Additional Notes: by Air War College Nonresident Studies
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Composite Bow
Composite bow: made of three basic layers of dissimilar materials -- usually wood, horn, and sinew. This combined the best features of each to yield a bow that was stronger and more resilient than the simple bows of just wood. It also meant that a much shorter bow could be much stronger than the longer simple bows.

Neolithic
Of or relating to the last period of the Stone Age, with polished stone tools, bows and arrows, domestic animals, cultivated crops, wheels, weaving, and village life.

Stele
(Or stela) -- slab, column, pillar, or wall erected for commemorative purposes, with pictures and/or text carved on it.

Corve'e
Unpaid or lowly paid labor, rendered to a lord by a vassal or as a substitute for taxes.

Lower and Upper Egypt
Lower Egypt refers to the area north of Memphis, and Upper Egypt traditionally refers to the area south of Memphis -- the opposite of the way it seems they should be on the map. Upper Egypt is both upriver and uphill from Lower Egypt.

Founding of Memphis
By diverting the waters of the Nile and building on the exposed soil, Hor-Aha was able to found the capital of Memphis on land which had never belonged to either Upper or Lower Egypt -- being thus diplomatic and not giving either kingdom a chance to gloat.

Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C.
About 70,000 Romans and allies died and about 6,000 of Hannibal's force (4,000 Celtic infantry; 1,500 Spanish and African infantry; and 500 cavalry) -- total dead in one battle equal to almost one third of American losses in World War II. The Romans lost 29 of 33 tribunes and 80 senators. The loss meant that Hannibal had destroyed, with this and earlier battles, essentially all of Rome's army except the city defenses. And still he could not win the war.

Crupper
Strap going from saddle around the backside and under the tail (of the horse, of course). The combination with the breast and girth straps gave some support for steadying the rider (especially valuable if an archer), but was not even close to the steadiness gained with the later arrival of real saddles with stirrups.

Battle of Pydna (near Mt Olympus)
June 22, 168 B.C., the culminating battle of the Third Macedonian War (172-167 B.C.). Rome had entered the war on the side of old ally Pergamum, when Perseus of Macedonia had tried to murder Eumenes II, ruler of Pergamum. Perseus had defeated three Roman armies in the previous three years. Lucius Aemilius Paulus, son of a Roman consul, arrived with reinforcements. Paulus soon tried an envelopment of the Macedonians, but it failed when Perseus withdrew across the Aeson River. On the afternoon of the 22nd, the battle broke out by accident as both sides were watering their horses. Perseus took the initiative and attacked across the river with his Macedonian phalanx, and the Romans fell back rapidly. But the rolling terrain soon caused gaps in the phalanx, which Paulus saw and was able to take advantage of after rallying his troops. Once penetrated the phalanx collapsed. The Macedonians lost 20,000 killed and 11,000 captured (Perseus escaped but later surrendered). Roman losses were less than 1,000. Macedonia was later partitioned by the Romans into four republics under the protection of Rome.

Teutoberg Forest
9 AD, Publius Quintilius Varus tried to hold the frontier in Westphalia area. Marching between two rivers (Ems and Weser) which limited maneuver and mobility, his troops were picked off by Germans over several days. By the end all 20,000 were gone and Varus committed suicide to avoid capture. News of the massacre prompted Rome to decide the Rhine River could be their eastern border instead of the Elbe River.

Battle of Adrianople
August 9, 378 AD, near Constantinople (modern Istanbul), Valens, Roman emperor of the East. led an expedition to punish the Visigoths for actions they took in Thrace. Finding the main Visigoth force near Adrianople without its cavalry, Valens attacked without waiting for reinforcements already on their way from Italy. Unfortunately, the cavalry then came back and was key in the killing of some 20,000 of the 30,000 Romans, including Valens. The victory convinced most strategists that cavalry was better than infantry.

Testudo
Protective screen (usually of overlapping shields) held overhead or in front of attacking soldiers. In some cases (such as Roman) it was even in the form of protective "house" on wheels, which the soldiers rolled forward from inside.

Roman siegecraft notes
In the half dozen sources referenced for Roman siegecraft, there was some disagreement on terms as applied to pictures. Over the history of the Roman Empire the onager (essentially heavy catapult), catapult, and ballista changed in appearance -- due to design changes, gradual technology improvements, and intended uses (such as for a lengthy siege or for a mobile attack). The catapult which could throw large spears looked at times like the ballista, which could be configured to throw small stones or wood or metal bolts (much like the later crossbow).

Scutum
Scutum: Roman battle shield.

The Crusades

Battle of Culloden
April 16, 1746 -- "Bonnie Prince Charlie" had led a Jacobite rebellion in Scotland, trying to return the house of Stuart to the throne. Before Culloden, Charlie had even led an invasion into England. After retreating back into Scotland, pushed by several English armies, he tried to surprise the English at Culloden, but instead was routed when he charged at dawn. Of approximately 5,000 Highlanders about 1,000 were killed and 1,000 captured (most later executed). This was the end of his cause.

Brown Bess
"Brown Bess" musket, 1750, caliber .75 --
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