The Task Force was formed in November of 1995. It met formally eight times. Four individual panels were formed to address specific issues and each met about the same number of times. During the course of the study, the Task Force drew upon previous DSB Task Force efforts. Some recurring themes will be pointed out later in the report.

The objective of the study was to make recommendations regarding the creation and maintenance of specific aspects of a national information warfare defense capability. Exhibit 1-1 shows the specific tasks outlined by the terms of reference.

TOR #1 - Identify the information users of national interest who can be attacked through the shared elements of the national information infrastructure. This should include telecommunications, public transportation, financial services, public safety, and the mission essential functions of the Department of Defense.

TOR #2 - Determine the scope of national information interests to be defended by information warfare defense and deterrence capabilities.

TOR #3 - Characterize the procedures, processes, and mechanisms required to defend against various classes of threats to the national information infrastructure and the information users of national interest.

TOR #4 - Identify the indications and warning, tactical warning, and attack assessment procedures, processes, and mechanisms needed to anticipate, detect, and characterize attacks on the national information infrastructure and/or attacks on the information users of national interest.

TOR #5 - Identify the reasonable roles of government and the private sector, alone and in concert, in creating, managing, and operating a national information warfare-defense capability.

TOR #6 - Provide specific guidelines for implementation of the Task Force's recommendations.

Exhibit 1-1. Terms of Reference

In addition to the Terms of Reference objectives, the Task Force was requested to look at additional items of interest shown in Exhibit 1-2. The National Research Council study was mandated by Public Law 103-160, Defense Authorization Bill for Fiscal Year 1994, November 30, 1993. Pre-publication copies of this report were released May 30, 1996. Because of the potential role of cryptography in information warfare - defense (IW-D), the Task Force was encouraged to review the NRC report in the context of the Task Force deliberations. To avoid duplication and to provide additional focus to the study, the Task Force received briefings on the study of the Global Information Infrastructure sponsored by the Director of Central Intelligence. This excellent study effort provided valuable insights into the global implications of defensive information warfare.

  • DoD
- Organization for defensive information warfare

- Legislation and enforcement

- Enabling technologies

- Indications and warning/response center

- Intellectual framework/taxonomy

- Intelligence community

- Red teaming

  • DCI study of the Global Information Infrastructure
  • Presidential Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection

Exhibit 1-2. Additional Items of Interest

During the Task Force deliberations, the President signed Presidential Decision Directive 39 (late 1995) and Executive Order 13010 (July 15, 1996). These established a President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection. The Commission was tasked to develop a comprehensive national policy and implementation strategy for protecting critical infrastructures from physical and cyber threats. The Task Force was advised that after review and approval of the Task Force report by OUSD(A&T), the Defense Science Board will forward its report to the Commission as a "statement of DoD issues, concerns, requirements, and recommendations."

The sponsors of the study were the Honorable Emmett Paige, Jr., Assistant Secretary of Defense for C3I; and VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, Director for C4 Systems, Joint Staff.

Task Force members are shown in Exhibit 1-3. A variety of disciplines were represented-academia, the telecommunications, banking, and aerospace industries, systems integrators, former military -- and a number of members with former government service. In order to examine the issues more closely, the Task Force organized into four panels.

Mr. Duane Andrews, Chairman

Mr. Donald C. Latham, Vice Chairman

Mr. John G. Grimes, Org'n and Mgmt Panel Chairman

Gen. Bernard P. Randolph, USAF (Ret.),Technology Panel Chairman

Mr. Paul A. Strassmann, Policy Panel Chairman

Mr. Lawrence T. Wright, Threat Panel Chairman

Mr. Edward C. Aldridge

Mr. Bob Nesbit

Mr. Stewart A. Baker

Dr. Percy A. Pierre

Dr. Delores M. Etter

Mr. John P. Stenbit

Mr. Charles A. Fowler

Mr. Lowell E. Thomas

Dr. George H. Heilmeier

ADM Harry D. Train II, USN (Ret.)

Mr. John Lane

Dr. Willis H. Ware

Mr. Alan J. McLaughlin

CDR Frank Klein, Executive Secretary

Exhibit 1-3. Task Force Members

[End Section 1.0]

[Task Force Members Affiliations]

[Go to Section 2.0]