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                                                    TR 440-15
                                                       1-8  

TRAINING REGULATIONS                            WAR DEPARTMENT,
No. 440-15                        WASHINGTON, January 26, 1926

AIR SERVICE

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE
AIR SERVICE


Prepared under direction of the
Chief of Air Service


                                                                 Paragraphs
SECTION I. Functions of Air Service................................. 1 - 5 
       II. Characteristics of aircraft.............................. 6 - 10
      III. General organization.....................................11 - 14
       IV. The special role of each class of military aviation......15 - 18

SECTION I

FUNCTIONS OF AIR SERVICE

                                                                 Paragraphs
Doctrine of war.........................................................  1
Mission of the Army.....................................................  2
Mission of the Air Service..............................................  3
General principle governing the employment of the Air Service...........  4
Administration and training responsibilities for the Air Service........  5

1. Doctrine of war. --Doctrine of war is the theory of use of the Nation’s force under particular conditions and is based upon national characteristics and resources. Decision to go to war having been made, operations will be carried into hostile territory, and every resource of the Nation--mental, moral, and physical--will be utilized to bring about a definite, speedy, and successful conclusion. (Par. 2, TR 10-5)

2. Mission of the Army. --The mission of the Army is to utilize speedily and effectively the national resources to the extent authorized by Congress and required by the particular conditions, and to overcome the will of the enemy by all available means. The primary objective will be the destruction of his armed forces, and this demands that the strategical and tactical offensive be taken and maintained until a decision is reached. The strategical and tactical defensive is authorized only as a temporary measure to meet the requirements of the principle of economy of force. (Par. 2, TR 10-5)

3. Mission of the Air Service. --The mission of the Air Service is to assist the ground forces to gain strategical and tactical success by destroying enemy aviation, attacking enemy ground forces and other enemy objectives on land or sea, and in conjunction with other agencies to protect ground forces from hostile aerial observation and attack. In addition it furnishes aerial observation for information and for artillery fire and also provides messenger service and transportation for special personnel.

4. General principle governing the employment of the Air Service. --

5. Administration and training responsibilities of the Air Service --This branch of the Army is charged with the care and operation of the aeronautical equipment of the Army and, as prescribed in TR 10-5, must be trained in--

SECTION II

CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRCRAFT

                                                                  Paragraph
Tactical employment affected by types of aircraft and their equipment...  6
Effect of essential characteristics upon design of airplanes............  7
Characteristics of military airplanes...................................  8
Characteristics of balloons.............................................  9
Characteristics of airships............................................. 10

6. Tactical employment affected by types of aircraft and their equipment. --Aircraft are classified as heavier-than-air (airplanes) and lighter-than-air (balloons and airships). Any clear tactical doctrine with respect to the use of aircraft for performing their accepted military missions in war must be based on definite types which will be actually in use at the outbreak of war, and which can be put into quantity production without delay. This does not mean that there will be any curtailment of effort to determine the characteristics of, to successfully design, to fly, to adopt for use, and to arrange for quantity production of, improved types.

It does mean that while these efforts to improve types are going on there will exist clean-cut decisions as to types that can and will be used in case of sudden emergency; definite arrangements for their quantity production in case of emergency, and definite doctrines for the proper handling of these types.

The armament and equipment carried by aircraft affect tactical employment. At present such materiel includes, in addition to flying equipment, machine guns, cannon, bombs, and communication and photographic apparatus.

7. Effect of essential characteristics upon design of airplanes. --

8. Characteristics of military airplanes. --Military airplanes are divided into 4 classes--pursuit, attack, bombardment, and observation--each of which demands an airplane of different characteristics and, therefore, of different design.

9. Characteristics of balloons. --The captive balloon secures its lift in calm weather from the buoyancy of the gas with which it is filled, and in windy weather from a combination of the gas and the kiting effect of the wind on the envelope. By means of a windlass mounted on a truck the balloon is allowed to rise and is lowered. The truck is capable of moving the balloon while inflated. Suspended from the balloon is a basket which accommodates the observers who maintain telephone connection with the balloon company exchange. Balloons are capable of ascending to a maximum height of 4,500 feet and of obtaining a field of view, under favorable conditions, extending over a radius of about 20 miles.

10. Characteristics of airships. --The airship is essentially a stream-lined gas bag, propelled by motive power, to which is attached or suspended one or more cars for the accommodation of the crew, load, power plant, and control system. On the basis of design they are classified as nonrigid, semirigid, and rigid. (The figures used in subparagraphs a, b, and c apply to the present time, 1925.)

SECTION III

GENERAL ORGANIZATION

                                                                  Paragraph
Organizational relations of the Air Service............................. 11
Observation aviation.................................................... 12
The Army air force...................................................... 13
The GHQ air force....................................................... 14

11. Organizational relations of the Air Service. --The organizational relations of the Air Service are as follows:

12. Observation aviation. --

13. The Army air force. --

14. The GHQ air force.--

SECTION IV

THE SPECIAL ROLE OF EACH CLASS OF MILITARY AVIATION

                                                                  Paragraph
Pursuit aviation........................................................ 15
Bombardment aviation.................................................... 16
Attack aviation......................................................... 17
Observation aviation.................................................... 18

15. Pursuit aviation. --

16. Bombardment aviation. --

17. Attack aviation. --

18. Observation aviation. --

[A.G.062.12 (10-27-25).]

By order of the Secretary of War:

J. L. Hines,
Major General,
Chief of Staff

Official:
Robert C. Davis,
Major General,
The Adjutant General

 

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