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References



The following list of references are from an excellent paper written by Daniel E. Magsig titled Information Warfare: In the Information Age. Thanks to Daniel for all the effort in compiling this list with abstracts:

[1] Alberts, David S., and Richard E. Haynes. "Information Warfare
Workshop: Decision Support Working Group Report." First International
Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995):
569-76.

Discusses information warfare decision support, and offensive and defensive
information warfare issues. Highlights pervasive nature of information
warfare. Recommends one consistent, widely disseminated policy on
information warfare, full integration of information warfare into military
operations, emphasis on defensive information warfare, and attention to
psychological and coalition warfare issues.


[2] Alberts, David S., and Richard E. Haynes. "The Realm of Information
Dominance: Beyond Information War." First International Symposium on
Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995): 560-65.

Examines the concept of information dominance. Suggests a data,
information, understanding, knowledge, and wisdom typology of information.
Defines information space across arenas, levels, and natures of interaction
between entities. Highlights danger of focusing too narrowly on commonly
discussed elements of information warfare.


[3] Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative
Strategy 12 (April-June 1993): 141-65.

Classic paper introduces terms "cyberwar" and "netwar". Argues mass and
mobility will no longer decide the outcome of conflict. Instead,
decentralized, networked forces with superior command, control, and
information systems will disperse the fog of war while enshrouding the
enemy in it. Provides excellent example of twelfth and thirteenth century
Mongol armies successfully employing such doctrine.


[4] Arquilla, John. "The Strategic Implications of Information Dominance."
Strategic Review (Summer 1994): 24-30.

Focuses on the importance of information dominance over traditional
attritional and maneuver techniques. Introduces control warfare and
advocates a systems approach to identifying and attacking an adversary's
"center of gravity". Identifies the links between systemic elements as key
targets.


[5] Campen, Alan D., ed. The First Information War: The Story of
Communications, Computers, and Intelligence Systems in the Persian Gulf
War. (Fairfax, VA: AFCEA International Press, 1992.)

Often cited reference on the role of information, communications, command,
control, and electronic warfare in the Persian Gulf War.


[6] Campen, Alan D. "Information Warfare is Rife with Promise, Peril."
Signal 48 (November 1993): 19-20.

Argues military leaders must understand the nature of change in warfare
inherent in information based warfare. The right changes will act as
effective force multipliers. The wrong changes, or failure to change, will
leave the United States dangerously exposed. Discusses specific military
issues.


[7] Campen, Alan D. "Vulnerability of Info Systems Demands Immediate
Action: Reliance by Military on Commercial Communications Infrastructure
Poses Significant Peril to United States." National Defense (November
1995): 26-7.

Focuses on military reliance on commercial communications and market driven
security policy. Argues for stronger government role in assuring the
security of the National Information Infrastructure.


[8] Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. (New York: Viking Penguin, 1988.)

Classic text on warfare that has dominated military thinking for over a
century. Clausewitz regards information as generally unreliable in war.
This can be explained by his focus on operational and tactical level
issues, and his pre-Industrial Age frame of reference. Unfortunately,
Clausewitz so dominates military thinking that his bias against information
and intelligence has in some cases undermined acceptance of the precepts
information warfare.


[9] Dubik, James M., and Gordon R. Sullivan. "War in the Information Age."
AUSA Institute of Land Warfare, Landpower Essay Series 94-4 (May 1994): 16
pages.

Parallels the changes needed in today's Information Age military with the
changes that were necessary in the Industrial Age military at the turn of
the century. Specifically, the network as the model replaces the machine as
the model; near-simultaneous, continuous, short-run production replaces
paced, sequential, continuous, long run production; and, mass-customized
products, precisely targeted, with near-instantaneous distribution replaces
mass output.


[10] Franks, Frederick M., Jr. "Winning the Information War" Vital Speeches
of the Day 60 (May 15, 1994): 453-8.

Discusses the shift from hierarchical organizations to networked
organizations necessary in information based warfare. Traces the evolution
of command, control, communications, and intelligence through major wars.
Emphasizes the need for rapid, reliable sharing of information across units
and at different levels instead of traditional stove-piped intelligence
activities.


[11] Grier, Peter. "Information Warfare." Air Force Magazine (March 1995):
34-7.

Provides overview of information warfare from the U.S. military
perspective. Pulls together information from many sources highlighting key
topics.


[12] Handel, Michael I. Sun Tzu and Clausewitz Compared. (Carlisle
Barracks, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army War College, 1991.)

Compares the two most highly regarded classic texts on warfare. Section on
deception, surprise, intelligence, and command and control speaks to issues
related to information warfare.


[13] Jensen, Owen E. "Information Warfare: Principles of Third-Wave War."
Airpower Journal (Winter 1994): 35-43.

Summarizes War and Anti-War [31] and proposes eight principles of
information warfare grouped into four categories summarized as: "(1)
thicken the fog of war for our enemy, (2) lift the fog of war for ourselves
to create a transparent battlefield, (3) ensure that our enemies can't turn
these tables on us, and (4) always fight the information war with full
intensity."


[14] Johnson, Stuart E., and Martin C. Libicki, eds. Dominant Battlespace
Knowledge: The Winning Edge. (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University
Press, 1995.)

Introduces the concept of dominant battlespace knowledge which is the
ability to collect real-time battlefield information, understand that
information, and turn that knowledge into a decisive battlespace advantage.
Discusses necessary doctrinal changes.


[15] Lawrence, R. E., and A. J. Ross. "Equities: Dissemination vs.
Protection: Information Warfare Workshop Results." First International
Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995):
566-8.

Recommends action to raise public awareness of the threat of information
warfare. Recognizes vulnerabilities to national information infrastructure.
Argues information needs to be shared instead of overprotected, on the
premise that some adversaries, notably hackers, have achieved their
relative effectiveness largely through the practice of information sharing.


[16] Libicki, Martin C. What is Information Warfare? (Washington, D.C.:
National Defense University Press, 1995.)

Proposes seven distinct forms of information warfare: command and control
warfare, intelligence based warfare, electronic warfare, psychological
warfare, "hacker" warfare, economic information warfare, and cyberwarfare.
Posits that the concept of information dominance is hollow.


[17] Libicki, Martin C. The Mesh and the Net: Speculations on Armed
Conflict in a Time of Free Silicon. (Washington, D.C.: National Defense
University Press, 1995.)

Analyzes the "revolution in information technology." Argues that technology
begets doctrine and doctrine begets organization, implying a possible need
for organizational changes in the military. Examines a proposed
"Information Corps".


[18] Libicki, Martin C., and James A. Hazlett. "Do We Need an Information
Corps?" Joint Forces Quarterly 1 (Autumn 1993): 88-97.

Examines the debate as to whether a separate Information Corps should be
created. The benefits would be common doctrine, inherent standardization,
and increased innovation. The downside would be a lack of integration with
other forces.


[19] Libicki, Martin C. "Dominant Battlefield Awareness and its
Consequences." First International Symposium on Command and Control
Research and Technology (June 1995): 550-9.

Introduces the concept of dominant battlefield awareness. Predicts the
ability to achieve perfect knowledge of a 200 mile square battlefield by
the year 2008. Discusses the technological requirements for achieving
dominant battlefield awareness. Examines the pros and cons of related
issues.


[20] Lucky, Robert W. Silicon Dreams: Information, Man, and Machine. (New
York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1989.)

Discusses in layman's terms the concept of information, information theory,
and information processing. Provides even coverage of philosophical and
technical issues. Touches on almost every important aspect of information.


[21] Mann, Edward. "Desert Storm: The First Information War?" Airpower
Journal (Winter 1994): 4-14.

Takes the theory of information warfare and ties it together with specific
examples from the Persian Gulf War. Discusses many key concepts in concise,
readable terms.


[22] Nielson, Robert E., and Charles B. Gaisson. "Information - The
Ultimate Weapon." First International Symposium on Command and Control
Research and Technology (June 1995): 545-549.

Examines the differences between war in the Industrial Age and war in the
Information Age. Focuses in on the decision environment and the old and new
paradigms for decision making. Argues for greater technological support for
decision making to reduce need for fallible intuition.


[23] Peterson, A. Padgett. "Tactical Computers Vulnerable to Malicious
Software Attacks." Signal 48 (November 1993): 74-5.

Highlights the role of tactical computers in warfare, examining their
vulnerability to viruses. Discusses the history of viruses, how they work,
what they are capable of, and theoretical reasons why no perfect defense
can be established. Examines practical measures that can be taken with
tactical computers to reduce the threat.


[24] Ryan, Donald E., Jr. "Implications of Information Based Warfare."
Joint Forces Quarterly (Autumn-Winter 1994-5): 114-6.

Discusses the need to re-examine doctrine in light of advances in
technology. Draws analogies between traditional Industrial Age warfare
doctrinal elements and proposed future doctrine.


[25] Schwartau, Winn. Information Warfare: Chaos on the Electronic
Superhighway. (New York, NY: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1994.)

Popular text on information warfare in general. Full of anecdotes. Lacks
grounding in the theoretical basis of warfare. Divides information warfare
into personal, corporate, and global information warfare.


[26] Science Application International Corporation (SAIC). Information
Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy, and Organizational Considerations for
Assurance. (Prepared for the Joint Staff, 4 July, 1995.)

Exhaustive legal reference on the legal, regulatory, policy, and
organizational implications of information warfare. Cites specifics in
public law, executive orders, court decisions, etc.


[27] Starr, Stuart H., and Dale K. Pace. "Developing the Intellectual Tools
Needed by the Information Warfare Community." First International Symposium
on Command and Control Research and Technology (June 1995): 577-86.

Outlines a detailed conceptual framework for understanding information from
the military perspective. Leaves room for further definition of
non-military elements of information warfare. Examines toolsets applicable
to the support of the information warfare community.


[28] Stein, George J. "Information Warfare." Airpower Journal (Spring
1995): 31-39.

Discusses a definition of information warfare, development of a strategy
for information warfare, the U.S. Air Force perspective, and the danger of
failing to address information warfare. Sees the rise of information
warfare as similar to the rise of Airpower.


[29] Stoll, Clifford. The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of
Computer Espionage. (New York: Doubleday, 1989.)

Classic true story of international information warfare over the Internet.
Often referenced.


[30] Szafranski, Richard. "A Theory of Information Warfare: Preparing for
2020." Airpower Journal (Spring 1995): 56-65.

Defines information and warfare. Focuses on psychological warfare aspects
on information warfare. Sees the primary target of information warfare as
the knowledge and belief systems of the adversary.


[31] Toffler, Alvin, and Heidi Toffler. War and Anti-War: Survival at the
Dawn of the 21st century. (New York, NY: Little, Brown, and Company, 1993.)

Traces the evolution of warfare through agrarian, industrial, and
informational warfare "waves." Forecasts the future of human conflict.
Constantly referenced and highly recommended by other authors on the
subject of information warfare.


[32] Tzu, Sun (Griffith, Samuel B., trans.) The Art of War. (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1963.)

Ancient text on warfare popularized due to Sun Tzu's holistic view of
warfare and the increasing irrelevance of Clausewitz's classic On War in
the Information Age. Unlike Clausewitz, Sun Tzu regards information as
indispensable in reducing the uncertainty of war. Much of The Art of War is
arguably applicable to information warfare.


[33] Waller, Douglas. "Onward Cyber Soldiers." Time (August 24, 1995):
38-46.

Focuses mostly on examples and speculation to describe information warfare.
Provides a summary of some of the major papers on information warfare.
Includes many salient points.


[34] Wardynski, E. Casey. "The Labor Economics of Information Warfare."
Military Review (May-June 1995): 56-61.

Examines the economics of providing appropriate education in the nation's
public schools to ensure the numbers of quality workers that will be
required to support and defend the nation in the Information Age. Analyzes
the wages these people can expect to make and discusses the tradeoff
between developing technologies that require low skill, low wage workers,
versus developing technologies that require high skill, high wage workers.


[35] Cornerstones of Information Warfare. (Department of the Air Force,
1995.)

States the Air Force's definition of information warfare. Outlines the
traditional elements of warfare which comprise information warfare.
Discusses how Air Force doctrine should change to accommodate information
warfare.


[36] Jumpstart Information Warfare Briefing. (Department of the Air Force,
1995.)

Open source briefing ordered by the Air Force Chief of Staff to educate
Major Command and Numbered Air Force commanders and staffs on the subject
of information warfare. Contains numerous examples of information warfare
activities.


[37] National Defense University School of Information Warfare and Strategy
Syllabus, Academic Year 1995-96.

Details goals, objectives, lessons, and labs taught at the School of
Information Warfare and Strategy.


[38] U.S. Army Field Manual (FM) 100-6, Information Operations, 8 July,
1995 Working Draft.

States the Army's definition of information warfare. Discusses information
environment, threats, information dominance, information operations,
command and control warfare, intelligence, information systems, and
information activities.


[39] U.S. Army TRADOC Pamphlet 525-9, Concept for Information Operations, 1
August, 1995.

"This concept describes the importance of information and how to win the
information war in military operations now and into the twenty-first
century."



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