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Operation Desert Storm:
Evaluation of the Air Campaign
(Letter Report, 06/12/97, GAO/NSIAD-97-134)


--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix X:1

[DELETED] reconnaissance platforms, including TR-1As, U-2s, RF-4Cs,
RC-135s, and S-3A/Bs were deployed to the Persian Gulf theater. 
Reconnaissance platforms provided support to combat aircraft by
serving as airborne intelligence collection platforms, and they could
also provide communications and electronic and photographic
intelligence on enemy targets or situations. 

In Desert Storm, intelligence from reconnaissance platforms was used
for target study, to plan strike missions, and for BDA purposes. 
U-2/TR-1 intelligence was used in strike missions against Scud
missile launchers, ships, Iraqi tanks, armored vehicles, and

Before the air campaign began, airborne intelligence collectors, such
as RC-135s and U-2/TR-1s, flew near the Iraqi-Saudi border and
gathered data on the nature of the Iraqi air defense system. 

--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix X:2

There were approximately [DELETED] airborne surveillance and control
platforms, comprised of E-8 JSTARS, E-3 AWACS, E-2C Hawkeye, and U.S. 
Marine Corps OV-10s.  Respectively, these surveillance platforms
provided early-warning surveillance for Navy aircraft carriers
(E-2C), command and control for Desert Storm air defense forces
(AWACS), identification of friend or foe (IFF) capability, and
airborne surveillance of ground targets (JSTARS).  Because of the
large number of aircraft simultaneously operating during the air
campaign, AWACS was critical for IFF, [DELETED].  Marine Corps OV-10s
conducted radio relay and visual reconnaissance missions on ground
troop targets and maintained 24-hour coverage over the battlefield
once the ground war started. 

Notable from the Gulf War was JSTARS, which flew its first
operational mission in Desert Storm.  JSTARS collected intelligence
on the movement of Iraqi ground forces in the KTO and other parts of
the theater where ground troops were situated.  [DELETED]

--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix X:3

Platforms that conducted electronic combat missions or electronic
warfare in a combat-support role included EF-111s, EC-135s, EC-130s,
and EA-6B aircraft.  These aircraft conducted missions that either
involved jamming of enemy radars or attempted the destruction of
radar sites with the use of HARM missiles or tactical air-launched
decoys, within the range of enemy radars, for deception purposes. 
Because electronic combat support missions helped disinfect target
areas of threats to strike aircraft, they facilitated the ability of
primary strike aircraft to conduct attacks on targets. 

--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix X:4

EC-130Es served as airborne battlefield command, control, and
communication (ABCCC) combat support platforms.  ABCCC was designed
to provide real-time command and control over air forces.  With
ABCCC, commanders on the ground could relay real-time information on
war developments and, if necessary, ABCCC could then relay
information to aircraft, providing a near real-time response
mechanism to unfolding events.  ABCCC provided support to F-15Es
operating in kill boxes by providing target deconfliction information
before bomb deliveries.  ABCCC also provided real-time ATO and BDA
information to some units, which pilots pointed out as helpful to
mission planning and strike activity given the large time lags in the
formal ATO and BDA dissemination process.