Task Force Hawk challenges pointed out need to regularly experiment with the innovative, independent use of key elements of all of our forces in the absence of their usual supporting and supported command elements.
New technologies, such as video imagery from munitions in the terminal attack phase, will likely help improve battle damage assessment performance in the future, but a substantial degree of uncertainty will continue to exist in any future war.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were used to an unprecedented degree in Operation Allied Force. Improved mission planning, improved processes for interaction between UAV operators and manned aircraft, frequent and realistic training opportunities, and equipment upgrades for individual UAVs all would benefit future force effectiveness.
Humanitarian support provided by the U.S., other NATO countries and the world community saved thousands of lives and prevented Milosevics campaign of terror from achieving its cruel objectives.
Humanitarian operations connected to the Kosovo crisis highlighted the importance of such resources as linguists and civil affairs personnel, engineering assets capable of emergency repair of roads and bridges in very austere environments, detailed maps of the relevant areas and prepositioned stocks of tents and water bladders.
The capability of U.S. forces to achieve outstanding mission success must be tempered by an understanding of the indirect costs in terms of reduced readiness in U.S.-based forces and the post-conflict "reconstitution" expenses necessary to restore the deployed forces to a satisfactory steady-state operational tempo.