after all
ye knew something good; but much more I marvelled at Artabazos that
/he/ should have been afraid of the Lacedemonians, and that having
been afraid he should have uttered that most cowardly opinion, namely
that we ought to move our army away and go to the city of the Thebans
to be besieged there,--an opinion about which the king shall yet be
informed by me. Of these things we will speak in another place; now
however we must not allow them to act thus, but we must pursue them
until they are caught and pay the penalty to us for all that they did
to the Persians in time past." 59. Thus having spoken he led on the
Persians at a run, after they had crossed the Asopos, on the track of
the Hellenes, supposing that these were running away from him; and he
directed his attack upon the Lacedemonians and Tegeans only, for the
Athenians, whose march was towards the plain, he did not see by reason
of the hills. Then the rest of the commanders of the Barbarian
divisions, seeing that the Persians had started to pursue the
Hellenes, forthwith all raised the signals for battle and began to
pursue, each as fast as they could, not arranged in any order or
succession of post. 60. These then were coming on with shouting and
confused numbers, thinking to make short work of[64] the Hellenes; and
Pausanias, when the cavalry began to attack, sent to the Athenians a
horseman and said thus: "Athenians, now that the greatest contest is
set before us, namely that which has for its issue the freedom or the
slavery of Hellas, we have been deserted by our allies, we
Lacedemonians and ye Athenians, seeing that they have run away during
the night that is past. Now therefore it is determined what we must do
upon this, namely that we must defend ourselves and protect one
another as best we may. If then the cavalry had set forth to attack
you at the first, we and the Tegeans, who with us refuse to betray the
cause of Hellas, should have been bound to go to your help; but as it
is, since the whole body has come against us, it is right that ye
should come to that portion of the army which is hardest pressed, to
give aid. If however anything has happened to you which makes it
impossible for you to come to our help, then do us a kindness by
sending to us the archers; and we know that ye have been in the course
of this present war by far the most zealous of all, so that ye will
listen to our request in this matter also." 61. When the Athenians
heard this they were desirous to come to their help and to assist them
as much as possible; and as they were already going, they were
attacked by those of the Hellenes on the side of the king who had been
ranged opposite to them, so that they were no longer able to come to
the help of the Lacedemonians, for the force that was attacking them
gave them much trouble. Thus the Lacedemonians and Tegeans were left
alone, being in number, together with light-armed men, the former
fifty thousand and the Tegeans three thousand; for these were not
parted at all from the Lacedemonians: and they began to offer
sacrifice, meaning to engage battle with Mardonios and the force which
had come against them. Then since their offerings did not prove
favourable, and many of them were being slain during this time and
many more wounded,--for the Persians had made a palisade of their
wicker-work shields[65] and were discharging their arrows in great
multitude and without sparing,--Pausanias, seeing that the Spartans
were hard pressed and that the offerings did not prove favourable,
fixed his gaze upon the temple of Hera of the Plataians and called
upon the goddess to help, praying that they might by no means be
cheated of their hope: 62, and while he was yet calling upon her thus,
the Tegeans started forward before them and advanced against the
Barbarians, and forthwith after the prayer of Pausanias the offerings
proved favourable for the Lacedemonians as they sacrificed. So when
this at length came to pass, then they also advanced against the
Persians; and the Persians put away their bows and came against them.
Then first there was fighting about the wicker-work shields, and when
these had been overturned, after that the fighting was fierce by the
side of the temple of Demeter, and so continued for a long time, until
at last they came to justling; for the Barbarians would take hold of
the spears and break them off. Now in courage and in strength the
Persians were not inferior to the others, but they were without
defensive armour,[66] and moreover they were unversed in war and
unequal to their opponents in skill; and they would dart out one at a
time or in groups of about ten together, some more and some less, and
fall upon the Spartans and perish. 63. In the place where Mardonios
himself was, riding on a white horse and having about him the thousand
best men of the Persians chosen out from the rest, here, I say, they
pressed upon their opponents most of all: and so long as Mardonios
survived, they held out against them, and defending themselves they
cast down many of the Lacedemonians; but when Mardonios was slain and
the men who were ranged about his person, which was the strongest
portion of the whole army, had fallen, then the others too turned and
gave way before the Lacedemonians; for their manner of dress, without
defensive armour, was a very great cause of destruction to them, since
in truth they were contending light-armed against hoplites. 64. Then
the satisfaction for the murder of Leonidas was paid by Mardonios
according to the oracle given to the Spartans,[67] and the most famous
victory of all those about which we have knowledge was gained by
Pausanias the son of Cleombrotos, the son of Anaxandrides; of his
ancestors above this the names have been given for Leonidas,[68]
since, as it happens, they are the same for both. Now Mardonios was
slain by Arimnestos,[69] a man of consideration in Sparta, who
afterwards, when the Median wars were over, with three hundred men
fought a battle against the whole army of the Messenians, then at war
with the Lacedemonians, at Stenycleros, and both he was slain and also
the three hundred. 65. When the Persians were turned to flight at
Plataia by the Lacedemonians, they fled in disorder to their own camp
and to the palisade which they had made in the Theban territory:[70]
and it is a marvel to me that, whereas they fought by the side of the
sacred grove of Demeter, not one of the Persians was found to have
entered the enclosure or to have been slain within it, but round about
the temple in the unconsecrated ground fell the greater number of the
slain. I suppose (if one ought to suppose anything about divine
things) that the goddess herself refused to receive them, because they
had set fire to the temple, that is to say the "palace"[71] at

66. Thus far then had this battle proceeded: but Artabazos the son of
Pharnakes had been displeased at the very first because Mardonios
remained behind after the king was gone; and afterwards he had been
bringing forward objections continually and doing nothing, but had
urged them always not to fight a battle: and for himself he acted as
follows, not being pleased with the things which were being done by
Mardonios.--The men of whom Artabazos was commander (and he had with
him no small force but one which was in number as much as four
myriads[72] of men), these, when the fighting began, being well aware
what the issue of the battle would be, he led carefully,[73] having
first given orders that all should go by the way which he should lead
them and at the same pace at which they should see him go. Having
given these orders he led his troops on pretence of taking them into
battle; and when he was well on his way, he saw the Persians already
taking flight. Then he no longer led his men in the same order as
before, but set off at a run, taking flight by the quickest way not to
the palisade nor yet to the wall of the Thebans, but towards Phokis,
desiring as quickly as possible to reach the Hellespont. 67. These, I
say, were thus directing their march: and in the meantime, while the
other Hellenes who were on the side of the king were purposely slack
in the fight,[74] the Bœotians fought with the Athenians for a long
space; for those of the Thebans who took the side of the Medes had no
small zeal for the cause, and they fought and were not slack, so that
three hundred of them, the first and best of all, fell there by the
hands of the Athenians: and when these also turned to flight, they
fled to Thebes, not to the same place as the Persians: and the main
body of the other allies fled without having fought constantly with
any one or displayed any deeds of valour. 68. And this is an
additional proof to me that all the fortunes of the Barbarians
depended upon the Persians, namely that at that time these men fled
before they had even engaged with the enemy, because they saw the
Persians doing so. Thus all were in flight except only the cavalry,
including also that of the Bœotians; and this rendered service to the
fugitives by constantly keeping close to the enemy and separating the
fugitives of their own side from the Hellenes. 69. The victors then
were coming after the troops of Xerxes, both pursuing them and
slaughtering them; and during the time when this panic arose, the
report was brought to the other Hellenes who had posted themselves
about the temple of Hera and had been absent from the battle, that a
battle had taken place and that the troops of Pausanias were gaining
the victory. When they heard this, then without ranging themselves in
any order the Corinthians and those near them turned to go by the
skirts of the mountain and by the low hills along the way which led
straight up to the temple of Demeter, while the Megarians and
Phliasians and those near them went by the plain along the smoothest
way. When however the Megarians and Phliasians came near to the enemy,
the cavalry of the Thebans caught sight of them from a distance
hurrying along without any order, and rode up to attack them, the
commander of the cavalry being Asopodoros the son of Timander; and
having fallen upon them they slew six hundred of them, and the rest
they pursued and drove to Kithairon.

70. These then perished thus ingloriously;[75] and meanwhile the
Persians and the rest of the throng, having fled for refuge to the
palisade, succeeded in getting up to the towers before the
Lacedemonians came; and having got up they strengthened the wall of
defence as best they could. Then when the Lacedemonians[76] came up to
attack it, there began between them a vigorous[77] fight for the wall:
for so long as the Athenians were away, they defended themselves and
had much the advantage over the Lacedemonians, since these did not
understand the art of fighting against walls; but when the Athenians
came up to help them, then there was a fierce fight for the wall,
lasting for a long time, and at length by valour and endurance the
Athenians mounted up on the wall and made a breach in it, through
which the Hellenes poured in. Now the Tegeans were the first who
entered the wall, and these were they who plundered the tent of
Mardonios, taking, besides the other things which were in it, also the
manger of his horse, which was all of bronze and a sight worth seeing.
This manger of Mardonios was dedicated by the Tegeans as an offering
in the temple of Athene Alea,[78] but all the other things which they
took, they brought to the common stock of the Hellenes. The Barbarians
however, after the wall had been captured, no longer formed themselves
into any close body, nor did any of them think of making resistance,
but they were utterly at a loss,[79] as you might expect from men who
were in a panic with many myriads of them shut up together in a small
space: and the Hellenes were able to slaughter them so that out of an
army of thirty myriads,[80] if those four be subtracted which
Artabazos took with him in his flight, of the remainder not three
thousand men survived. Of the Lacedemonians from Sparta there were
slain in the battle ninety-one in all, of the Tegeans sixteen, and of
the Athenians two-and-fifty.

71. Among the Barbarians those who proved themselves the best men
were, of those on foot the Persians, and of the cavalry the Sacans,
and for a single man Mardonios it is said was the best. Of the
Hellenes, though both the Tegeans and the Athenians proved themselves
good men, yet the Lacedemonians surpassed them in valour. Of this I
have no other proof (for all these were victorious over their
opposites), but only this, that they fought against the strongest part
of the enemy's force and overcame it. And the man who proved himself
in my opinion by much the best was that Aristodemos who, having come
back safe from Thermopylai alone of the three hundred, had reproach
and dishonour attached to him. After him the best were Poseidonios and
Philokyon and Amompharetos the Spartan.[81] However, when there came
to be conversation as to which of them had proved himself the best,
the Spartans who were present gave it as their opinion that
Aristodemos had evidently wished to be slain in consequence of the
charge which lay against him, and so, being as it were in a frenzy and
leaving his place in the ranks, he had displayed great deeds, whereas
Poseidonios had proved himself a good man although he did not desire
to be slain; and so far he was the better man of the two. This however
they perhaps said from ill-will; and all these whose names I mentioned
among the men who were killed in this battle, were specially honoured,
except Aristodemos; but Aristodemos, since he desired to be slain on
account of the before-mentioned charge, was not honoured.

72. These obtained the most renown of those who fought at Plataia, for
as for Callicrates, the most beautiful who came to the camp, not of
the Lacedemonians alone, but also of all the Hellenes of his time, he
was not killed in the battle itself; but when Pausanias was offering
sacrifice, he was wounded by an arrow in the side, as he was sitting
down in his place in the ranks; and while the others were fighting, he
having been carried out of the ranks was dying a lingering death: and
he said to Arimnestos[82] a Plataian that it did not grieve him to die
for Hellas, but it grieved him only that he had not proved his
strength of hand, and that no deed of valour had been displayed by him
worthy of the spirit which he had in him to perform great deeds.[83]

73. Of the Athenians the man who gained most glory is said to have
been Sophanes the son of Eutychides of the deme of Dekeleia,--a deme
of which the inhabitants formerly did a deed that was of service to
them for all time, as the Athenians themselves report. For when of old
the sons of Tyndareus invaded the Attic land with a great host, in
order to bring home Helen, and were laying waste the demes, not
knowing to what place of hiding Helen had been removed, then they say
that the men of Dekeleia, or as some say Dekelos himself, being
aggrieved by the insolence of Theseus and fearing for all the land of
the Athenians, told them the whole matter and led them to Aphidnai,
which Titakos who was sprung from the soil delivered up by treachery
to the sons of Tyndareus. In consequence of this deed the Dekeleians
have had continually freedom from dues in Sparta and front seats at
the games,[84] privileges which exist still to this day; insomuch that
even in the war which many years after these events arose between the
Athenians and the Peloponnesians, when the Lacedemonians laid waste
all the rest of Attica, they abstained from injury to Dekeleia. 74. To
this deme belonged Sophanes, who showed himself the best of all the
Athenians in this battle; and of him there are two different stories
told: one that he carried an anchor of iron bound by chains of bronze
to the belt of his corslet; and this he threw whensoever he came up
with the enemy, in order, they say, that the enemy when they came
forth out of their ranks might not be able to move him from his place;
and when a flight of his opponents took place, his plan was to take up
the anchor first and then pursue after them. This story is reported
thus; but the other of the stories, disputing the truth of that which
has been told above, is reported as follows, namely that upon his
shield, which was ever moving about and never remaining still, he bore
an anchor as a device, and not one of iron bound to his corslet. 75.
There was another illustrious deed done too by Sophanes; for when the
Athenians besieged Egina he challenged to a fight and slew Eurybates
the Argive,[85] one who had been victor in the five contests[86] at
the games. To Sophanes himself it happened after these events that
when he was general of the Athenians together with Leagros the son of
Glaucon, he was slain after proving himself a good man by the Edonians
at Daton, fighting for the gold mines.

76. When the Barbarians had been laid low by the Hellenes at Plataia,
there approached to these a woman, the concubine of Pharandates the
son of Teaspis a Persian, coming over of her own free will from the
enemy, who when she perceived that the Persians had been destroyed and
that the Hellenes were the victors, descended from her carriage and
came up to the Lacedemonians while they were yet engaged in the
slaughter. This woman had adorned herself with many ornaments of gold,
and her attendants likewise, and she had put on the fairest robe of
those which she had; and when she saw that Pausanias was directing
everything there, being well acquainted before with his name and with
his lineage, because she had heard it often, she recognised Pausanias
and taking hold of his knees she said these words: "O king of Sparta,
deliver me thy suppliant from the slavery of the captive: for thou
hast also done me service hitherto in destroying these, who have
regard neither for demigods nor yet for gods.[87] I am by race of Cos,
the daughter of Hegetorides the son of Antagoras; and the Persian took
me by force in Cos and kept me a prisoner." He made answer in these
words: "Woman, be of good courage, both because thou art a suppliant,
and also if in addition to this it chances that thou art speaking the
truth and art the daughter of Hegetorides the Coan, who is bound to me
as a guest-friend more than any other of the men who dwell in those
parts." Having thus spoken, for that time her gave her in charge to
those Ephors who were present, and afterwards he sent her away to
Egina, whither she herself desired to go.

77. After the arrival of the woman, forthwith upon this arrived the
Mantineians, when all was over; and having learnt that they had come
too late for the battle, they were greatly grieved, and said that they
deserved to be punished: and being informed that the Medes with
Artabazos were in flight, they pursued after them as far as Thessaly,
though the Lacedemonians endeavoured to prevent them from pursuing
after fugitives.[88] Then returning back to their own country they
sent the leaders of their army into exile from the land. After the
Mantineians came the Eleians; and they, like the Mantineians, were
greatly grieved by it and so departed home; and these also when they
had returned sent their leaders into exile. So much of the Mantineians
and Eleians.

78. At Plataia among the troops of the Eginetans was Lampon the son of
Pytheas, one of the leading men of the Eginetans, who was moved to go
to Pausanias with a most impious proposal, and when he had come with
haste, he said as follows: "Son of Cleombrotos, a deed has been done
by thee which is of marvellous greatness and glory, and to thee God
has permitted by rescuing Hellas to lay up for thyself the greatest
renown of all the Hellenes about whom we have any knowledge. Do thou
then perform also that which remains to do after these things, in
order that yet greater reputation may attach to thee, and also that in
future every one of the Barbarians may beware of being the beginner of
presumptuous deeds towards the Hellenes. For when Leonidas was slain
at Thermopylai, Mardonios and Xerxes cut off his head and crucified
him: to him therefore do thou repay like with like, and thou shalt
have praise first from all the Spartans and then secondly from the
other Hellenes also; for if thou impale the body of Mardonios, thou
wilt then have taken vengeance for Leonidas thy father's brother." 79.
He said this thinking to give pleasure; but the other made him answer
in these words: "Stranger of Egina, I admire thy friendly spirit and
thy forethought for me, but thou hast failed of a good opinion
nevertheless: for having exalted me on high and my family and my deed,
thou didst then cast me down to nought by advising me to do outrage to
a dead body, and by saying that if I do this I shall be better
reported of. These things it is more fitting for Barbarians to do than
for Hellenes; and even with them we find fault for doing so. However
that may be, I do not desire in any such manner as this to please
either Eginetans or others who like such things; but it is enough for
me that I should keep from unholy deeds, yea and from unholy speech
also, and so please the Spartans. As for Leonidas, whom thou biddest
me avenge, I declare that he has been greatly avenged already, and by
the unnumbered lives which have been taken of these men he has been
honoured, and not he only but also the rest who brought their lives to
an end at Thermopylai. As for thee however, come not again to me with
such a proposal, nor give me such advice; and be thankful moreover
that thou hast no punishment for it now."

80. He having heard this went his way; and Pausanias made a
proclamation that none should lay hands upon the spoil, and he ordered
the Helots to collect the things together. They accordingly dispersed
themselves about the camp and found tents furnished with gold and
silver, and beds overlaid with gold and overlaid with silver, and
mixing-bowls of gold, and cups and other drinking vessels. They found
also sacks laid upon waggons, in which there proved to be caldrons
both of gold and of silver; and from the dead bodies which lay there
they stripped bracelets and collars, and also their swords[89] if they
were of gold, for as to embroidered raiment, there was no account made
of it. Then the Helots stole many of the things and sold them to the
Eginetans, but many things also they delivered up, as many of them as
they could not conceal; so that the great wealth of the Eginetans
first came from this, that they bought the gold from the Helots making
pretence that it was brass. 81. Then having brought the things
together, and having set apart a tithe for the god of Delphi, with
which the offering was dedicated of the golden tripod which rests upon
the three-headed serpent of bronze and stands close by the altar, and
also[90] for the god at Olympia, with which they dedicated the
offering of a bronze statue of Zeus ten cubits high, and finally for
the god at the Isthmus, with which was made a bronze statue of
Poseidon seven cubits high,--having set apart these things, they
divided the rest, and each took that which they ought to have,
including the concubines of the Persians and the gold and the silver
and the other things, and also the beasts of burden. How much was set
apart and given to those of them who had proved themselves the best
men at Plataia is not reported by any, though for my part I suppose
that gifts were made to these also; Pausanias however had ten of each
thing set apart and given to him, that is women, horses, talents,
camels, and so also of the other things.

82. It is said moreover that this was done which here follows, namely
that Xerxes in his flight from Hellas had left to Mardonios the
furniture of his own tent, and Pausanias accordingly seeing the
furniture of Mardonios furnished[91] with gold and silver and hangings
of different colours ordered the bakers and the cooks to prepare a
meal as they were used to do for Mardonios. Then when they did this as
they had been commanded, it is said that Pausanias seeing the couches
of gold and of silver with luxurious coverings, and the tables of gold
and silver, and the magnificent apparatus of the feast, was astonished
at the good things set before him, and for sport he ordered his own
servants to prepare a Laconian meal; and as, when the banquet was
served, the difference between the two was great, Pausanias laughed
and sent for the commanders of the Hellenes; and when these had come
together, Pausanias said, pointing to the preparation of the two meals
severally: "Hellenes, for this reason I assembled you together,
because I desired to show you the senselessness of this leader of the
Medes, who having such fare as this, came to us who have such sorry
fare as ye see here, in order to take it away from us." Thus it is
said that Pausanias spoke to the commanders of the Hellenes.

83. However,[92] in later time after these events many of the
Plataians also found chests of gold and of silver and of other
treasures; and moreover afterwards this which follows was seen in the
case of the dead bodies here, after the flesh had been stripped off
from the bones; for the Plataians brought together the bones all to
one place:--there was found, I say, a skull with no suture but all of
one bone, and there was seen also a jaw-bone, that is to say the upper
part of the jaw, which had teeth joined together and all of one bone,
both the teeth that bite and those that grind; and the bones were seen
also of a man five cubits high. 84. The body of Mardonios however had
disappeared[93] on the day after the battle, taken by whom I am not
able with certainty to say, but I have heard the names of many men of
various cities who are said to have buried Mardonios, and I know that
many received gifts from Artontes the son of Mardonios for having done
this: who he was however who took up and buried the body of Mardonios
I am not able for certain to discover, but Dionysophanes an Ephesian
is reported with some show of reason to have been he who buried
Mardonios. 85. He then was buried in some such manner as this: and the
Hellenes when they had divided the spoil at Plataia proceeded to bury
their dead, each nation apart by themselves. The Spartans made for
themselves three several burial-places, one in which they buried the
younger Spartans,[94] of whom also were Poseidonios, Amompharetos,
Philokyon and Callicrates,--in one of the graves, I say, were laid the
younger men, in the second the rest of the Spartans, and in the third
the Helots. These then thus buried their dead; but the Tegeans buried
theirs all together in a place apart from these, and the Athenians
theirs together; and the Megarians and Phliasians those who had been
slain by the cavalry. Of all these the burial-places had bodies laid
in them, but as to the burial-places of other States which are to be
seen at Plataia, these, as I am informed, are all mere mounds of earth
without any bodies in them, raised by the several peoples on account
of posterity, because they were ashamed of their absence from the
fight; for among others there is one there called the burial-place of
the Eginetans, which I hear was raised at the request of the Eginetans
by Cleades the son of Autodicos, a man of Plataia who was their public
guest-friend,[95] no less than ten years after these events.

86. When the Hellenes had buried their dead at Plataia, forthwith they
determined in common council to march upon Thebes and to ask the
Thebans to surrender those who had taken the side of the Medes, and
among the first of them Timagenides and Attaginos, who were leaders
equal to the first; and if the Thebans did not give them up, they
determined not to retire from the city until they had taken it. Having
thus resolved, they came accordingly on the eleventh day after the
battle and began to besiege the Thebans, bidding them give the men up:
and as the Thebans refused to give them up, they began to lay waste
their land and also to attack their wall. 87. So then, as they did not
cease their ravages, on the twentieth day Timagenides spoke as follows
to the Thebans: "Thebans, since it has been resolved by the Hellenes
not to retire from the siege until either they have taken Thebes or ye
have delivered us up to them, now therefore let not the land of Bœotia
suffer[96] any more for our sakes, but if they desire to have money
and are demanding our surrender as a colour for this, let us give them
money taken out of the treasury of the State; for we took the side of
the Medes together with the State and not by ourselves alone: but if
they are making the siege truly in order to get us into their hands,
then we will give ourselves up for trial."[97] In this it was thought
that he spoke very well and seasonably, and the Thebans forthwith sent
a herald to Pausanias offering to deliver up the men. 88. After they
had made an agreement on these terms, Attaginos escaped out of the
city; and when his sons were delivered up to Pausanias, he released
them from the charge, saying that the sons had no share in the guilt
of taking the side of the Medes. As to the other men whom the Thebans
delivered up, they supposed that they would get a trial,[98] and they
trusted moreover to be able to repel the danger by payment of money;
but Pausanias, when he had received them, suspecting this very thing,
first dismissed the whole army of allies, and then took the men to
Corinth and put them to death there. These were the things which
happened at Plataia and at Thebes.

89. Artabazos meanwhile, the son of Pharnakes, in his flight from
Plataia was by this time getting forward on his way: and the
Thessalians, when he came to them, offered him hospitality and
inquired concerning the rest of the army, not knowing anything of that
which had happened at Plataia; and Artabazos knowing that if he should
tell them the whole truth about the fighting, he would run the risk of
being destroyed, both himself and the whole army which was with him,
(for he thought that they would all set upon him if they were informed
of that which had happened),--reflecting, I say, upon this he had told
nothing of it to the Phokians, and now to the Thessalians he spoke as
follows: "I, as you see, Thessalians, am earnest to march by the
shortest way to Thracia; and I am in great haste, having been sent
with these men for a certain business from the army; moreover
Mardonios himself and his army are shortly to be looked for here,
marching close after me. To him give entertainment and show yourselves
serviceable, for ye will not in the end repent of so doing." Having
thus said he continued to march his army with haste through Thessaly
and Macedonia straight for Thracia, being in truth earnest to proceed
and going through the land by the shortest possible way:[99] and so he
came to Byzantion, having left behind him great numbers of his army,
who had either been cut down by the Thracians on the way or had been
overcome by hunger and fatigue;[100] and from Byzantion he passed over
in ships. He himself[101] then thus made his return back to Asia.

90. Now on the same day on which the defeat took place at Plataia,
another took place also, as fortune would have it, at Mycale in Ionia.
For when the Hellenes who had come in the ships with Leotychides the
Lacedemonian, were lying at Delos, there came to them as envoys from
Samos Lampon the son of Thrasycles and Athenagoras the son of
Archestratides and Hegesistratos the son of Aristagoras, who had been
sent by the people of Samos without the knowledge either of the
Persians or of the despot Theomestor the son of Androdamas, whom the
Persians had set up to be despot of Samos. When these had been
introduced before the commanders, Hegesistratos spoke at great length
using arguments of all kinds, and saying that so soon as the Ionians
should see them they would at once revolt from the Persians, and that
the Barbarians would not wait for their attack; and if after all they
did so, then the Hellenes would take a prize such as they would never
take again hereafter; and appealing to the gods worshipped in common
he endeavoured to persuade them to rescue from slavery men who were
Hellenes and to drive away the Barbarian: and this he said was easy
for them to do, for the ships of the enemy sailed badly and were no
match for them in fight. Moreover if the Hellenes suspected that they
were endeavouring to bring them on by fraud, they were ready to be
taken as hostages in their ships. 91. Then as the stranger of Samos
was urgent in his prayer, Leotychides inquired thus, either desiring
to hear for the sake of the omen or perhaps by a chance which
Providence brought about: "Stranger of Samos, what is thy name?" He
said "Hegesistratos."[102] The other cut short the rest of the speech,
stopping all that Hegesistratos had intended to say further, and said:
"I accept the augury given in Hegesistratos, stranger of Samos. Do
thou on thy part see that thou give us assurance, thou and the men who
are with thee, that the Samians will without fail be our zealous
allies, and after that sail away home." 92. Thus he spoke and to the
words he added the deed; for forthwith the Samians gave assurance and
made oaths of alliance with the Hellenes, and having so done the
others sailed away home, but Hegesistratos he bade sail with the
Hellenes, considering the name to be an augury of good success. Then
the Hellenes after staying still that day made sacrifices for success
on the next day, their diviner being Deļphonos the son of Euenios an
Apolloniate, of that Apollonia which lies in the Ionian gulf.[102a]
93. To this man's father Euenios it happened as follows:--There are at
this place Apollonia sheep sacred to the Sun, which during the day
feed by a river[103] running from Mount Lacmon through the land of
Apollonia to the sea by the haven of Oricos; and by night they are
watched by men chosen for this purpose, who are the most highly
considered of the citizens for wealth and noble birth, each man having
charge of them for a year; for the people of Apollonia set great store
on these sheep by reason of an oracle: and they are folded in a cave
at some distance from the city. Here at the time of which I speak this
man Euenios was keeping watch over them, having been chosen for that
purpose; and it happened one night that he fell asleep during his
watch, and wolves came by into the cave and killed about sixty of the
sheep. When he perceived this, he kept it secret and told no one,
meaning to buy others and substitute them in the place of those that
were killed. It was discovered however by the people of Apollonia that
this had happened; and when they were informed of it, they brought him
up before a court and condemned him to be deprived of his eyesight for
having fallen asleep during his watch. But when they had blinded
Euenios, forthwith after this their flocks ceased to bring forth young
and their land to bear crops as before. Then prophesyings were uttered
to them both at Dodona and also at Delphi, when they asked the
prophets the cause of the evil which they were suffering, and they
told them[104] that they had done unjustly in depriving of his sight
Euenios the watcher of the sacred sheep; for the gods of whom they
inquired had themselves sent the wolves to attack the sheep; and they
would not cease to take vengeance for him till the men of Apollonia
should have paid to Euenios such satisfaction as he himself should
choose and deem sufficient; and this being fulfilled, the gods would
give to Euenios a gift of such a kind that many men would think him
happy in that he possessed it. 94. These oracles then were uttered to
them, and the people of Apollonia, making a secret of it, proposed to
certain men of the citizens to manage the affair; and they managed it
for them thus:--when Euenios was sitting on a seat in public, they
came and sat by him, and conversed about other matters, and at last
they came to sympathising with him in his misfortune; and thus leading
him on they asked what satisfaction he should choose, if the people of
Apollonia should undertake to give him satisfaction for that which
they had done. He then, not having heard the oracle, made choice and
said that if there should be given him the lands belonging to certain
citizens, naming those whom he knew to possess the two best lots of
land in Apollonia, and a dwelling-house also with these, which he knew
to be the best house in the city,--if he became the possessor of
these, he said, he would have no anger against them for the future,
and this satisfaction would be sufficient for him if it should be
given. Then as he was thus speaking, the men who sat by him said
interrupting him: "Euenios, this satisfaction the Apolloniates pay to
thee for thy blinding in accordance with the oracles which have been
given to them." Upon this he was angry, being thus informed of the
whole matter and considering that he had been deceived; and they
bought the property from those who possessed it and gave him that
which he had chosen. And forthwith after this he had a natural gift of
divination,[105] so that he became very famous. 95. Of this Euenios, I
say, Deļphonos was the son, and he was acting as diviner for the army,
being brought by the Corinthians. I have heard however also that
Deļphonos wrongly made use of the name of Euenios, and undertook work
of this kind about Hellas, not being really the son of Euenios.

96. Now when the sacrifices were favourable to the Hellenes, they put
their ships to sea from Delos to go to Samos; and having arrived off
Calamisa[106] in Samos, they moored their ships there opposite the
temple of Hera which is at this place, and made preparations for a
sea-fight; but the Persians, being informed that they were sailing
thither, put out to sea also and went over to the mainland with their
remaining ships, (those of the Phenicians having been already sent
away to sail home): for deliberating of the matter they thought it
good not to fight a battle by sea, since they did not think that they
were a match for the enemy. And they sailed away to the mainland in
order that they might be under the protection of their land-army which
was in Mycale, a body which had stayed behind the rest of the army by
command of Xerxes and was keeping watch over Ionia: of this the number
was six myriads[107] and the commander of it was Tigranes, who in
beauty and stature excelled the other Persians. The commanders of the
fleet then had determined to take refuge under the protection of this
army, and to draw up their ships on shore and put an enclosure round
as a protection for the ships and a refuge for themselves. 97. Having
thus determined they began to put out to sea; and they came along by
the temple of the "Revered goddesses"[107a] to the Gaison and to
Scolopoeis in Mycale, where there is a temple of the Eleusinian
Demeter, which Philistos the son of Pasicles erected when he had
accompanied Neileus the son of Codros for the founding of Miletos; and
there they drew up their ships on shore and put an enclosure round
them of stones and timber, cutting down fruit-trees for this purpose,
and they fixed stakes round the enclosure and made their preparations
either for being besieged or for gaining a victory, for in making
their preparations they reckoned for both chances.

98. The Hellenes however, when they were informed that the Barbarians
had gone away to the mainland, were vexed because they thought that
they had escaped; and they were in a difficulty what they should do,
whether they should go back home, or sail down towards the Hellespont.
At last they resolved to do neither of these two things, but to sail
on to the mainland. Therefore when they had prepared as for a sea-
fight both boarding-bridges and all other things that were required,
they sailed towards Mycale; and when they came near to the camp and no
one was seen to put out against them, but they perceived ships drawn
up within the wall and a large land-army ranged along the shore, then
first Leotychides, sailing along in his ship and coming as near to the
shore as he could, made proclamation by a herald to the Ionians,
saying: "Ionians, those of you who chance to be within hearing of me,
attend to this which I say: for the Persians will not understand
anything at all of that which I enjoin to you. When we join battle,
each one of you must remember first the freedom of all, and then the
watchword 'Hebe'; and this let him also who has not heard know from
him who has heard." The design in this act was the same as that of
Themistocles at Artemision; for it was meant that either the words
uttered should escape the knowledge of the Barbarians and persuade the
Ionians, or that they should be reported to the Barbarians and make
them distrustful of the Hellenes.[108]

99. After Leotychides had thus suggested, then next the Hellenes
proceeded to bring their ships up to land, and they disembarked upon
the shore. These then were ranging themselves for fight; and the
Persians, when they saw the Hellenes preparing for battle and also
that they had given exhortation to the Ionians, in the first place
deprived the Samians of their arms, suspecting that they were inclined
to the side of the Hellenes; for when the Athenian prisoners, the men
whom the army of Xerxes had found left behind in Attica, had come in
the ships of the Barbarians, the Samians had ransomed these and sent
them back to Athens, supplying them with means for their journey; and
for this reason especially they were suspected, since they had
ransomed five hundred persons of the enemies of Xerxes. Then secondly
the Persians appointed the Milesians to guard the passes which lead to
the summits of Mycale, on the pretext that they knew the country best,
but their true reason for doing this was that they might be out of the
camp. Against these of the Ionians, who, as they suspected, would make
some hostile move[109] if they found the occasion, the Persians sought
to secure themselves in the manner mentioned; and they themselves then
brought together their wicker-work shields to serve them as a fence.

100. Then when the Hellenes had made all their preparations, they
proceeded to the attack of the Barbarians; and as they went, a rumour
came suddenly[110] to their whole army, and at the same time a
herald's staff was found lying upon the beach; and the rumour went
through their army to this effect, namely that the Hellenes were
fighting in Bœotia and conquering the army of Mardonios. Now by many
signs is the divine power seen in earthly things, and by this among
others, namely that now, when the day of the defeat at Plataia and of
that which was about to take place at Mycale happened to be the same,
a rumour came to the Hellenes here, so that the army was encouraged
much more and was more eagerly desirous to face the danger. 101.
Moreover this other thing by coincidence happened besides, namely that
there was a sacred enclosure of the Eleusinian Demeter close by the
side of both the battle-fields; for not only in the Plataian land did
the fight take place close by the side of the temple of Demeter, as I
have before said, but also in Mycale it was to be so likewise. And
whereas the rumour which came to them said that a victory had been
already gained by the Hellenes with Pausanias, this proved to be a
true report; for that which was done at Plataia came about while it
was yet early morning, but the fighting at Mycale took place in the
afternoon; and that it happened on the same day of the same month as
the other became evident to them not long afterwards, when they
inquired into the matter. Now they had been afraid before the rumour
arrived, not for themselves so much as for the Hellenes generally,
lest Hellas should stumble and fall over Mardonios; but when this
report had come suddenly to them, they advanced on the enemy much more
vigorously and swiftly than before. The Hellenes then and the
Barbarians were going with eagerness into the battle, since both the
islands and the Hellespont were placed before them as prizes of the

102. Now for the Athenians and those who were ranged next to them, to
the number perhaps of half the whole army, the road lay along the sea-
beach and over level ground, while the Lacedemonians and those ranged
in order by these were compelled to go by a ravine and along the
mountain side: so while the Lacedemonians were yet going round, those
upon the other wing were already beginning the fight; and as long as
the wicker-work shields of the Persians still remained upright, they
continued to defend themselves and had rather the advantage in the
fight; but when the troops of the Athenians and of those ranged next
to them, desiring that the achievement should belong to them and not
to the Lacedemonians, with exhortations to one another set themselves
more vigorously to the work, then from that time forth the fortune of
the fight was changed; for these pushed aside the wicker-work shields
and fell upon the Persians with a rush all in one body, and the
Persians sustained their first attack and continued to defend
themselves for a long time, but at last they fled to the wall; and the
Athenians, Corinthians, Sikyonians and Troizenians, for that was the
order in which they were ranged, followed close after them and rushed
in together with them to the space within the wall: and when the wall
too had been captured, then the Barbarians no longer betook themselves
to resistance, but began at once to take flight, excepting only the
Persians, who formed into small groups and continued to fight with the
Hellenes as they rushed in within the wall. Of the commanders of the
Persians two made their escape and two were slain; Arta’ntes and
Ithamitres commanders of the fleet escaped, while Mardontes and the
commander of the land-army, Tigranes, were slain. 103. Now while the
Persians were still fighting, the Lacedemonians and those with them
arrived, and joined in carrying through the rest of the work; and of
the Hellenes themselves many fell there and especially many of the
Sikyonians, together with their commander Perilaos. And those of the
Samians who were serving in the army, being in the camp of the Medes
and having been deprived of their arms, when they saw that from the
very first the battle began to be doubtful,[111] did as much as they
could, endeavouring to give assistance to the Hellenes; and the other
Ionians seeing that the Samians had set the example, themselves also
upon that made revolt from the Persians and attacked the Barbarians.
104. The Milesians too had been appointed to watch the passes of the
Persians[112] in order to secure their safety, so that if that should
after all come upon them which actually came, they might have guides
and so get safe away to the summits of Mycale,--the Milesians, I say,
had been appointed to do this, not only for that end but also for fear
that, if they were present in the camp, they might make some hostile
move:[113] but they did in fact the opposite of that which they were
appointed to do; for they not only directed them in the flight by
other than the right paths, by paths indeed which led towards the
enemy, but also at last they themselves became their worst foes and
began to slay them. Thus then for the second time Ionia revolted from
the Persians.

105. In this battle, of the Hellenes the Athenians were the best men,
and of the Athenians Hermolycos the son of Euthoinos, a man who had
trained for the /pancration/. This Hermolycos after these events, when
there was war between the Athenians and the Carystians, was killed in
battle at Kyrnos in the Carystian land near Geraistos, and there was
buried. After the Athenians the Corinthians, Troizenians and
Sikyonians were the best.

106. When the Hellenes had slain the greater number of the Barbarians,
some in the battle and others in their flight, they set fire to the
ships and to the whole of the wall, having first brought out the spoil
to the sea-shore; and among the rest they found some stores of money.
So having set fire to the wall and to the ships they sailed away; and
when they came to Samos, the Hellenes deliberated about removing the
inhabitants of Ionia, and considered where they ought to settle them
in those parts of Hellas of which they had command, leaving Ionia to
the Barbarians: for it was evident to them that it was impossible on
the one hand for them to be always stationed as guards to protect the
Ionians, and on the other hand, if they were not stationed to protect
them, they had no hope that the Ionians would escape with impunity
from the Persians. Therefore it seemed good to those of the
Peloponnesians that were in authority that they should remove the
inhabitants of the trading ports which belonged to those peoples of
Hellas who had taken the side of the Medes, and give that land to the
Ionians to dwell in; but the Athenians did not think it good that the
inhabitants of Ionia should be removed at all, nor that the
Peloponnesians should consult about Athenian colonies; and as these
vehemently resisted the proposal, the Peloponnesians gave way. So the
end was that they joined as allies to their league the Samians,
Chians, Lesbians, and the other islanders who chanced to be serving
with the Hellenes, binding them by assurance and by oaths to remain
faithful and not withdraw from the league: and having bound these by
oaths they sailed to break up the bridges, for they supposed they
would find them still stretched over the straits.

These then were sailing towards the Hellespont; 107, and meanwhile
those Barbarians who had escaped and had been driven to the heights of
Mycale, being not many in number, were making their way to Sardis: and
as they went by the way, Masistes the son of Dareios, who had been
present at the disaster which had befallen them, was saying many evil
things of the commander Arta’ntes, and among other things he said that
in respect of the generalship which he had shown he was worse than a
woman, and that he deserved every kind of evil for having brought evil
on the house of the king. Now with the Persians to be called worse
than a woman is the greatest possible reproach. So he, after he had
been much reviled, at length became angry and drew his sword upon
Masistes, meaning to kill him; and as he was running upon him,
Xeinagoras the son of Prexilaos, a man of Halicarnassos, perceived it,
who was standing just behind Arta’ntes; and this man seized him by the
middle and lifting him up dashed him upon the ground; and meanwhile
the spearmen of Masistes came in front to protect him. Thus did
Xeinagoras, and thus he laid up thanks for himself both with Masistes
and also with Xerxes for saving the life of his brother; and for this
deed Xeinagoras became ruler of all Kilikia by the gift of the king.
Nothing further happened than this as they went on their way, but they
arrived at Sardis.

Now at Sardis, as it chanced, king Xerxes had been staying ever since
that time when he came thither in flight from Athens, after suffering
defeat in the sea-fight. 108. At that time, while he was in Sardis, he
had a passionate desire, as it seems, for the wife of Masistes, who
was also there: and as she could not be bent to his will by his
messages to her, and he did not wish to employ force because he had
regard for his brother Masistes and the same consideration withheld
the woman also, for she well knew that force would not be used towards
her), then Xerxes abstained from all else, and endeavoured to bring
about the marriage of his own son Dareios with the daughter of this
woman and of Masistes, supposing that if he should do so he would
obtain her more easily. Then having made the betrothal and done all
the customary rites, he went away to Susa; and when he had arrived
there and had brought the woman into his own house for Dareios, then
he ceased from attempting the wife of Masistes and changing his
inclination he conceived a desire for the wife of Dareios, who was
daughter of Masistes, and obtained her: now the name of this woman was
Arta’nte. 109. However as time went on, this became known in the
following manner:--Amestris the wife of Xerxes had woven a mantle,
large and of various work and a sight worthy to be seen, and this she
gave to Xerxes. He then being greatly pleased put it on and went to
Arta’nte; and being greatly pleased with her too, he bade her ask what
she would to be given to her in return for the favours which she had
granted to him, for she should obtain, he said, whatsoever she asked:
and she, since it was destined that she should perish miserably with
her whole house, said to Xerxes upon this: "Wilt thou give me
whatsoever I ask thee for?" and he, supposing that she would ask
anything rather than that which she did, promised this and swore to
it. Then when he had sworn, she boldly asked for the mantle; and
Xerxes tried every means of persuasion, not being willing to give it
to her, and that for no other reason but only because he feared
Amestris, lest by her, who even before this had some inkling of the
truth, he should thus be discovered in the act; and he offered her
cities and gold in any quantity, and an army which no one else should
command except herself. Now this of an army is a thoroughly Persian
gift. Since however he did not persuade her, he gave her the mantle;
and she being overjoyed by the gift wore it and prided herself upon
it. 110. And Amestris was informed that she had it; and having learnt
that which was being done, she was not angry with the woman, but
supposing that her mother was the cause and that she was bringing this
about, she planned destruction for the wife of Masistes. She waited
then until her husband Xerxes had a royal feast set before him:--this
feast is served up once in the year on the day on which the king was
born, and the name of this feast is in Persian /tycta/, which in the
tongue of the Hellenes means "complete"; also on this occasion alone
the king washes his head,[114] and he makes gifts then to the
Persians:--Amestris, I say, waited for this day and then asked of
Xerxes that the wife of Masistes might be given to her. And he
considered it a strange and untoward thing to deliver over to her his
brother's wife, especially since she was innocent of this matter; for
he understood why she was making the request. 111. At last however as
she continued to entreat urgently and he was compelled by the rule,
namely that it is impossible among them that he who makes request when
a royal feast is laid before the king should fail to obtain it, at
last very much against his will consented; and in delivering her up he
bade Amestris do as she desired, and meanwhile he sent for his brother
and said these words: "Masistes, thou art the son of Dareios and my
brother, and moreover in addition to this thou art a man of worth. I
say to thee, live no longer with this wife with whom thou now livest,
but I give thee instead of her my daughter; with her live as thy wife,
but the wife whom thou now hast, do not keep; for it does not seem
good to me that thou shouldest keep her." Masistes then, marvelling at
that which was spoken, said these words: "Master, how unprofitable a
speech is this which thou utterest to me, in that thou biddest me send
away a wife by whom I have sons who are grown up to be young men, and
daughters one of whom even thou thyself didst take as a wife for thy
son, and who is herself, as it chances, very much to my mind,--that
thou biddest me, I say, send away her and take to wife thy daughter!
I, O king, think it a very great matter that I am judged worthy of thy
daughter, but nevertheless I will do neither of these things: and do
not thou urge me by force to do such a thing as this: but for thy
daughter another husband will be found not in any wise inferior to me,
and let me, I pray thee, live still with my own wife." He returned
answer in some such words as these; and Xerxes being stirred with
anger said as follows: "This then, Masistes, is thy case,--I will not
give thee my daughter for thy wife, nor yet shalt thou live any longer
with that one, in order that thou mayest learn to accept that which is
offered thee." He then when he heard this went out, having first said
these words: "Master, thou hast not surely brought ruin upon me?"[115]
112. During this interval of time, while Xerxes was conversing with
his brother, Amestris had sent the spearmen of Xerxes to bring the
wife of Masistes, and she was doing to her shameful outrage; for she
cut away her breasts and threw them to dogs, and she cut off her nose
and ears and lips and tongue, and sent her back home thus outraged.
113. Then Masistes, not yet having heard any of these things, but
supposing that some evil had fallen upon him, came running to his
house; and seeing his wife thus mutilated, forthwith upon this he took
counsel with his sons and set forth to go to Bactria together with his
sons and doubtless some others also, meaning to make the province of
Bactria revolt and to do the greatest possible injury to the king: and
this in fact would have come to pass, as I imagine, if he had got up
to the land of the Bactrians and Sacans before he was overtaken, for
they were much attached to him, and also he was the governor of the
Bactrians: but Xerxes being informed that he was doing this, sent
after him an army as he was on his way, and slew both him and his sons
and his army. So far of that which happened about the passion of
Xerxes and the death of Masistes.

114. Now the Hellenes who had set forth from Mycale to the Hellespont
first moored their ships about Lecton, being stopped from their voyage
by winds; and thence they came to Abydos and found that the bridges
had been broken up, which they thought to find still stretched across,
and on account of which especially they had come to the Hellespont. So
the Peloponnesians which Leotychides resolved to sail back to Hellas,
while the Athenians and Xanthippos their commander determined to stay
behind there and to make an attempt upon the Chersonese. Those then
sailed away, and the Athenians passed over from Abydos to the
Chersonese and began to besiege Sestos. 115. To this town of Sestos,
since it was the greatest stronghold of those in that region, men had
come together from the cities which lay round it, when they heard that
the Hellenes had arrived at the Hellespont, and especially there had
come from the city of Cardia Oiobazos a Persian, who had brought to
Sestos the ropes of the bridges. The inhabitants of the city were
Aiolians, natives of the country, but there were living with them a
great number of Persians and also of their allies. 116. And of the
province Arta’ctes was despot, as governor under Xerxes, a Persian,
but a man of desperate and reckless character, who also had practised
deception upon the king on his march against Athens, in taking away
from Elaius the things belonging to Protesilaos the son of Iphiclos.
For at Elaius in the Chersonese there is the tomb of Protesilaos with
a sacred enclosure about it, where there were many treasures, with
gold and silver cups and bronze and raiment and other offerings, which
things Arta’ctes carried off as plunder, the king having granted them
to him. And he deceived Xerxes by saying to him some such words as
these: "Master, there is here the house of a man, a Hellene, who made
an expedition against thy land and met with his deserts and was slain:
this man's house I ask thee to give to me, that every one may learn
not to make expeditions against thy land." By saying this it was
likely that he would easily enough persuade Xerxes to give him a man's
house, not suspecting what was in his mind: and when he said that
Protesilaos had made expedition against the land of the king, it must
be understood that the Persians consider all Asia to be theirs and to
belong to their reigning king. So when the things had been given him,
he brought them from Elaius to Sestos, and he sowed the sacred
enclosure for crops and occupied it as his own; and he himself,
whenever he came to Elaius, had commerce with women in the inner cell
of the temple.[116] And now he was being besieged by the Athenians,
when he had not made any preparation for a siege nor had been
expecting that the Hellenes would come; for they fell upon him, as one
may say, inevitably.[117] 117. When however autumn came and the siege
still went on, the Athenians began to be vexed at being absent from
their own land and at the same time not able to conquer the fortress,
and they requested their commanders to lead them away home; but these
said that they would not do so, until either they had taken the town
or the public authority of the Athenians sent for them home: and so
they endured their present state.[118] 118. Those however who were
within the walls had now come to the greatest misery, so that they
boiled down the girths of their beds and used them for food; and when
they no longer had even these, then the Persians and with them
Arta’ctes and Oiobazos ran away and departed in the night, climbing
down by the back part of the wall, where the place was left most
unguarded by the enemy; and when day came, the men of the Chersonese
signified to the Athenians from the towers concerning that which had
happened, and opened the gates to them. So the greater number of them
went in pursuit, and the rest occupied the city. 119. Now Oiobazos, as
he was escaping[119] into Thrace, was caught by the Apsinthian
Thracians and sacrificed to their native god Pleistoros with their
rites, and the rest who were with him they slaughtered in another
manner: but Arta’ctes with his companions, who started on their flight
later and were overtaken at a little distance above Aigospotamoi,
defended themselves for a considerable time and were some of them
killed and others taken alive: and the Hellenes had bound these and
were bringing them to Sestos, and among them Arta’ctes also in bonds
together with his son. 120. Then, it is said by the men of the
Chersonese, as one of those who guarded them was frying dried fish, a
portent occurred as follows,--the dried fish when laid upon the fire
began to leap and struggle just as if they were fish newly caught: and
the others gathered round and were marvelling at the portent, but
Arta’ctes seeing it called to the man who was frying the fish and
said: "Stranger of Athens, be not at all afraid of this portent,
seeing that it has not appeared for thee but for me. Protesilaos who
dwells at Elaius signifies thereby that though he is dead and his body
is dried like those fish,[120] yet he has power given him by the gods
to exact vengeance from the man who does him wrong. Now therefore I
desire to impose this penalty for him,[121]--that in place of the
things which I took from the temple I should pay down a hundred
talents to the god, and moreover as ransom for myself and my son I
will pay two hundred talents to the Athenians, if my life be spared."
Thus he engaged to do, but he did not prevail upon the commander
Xanthippos; for the people of Elaius desiring to take vengeance for
Protesilaos asked that he might be put to death, and the inclination
of the commander himself tended to the same conclusion. They brought
him therefore to that headland to which Xerxes made the passage
across, or as some say to the hill which is over the town of Madytos,
and there they nailed him to boards[122] and hung him up; and they
stoned his son to death before the eyes of Arta’ctes himself. 121.
Having so done, they sailed away to Hellas, taking with them, besides
other things, the ropes also of the bridges, in order to dedicate them
as offerings in the temples: and for that year nothing happened
further than this.

122. Now a forefather of this Arta’ctes who was hung up, was that
Artembares who set forth to the Persians a proposal which they took up
and brought before Cyrus, being to this effect: "Seeing that Zeus
grants to the Persians leadership, and of all men to thee, O Cyrus, by
destroying Astyages, come, since the land we possess is small and also
rugged, let us change from it and inhabit another which is better: and
there are many near at hand, and many also at a greater distance, of
which if we take one, we shall have greater reverence and from more
men. It is reasonable too that men who are rulers should do such
things; for when will there ever be a fairer occasion than now, when
we are rulers of many nations and of the whole of Asia?" Cyrus,
hearing this and not being surprised at the proposal,[123] bade them
do so if they would; but he exhorted them and bade them prepare in
that case to be no longer rulers but subjects; "For," said he, "from
lands which are not rugged men who are not rugged are apt to come
forth, since it does not belong to the same land to bring forth fruits
of the earth which are admirable and also men who are good in war." So
the Persians acknowledged that he was right and departed from his
presence, having their opinion defeated by that of Cyrus; and they
chose rather to dwell on poor land and be rulers, than to sow crops in
a level plain and be slaves to others.


1.  "the same who at the former time also were of one accord together."

2.  {ta ekeinon iskhura bouleumata}: some good MSS. omit {iskhura},
    and so many Editors.

3.  {up agnomosunes}.

4.  {boulen}.

5.  {exeneikai es ton dumon}.

6.  {aleoren}.

7.  Cp. viii. 140 (a).

8.  {to men ap emeon outo akibdelon nemetai epi tous Ellenas}, "that
    which we owe to the Hellenes is thus paid in no counterfeit coin.

9.  {ekeleusan}, i.e. "their bidding was" when they sent us.

9a. This clause, "with no less--each man of them," is omitted in some
    MSS. and considered spurious by several Editors.

10. Cp. ch. 55.

11. {perioikon}.

12. {ton emerodromon}, cp. vi. 105.

13. {tugkhane eu bouleoumenos}: perhaps, "endeavour to take measures

14. {prodromon}, a conjectural emendation of {prodromos}.

15. {boiotarkhai}, i.e. the heads of the Bœotian confederacy.

16. {os epi deka stadious malista ke}.

17. {klinai}: several Editors have altered this, reading {klithenai}
    or {klinenai}, "they were made to recline."

18. {diapinonton}, cp. v. 18.

19. {polla phroneonta medenos krateein}.

20. {sphodra}: not quite satisfactory with {emedizon}, but it can
    hardly go with {ouk ekontes}, as Krüger suggests.

21. {pheme}, as in ch. 100.

22. {proopto thanato}.

23. {prosballontes}: most of the MSS. have {prosbalontes}, and so also
    in ch. 21 and 22 they have {prosbalouses}.

24. i.e. the retreat with which each charge ended and the turn from
    retreat in preparation for a fresh charge. So much would be done
    without word of command, before reining in their horses.

25. {ephoiteon}.

25a. Or, according to some MSS., "much contention in argument."

26. i.e. the left wing.

27. The name apparently should be Kepheus, but there is no authority
    for changing the text.

28. This is the number of nations mentioned in vii. 61-80 as composing
    the land-army of Xerxes.

29. {oi epiphoiteontes}.

30. {peri andra ekaston}.

31. i.e. 38,700.

32. i.e. 69,500.

33. i.e. 110,000.

34. {opla de oud outoi eikhon}: i.e. these too must be reckoned with
    the light-armed.

35. Cp. ii. 164.

36. {makhairophoroi}: cp. vii. 89.

37. i.e. 300,000: see viii. 113.

38. {geneos tou Iamideon}: the MSS. have {Klutiaden} after {Iamideon},
    but the Clytiadai seem to have been a distinct family of

39. {pentaethlon}.

40. {para en palaisma edrame nikan Olumpiada}. The meaning is not
    clear, because the conditions of the {pentaethlon} are not known:
    however the wrestling {pale} seems to have been the last of the
    five contests, and the meaning may be that both Tisamenos and
    Hieronymos had beaten all the other competitors and were equal so
    far, when Tisamenos failed to win two out of three falls in the

41. {metientes}: some MSS. have {metiontes}, "they went to fetch him."

42. {aiteomenos}: this is the reading of the MSS., but the conjecture
    {aiteomenous} (or {aiteomenon}) seems probable enough: "if one may
    compare the man who asked for royal power with him who asked only
    for citizenship."

43. i.e. instead of half for himself, he asks for two-thirds to be
    divided between himself and his brother.

44. {o pros Ithome}: a conjectural emendation of {o pros Isthmo}.

45. {ton tarson eoutou}.

46. {Treis Kephalas}.

47. {Druos Kephalas}.

48. See ch. 2.

49. {ton epikleton}: cp. vii. 8.

50. {Mardonio te kai te stratie ta sphagia ou dunatai katathumia

51. He asks for their help to free his country also from the Persian

52. {emakhesametha}.

53. {psukhre}, cp. vi. 108.

54. {deka stadious}.

55. {nesos de outo an eie en epeiro}.

56. {periskhizetai}.

57. {epheugon asmenoi}.

58. {tou Pitaneteon lokhou}, called below {ton lokhon ton Pitaneten}.
    Evidently {lokhos} here is a division of considerable size.

59. {anainomenou}: some MSS. and many Editors read {nenomenou}, "since
    he was thus minded."

60. {os alla phroneonton kai alla legonton}.

61. Cp. ch. 11.

62. The structure of the sentence is rather confused, and perhaps some
    emendation is required.

63. {eti ti lexete}. The MSS. and most Editors read {ti}, "what will
    ye say after this?" The order of the words is against this.

64. {anarpasomenoi}: cp. viii. 28.

65. {phraxantes ta gerra}: cp. ch. 99.

66. {anoploi}, by which evidently more is meant than the absence of
    shields; cp. the end of ch. 63, where the equipment of the
    Persians is compared to that of light-armed troops.

67. See viii. 114.

68. {es Leoniden}: this is ordinarily translated "as far as Leonidas;"
    but to say "his ancestors above Anaxandrides have been given as
    far as Leonidas" (the son of Anaxandrides), is hardly
    intelligible. The reference is to vii. 204.

69. Most of the MSS. call him Aeimnestos (with some variation of
    spelling), but Plutarch has Arimnestos.

70. See ch. 15. There is no sharp distinction here between camp and
    palisade, the latter being merely the fortified part of the

71. {anaktoron}, a usual name for the temple of Demeter and Persephone
    at Eleusis.

72. i.e. 40,000.

73. {ege katertemenos}: the better MSS. have {eie} for {ege}, which is
    retained by some Editors ({toutous} being then taken with {inai
    pantas}): for {katertemenos} we find as variations {katertemenos}
    and {katertismenos}. Many Editors read {katertismenos} ("well
    prepared"), following the Aldine tradition.

74. {ephelokakeonton}.

75. {en oudeni logo apolonto}.

76. Stein proposes to substitute "Athenians" for "Lacedemonians" here,
    making the comparative {erremenestere} anticipate the account
    given in the next few clauses.

77. {erromenestere}.

78. Cp. i. 66.

79. {aluktazon}, a word of doubtful meaning which is not found

80. i.e. 300,000.

81. {o Spartietes}: it has been proposed to read {Spartietai}, for it
    can hardly be supposed that the other two were not Spartans also.

82. One MS. at least calls him Aeimenstos, cp. ch. 64. Thucydides
    (iii. 52) mentions Aeimnestos as the name of a Plataian citizen,
    the father of Lacon. Stein observes that in any case this cannot
    be that Arimnestos who is mentioned by Plutarch as commander of
    the Plataian contingent.

83. {eoutou axion prophumeumenou apodexasthai}.

84. {atelein te kai proedrin}.

85. vi. 92.

86. {andra pentaethlon}.

87. {oute daimonon oute theon}: heroes and in general divinities of
    the second order are included under the term {daimonon}.

88. Most of the commentators (and following them the historians)
    understand the imperfect {ediokon} to express the mere purpose to
    attempt, and suppose that this purpose was actually hindered by
    the Lacedemonians. but for a mere half-formed purpose the
    expression {mekhri Thessalies} seems to definite, and Diodorus
    states that Artabazos was pursued. I think therefore that Krüger
    is right in understanding {eon} of an attempt to dissuade which
    was not successful. The alternative version would be "they were
    for pursuing them as far as Thessaly, but the Lacedemonians
    prevented them from pursuing fugitives."

89. {akinakas}.

90. Whether three tithes were taken or only one is left uncertain.

91. "furniture furnished" is hardly tolerable; perhaps Herodotus wrote
    {skenen} for {kataskeuen} here.

92. The connexion here is not satisfactory, and the chapter is in part
    a continuation of chapter 81. It is possible that ch. 82 may be a
    later addition by the author, thrown in without much regard to the

93. "Whereas however the body of Mardonios had disappeared on the day
    after the battle (taken by whom I am not able to say . . . .), it
    is reported with some show of reason that Dionysophanes, an
    Ephesian, was he who buried it." The construction however is
    irregular and broken by parentheses: possibly there is some
    corruption of text.

94. {tous irenas}. Spartans between twenty and thirty years old were
    so called. The MSS. have {ireas}.

95. {proxeinon}.

96. "fill up more calamities," cp. v. 4.

97. {es antilogien}.

98. {antilogies kuresein}.

99. {ten mesogaian tamnon tes odou}, cp. vii. 124. The expression
    seems almost equivalent to {tamnon ten mesen odon}, apart from any
    question of inland or coast roads.

100. {limo sustantas kai kamato}, "having struggled with hunger and

101. {autos}: some MSS. read {outos}. If the text is right, it means
    Artabazos as distinguished from his troops.

102. i.e. "leader of the army."

102a. {en to Ionio kolpo}.

103. Stein reads {para Khona potamon}, "by the river Chon," a
    conjecture derived from Theognostus.

104. It is thought by some Editors that "the prophets" just above, and
    these words, "and they told them," are interpolated.

105. {emphuton mantiken}, as opposed to the {entekhnos mantike}
    possessed for example by Melampus, cp. ii. 49.

106. Or possibly "Calamoi."

107. i.e. 60,000.

107a. {ton Potneion}, i.e. either the Eumenides or Demeter and

108. {apistous toisi Ellesi}. Perhaps the last two words are to be
    rejected, and {apistous} to be taken in its usual sense,
    "distrusted"; cp. viii. 22.

109. {neokhmon an ti poieein}.

110. {pheme eseptato}.

111. {eteralkea}, cp. viii. 11.

112. {ton Perseon}: perhaps we should read {ek ton Perseon},
    "appointed by the Persians to guard the passes."

113. {ti neokhmon poieoien}.

114. {ten kephalen smatai}: the meaning is uncertain.

115. {Pou de kou me apolesas}: some Editors read {ko} for {kou} (by
    conjecture), and print the clause as a statement instead of a
    question, "not yet hast thou caused by ruin."

116. {en to aduto}.

117. {aphuktos}: many Editors adopt the reading {aphulakto} from
    inferior MSS., "they fell upon him when he was, as one may say,
    off his guard."

118. {estergon ta pareonta}.

119. {ekpheugonta}: many Editors have {ekphugonta}, "after he had

120. {tarikhos eon}. The word {tarikhos} suggests the idea of human
    bodies embalmed, as well as of dried or salted meat.

121. {oi}: some Editors approve the conjecture {moi}, "impose upon
    myself this penalty."

122. {sanidas}: some read by conjecture {sanidi}, or {pros sanida}:
    cp. vii. 33.

123. Or, "when he had heard this, although he did not admire the
    proposal, yet bade them do so if they would."

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