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BOSNIA-HERZOGOVINA
After Action Review
(BHAARI)

Conference Report

May19- 23, 1996
Peacekeeping Institute


Table of Contents


PREFACE

The United States Army Peacekeeping Institute (PKI) was established at Carlisle Barracks in July 1993 to examine the strategic complexities of peace operations and humanitarian interventions. As a participant in most UN and several non-UN peace operations since its inception, PKI uniquely mixes ongoing operational experience with academic expertise to function along four operational vectors—networking, operating, educating and integrating. As part of the latter, PKI has sponsored strategic/operational after action reviews (AARs) to assist major participants in peace operations to capture the major lessons to be learned and to be employed in future planning, doctrine, and education.

The Bosnia-Herzegovina After Action Review I (BHAAR I) was held at Carlisle Barracks, 20-23 May 1996, as the first of two AAR conferences to examine the strategic implications of Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR (OJE) for the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA). The first conference, the essence of this report, examines the planning, preparation, deployment, and early entry operations of OJE from a US perspective. The second conference, BHAAR II, to be held early in 1997, will focus on operations, transition and exit strategy, and redeployment of US forces.

The conference at the heart of BHAAR I consisted of forty-five participants from twenty-six organizations to analyze thirteen critical issues that they themselves determined were essential for strategic review and of interest to the CSA. The participants were divided into three groups; validated issues associated with each group, analyzed the issues, and made presentations to a plenary panel. This report is to capture the essence of this process so as to provide a product of value to the senior Army leadership for shaping doctrine, refining education, and incorporating in leader development. Hopefully, too, this report will serve as a source document for planners for future peace operation missions.

COL Forster
Director, U.S. Army Peacekeeping Institute

 


Chapter One Introduction

The United States Army War College was directed by the CSA to assist in the lessons learned process from operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina. To that end, during the period 20-23 May 1996, the United States Army Peacekeeping Institute (PKI) hosted an unclassified conference at Carlisle Barracks' Collins Hall entitled Bosnia-Herzegovina After Action Review (BHAAR I).

The conference concept was to examine strategic-level issues for the planning, deployment/entry, and initial operations phases (to D+60) of Operation Joint Endeavor (OJE). The conference was focused at the policy, strategic, and "high" operational levels in order to make recommendations to the Chief of Staff of the Army as to how best to prepare for joint, multi-organization, and multinational peace operations into the Twenty-first Century. For clarity, the examination's purpose was not to influence continued OJE operations.

"Worker-level" participants in the conference were 04 to 06 equivalent and represented the political, humanitarian, and military communities principally from a U.S. perspective. Organizational representation included members from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the National Security Council (NSC), Agency for International Development (Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance [AID/OFDA]), Department of Defense, the Joint Staff, Department of the Army, NATO, SHAPE, European Command (EUCOM), Transportation Command (TRANSCOM), United States Army Europe (USAREUR), 7th PSYOP Group, 96th Civil Affairs Battalion, 215t Theater Army Area Command (TAACOM), Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), Battle Command Training Program-Delta (BCTP-D), the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), Army Center of Military History, Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), and several non-governmental agencies (NGOs). Plenary panel members were 06 to Flag officer in rank or equivalent and represented the joint and Army military communities as well as the Department of Defense and the Agency for International Development.

Extensive pre-conference coordination centered on visiting tentative participants in the field to present the conference concept, solicit participation, and to identify key issues to the organization. Invitees then were sent read-ahead packets containing issues that were developed during the participant invitation phase of the process. On the first day of the conference, the issues were discussed, modified, then validated. The subsequent two days were dedicated to examining the issues by dividing the conferees into three groups—preparation, deployment/entry, and early operations. Each group examined their issues then captured their consensual views using a standard format: Problem Statement with Amplification, Observations, Conclusions, and Recommendations. Results were integrated into a presentation for comments and insights from a distinguished Plenary Panel on the last day of the conference.

The conference membership quickly adopted a philosophy that OJE has been, on balance, a success story up to that point. However, because of the unusual and convoluted conditions comprising the B-H intervention, examination of the myriad difficulties without "finger pointing" was a challenge for each group. To that end, the ground rules set at the beginning of the week stressed non-attribution, unclassified information, and maximum cooperative participation by all group members. The vast amount of information possessed by the experienced participants posed another challenge in terms of group focus and limited conference work time. Group leaders were selected to guide the group toward project completion (i.e., a presentation for the Plenary Panel). For each group rapporteurs were assigned to capture the thematic essence of the broad discussions, and a slide maker to capture daily discussion on computer displayed on closed circuit monitor. Leaders also advised participants to focus discussion at the strategic level and called attention to the group when the discussion slid'into the weeds." Because of excellent mentorship by the group leaders, and selection of the correct organizations and representatives, the quality of the examination was superlative.

Examination of the issues cut across policy, strategic, operational, and Title 10 lanes which made conclusions and recommendations a challenge in terms of U.S. Army relevance. As each issue was analyzed, participants were then asked to arrive at conclusions and recommendations for the CSA to consider from his Title 10 authorities. Again for clarity, conclusions and recommendations in the following report are not focused on the interagency/NSC, Joint Staff/CinCs, nor the non-governmental organizations/private volunteer organizations/international organizations (NGO/PVO/IOs) processes and organizations.

The contents of this report include the examination of each issue organized by group area of analysis, recurring themes transcending multiple issues, and the ad hoc comments made by the Plenary Panel at the close of the conference. The report begins with an Executive Summary which captures each issue and broad recommendation and the thematic threads that seemed to purvey through most issues and general discussions. Additionally, slides prepared by each group for the Plenary Panel briefing are also housed within this report.

 


Chapter Two: Planning

Group One, the Strategic Planning group, reviewed the issues and questions presented to them in the advance packet to ensure the issues were properly framed and had been developed in the context of Operation Joint Endeavor (OJE). Three issues initially assigned to the group were redefined and expanded into the following four issues: 1) Strategic Planning, 2) Command and Control, 3) Force Design and Adaptation, and 4) Preparation for Multinational Peace Operations.

As a side note, the group decided that Issue #1, Strategic Planning, was the overarching, "root cause" issue because this issue seemed to permeate to varying degrees throughout the other issues (Issues #2-13).

Issue #1. Strategic Planning

PROBLEM: Roles and responsibilities for Army planners (and other U.S. and NATO players) were not clearly delineated and/or followed.

Amplification: Strategic planning for Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR was complicated by the lack of an agreed NATO planning process for "non-Article 5" operations. In an "ad hoc" planning environment, there were sometimes disconnects and/or confusion in NATO and related U.S. planning efforts; this resulted in questions as to "who was in charge" of certain planning aspects, hampered coordination, and led to duplicated efforts. Planning roles/responsibilities need to be clearly defined for key players at all levels of the planning hierarchies within NATO (e.g., SHAPE, AFSOUTH, ARRC) and U.S. (e.g., EUCOM, USAREUR) headquarters. The "real world" process/flow for development of Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR plans departed significantly from the classical, top-down (strategic direction) paradigm described in U.S. doctrine and related publications.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. The strategic planning process for JOINT ENDEAVOR included "ad hoc" arrangements: NATO has not yet developed or agreed to a formal process for deliberate or crisis action planning for "non-Article 5" scenarios. The U.S. can influence the development of this NATO process to align it with U.S l joint planning doctrine.

b. The sequence of plan development at various levels of NATO and U.S. theater commands/components was somewhat disconnected; there was a lack of synchronization and coordination at times; and the Roles/responsibilities of planning authorities were sometimes Confused/confusing or duplicative.

c. JOINT ENDEAVOR planning drew upon plans for other scenarios (e.g., OPLANs 40101, 40103, and 40104)--this permitted accelerated planning, but also masked inherent problems resulting from NATO's lack of an institutionalized strategic planning process for out-of-area crises, no standing combined/joint doctrine for ROE, no agreed doctrine for command and control of CJTFs, etc.

d. "Personalities" and organizational "parochialism" contributed to confusion, at times, of "who had the lead" for some aspects of plans. Panelists recounted problems within U.S. planning chain (USAREUR, EUCOM, Joint Staff), within NATO (ARRC, AFSOUTH, SHAPE), and between Allied and U.S. headquarters.

e. Humanitarian advisors (HUMAD) from USAID/OFDA provided planning inputs to AFSOUTH during OPLAN development; however, HUMAD inputs were not effectively incorporated into plans developed, in parallel, by U.S. staffs (EUCOM, USAREUR). Due to various factors (time compression and classification), humanitarian and other civilian agencies had too little access and input into the plan contents which impacted their operations.

f. The strategic planning effort was aided by the direct participation of key military planners at the outset of the process in which political/military objectives were established, e.g., by Joint Staff (J5) participation in proximity talks, and by military groundwork laid prior to North Atlantic Council Military Committee debate on strategic guidance. Deployment of U.S. planners to augment in-theater planning staffs (combined and joint) also contributed to the success of the strategic planning effort.

CONCLUSIONS: The panel concluded that strategic planning for Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR (who did what, when, for/with whom) lacked integration and therefore reduced from unity of effort.

a. Roles and responsibilities in NATO's operational planning process are unclear for deliberate and contingency planning for non-Article 5 scenarios [get in on the "ground floor" within U.S. review/approval process];

b. There is a lack of clarity and discipline on U.S. Army (and other) organizations that have NATO operational planning/support planning roles and responsibilities; and

c. An outline (and definition) of NATO's "real world" strategic planning process is non-existent. Army leaders and soldiers are not prepared to conduct their specific planning tasks (to include participation as potential members of combined/joint planning staffs). Army (and Joint) processes (i.e., doctrine, educate, train, exercise, conduct cross talks with multinational planning staffs, update curricula, and assess hardware/software requirements) to support planning (deliberate and crisis action) are immature for multinational peace operational contingencies.

RECOMMENDATIONS: CSA should consider taking the following actions:

a. Conduct (or sponsor) a systematic analysis/study of the Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR strategic planning "process" to validate the observations listed above.

b. Support efforts (through JCS) to align NATO's operational planning process with U.S. (joint) deliberate/crisis action planning doctrine (IAW Goldwater-Nichols).

c. Stress need for definition/documentation/discipline in U.S. commanders' planning roles and responsibilities in support of NATO plans (or other multinational organization plans in which U.S. plays supporting role).

d. Identify methods to more closely involve civilian agency experts/advisors (e.g., from humanitarian organizations and other nonmilitary agencies) during development of joint/combined plans in support of future peace operations. Disseminate Joint Pub 3-08 "Interagency Coordination During Joint Operations" and educate Army leaders/planners.

e. Maintain capability to deploy Army planning experts to augment in theater planning staffs for future combined/joint operations.

f. Include case study of NATO planning (JOINT ENDEAVOR) in Army course syllabi to familiarize leaders/future leaders with NATO system and illustrate "fog of peace" realities. Following the systematic analysis recommended above, implement leader/soldier "preparation', measures outlined in "conclusion" (sub-para c), above.

Issue #2. Command and Control

PROBLEM: US doctrine for C2 in multinational peace operations is Inadequate.

Ramification: US and NATO C2 arrangements for OJE reveal several shortcomings. Most significant, command relationships between NATO authorities, USCINCEUR, and USAREUR were not well defined and led to inefficiencies and confusion. At the center of this issue was how the Army (Component) fulfills its Title 10 responsibilities. Another significant C2 shortfall was inadequate early coordination with humanitarian organizations particularly NGOs.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. Doctrine for C2 in a CJTF peace operation is immature. While the principles of PDD-25 provide broad guidance, joint doctrine is required for multinational operations such as OJE. (Note: Draft Joint Pub 316, "Multinational Operations," does not cover adequately the C2 topic.)

b. No US Joint Force Commander (JFC) was designated for US forces in OJE; therefore, doctrinal command relationships were not established among US forces. This caused problems regarding provision by the Army (and other Services) of Title 10 support to US soldiers in the NATO AOR. The provision of this support through US Army "stovepipe" channels—USAREUR Forward—introduced inefficiencies for other Services and confusion in the NATO command structure.

c. Since OJE is multinational, USEUCOM was placed in the role of supporting the NATO operation, rather than the traditional US doctrinal role of commanding the operation. As a result, the relationship of the Army component command—USAREUR—to the Supported CINC—EUCOM—was complicated; USAREUR provided forces to EUCOM which in turn provided them to NATO. The potential exists for EUCOM to be marginalized.

d. Responsibility for force protection is unclear. [Author's note. Force protection is discussed in detail in Issue #10, page 25.] It is neither specifically listed among the Title 10 responsibilities for either the Service component commander or the combatant commander, nor adequately defined in US doctrine. Implicitly, responsibility is shared by commanders at multiple levels; however, this introduces the potential for inconsistent force protection standards from the Service and the multinational operational commander. Especially in multinational operations, the US tactical commander may face conflicting guidance. As a specific example, "force protection teams" were deployed by USAREUR in Bosnia, outside the established NATO C2 structure.

e. Early coordination with humanitarian organizations—particularly NGOs—was inconsistent in NATO and US commands. Humanitarian organizations were confused as to who was in charge of CIMIC activities. This problem was particularly acute in Sarajevo where there was a triple layering of CINCs: IFOR and ARRC staffed largely by US Army civil affairs specialists, and the French division. Humanitarian organizations had a poor understanding of CIMIC roles and responsibilities in supporting humanitarian operations.

CONCLUSIONS:

a. US Army will likely be called on to participate in multinational operations in the future; C2 doctrine for these operations is urgently required.

b. Additional study is required of alternative means of providing Army's Title 10 support in multinational operations. Where possible, administrative control (ADCON) for Title 10 responsibilities should be exercised through the established command structure, rather than through a separate channel.

c. In multinational operations, the relationship of the Army component command to the US unified command and the multinational command is complex and requires definition.

d. Clarification is required regarding responsibility for force protection in the context of Title 10 responsibilities; shared responsibility invites inconsistency and violates unity of command.

e. While coordination with humanitarian organizations in multinational peace operations will be complicated, their contribution to success and exit strategy is critical. Additional attention is required to ensure early and adequate coordination, using civil-military assets.

RECOMMENDATIONS: CSA should consider the following:

a. Support Joint Staff in development of doctrine for C2 for multinational peace operations. Consider Army assuming the lead for this doctrine. Develop supporting Army doctrine. Ensure joint doctrine includes:

b. Reemphasize in Army's leader development and training systems the emerging importance of multinational operations in peace operations.

c. Initiate study concerning scope of and responsibility for force protection; aim to fix responsibility to avoid inconsistent standards and without violating unity of command.

d. Recognize the important contribution of humanitarian organizations and include them early in the planning process. Clarify the C2 relationships with humanitarian organizations by ensuring that the functions and responsibilities of CIMIC structures and their relationship to the military's C2 system are clearly identified and conveyed to relevant civilian humanitarian organizations.

Issue #3. Force Design and Adaptation

PROBLEM: Pol/Mil constraints hampered planners' ability to revise initial estimates and adjust the force to reflect operational conditions.

Amplification: Between July and November 1995, the fast-moving Bosnian peace process hampered the military planners' abilities at the strategic and operational level to develop an operation plan based on a structured strategic and operational estimate process, including situation analysis (METT-T) and course of action development. The mission was not clear, the "enemy" did not exist per se, terrain was difficult to recon, available resources were unclear and time-available was not decided. While the mission and tasks to implement the military aspects of the peace agreement were still being developed, military planners at NATO, AFSOUTH, USAREUR, and the Joint Staff were forced to make assumptions based on past estimates of the situation in Bosnia developed for prior contingency plans. Political conditions caused Allied and U.S. national leaders to provide political guidance and decisions based on these past military estimates and the developing Peace Agreement (e.g. 20,000 personnel ceiling for B-H). These decisions, in turn, affected the development of the Peace Agreement. As a result, planners were unable to refine their initial estimate and analysis to reflect the changing political and operational conditions.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. Mission analysis was based on assumptions that were not refined as the situation developed and conditions changed.

b. Mission statement, related tasks and force design and packaging were developed to fit an assumption of 20k troop-ceiling rather than the reverse. 20k became the driving force behind force design rather than troop-to-task analysis.

c. Because of the ceiling, planners developed non-doctrinal "creative" solutions to provide support and outside theater command structure.

d. The political process delayed the provision of necessary political guidance in a timely manner to complete the plan. As a result initial estimates were not refined before political approval was given to the Plan. Authority of execute the Presidential Selective Reserve Call-Up (PSRC) was delayed by the peace process which impacted on the execution of the force package. The Secretary of defense (SECDEF) Personnel to be mobilized which placed constraints on the commanders and the limited flexibility of the force design.

e. Civilian organizations were given little opportunity to be involved in the planning process which could have impacted on the force design.

f. The plan may not have been as flexible to adapt to changing conditions on the ground as could have been. The difficulties caused by constricted planning time for U.S. planners was compounded by the multinational character of the operation.

g. The U.S. has unique national capabilities (C3I infrastructure, strategic lift and SOF) that will be essential for future major multinational peace operations throughout the world.

CONCLUSIONS:

US Army planning process and procedures are sound and flexible, however, contingency planning, (deliberate and crisis action) for peace operations could be improved. The U.S. Army will continue to participate in peace operations in the future which will be characterized by more political guidance during the planning phase than for previous operations (such as DESERT STORM). Political guidance and decisions will not always be timely, and planners will have to make critical assumptions. Estimates and assumptions used in developing contingency plans must be refined as the situation and the plans develop, reflecting the reality of the changing conditions. Additionally, all current plans include extensive use of the Reserve Component, which require an early political decision for their call-up and use. Finally, U.S. unique capabilities (SOF, strategic lift, etc) will cause the United States to be asked by other nations to participate in most future multinational operations.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. Deliberate plans for peace should be developed to enhance and assist the force design process, as current "war plans" may not suffice for this purpose.

b. The Army should emphasize mission analysis, estimates and assumptions for peace operations in training, schools and exercises.

c. Review the Army's contribution to providing feedback to national decision makers on force design and force packages for peace operations based on changing political and operational situation. Simultaneously, the national leadership must be apprised of the risks inherent for any constraints and restraints which they may decide to impose.

d. A system/process to include civilian organizations in the planning process for peace operations should be institutionalized.

e. The Army should conduct an after action review regarding planning for force design and packaging in Bosnia and force effectiveness.

f. Seek early political decision on Presidential Selected Reserve Call-Up (PSRC) to allow for effective planning and early integration of RC into the force package.

Issue #4. Preparation for Multinational Peace Operations

PROBLEM: Overall preparation of Army forces/personnel for OJE has been a great success story; however, improvements to doctrine, training and professional military education (PME) would have minimized turbulence and enhanced that success.

Amplification: Military operations—in particular peace operations—in the post Cold War world have become by nature multinational, multi-organizational, and multicultural. This dynamic necessitates a continuous review of doctrine and the training/preparation of both forces and personnel to ensure the Army is prepared to operate effectively when involved in peace operations.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. The Army anticipated a radically different mission for USAREUR and trained for this change well in advance of OJE. Training exercises at both Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC) and the Warrior Prep Center appear to have properly prepared the force.

b. Mil-to-Mil liaison and combined training exercises helped establish the framework for interoperability among forces, particularly those from Partnership for Peace (PfP) nations, and the cross-border movement of troops into the theater.

c. Peace operations tasks are not included in unit Mission Essential Task Lists (METLs). In fact, FM 100-23, PEACE OPERATIONS, specifically mentions that "Peace operations are not a new mission and should not be treated as a separate task to be added to a unit's METL...For planning purposes, units require from 4 to 6 weeks of specialized training" to be prepared to conduct peace operations.

d. Current Army doctrine may not be broad enough to ensure the full integration of civilian organizations, i.e., non-DOD, UN, International Organizations (IOs) or Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), into planning for peace operations. Specifically, although units involved with Haiti developed close relationships when planning/executing peace operations, the same cannot be said of OJE. This coordination and "mindset" of bringing these organizations in early during planning and execution does not appear to be institutionalized throughout the Army.

e. Also, there appear to be inconsistencies in peace operations doctrine between Joint, Army, NATO (in draft), and UN publications. The Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) conducted peace Operations exercises involving extensive coordination with and Participation of civilian organizations in 1993 and 1994. However, since then, there have been no rotations involving these organizations.

f. Finally, USPACOM and, to a lesser extent, USSOUTHCOM have humanitarian advisors on their staffs, USEUCOM does not.

CONCLUSIONS:

a. The Army appears to have correctly anticipated its mission for OJE and conducted the necessary tactical training to ensure the military success of the General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP).

b. Mil-to-Mil liaison prior to and during the deployment phase of OJE, as well as close working relationships developed over the past few years with friendly nations, greatly assisted with the transit of significant numbers of troops and large amounts of equipment through nations that were erstwhile Warsaw Pact members. Combined peacekeeping exercises in 1994 and 1995 as part of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program resulted in the those nations’ units being interoperable with ours to a significant degree.

c. It may be time for the Army to recognize that peace operations are not going to "go away." Adding peace operations tasks to at least some unit METLs will ensure the Army is better prepared to conduct these types of operations in the future. This would enable at least some units to deploy in a crisis, rather than receive the "...4 to 6 weeks of specialized training." Generic peace operations METLs with supporting tasks, conditions and standards would be helpful to units which could potentially deploy for peace operations. Exportable training programs, with associated POI, would be invaluable to units preparing for deployment. Adding peace operations to the METLs of selected units would not create specialized peace operations units, but units with the appropriate peace operations skills.

d. The Army must ensure that peace operations doctrine includes the need for early and continuous coordination with civilian organizations. Lessons learned involving civilian organizations from one operation must be applied to the next. Inconsistencies in peace operations doctrine between Joint, Army, NATO, and UN publications must be addressed.

e. Elimination of peace operations exercises at JRTC involving civilian organizations in 1995, 1996, and, potentially 1997 will hinder our ability to work with those organizations in future operations. Because of the perishable nature of such training, the Army may be "losing its edge" in using these organizations as force multipliers. Because of the importance peace operations will continue to play, adding humanitarian advisors (HUMADs), similar to Political Advisors (POLADs), to all CINC staffs and possibly component staffs will better enable them to plan for and work with civilian organizations in the future. Placing humanitarian aid experts/instructors within the Army education and doctrine system may assist in providing leaders with the requisite skills to successfully conduct peace operations in conjunction with these types organizations in the future.

RECOMMENDATIONS: CSA should consider the following:

a. That the Army continue to support mil-to-mil contacts and combined exercises because of the prominent role they play in preparation of forces for multinational peace operations.

b. Because peace operations are expected to be part of the strategic landscape for the foreseeable future, consider adding peace operations tasks to the METLs of a mix of light and heavy divisions and their subordinate units. A generic set of peace operations METLs should be developed, as well as exportable training packages which include a POI with tasks, conditions, and standards.

c. that the Army conduct a full review of peace operations doctrine to ensure consistency between Army, Joint and NATO publications. Review should also consider UN, allied, and other doctrinal publications.

d. That the Army conduct regular multinational peace operations exercises at the CMTC, JRTC, and the Warrior Prep Center which involve substantial participation of civilian organizations.

e. That humanitarian advisors be added to the staffs of all CINCs, and, when required, to component staffs. Army professional military education institutions should be staffed with humanitarian advisors/instructors.

 


Chapter Three: Deployment/Entry

Group Two, the Deployment/Entry group, generally followed the same procedures Group One adopted. The group reviewed their initial three issues, then reorganized and reframed them into four. They are 1) Deployment, 2) Multinational Logistics Relationships, 3) Third Party Logistics, and 4) Force Structure.

The group created an entirely new issue they called Third Party Logistics. For the purposed of discussion and subsequent briefings, Third Party Logistics encompasses the Logistics Civilian Augmentation Program (LOGCAP), contingency contracting, and host nation support. The group determined that some doctrine exists for this issue, but that it is spread throughout Joint and Service publications, and needs integration and development in the multinational context.

Issue #5: Deployment

PROBLEM: The deployment planning process was incomplete and execution was disjointed; required constant course correction.

Amplification: The crisis action planning process, as outlined doctrinally in JP 5.0 (Joint Planning) and FM 55-65 (Strategic Deployment), and which would have led to a coordinated deployment plan, was not followed. Planning processes were stove-piped amongst services and agencies and compartmentalized at various headquarters that, in turn, stymied the parallel planning processes. The Supporting to Supported CINC relationship was not clearly understood and often bypassed by operational level headquarters. Without the benefit of a structured, integrated planning process, from the strategic-national level down to task force level, the deployment plan, to include the Time Phased Force Deployment Data (TPFDD), was disjointed and uncoordinated. Lack of clear strategic-national guidance to the supported CINC led to a lack of clear strategic theater guidance to the operational level. The expected interaction of supporting ClNCs and agencies with the supported CINC did not occur. The result was that the strategic deployment community was not completely involved in planning until the deployment actually started. The Joint Operations and Planning and Execution System (JOPES) does not lend itself easily to working with contingency deployment complicated matters. The perception at key headquarters in the theater that this deployment was an operational movement, vice a strategic deployment, also hindered interaction with the strategic deployment community and constrained TPFDD development. A direct result of this perception was an unrealistic, surface-oriented movement plan.

OBSERVATIONS:

There was no validated TPFDD, or detailed guidance from senior to subordinate headquarters with which to execute the deployment. Managing the execution was disjointed requiring an inordinate level of resource and leader intensity. The theater made a notable effort to use state of the art automated technology to track unit and sustainement movements. However, the effort was started too late, with too little funding support and without a solid base architecture upon which to build. Compression of the execution timeline and constant changes to the TPFDD forced a crisis management mode on operational level commanders and staffs that was compounded by a lack of trained and rehearsed deployment procedures. Political constraints placed on the operational headquarters during the planning process impacted heavily on the execution of the deployment. The lack of a proper reconnaissance, inability to coordinate with host nation and commercial activities, the personnel cap on both the Joint Operations Area (JOA), BiH and Croatia proper, and the Joint Operational Area (JOA) rear (for the U.S. forces, Italy and Hungary) all prevented a proper "logistics preparation of the battlefield" which in turn was a major impetus behind many of the force module and TPFDD changes. The lack of up-front availability and commitment authority for contingency funds further constrained the deployment. Force tracking and the ability of the operational level staffs to provide their commanders with force capabilities progress were hindered by an early decision not to use unit level movement data automation, in particular, the Transportation Coordinator - Automated Command and Control Information System (TC ACCIS). The seam between strategic and theater airlift is an issue which could potentially impact on US Army velocity management in contingency operations.

CONCLUSIONS:

The deployment, from the perspective of meeting all required operational milestones, was successful. However, success in execution was not due to success in planning. Doctrinal procedures for establishing an executable TPFDD were not completely followed. Inadequate and outdated resources, to include automation, communications, contingency funding and manpower hindered deployment planning and execution. A further complication was that theater training did not focus on strategic deployment procedures. It is essential that the Army take note of the lessons from this and other deployments conducted in the last decade. Peace and stability-type operations are conducted to a large degree within the Crisis Action Planning system, i.e. with short notice and compressed execution timelines. They are also typically outside the norms of our current force design doctrine by requiring a capability based thought process that enables concurrent employment and deployment. Nations that we may or may not have strategic agreements with, third party logistics, multinational forces, non-government organizations, real-time media, etc., have a large and disproportionate impact, not only on planning, but on the execution of deployments.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. Address strategic and operational deployment in non-traditional (peace and stability) operations in Army and Joint doctrine.

b. Leverage every opportunity for strategic and operational deployment training. This includes unit to strategic-national level and covers the spectrum of JCS and CINC sponsored exercises and CTC rotations.

c. Consider training, skill identifier and assignment management tools for strategic deployment automation systems operators.

d. Review adequacy of strategic deployment training. Particular emphasis should be placed on leader training at operational level training platforms - Sergeants Major Academy, CGSC, Joint Strategic Deployment Training Center, JPME Phase II, etc.

e. Consider a cost/benefit analysis for establishment Pf an up-front contingency fund vice the current funding procedures. All costs associated with any operation invariably increase when done in a crisis management mode. Up front availability of contingency funds and authority to commit those funds within a reasonable time of C-Day could be both a force multiplier and cost saver.

f. Emphasize to the joint community the need to develop state of the art, user friendly, joint automation that supports the planning and execution of contingency operations (JOPES/TAV).

Issue #6: Multinational Logistics Relationships

PROBLEM: Multinational logistics relationships were not substantially supported.

Amplification: Nations did not adequately resource AFSOUTH Commander for Support (C-Spt). The original concept of a strong C-Spt as the backbone of a multinational logistics effort eroded quickly when troop-contributing nations did not fully resource C-Spt with staffing, units or funding. Subsequently the emerging role of C-Spt was unclear; its role further diffused by an inability to cover the logistics functions of its designated area. This area is complicated by unrealistic expectations on the part of the U.S. that other coalition forces will be self-sustaining.

OBSERVATIONS:

Strategic and operational level planning often assumes away mission complications resulting from deficiencies in national level sustainement. Past exercises and operations have demonstrated that many nations are presently unable to project and support themselves outside their traditional AOR's. This often comes at U.S. expense. The role of TF Eagle as a Framework Division and DLA assuming responsibility as Role Specialization Nation (RSN) for POL could have been further developed. Constraints on coordination with potential partners (particularly those in lateral or subordinate relationships) frustrated tactical and day-to-day mission accomplishment during the initial deployment. Complicating this issue is the fact that U.S. multinational support statutes and procedures are confusing and restrictive. Thorough planning and commitment early in the planning process can result in a pool of common-user resources that can add to the efficiency of theater logistics as well as minimize national footprints. As an adjunct, this same complication applies to support provided to NGO's, or that worked through international organizations such as the UN. The level of NGO involvement in the operation must be considered early in the planning process. If involved, logistics knowledgeable LNO's are essential to the planning process.

CONCLUSIONS:

It is inevitable that the U.S. will continue to participate in multinational operations. Currently, not all nations and organizations are totally capable of self-sustainment when deployed, which impacts both political and mission accomplishment The U.S. may potentially benefit from economies realized through participation in multinational logistics. It may be a reflection on our ability to plan for, set up strong agreements and then manage this kind of effort that we do not take advantage of these opportunities. At the heart of most of our recent operational forays into multinational logistics is the fact that U.S. multinational support administration is confusing and cumbersome, particularly given responsibilities in a framework or RSN role.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. Review doctrinal feasibility of multinational logistics in coalition and alliance operations.

b. Examine legislative and subsequent regulatory changes required to make U.S. more responsive in multinational operations.

c. Review current logistics relationships with NATO, other international organizations, Partners for Peace, and other potential coalition partners. Simplify.

d. Training: Include multinational logistics challenges in Service and Joint exercises.

e. Leader Development: Include multinational logistics and support to / through international organizations and NGO's in operational training.

Issue #7: Third Party Logistics

PROBLEM: Third party logistics does not have well-defined doctrine, planning, training and force structure.

Amplification: For the purpose of this discussion, third party logistics encompasses Logistics Civilian Augmentation Program (LOGCAP), contingency contracting, host nation support. Some doctrine exists for this issue, however it is spread throughout Joint and Service publications and needs integration and development.

OBSERVATIONS:

Problems experienced during Joint Endeavor stem from a lack of staffs who understood third party logistics, could plan for it and then implement and manage it. This reflects not only doctrinal deficiencies, but also deficiencies in formal training for third party logistics planning / employment / management. Additionally, third party logistics planners (for Joint Endeavor - LOGCAP) were not part of the planning processes at operational level headquarters. This may be compounded by the fact that the current LOGCAP contract is resourced only for reviewing basic plans. Execution of LOGCAP by the Army Service Component Command (ASCC) was difficult. LOGCAP contract management was fragmented and assessments inconsistent. A lack of up-front funding available to support logistics preparation of the battlefield and incremental funding of LOGCAP may have resulted in both an increase of costs at a disproportionate rate to efficiencies and costs which could have been avoided.

CONCLUSIONS:

Third party logistics can be an essential CSS force multiplier. Third party logistics planners, both knowledgeable Army staff and contractor, host nation and organizational liaisons, are key to the success of contingency planning and must be present early in the planning process. Management of LOGCAP as a theater asset should to be reviewed to determine the feasibility of ASCC having operational control of contract management staff.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. Recognize third party logistics as an integral part of both deliberate and contingency operation planning processes.

b. Integrate and develop third party logistics operations into keystone doctrinal manuals.

c. Review management of LOGCAP to determine the feasibility of ASCC having operational control of contract management staff.

d. Review training for third party logistics planning and management at branch and component schooling.

e. Leverage training opportunities for third party logistics in exercises.

f. Resource third party logistics planners at operational and strategic level headquarters.

g. Consider a cost / benefit analysis for establishment of an up-front contingency fund vice the current funding procedures. All costs associated with any operation invariably increase when done in a crisis management mode. Up front availability of contingency funds and authority to commit those funds within a reasonable time of C-Day could be both a force multiplier and cost saver.

Issue #8: Force Structure

PROBLEM: CS/CSS forces are not structured to readily support multiple contingencies.

Amplification. Current Army force structure is based on Defense Planning Guidance to respond to the two Major Regional Conflict (MRC) scenario. Present Army force structure is configured so that U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) and Army National Guard (ARNG) combat support and combat service support (CS/CSS) forces are essential to execute any MRC. However, availability of these forces is dependent upon both national will and a political decision making process. Their use in contingency operations is subject to the same constraints.

OBSERVATIONS:

For Operation Joint Endeavor, although the Presidential Selected Reserve Call-up (PSRC) was signed in early December, activation took place after the deployment started. The result was the late arrival of key units and personnel. For the latter, staff augmentation to include operational and logistics planners was a critical shortfall throughout the theater. Specific units critical to either the deployment or immediate employment in the JOA and JOA (rear), such as civil affairs and movement control, did not arrive in time for the theater to leverage their capabilities effectively. Low ALO and manning levels of CS / CSS units impacted directly on the ability of the theater to deploy, receive and sustain the force. Units vital to the success of both deployment and movement into the operational area such as the Theater Movement Control Agency (TMCA) and its subordinate Movement Control Battalions were at low ALO's (ALO 8 for the TMCA) and low manning levels (66% ODP for TMCA). This affected both deployment planning and execution. Many units were not effectively manned to conduct either the 24 hour or split based operational requirements of this operation. CS / CSS unit "building blocks" (unit size) are not conducive to supporting contingency operations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Contingency and stability operations are highly dependent upon the rapid response of combat support and combat service support capabilities to both enable and sustain the force. However, below the line forces in the active component have not been adequately structured to meet emerging contingency operations. In addition, the timely availability of reserve component CS / CSS to meet immediate requirements of contingency operations is of concern. To compound the situation, Army CS / CSS units are not manned, by either ALO or ODP to meet the extended requirements of contingency operations which include 24 hour operations, split based operations and force protection measures.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. Review PSRC activation procedures with a view to expediting support to contingency operations.

b. Simplify the RC volunteer process.

c. Review AC/RC mix of CS/CSS capabilities required to provide support to contingency operations.

d. Enhance ability of CS/CSS to task organize to meet contingency operation requirements.

e. Review CS/CSS ALO and authorizations to ensure manpower meets requirements.


Chapter Four: Initial Operations

Group Three, the Initial Operations Group, also modified their issues at the conference outset. This group shifted issues between categories, redefined, and added what they considered a more cogent statement of the issues pertinent to the initial operations phase of Operation Joint Endeavor. The five issues that emerged from the group's deliberations were: 1) C2 and Support for Out-of-Sector U.S. Forces, 2) Force Protection, 3) Mission Creep, 4) Information Operations, and 5) Civil-Military Planning and Operations.

Within this group, force protection issue evoked the strongest and most candid reactions. While force protection was indeed of major importance, it was the responsibility of commanders on the ground responding to specific and perhaps unique threats. Moreover, because force protection had been given so much general officer emphasis it became more the mission than the mission itself Finally, the second and third order effects of the U.S. force protection measures established for OJE were neither fully understood nor properly anticipated. In any case, the consensus was that this issue has the potential for significant implications for future projection of U.S. national power, and must be understood and addressed within that context.

Following the procedures adopted by the other two groups, Group Three wanted to capture those lessons and make those recommendations that should become integral parts of Army methodology for conducting multinational peace operations in the future. This group made a special effort to deal with the initial operations issues in the context of the Army and the fact that the final customer for its effort would be the Army Chief of Staff.

Issue #9 C2 and Support to Out of Sector US Forces

PROBLEM: The root cause of the problem was a lack of a US JTF command equivalent that had the authority, expertise and staffing to properly provide US C2 and coordinated logistics for out of sector US service members.

Amplification: AF SOUTH, a formally non-deployable NATO HQ, deployed without detailed resolution for US C4l and support relationships. More importantly, this command was not declared a formal US JTF and the CINC (EUCOM) did not fully use his COCOM authority to provide specific directives for US C2 and logistic support. What evolved was two distinct chain of commands: one NATO operational chain and one service chain In this command configuration, the US national authority ran through the service chain of command and not the operational chain of command. Therefore, AFSOUTH did not have the authority to properly command US forces, had only minimal internal logistical assets, and had almost no control over the US logistical effort.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. To ensure proper support to its own soldiers, the US Army deployed a major C2 and support force to Hungary that was close to, but still outside the NATO area. This service command took on two specific functions: providing Title 10 (ADCON) support and force protection oversight to TF EAGLE. By design or default, the support portion of this HQs became the overall US National Support Element (NSE) which provided most of the common logistic support to all US forces in the TO.'

b. Since OJE was a major multinational operation, US units and individuals deployed in multiple locations, under multiple command structures throughout the entire TO. Early on, the numbers, location and command relationships of these service members changed on a daily basis. The result of this situation was that there was no single U.S. command that had proper C2 over, nor who could provide proper support to, our out of US sector forces.

c. CSS to these sector service members initially came from a very loosely coordinated effort consisting of foreign nation, AFSOUTH and the US NSE support. U.S.- specific support of requirements such as maintenance, mail, etc., proved to be very difficult and poorly executed during the early phase of the operation. Bottom line - there was no adequate operational-level (i.e., JTF) plan nor guidance to ensure that U.S. service members serving outside the main U.S. sector received proper CSS support.

d. A major related problem was the enforcement of General Order #1. Depending on where US service members were operating, they came under very different versions of this order. In many situations, US soldiers working side by side were held to completely different standards of force protection depending if the soldier was under the US or NATO chain of command.

CONCLUSIONS:

C2 and support of US service members serving outside US sectors is extremely challenging. Our current doctrinal roles of the operational and service chains of commands may not be appropriate for multinational peace operations. Doctrine for providing Title l0 support for US units and individual service members deployed outside US sector is limited, poorly Understood and rarely, if ever, practiced.

NSE is a NATO term for the national support structures deployed into theater to provide national combat service support.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. High level discussion is warranted on US chain of command relationships (service versus operational) in multinational peace operations. We also must develop more concise Joint and Army doctrine on Title 10 support to include specific emphasis on support to US service members who are deployed outside of US sectors (new- draft JTTP on Common User Logistics should help).

b. We must improve our schoolhouse and unit training on multinational operations to include how to ensure that effective support and C2 relationships are established.

Issue #10 Force Protection

PROBLEM: The second and third order effects of the stringent US force protection measures instituted in OJE were neither fully understood nor properly anticipated.

Amplification: Force protection for US forces will always be a significant issue in any military operation, and may be an especially high priority in peace operations missions. In OJE, US force protection took on a higher degree of importance than we have seen in other military operations. In fact, force protection was a formal part of the OPLAN mission statement and permeated all aspects of mission execution. Furthermore, many participants agreed that U.S. force protection measures seemed to be politically motivated and clearly not based on a realistic threat assessment.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. One clear result of this emphasis has been the remarkably low casualty and accident rate, largely attributed to significant predeployment training along with strict command enforcement of force protection and safety measures. This additional force protection emphasis however, was not without associated costs. There was a significant increase in contract/host nation support costs due to unprogrammed support requirements precipitated by strict force protection rules (e.g., having two qualified drivers for every military vehicle). Force protection requirements severely limited CSS availability to support non-military functions.

b. Enforcement of force protection was very inconsistent between US service members serving under a US command and those under NATO control. More importantly, the US levels of force protection were signifacantly different from the other nations. These inconsistencies lead to two specific areas of concern. First, stringent US force protection measures directly hampered civil-military cooperation and the ability for US soldiers to move away from the peace enforcement mission only mindset. Second, many non-US members of the Dayton Peace Agreement (DPA) implementation effort, especially civil agencies, were concerned that this inconsistency was sending mixed signals to the warring factions. These individuals were adamant that this inconsistency reduced the overall NATO, and especially US, credibility throughout the region and world.

CONCLUSIONS:

a. Force protection is and should remain a very significant concern of our military leaders, but the manner in which these measures were established for OJE was inconsistent with doctrine. In OJE, US force protection effort rose to the level of actually being part of the stated mission and above the level of the other three battlefield combat dynamics (firepower, leadership, maneuver)2. Additionally, the perception among participants was that force protection measures in OJE were not based on valid risk assessment, often stifled the operational commander's flexibility, and clearly fostered the overall perception of a "zero defects" mentality/environment.

b. This issue has the potential to have significant implications in our ability to project national power. There is a clear international, and even US, perception that our overwhelming concern over force protection greatly reduces our willingness to use our military as an effective tool in peace operations.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

A strategic level review of our force protection policies and doctrine is required to ensure that we have a proper balance of force protection and operational freedom. Additionally, we need to improve our understanding of and ability to plan for the second and third order effects of force protection measures.

Issue #11 "Mission Creep"

PROBLEM: Concerns of "mission creep" have the potential to constrain US military elements from accomplishing support to the civil aspects of the DPA.

Amplification: U.S. commanders at all levels were concerned with the idea of "mission creep"; however, this did not develop into a significant problem during the first 90 days of OJE. During this period, almost all the military's efforts were directed to the military enforcement of the DPA and there was little opportunity for "mission creep .

FM 100-S p. 2-10.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. Potential does exist for significant "mission creep" as related to the lack of a viable transition/exit strategy beyond the current 19 December operations end date.

b. There also is a possible misconception of the term "mission creep" among our military leaders. Clearly there is acceptable "mission evolution" that may often be construed as "mission creep". The difference between "mission evolution" and "mission creep" is identifiable by the manner in which mission changes are reviewed, planned, and approved by the chain of command.

CONCLUSION:

"Mission creep" was not a serious issue during the first 90 days of OJE; however, concern that "mission creep" will hinder the implementation of the civil aspects of the Dayton Accord may be well founded.

RECOMMENDATION:

Review this issue again at the final BHAAR.

Issue #12: Information Operations

PROBLEM: The initial US information campaign was narrowly focused on the peace enforcement mission of the DPA implementation and in this aspect was an overall success. Unfortunately, this peace enforcement focus, along with other constraints, caused the US information operation as it relates to the civil aspects of the mission to be late, incomplete, lacking in sophistication, and often contradictors.

Amplification: The US information campaign in support of the peace enforcement portion of the DPA implementation plan was executed in a thorough and effective manner. This effort was well conceived and clearly provided the desired information to both the US domestic audience and the former warring factions. The use of a Joint Information Bureau was also successful in coordinating US media efforts. Overall, relations between the US military and media were open and positive.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. While the desired message that the US forces would be the "meanest dog on the block" was clearly transmitted, the US effort in applying information operations to other aspects of the DPA were not nearly as effective. US information preparation of the operational area and implementation of the information campaign as it related to the CMO portion of the DPA was delayed and poorly planned. This was caused by the political constraints of the Dayton Peace process, compressed planning cycle and significant state of denial by some key military leaders that this operation would ever be executed. There was also a hesitancy to utilize UNPROFOR and other international humanitarian/political information experience.

b. The slowness of this process reduced the US ability to influence local public opinion, especially about the non-military efforts to implement the DPA. Moreover, the US information operation effort was only one voice in many in the BiH operation. On more than one occasion, the US information effort was clearly contradictory to other international media efforts and this did not lend to the overall credibility to the US information campaign.

CONCLUSIONS:

From the US perspective, the overall OJE media campaign was a success. Our doctrine, organization, leader development in media operations appear to be appropriate. Our information campaign however, was often insensitive and outright contradictory to the other major international BiH participant's messages. Additionally, our lack of focus on CMO in information operations campaign discouraged cooperative planning and execution of CMO portion of the DPA.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. Continue emphasizing the importance of information operations in institutional and unit training.

b. We must place more emphasis on the civil-military aspects of the campaign in the planning and coordination our information operations.

Issue #13 Civil-Military Operations

PROBLEM: Due to US emphasis on the military peace enforcement mission of DPA, civil-military operations (CMO) did not receive sufficient emphasis during the planning and initial execution of OJE.

Amplification: International intervention in B-H has common objectives and they must be coordinated in order to synchronize properly the effort between military and civil authorities. In reality, acceptance and the implementation of civil aspects of Dayton Accord are subject to political will of national authorities, contributing governments and resource constraints; however, there still must be a mechanism set priorities and coordinate this civil-military support.

OBSERVATIONS:

a. In OJE, EUCOM was the critical element to link US national priorities to the operational campaign plan within the NATO environment. Yet to many observers, the military plan was intentionally kept separate from the overall international Dayton Accord implementation plan. The military clearly was focused on the peace enforcement effort even though the DPA had general provisions for military support to civil operations. Perception to many was that the US senior military planners gave low priority (possibly by policy design) to the development and execution of a civil military campaign plan. Overall, our civil partners in the implementation of the DPA felt that they were not viewed as full and equal partners by their military counterparts.

b. There were many factors that contributed to the lack of proper civil-military planning and operations. Compressed planning times, a strict force cap, early classification of OPLANs by military planners, a desire to maintain combat readiness (i.e., aggressive conventional training plan), R&R plan and a very uncertain security situation all contributed to this problem. Additionally, the US NCA announced 364 day end state had a major impact on the CMO planning. Clearly, the US military was very hesitant to commit to civil-military operations that would portend a longer term presence in B-H.

c. To add to the already difficult situation, a new NATO concept called a Combined/Joint Civil Military Cooperation (CJCIMIC) staff element was implemented at the IFOR level. This CJCIMIC was established in lieu of the internationally recognized Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC). Unfortunately, the IFOR CJCIMIC was not properly staffed and became more of an operational staff than the more acceptable neutral CMO coordination forum. Overall, CA functions did fit well into the IFOR and ARRC command structure. The end result was that the civil-military operations were more re-active than pro-active, especially during the early stages of the operation.

CONCLUSIONS:

a. Early interagency (NGO/PVOs, international and civil agencies) planning and integration are key to overall success of major international peace operations efforts.

b. Full participation of civil organizations into military operations and training is improving but still needs more emphasis.

c. The US regional CINCs and US operational commands must be closely linked to the interagency structure during both the planning and execution phases of an operation. While much improvement has been made over the past few years in codifying civil-military operations in doctrine, US policy clearly de-emphasized this effort in OJE. In a broader sense, current civil-military doctrine has not been effectively integrated into routine training and operations.

d. The current active CA force structure also does not support daily CMO planning and operations at the CINC and Army Service Component Command (ASCC) levels.

e. Finally, there remains a lack of understanding and emphasis in this area as evidenced from lessons learned reports from operations in Panama, Northern Iraq, Somalia, Rwanda, and Haiti.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a. We must continue to refine and develop both Army and Joint civil-military doctrine. We should consider adding the term Civilians along with term Troops in doctrinal concept of METT-_ found in our capstone manual FM 100-5.

b. Senior leaders must recognize the importance of the civil-military effort and must enforce compliance with existing Joint and Army civil-military doctrine. Leaders also must attempt to de-politicize this type of planning to the best of their ability.

c. We need to continue to emphasize the on-going effort to incorporate civil-military operations, to include actual NGO/PVO participation, into US Army as well as Joint/combined training exercises. We also need to continue to emphasize and refine CMO institutional training.

d. We must establish civil humanitarian/relief advisor (HUMAD) to the commander (similar to POLAD) down to JTF/Corps level and as well as to key Army training institutions (CGSC, War College). Further, we need to review the current CA structure, especially the active component at US CINC and ASCC levels. Finally, we should explore the need to employ a CA theater command structure to provide CA C2 in major humanitarian operations.

 

One shared belief held throughout the BHAAR the BHAAR conferebce was that, on balance. Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR (OJE) was a success. However, conferees agreed that changes should be implemented to enhance the potential for future successes. In BHAAR I, the three groups responsible for examining planning, deployment/entry, and initial operations in OJE while assigned different issues, nevertheless developed a common set of seven overlapping themes which transcended their independent discussions. Moreover, these common themes have surfaced in other AARs, panel discussions and the like as observed by the staff at the U. S. Army Peacekeeping Institute (PKI).

The seven themes that emerged from the various working groups' examination of the frrst phases of OJE are described briefly below. These themes fall into four broad categories - the role of the Army in peace operations, strategic planning, doctrine, and tactical excellence.


Chapter Five: Recurring Themes

Theme #1. High Probability for Future Multinational Peace Operations

Amplification. Army participation in multilateral peace operations will continue, therefore the Army must be better prepared to conduct these types of operations in the future. As a result, the Army must continue to train for war, and adapt for peace. To approach each operation as it stands alone, or will be the last such operation, promotes a narrow focus which inhibits institutional memory from being applied to, and reinforced from, a particular operation.

DISCUSSION.

A difference of opinion exists within the Army in terms of defining the role of the military in a post-Cold War society. A significant population within the Army believes that the simular role for the military is "to fight and win our nations wars." To fight and win our nations wars is our primary mission, however not necessarily our singular mission. The military role as a foreign policy means is broader than to compel. In the Army's recent White Paper entitled, "Force of Decision", the purpose of military power is " . . . Army must always have capabilities to compel any adversary to do what he otherwise would not do of his own free will. These same capabilities also contribute to our ability to deter adversaries, to keep them from acting inimically to our interests in the first place. The employment of military forces without necessarily engaging in combat to reassure allies and friends promotes stability and contributes to our ability to influence international outcomes. Finally, our armed forces use their capabilities to support domestic authority in times of natural disaster, civil disturbance, or other emergencies requiring humanitarian assistance."3 Military power is a means for achieving national security objectives through conflict avoidance, crisis prevention and crisis response, and ensures continued military involvement in peace operations. Our PME, doctrine, and training must incorporate these concepts to instill a common understanding of the myriad roles for the military to prevent crisis, or if need be, respond to crisis and restore regional stability as is entailed in peace operations.

Theme #2. Need for Hierarchical, Integrated Strategic Planning Process (Symptom: "ad hoc-ery").

Amplification. Stove-pipe, independent planning prevents integrated planning. Operations suffer when there is a lack of strategic planning structure with a designated person or organization tasked with responsibility for developing a political-military strategic concept contained in a Political-Military Planning document.

DISCUSSION.

The U.S. military culture is used to a warfighting hierarchical planning model, that is, a family of descending, sequentially-driven plans: strategic planning directive the campaign plan - OPLANS. For peace operations, multi-organizational planning systerns usually function simultaneously and not sequentially, and generally are not wellintegrated. Peace operations tend to be multinational (e.g., OJE NATO-led) and not U.S. unilateral which further exacerbates the strategic planning process. Finally, peace operations have political, economic, and humanitarian dimensions as well as military dynamics with each dimension having its own set of organizations, interests, and planning processes.

In peace operations, unity of effort is achieved at the strategic level by integrating both multinational military and civil-military operations. In theory, to achieve synergistic effects and maximum effectiveness, representatives from tbese "cultures"should collaborate to define shared strategic goals, clarify their interests, and mutually agree to the definition of success when their collective efforts are complete. The results of their collaboration should be contained in one strategic document - the (Bosnia) Political-Military (POL-SuL) Plan. This overarching plan becomes the source for developing subordinate operational-level plans For the military, this supporting document would be the (Bosnia) Campaign Plan. In reality, doctrinal procedures break down in the face of competing national interests and segregated national planning processes. Great domestic political capital is at stake for each nation and political expediencies force artificialities such as condensed time tables, strange command and control arrangements, and a myriad set of rules of engagement. Ad-hoc reaction to changing conditions becomes the norm due to the absence of a shared strategic concept and political-military plan at both the coalition and national levels.

Realistically, an ideal multinational/coalition strategic planning model will probably never be fommalized among the myriad participants for post-Cold War peace operations. Simultaneity of multi-organizational planning is, and will continUe to be, the nomm. However, from a U.S. perspective, U.S. planners need to work within a more defined strategic planning construct so that at least U.S. interests and operational options are clarified before coalition plans are finalized. The process then becomes one of liaison and infommation exchange as coalition planners hammer out the coalition's strategic and operational concepts. During this process U.S. objectives must be harmonized with coalition objectives. The Army mUst develop strategic and operational-level thinkers, planners, and negotiators who can function in chaotic coalition planning situations which blend U.S. deliberate and crisis action planning with concurrent coalition dialogues. Finally, our research and development communities must continue improving information integration through computer technologies which potentially will improve the quality of visual, audio, and data infommation transfer necessary to facilitate multi-organizational consensus building at the strategic level.

Theme #2a. Strategic Assessment Critical to Promote Strategic Clarity

Amplification. Stove-pipe, independent planning prevents integrated planning. The strategic plaDning process produces a political-military strategic concept. The Assessment is the first step in the strategic planning process. Political, economic, humanitarian, and multinational military planners should dehme an accurate description of the status quo, clarffy their respective goals, and identffy operational risks and constraints. The culmination of the assessment process is a shared understanding of the root cause of the problem and its attendant symptoms.

DISCUSSION.

The strategic planning process begins with the assessment. The purpose of the assessment is to define the state of the status quo and the historic/cultural/ethnic background to the crisis. The assessment is also the planning time when the estimate is developed - the "taxonomic" definition of political, economic, humanitarian, and military goals and objectives which provide intemational and national-level guidance gemmane to the regional crisis.

At the completion of the assessment, in order to ensure strategic "situational awareness," strategic planners should define, and agree to, the root cause of the crisis and its attendant symptoms. This step is analogos to defining the Clauswitzian strategic center of gravity in war. Problem and symptom definition set the stage for leaders to establish the political, economic, humanitarian, and military limits of engagement.

Time must be allocated for reconnaissance purposes. Representatives from the "cultures" should spend planning time assessing the "on the ground" state of the crisis. Reconnaissance is particularly important for the military as it prepares to enter the crisis to stabilize the violence so that the civilian processes might proceed or commence.

Cooperative planning among civilian and military organizations, beginning with the assessment, establishes the mechanism for developing a common vision for success. Shared goals and objectives, common understanding of restraints and constraints, and broad understanding of what needs to be done achieves strategic clarity.

Theme #2b. Need for Better Planning and Implementation of Civil-Military Integration.

Amplification. For the military to compel, deter, reassHre, and support in peace operabons requires cooperation and communication with political, humanitarian, and contractor civilian organizations engaged in the operation.

DISCUSSION.

The stabilization of the situation by separating and demobilizing the belligerents does not resolve the long-temm conflict. The role of the military evolves as the situation stabilizes. The military frequently has enabling missions which are within the capabilities of the enforcement force such as freedom of movement assistance, election security, police training, and nation infrastructure development and assistance. These civilian missions require varying degrees of military support.

Assisting civilian organizations consistent with sustaining a stable environment should be considered mission "evolution" and not mission "creep."

Early coordination during the assessment and plan development phases with key civilian organizations as well as coalition partners is essential for establishing mission limits, responsibilities, and supported/supporting relationships.

Active and reserve component forces must train and equip for the rigorous requirements of support to civilian organizations in peace operations. Peace operations' METLs should be established for at least selected units. In addition to unit training, programs such as the Foreign Area Of Ecer (FAO) program, language training, and multinational military exchange programs must be continued and/or revitalized and must integrate civilian govemmental and non-govemmental organization participation. CTC peace operations exercises and CPXs improve interorganizational cooperation and partnership. Finally, combatant commanders should have permanent humanitarian advisors (HUMADs) assigned analogous to the political advisor (POLAD) position.

Theme #3. Lack of Congruence of Service, Joint, and NATO Peace Operations Doctrine.

Amplification. Military operations, in particular peace operations, in the post-Cold War era have become multinational, multi-organizational and multicultural. This dynamic necessitates a continuous review of doctrine, and the training and preparation of both forces and personnel, to ensure the Army is prepared to operate effectively when called upon to participate in peace operations.

DISCUSSION.

Successful peace operations, such as OJE, are highly dependent on the rapid and coordinated response of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces to both enable and sustain the joint, combined force. The services and our friendly nations and allies must collaborate to harmonize our doctrines to improve unity of effort. As doctrine is coordinated, so to must we establish agreements to standardize multinational and coalition operations, command and control, logistics, and rules of engagement understandings. Finally, equipment interoperability with our friends and allies must continue to be a long-term objective of our foreign military sales program. Long-term security assistance programs during peace are consistent means as defined within our National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Investment in reassurance and support measures decreases the potential for future regional crises. Military-to Military exchange programs further multinational cooperation and enhance interoperability and standardization of tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Theme # 3a. Necessity to Clarify Doctrine on a Wide Range of Force Protection Issues.

Amplification. Force protection was a "hot button" topic throughout the BHAAR I conference. Force protection is a multi-faceted and complex issue and may be analyzed more effectively by defrning tactical, operational, and strategiclevel (lst, 2nd, 3rd order) dynamics. In general, force protection is difficult for peace operations because of the built in restraint and constraint superimposed on our combat forces and due to the political volatility of peace operations domestically.

DISCUSSION.

Tactically, force protection is defined in terms such as flak jackets, helmets and "General Order # I." Army commanders have expanded the definition of force protection to include disease (AIDS), pregnancy, violent crime (robbery, murder, and rape) and protection from dangers such as mines, booby traps, and terrorist attacks.

At the operational level, JTF and Component commanders debated, and continue to debate, force protection responsibility. The essence of this issue overlaps the multinational and national chain of command conundrum in peace operations. For OJE, responsibility for force protection was blurred between NATO and U.S. Ieaders as each claimed responsibility for troop protection. Force protection overlaps the two chains of command and doctrine must sharpen understanding between the shared responsibilities. Additionally, the operational commander is squeezed between tactical necessity to accomplish his mission safely and the strategic possibility for catastrophe (a la the Mogadishu fire fight). What suffers is the commander's operational flexibility as he walks the knife edge between tentativeness and initiative. We see manifestations of this dilemma in the military's reluctance to support civilian implementation programs in peace operations and defining mission shift or evolution (sequeling, if you will) as mission creep. Doctrine must be clarified in this area also.

At the strategic level, force protection has become not only a mission, but a definition of a successful end state. A key point surfaced during the BHAAR I conference was that force security was not really defined by threat analysis, but seemingly more by domestic political dynamics. Linked to this is the significance of domestic support for the mission (our strategic center of gravity), or lack thereof, and the impact of casualties on U.S. national will to continue mission support. The strategic concept must define and link force protection strategically, operationally, and tactically to ensure continuity between campaign and oplans with respect to force protection.

Theme #4. Tactical Excellence Exists.

Amplification. At the tactical level, our troops and leaders have performed superbly in peace operations under extremely diffrcult conditions. This fact supports the position that well trained and disciplined combat-ready troops are essential for successful peace operations. However, well-disciplined troops are not the only ingredient necessary for military success in peace operations.

DISCUSSION.

Despite glowing reports tactically, most experienced leaders agree that peace operations require more than combat ready troops. Soldiers must be well-versed in rules of engagement and sensitive to situations of international consequence that can both place them in precarious political situations and jeopardize their security. Additionally a psychological dimension permeates peace operations that is antithetical to the maximum effective application of force instilled by combat training. The preparation and conduct of peace operations have resulted in leaders having justified concerns over combat readiness, particularly in those units which function as teams with complex technologies. Crew drill, air assault missions, and squad proficiencies degrade rapidly in environments which require low visibility and situational sensitivity.

Soldier morale in peace operations is linked to their expectations as to their purpose and role in the crisis resolution process. Peace operational involvement for the military’s is defined frequently by political considerations. Force protection, a small TJ S "foot print," and unclear civil-military roles and responsibilities often prevent soldiers and small units from becoming involved in the civilian aspects of the conflict resolution. Dashed expectations can create morale problems which may become leadership challenges.

Strategic ambiguity creates tactical confusion. Compressed time tables, artiflcial exit dates, multinational inoperability, and general confusion as to the purpose of the mission cause leaders to react to unforeseen change as opposed to controlling the execution of a thorough, well-developed plan. Leaders must continually reassess the strategic situation and frame current tactical operations strategically so that small unit leaders are aware and oriented to the political landscape within which they are operating.

CONCLUSION

The U.S. military has experienced successes in all of its post-Cold War peace operational deployments, but not without difficulties. Without question, peace operations are here to stay and the U.S. Army will be called upon to all corners of the globe to bring stability to chaos, order to anarchy, and peace to conflict. We must, as a profession, study the historical and contemporary role of the military in a democratic society and inculcate the compel-deter-reassure-support model in our PME.

The concluding decades of the twentieth century has marked the era of jointness and coalition operations. The future mandates a total appreciation of the crisis sitUation as the precursor to effective employment of finite resources. Military operations for the next century will begin the era of strategic planning and coalition civil-military operations. Partnership is the watchword and strategic planning must define shared partnership goals (ends), options (ways), and realistic capability requirements (means) to ensure conditions for long-term success.

 


Chapter Six: Plenary Session Key Comments

The following comments are not a verbatim reporting of the somewhat disjointed and very candid Plenary Session. In order to provide a coherent structure for this Conference Report, comments are included in the order of Working Group presentation; i.e., Planning, Deployment, and Initial Operations. Moreover, to ensure evenhandedness, these key comments are a synthesis of notes taken by three different reporters.

The dialogue concerning the Planning Phase of Operation Just Endeavor (OJE) tended to center on the problems of command and control, and of doctrine and training. The conversation relating to Deployment focused on the problem of unclear national strategy, the issue of timely access to the reserve units necessary to the operation, and multi-national logistics. The discussion regarding the Initial Operations Phase of OJE dealt with the problems of integrating the military and civilian efforts and of "Mission Creep." The key comments that conclude this chapter of the Conference Report comprise an admonition to brief the conference findings as honestly and broadly as possible.

Topic #1: Planning.

Comment: Plans seemed disconnected. Could you please amplify?

Comment: As the plans were being brought together, seams and gaps began to appear. Many agencies began planning at their level in order to get started, but were not based on a common, top-down guidance. Then a little bit of a turf battle began inside NATO. SACEUR wanted to lead and did not want AFSOUTH to get out in front; but AFSOUTH had already done a lot of planning.

Comment: Doesn't the JSCP provide the requirement for a deliberate plan for Peace Operations? Peace Operations are in the IPS of the DPG.

Comment: NATO has no process or doctrine for plan development (outside the AOR). Peace operations in DPG is a CINC responsibility.

Comment: Yes, but we're talking about the NATO planning process and we need to influence the development of that and other multinational efforts that we might become a party to.

Comment: One related problem is that the NATO multinational rules were developed to be applied at Army Group levels, but now we're dealing the CJTF (Combined Joint Task Force) at brigade and battalion level. It is not the same. Sharing resources when dealing at the Army Group was also a lot easier to define and legislate. Again we're now dealing at a much lower level and the process is much harder to grasp.

Comment: Another problem is that these organizational and structural concepts date from a World War II design and thinking. We need to look at new ways to organize and meet contemporary requirements.

Comment: We're working hard on that in DOD. TRADOC is doing a manual but the TRADOC effort is 3 or 4 years old, and is too undeveloped. Please give that manual a hard look; it is key for us to infiuence that effort.

Comment: We need something relevant now. Multi-national operations is the issue.

Comment: Yes. We are operating with very old doctrine and legalities. These need to be changed and brought up to date as soon as possible.

Comment: The Army strategy for Peace Operations training currently is "train for war and adapt for peace." You need to have an adaptation game plan and METL (Mission Essential Training List) for that. That game plan needs to be applicable to any Army unit.

Comment: I don't agree about METL. That's a leader development issue.

Comment: Back to planning and organization. JMC and JCC are not interdependent. Collaborative effort. Another senior leader challenge.

Comment: The unit METL issue for Peace Operations is important. Let's not bicker about where it belongs. Point is that Peace Operations doctrine and training is not very helpful. Too old. Culturally not accepted because it's not up to speed.

Topic #2. Deployment.

Comment: The national strategy was not clear. In what way?

Comment: Strategies articulated by JCS (Joint Chiefs of Staff) and SECDEF (Secretary of Defense) were "commander's intent" and were not specific guidance for deployment (like caps, strategic lift). There was also the perception that EUCOM was the interface with NATO. Not true. JSC was interface with NATO; EUCOM with JCS. So, when J Staff passed messages on to SACEUR, it was assumed that he passed them on to EUCOM. Bad assumption.

Comment: You said that the political process (i.e., PSRC) slows down the deployment process. Elaborate.

Comment: In the briefing we gave examples of how late reserve units can effect deployment and planning phases if the PSRC is not decided early. The military could not be perceived as being "out in front" of the political process. Media plays into this. An RC/AC (Reserve Components/Active Components) mix relook is an answer.

Comment: I have felt troubled about the "Abrams Doctrine" and how we view it and use it. We have overloaded the requirement for reserve components at the outset. We need a change in how we view the compliance with Abrams—that we'll never let the Army go to war again without the RC and popular consent. Maybe we need some early active deployers, who are immediately on the list to be replaced by RC troops as the PSRC is prepared.

Comment The political process inhibiting reconnaissance is also a fact of life. Again, the military can't get out front. One mitigating factor in this case is a good data base, but that's not often available. We need to find ways to better deal with this and similar problems.

Comment: How did the slow political process affect movement through other countries?

Comment: It really slowed things down and made everything "touch and go" up to the last minute. The State Department needs to be an early player.

Comment: SOFAs (Status of Forces Agreements) were embedded in the Dayton Peace Accords (DPA).

Comment: Transit was a multinational issue—not just a NATO or U.S. military issue.

Comment: The military should have scrubbed the DPA for what it didn't like.

Comment: It wasn't the DPA countries that were the problems. It was others.

Comment: Multinational logistics. Should the Army go out and seek legislative changes?

Comment: The short answer is "yes." You will find more detail in the work group's findings.

Comment: Third Party Logistics. Was there competition between the U.S. and NATO for contracting?

Comment: NATO did not have up front funding. Also, we (the U.S.) didn't trust the NATO process—so we "took the bull by the horns."

Comment: These are all consistent repetitions of deployment lessons learned. The BHAAR Conference findings match J-7's.

Topic #3. Initial Operations.

Comment: I am concemed about disconnects. Talk about the confusion in the humanitarian aspect of the operation.

Comment: We must be careful of terminology. Are we talking about civil, political, reconstruction, humanitarian, or something else?

Comment: I am talking about multinational operations and civil-military integration of effort. It is important now and for the future. If there is a weakness in the State Department's efforts, then the military needs to say so.

Comment: There is a need for a parallel and cooperative civil and military planning process in contemporary conflicts and operations such as OJE. The war-fighting CINC and the other govemment and non-govemment agencies involved must be linked.

Comment: There was extensive planning by the CIMIC leadership. But, it was not integrated into operational plans (I year) and not integrated into civilian plans (3-5 years). Adjustments had to be made on the ground.

Comment: IGO/NGO/PVO (Inter Govemment Organizations/Non-Govemment Organizations/Private Voluntary Organizations) relationship. Partnership? Partnership no. Cooperation yes. There might have been planning disconnects, but with some "creative innovations, the process worked eventually.

Comment: In this connection, joint doctrine is good, interagency not so, and multi-national doctrine is virtually nonexistent.

Comment: Multinational operations are a way of life. Also multifaceted. Good civil-military partnerships are imperative.

Comment: My compliments on the breadth and depth of this study and for recognizing and accepting the civil organizations' role.

Comment: Talk about humanitarian relief. Was there forward looking from humanitarian relief into reconstruction? Was that part of the planning?

Comment: Individual Civil Affairs (CA) of Ccers tried to deal with the problem, but civic actions were perceived as "mission creep."

Comment: An audit will show no clear Civil Affairs mandate. Integration of U.S. CA personnel into MND's was a good effort. ARRC level (operational) on down was not bad. IFOR (theater)--different procedures. A lot of tension. Terrain management problems exacerbated by multinational operations and ad hoc C2 structures.

Comment: The perception is that there were a lot of lost opportunities to use CA properly.

Comment: The problem was that we don't know what mission creep really is Or how to control it. We need to deal with it as a doctrinal issue.

Comment: It's difficult to relate to CA officers when you don't know where they fit into staff structure. NGO's saw them as "technical experts"—not plugged into command and staff effort. I think the doctrine is there, but the military culture won't accept it.

Comment: Responsible authorities need to look at future missions. How do we support the rest of DPA? Do we have the right military presence now?

Comment: Clearly, we don't. To provide the "right military presence" would be considered rnission creep. That is unacceptable.

Comment: Mission creep is a euphemism that has crept in. We need to concentrate on mission adherence, and we need to do it religiously. If there is a need for mission change, a mechanism exists for it to happen. The National Command Authorities must do it.

Comment: We have got to follow through with lessons learned. We have organizations for AAR's but need organizations for follow through. This forum should marry up with on-going efforts in the Pentagon.

Comment: There is a vast number of AAR's. By the time they get to the Pentagon they are watered down. Almost useless. Too pretty. We need to get thick skinned. Tell the truth.

Comment: Americans say "lessons leamed." Brits say "lessons to be learned." Draw the wrong conclusion and implement a fix and you get stuck with. Look for principles not specifics.

Comment: Whatever you call it, you must share the results of this conference with activities outside the military. Provide the picture as you have depicted it here—not the usual rosy picture. Then, you must follow through with corrective action. To do otherwise would be a shame.

 


Annex A: Executive Summary

INTRODUCTION:

An almost Universal opinion shared by the BHAAR conferees during the conference was that Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR (OJE) must be considered a success. Participants felt that the role of the military in shaping the dimensions and scope of the Dayton Accord w as a positive step in clarifying the strategic role of the military in peace operations. Many mentioned the benefits of previous military-to-military programs in achieving difficult, politically established time tables. In fact, OJE has been an enormous success in terms of U.S. Partnership for Peace (PfP) relations. Despite incredibly difficult, multinational coordination challenges, our leaders and troops have been able to achieve near impossible feats in meeting seemingly unachievable deadlines. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous presence of "ad hoc-ery" suggests that we have much to study, learn, and apply in similar future operations. What follows is a break out of issues discussed in detail by the three planning groups and briefed to a distinguished panel in plenary session. For each issue, a brief description of the challenge is followed by recommendations for Army consideration. For details on the conference methodology and more complete description of the issues, refer to the report text.

GROUP FINDINGS:

Planning Group

1. Strategic Planning. Lack of institutionalized, hierarchical multinational strategic planning and a disconnected sequence of plan development, caused a lack of synchronization and organizational confusion. Chronic symptom was ad hoc-ery."

Recommendation: Army examine its role in multiorganizational strategic planning process for peace operations.

2. Command and Control. In multinational peace operations, the relationship of the Army component command to the U.S. unified command and the multinational command is complex and requires definition.

Recommendation: Support the Joint Staffin doctrine development for C2 for multinational peace operations (Army lead), service provision of Title 10 support, role of component commands relative to unified & multinational commands, and coordination with humanitarian organizations.

3 Force Design and Adaptation. Planners were unable to define/refine force structure estimates to reflect changing political and operational conditions. PSRC requirements not defined by operational considerations.

Recommendations: Army host a study to assess strategic planning mechanisms to tie force structure requirements to political objectives in a peace operation. Develop base line data for future peace operations based on OJE lessons learned.

4. Multinational Operations. Doctrine, training, PME, and planning for peace operations tend to focus on the role of the military solely as a compellent force in response to crisis. The military role in a crisis (as well as to prevent crisis) can also be to deter, reassure, and support unilaterally, or in conjunction with multinational militaries and civil organizations.

Recommendations: Continue to support mil-to-mil contacts and combined exercises. Add peace operations'tasks to METLs. Conduct multinational and multi-organizational peace operations exercises at select CTCs. Add humanitarian advisors to CINCs'staffs, and the USAWC and CGSC faculties.

Deployment/Entry Group

5. Deployment. Deployment planning processes were stove-piped among services, other militaries, and agencies; and compartmentalized at various headquarters which stymied parallel planning and reduced unity of effort.

Recommendation: Army conduct a study of OJE deployment planning to improve doctrine for strategic and operational deployment for peace operations.

6. Multinational Logistics Relationships. Nations did not adequately support the AFSOUTH Commander for Support (C-Spt), subsequently the C-Spt role was unclear and unity of logistics support was lacking.

Recommendations: Review, revise (as appropriate), and exercise doctrine for multinational logistics in coalition/alliance peace operations. Revise and/or develop standard multinational and multiorganizational logistics agreements.

7. Third Party Logistics. LOGCAP, contingency contracting, and host nation support lacked cohesiveness and were poorly integrated into the military logistics process.

Recommendations: Develop, validate, and integrate doctrine for strategic deployment planning for third party logistics into PME, training and exercises. Include third party logistics personnel in early planning. Study feasibility of Army Component having OPCO3ST of contract management staff. Establish contingency fund to initiate third party logistics.

8. Force Structure. Current Army AC CS/CSS force is inadequately structured and manned to meet the extended requirements for peace operations (e.g., 24 hour operations, split-based operations, and force protection measures). Required RC CS/CSS forces were slow to activate and deployed late into the operation.

Recommendations: Army conduct a study to assess AC/RC mix of CS and CSS forces to support peace operations. Simplify the Army's process for PSRC implementation activation procedures and RC volunteer process for peace operations. Review CS/CSS unit ALO and readiness (manpower) impact on the execution of peace operations.

Initial Operations Group

9. C2 & Support to Out-of-Sector Forces. OJE lacked a single US (JTF equivalent) command that had the authority, expertise, and staffing to provide U.S. C2 and coordinated logistics for out-of-sector U.S. service members. U.S. national authority ran through the service chain and not the operational chain of command.

Recommendation: Encourage policy-level debate and decision on U.S. chain of command relationships for multinational peace operations.

10.Force Protection. Force protection was based on a national political constraint ("zero defects" environment) and not on an accurate threat assessment. Force protection became a mission rather than an inherent responsibility of command. Tactically, U.S. force protection measures (low casualty/accident rate) were a success. However, stringent protection measures hampered multinational and civil-military cooperation and limited the operational commander's flexibility.

Recommendation: Relook in BHAAR II as part of a strategiclevel review of our force protection policies and doctrine to ensure balance of force protection and operational freedom.

11.'Mission Creep". During initial operations, "mission creep" was not a factor due to dominance of military need to enforce and compel belligerents to cease hostilities and separate. However, the interpretation (of the Dayton Accord) of the Army's role restricted planning for acceptable "mission evolution."

Recommendations: Army examine the strategic planning process as it applies to peace operations. Readdress this issue during BHAAR II.

12 1nformnation Operations. The U.S. information campaign for the anticipated forced entry was a success. However, the use of information relating to civil operations was reactive, lacked cohesion, and frequently was contradictory to other media programs.

Recommendations: Review, revise (as appropriate), and exercise doctrine for multinational information management in coalition/alliance peace operations. Revise and/or develop standard multinational and multi-organizational information operations agreements.

13 Civil-Militarv Operations. The military plan intentionally was kept separate from the Dayton Accord's civil implementation process. Due to primary emphasis on the forced entry, civil-military operations (CMO) did not receive sufficient attention during planning and initial execution.

Recommendation: Army examine how to best achieve and sustain strategic clarity to ensure political-humanitarian-military unity of effort to maximize the effectiveness of the military element of power.

 

RECURRING THEMES:

1. High Probability for Future Multinational Peace Operations. A difference of opinion exists within the Army when it comes to defining the role of the military in a post-Cold War society. There is significant population within the Arrny that believes the singular role for the military is "to fight and win our nations wars." Indeed, to fight and win our nations wars is our primary mission, but it has not been, historically, our only mission. The military role is broader than to compel. The Army's recent White Paper entitled, "Force of Decision", defines the purpose of military power as " . . . to eompel any adversary to do what he otherwise would not do of his own free will, to deter adversaries to keep them from acting inimically to our interests, to reassure allies and friends to promote stability, and to support domestic authority in times of natural disaster, civil disturbance, or other emergencies requiring humanitarian assistance." Military power is a means for achieving national security objectives in conflict avoidance, crisis prevention and crisis response. Our PME, doctrine, and training must incorporale these concepts to ensure a common understanding of the myriad roles for the military to prevent crisis, or if need be, respond to crisis and restore stability to the country or the region.

2. Need for integrated, hierarchical strategic planning process.

The U.S. military culture is used to a warfighting hierarchical planning model, that is, a family of descending, sequentially-driven plans: strategic planning directive the campaign plan - OPLANS. For peace operations, multi-organizational planning systems usually function simultaneously and not sequentially, and generally are not well integrated. Peace operations tend to be multinational (e.g., OJE NATO-led) and not U.S. unilateral which further exacerbates the strategic planning process. Finally, peace operations have political, economic, and humanitarian dimensions as well as military dynamics with each dimension having its own set of organizations, interests, and planning processes.

In peace operations, unity of effort is achieved at the strategic level by integrating both multinational military and civil-military operations. In theory, to achieve synergistic effects and maximum effectiveness, representatives from these "cultures" should collaborate to define shared strategic goals, clarify their interests, and mutually agree to the definition of success when their collective efforts are complete. In reality, doctrinal procedures break down in the face of competing national interests and segregated national planning processes. Great domestic political capital is at stake for each nation and political expediencies force artiflcialities such as condensed time tables, strange command and control arrangements, and a myriad set of rules of engagement. Ad-hoc reaction to changing conditions becomes the norm due to the absence of a shared coalition strategic concept and political-military plan.

Realistically, an ideal multinational/coalition strategic planning model will probably never be formalized among the myriad participants for post-Cold War peace operations. Simultaneity of multi-organizational planning is, and will continue to be, the norm.. The Army must develop strategic and operational-level thinkers, planners, and negotiators who can function in chaotic coalition planning situations which blend U.S. deliberate and crisis action planning with concurrent coalition dialogues. Finally, our research and development communities must continue improving information integration through computer technologies which potentially will improve the quality of visual, audio, and data information transfer necessary to facilitate multi-organizational consensus building at the strategic level.

2a. Strategic assessment critical to promote strategic clarity. The strategic planning process begins with the assessment. The purpose of the assessment is to define the state of the status quo and the historic/cultural/ethnic background to the crisis. The assessment is also the planning time when the estimate is developed - the "taxonomic" definition of political, economic, humanitarian, and military goals and objectives which provide international and national-level guidance germane to the regional crisis.

At the completion of the assessment, in order to ensure strategic "situational awareness," strategic planners should define, and agree to, the root cause of the crisis and its attendant symptoms. This step is analogous to def ning the Clauswitzian strategic center of gravity in war. Problem and symptom definition set the stage for leaders to establish the political, economic, humanitarian, and military limits of engagement.

Time must be allocated for reconnaissance purposes. Representatives from the "cultures" should spend planning time assessing the "on the ground" state of the crisis. Reconnaissance is particularly important for the military as it prepares to enter the crisis to stabilize the violence so that the civilian processes might proceed or commence.

Cooperative planning among civilian and military organizations, beginning with the assessment, establishes the mechanism for developing a common vision for success. Shared goals and objectives, common understanding of restraints and constraints, and broad understanding of what needs to be done achieves strategic clarity.

2b. Need for better planning and implementation of civil-military integration. The stabilization of the situation by separating and demobilizing the belligerents does not resolve the long-term conflict. The role of the military evolves as the situation stabilizes. The military frequently has enabling missions which are within the capabilities of the enforcement force such as freedom of movement assistance, election security, police training, and nation infrastructure development and assistance. These civilian missions require varying degrees of military support.

Assisting civilian organizations consistent with sustaining a stable environment should be considered mission "evolution" and not mission "creep."

Early coordination during the assessment and plan development phases with key civilian organizations as well as coalition partners is essential for establishing mission limits, responsibilities, and supported/supporting relationships.

Active and reserve component forces must train and equip for the rigorous requirements of support to civilian organizations in peace operations Peace operations' METLs should be established for at least selected units. In addition to unit training, programs such as the Foreign Area Officer (FAO) program, language training, and multinational military exchange programs must be continued and/or revitalized and must integrate civilian govemmental and non-govemmental organization participation. CTC peace operations exercises and CPXs improve interorganizational cooperation and partnership. Finally, combatant commanders should have permanent humanitarian advisors (HUMADs) assigned analogous to the political advisor (POLAD) position.

3. Lack of congruence of service, joint, and NATO peace operations doctrine. Successful peace operations, such as OJE, are highly dependent on the rapid and coordinated response of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces to both enable and sustain the joint, combined force. The services and our friendly nations and allies must collaborate to harmonize our doctrines to improve Unity of effort. As doctrine is coordinated, so to must we establish agreements to standardize multinational and coalition operations, command and control, logistics, and rules of engagement understandings. Finally, equipment interoperability with our friends and allies must continue to be a long-temm objective of our foreign military sales program. Long-temm security assistance programs during peace are consistent means as defined within our National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Investment in reassurance and support measures decreases the potential for future regionai crises. Military-to Military exchange programs further multinational cooperation and enhance interoperability and standardization of tactics, techniques, and procedures.

3a. Necessity to clarffy doctrine on a wide range of force protection issues. Tactically, force protection is defined in temms such as flak jackets, helmets and "General Order #1." Army commanders have expanded the definition of force protection to include disease (AIDS), pregnancy, violent crime (robbery, murder, and rape) and protection from dangers such as mines, booby traps, and terrorist attacks.

At the operational level, JTF and Component commanders debated, and continue to debate, force protection responsibility. The essence of this issue overlaps the multinational and national chain of command conundrum in peace operations. For OJE, responsibility for force protection was blurred between NATO and U.S. Ieaders as each claimed responsibility for troop protection. Force protection overlaps the two chains of command and doctrine must sharpen understanding between the shared responsibilities. Additionally, the operational commander is squeezed between tactical necessity to accomplish his mission safely and the strategic possibility for catastrophe (a la the Mogadishu fire fight). What suffers is the the commander's operational flexibility as he walks the knife edge between tentativeness and initiative. We see manifestations of this dilemma in the military's reluctance to support civilian implementation programs in peace operations and defining mission shift or evolution (sequeling, if you will) as mission creep. Doctrine must be clarified in this area also.

At the strategic level, force protection has become not only a mission, but a definition of a successful end state. A key point surfaced during the BHAAR I conference was that force security was not really defined by threat analysis, but seemingly more by domestic political dynamics. Linked to this is the significance of domestic support for the mission (our strategic center of gravity), or lack thereof, and the impact of casualties on U.S. national will to continue mission support. The strategic concept must define and link force protection strategically, operationally, and tactically to ensure continuity between campaign and oplans with respect to force protection.

4. Tactical excellence exists. Despite glowing reports tactically, most leaders with peace operations experience agree that the belief that peace operations solely require combat ready troops is incorrect and perhaps a dangerous mind set. Rules of engagement and small unit leadership situations of intemational consequence have placed our NCOs and junior offcers in dangerous and precarious political situations - in some cases life threatening. Additionally a psychological dimension permeates peace operations, an environment of restraint that combat training does not focus on which is essential for successful execution in the peace operational environment. To exacerbate the challenges of restraint, leaders have justified concerns over combat readiness, particularly those units which function as teams with complex technologies. Crew drill, air assault missions, and squad proficiencies degrade rapidly in environments which require low visibility and situational sensitivity.

Soldier morale in peace operations is linked to their expectations as to their purpose and role in the crisis resolution process. Peace operational involvement for the military is defined frequently by political considerations. Force protection, a small U.S. "foot print," and unclear civil-military roles and responsibilities often prevent soldiers and small units from becoming involved in the civilian aspects of the conflict resolution. Dashed expectations create morale problems which may become leadership challenges.

Strategic ambiguity creates tactical confusion. Compressed time tables, artiOcial exit dates, multinational inoperability, and general confusion as to the purpose of the mission cause leaders to react to unforeseen change as opposed to controlling the execution of a thorough, well developed plan. Leaders must continually reassess the strategic situation and frame current tactical operations strategically so that small unit leaders are aware and oriented to tbe political landscape within which they are operating.

CONCLUSIONS:

The U.S. military has experienced successes in all of its post-Cold War peace operational deployments, but not without difficulty. Without question, peace operations are here to stay and the U.S. Army will be called upon to all corners of the globe to bring stability to chaos, order to anarchy, and peace to conflict. We must as a profession dedicate education time to the study of the historical and contemporary role of the military in a democratic society and inculcate the compel-deter-reassure-support model in our PME.

The concluding decades of the twentieth century has marked the era of jointness and coalition warfare. Military operations for the next century will begin the era of strategic planning and coalition civil-military operations. Partnership is the watchword of the future; partnership with coalition and friendly militaries and partnership with other political, economic, and humanitarian "cultures." Strategic planning must define shared partnership goals (ends), options (ways), and realistic capability requirements (means) to ensure conditions are established for host nation assumption for political solvency and legitimacy.

Unlike conventional military operations such as Operation DESERT STORM, peace operations come to the military with a lack of strategic (read political-military) clarity. Total appreciation of the crisis situation in order to comprehend the totality of the problem and its attendant symptoms is the precursor to effective definition of U.S. limits to employment of its finite resources. It is imperative that there be a thorough strategic examination of the crisis, delineation of a realistic time table (to include entry, transition and exit strategy), development of broad options weighing alternatives to risk so that our senior leaders may make informed strategic decisions. Army training, doctrine, and leader development must rise to the chalienges to prepare our leaders and staffs for achieving strategic ciarity for complex, multinational and multi-organizational peace operations.


Annex B: Participating Organizations

21st TAACOM

7th PSYOPS Group

96th Civil Affairs Battalion

ADCSIM

Catholic Relief Service

CMTC, Hoenfels, Germany

Combined Maneuver Training Center

Department of State

George Mason University, The Institute of Public Policy

HQ EUCOM

HQ USAREUR, ADCSOPS

HQ, USAREUR, ODCSLOG

HQDA, (DAMO-ODM)

HQDA, ODCSLOG

HQDA, ODCSOPS

Interaction

International Military Staff

International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC)

International Rescue Committee

Joint Readiness Training Center

Lockheed Martin Federal Systems

National Security Council

National War College

Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance

Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy

Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics

Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans & Operations

Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (J5)

Strategic Studies Institute

The Joint Staff, J4

The Joint Staff, J7

The NATO Military Committee

TRADOC Analysis Center

United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

US Agency for International Development

US Army Center for Military History

US Army War College

US Delegation To NATO

US Mission to the United Nations

US TRANSCOM

USAID/BHR/OFDA

USAID/OFDA

USNMR, SHAPE

V Corps

World Vision Relief & Development Inc.

 


Annex C Conference Agenda

Monday - General Session

· Welcome & Orientation

· Group Membership Validation

· Groups Validate Issues

· Group Leaders Brief All Participants

Tuesday & Wednesday - Working Groups Session

· Discuss, Analyze, Expand, Add, Authenticate Issues

· Recommend Actions

· Group Consensus

· Document

· Prepare Plenary Session Briefings

Thursday - Plenary Session

Presentations To Plenary Panel

· Review & Discuss:

· Issues

· Recommendations

 


Plenary Panel Briefng

A Briefing on the BHAAR Conference Results

Presented to a Distinguished Panel for Comment

Planning Issues

   

Group Makeup

 

  • Strategic Planning
   

Military Organizations

Non military

  • Command and Control
   

NSC

HQDA, ODCSOPS

UN

  • Force Design and Adaptation
   

NATO,

SHAPE

EUCOM

OFDA

Interaction

  • Preparation for Multinational Operations
   

USAREUR

SSI, USAWC

USACAPOC

Institute of Public POlicy

         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recurring Themes

     

Strategic Planning

  • US participation in MPO will continue
     
  • Problem-Roles and responsibilities for Army planners (and other US and NATO players) were not clearly delineated and/or followed
  • Ad hoc nature of MPO
  •        
    • Better integration with civilian organizations
           
    • Leader Development/PME
           
             

     

    Strategic Planning

    Observations

    Ad hoc planning arrangements

    No agreed NATO process

    Disconnected development of related plans

    Planning drew upon previous plans and augmentation

    Problems coordinating NATO/US plans with civilian organizations

    Military participation in diplomatic negotiations critical

    Issue # 1 Strategic Planning

    Conclusions

     

    Issue # 1 Strategic Planning Issue # 2

    Recommendations Problem

    Analyze OJE planning process US doctrine for C2 in

    Align NATO and US planning doctrine procedures multinational peace ops

    Define US planning roles and responsibilities in is inadequate

    Support of NATO OPLANS

    Maintain capability to augment theater staffs

    Integrate civilian organizations in planning

    Implement leader/soldier preparation measures

     

    Issue # 2 Command and Control

    Issue # 2 Command and Control

    Observations

    Conclusions

    Doctrine for C2 in CJTF is immature

    Participation in multinational operations will increase

    NO US Joint Force Commander designated

    Multinational ops require alternative means of Title 10 support

    USEUCOM required to support the NATO operation (vice command the operation)

    Relations between component, multinational, and unified commands are undefined

    Responsibility for force protection unclear

    Force Protection responsibilities unclear (Title 10)

       

    Issue # 2 Command and Control

    Issue # 3 Force Design and Adaptation

    Recommendations

    Problem

    Support Joint Staff Development of multinational C2 doctrine

    Pol-mil constraints hampered planners ability to revise estimates and adapt force to reflect operational conditions

    Emphasize multinational operations in leader training

     

    Initiate study to clarify force protection responsibilities

     

    Clarify the C2 relationships with civilian organizations and include early in the planning process

     

    Issue # 3 Force Design and Adaptation

    Issue # 3 Force Design and Adaptation

    Observations

    Conclusions

    Mission analysis unrefined

    Current procedures sound

    Plan constrained by force ceiling

    Need on the shelf plans

    Political process influenced/delayed military decisions

    Extensive use of RC will continue

    Contributions of civilian organizations on plan and force design minimal

    US unique assets will be requested

    Issue # 3 Force Design and Adaption

    Issue # 4 Preparation for Multinational Operations

    Recommendations

    Problem-Overall preparation of Army forces/personnel for OJE appears to have been successful, however, improvements to doctrine, training and PME would have minimized turbulance and enhanced that success

    Develop deliberate plans for peace operations

     

    Influence civilian decision process

    -adapt force to changing situation

    -seek early decision on PSRC

     

    Conduct Comprehensive force design AAR

     

    Integrate civilian orgs in force design

     
       

    Issue # 4 Preparation for Multinational Operations

    Issue # 4 Preparation for Multinational Operations

    Observations

    Conclusions

    CMTC and Warrior Prep center prepared the force

    Peace ops will not go away

    Mil-to-mil liasion and PFP helped interoperability and deployment

    Adding to unit METLs will not create peace ops units, but units with peace ops skills

    Peace ops are not included in the METLs

    Civilian organizations must be included in training and preparation

    Doctrine does not integrate civilian organizations

    Elimination of peace ops involving civilian organizations at CTCs is a mistake>

    CTC peace ops exercises involving civilian organizations not conducted since 1994

     

    Issue # 4 Preparation for Multinational Operations

    Recommendations

    Continue to support mil-to-mil and combined exercises

    Develop tasks, conditions and standards for peace ops

    Add peace ops to METLs of selected units

    Review peace ops doctrine for consistency

    Add humanitarian advisors to:

    -CINC staffs, and when required, to component staffs

    -To Army PME

     

    Deployment/Entry Issues Issue # 5 Deployment

    -Deployment Problem-The deployment

    -Multinational Logistics Relationships planning process was

    -3rd Party Logistics incomplete and execution

    Force Structure was disjointed; required

    Constant course correction

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Discussion

    Discussion (Cont.)

    Supported vs Supporting CINC relationship not understood

    Present automated systems not user friendly and fully integrated

    JOPES does not easily support crisis action planning

    Execution timeline was unrealistically compressed

    Perceived by some as Operational, others as Strategic

    Pol/Mil sensitivities preclued adequate logistics preparation of battlefield

    Strategic deployment community coordination was lacking

     
       

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Conclusions

    Conclusions (Cont.)

    Deployment was successful in that all required milestones were met

    External Parties have significant impact on timelines

    Doctrinal planning process was not closely followed, nor does the current automation system easily support crisis action planning

     

    Future contingency operations will likely be on short notice with compressed planning/execution timeline

     
       
       

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Recommendations

    Recommendations (Cont)

    Doctrine

    -Address strategic and operational deployment in non-traditional (peace and stability) operations in Army and Joint Doctrine

    Training-Leverage every opportunity for strategic and operational deployment training

    -consider training, skill identifier and assignment management tools for strategic deployment automation system oeprators

     

    Leader Development

     

    Review adequacy of strategic deployment training in the army

     

    Issue # 5 Deployment

    Issue # 6 Multinational Logistics Relationships

    Recommendations (continued)

    Problem-Multinational Logistics relationships were not substantially reported

    Materials

     

    -consider a cost/benefit analysis for establishing an upfront contingency fund

     

    -emphasize the development of Joint, user friendly automated tools to support crisis/contigency operations (JOPES/TAV)

    Discussions

    -Nations did not adequately resource C-Spt.

       
       

    Issue # 6 Multinational Logistics Relationships

    Issue # 6 Multinational Logistics Relationships

    Discussion (Continued)

    Conclusions

    US multinational support statutes/procedures are confusing and restrictive,

    US will continue to participate in multinational operations

    Common item support, .i.e. fuel, contracting, transport may yield efficiencies in personnel and costs

    US may benefit from potential economies by participating in multinational logistics

    NGOs/OGOs relationship to the plan must be identified

    US multinational administration is cumbersome

    Issue # 6 Multinational Logistics Relationships

    Issue # 6 Multinational Logistics Relationships

    Recommendations

    Recommendations (Cont.)

    Doctrine:

    Training:

    Review doctrinal feasibility of multinational logistics in coalition and alliance operations.

    Include multinational logistics challenges in Service and Joint Exercises

    Examine legislative and subsequent regulatory changes required to make US more responsive in multinational organizations

    Leader Development

    Review Current logistics relationships with NATO, other international organizations, PFP, and other coalition partners

    Include multinational logistics and support to/through international organizations and NGOs/OGOs in operational training

    Issue # 7. 3rd Party logistics

    Issue # 7. 3rd Party logistics

    Problem-3rd party logistics does not have well defined doctrine, planning, training and force structure

    Discussion (cont.)

    -some doctrine exists…needs integration.

    Discussion

    Government management of LOGCAP contract was fragmented

    3rd party logistics encompasses LOGCAP, contigency contracting, host nation support

    There is inadequate training for the employment of third party logistics

     

    Current LOGCAP contract is resourced for rewiewing only the basic OPLANS

     

    Incremental or late funding increases cost at a disproportionate rate to efficiencies

       

    Issue # 7. 3rd Party logistics

    Issue # 7. 3rd Party logistics

    Conclusions

    Recommendations

    3rd party logistics can be a force multiplier

    Doctrine

    3rd party logistics planners are essential to logistics planning

    Recognize 3rd party logistics as an integral part of both deliberate and contigency operation planning process

     

    Integrate and develop 3rd party logistics operations into keystone doctrinal manuals

     

    Issue # 7. 3rd Party logistics

    Issue # 7. 3rd Party logistics

    Recommendations

    Recommendations

    Training

    Organization

    Review training for 3rd party logistics planning and management at branch and component schooling

    Resource 3rd party logistics planners at operational and strategic level headquarters

    Leverage training opportunities for third party logistics in exercises

    Materials

     

    Consider a cost/benefit analysis for establishing up-front contingency operation fund

       

    Initial Operations Issues

    Issue # 8 Out of Sector C2 and Support for US Forces

    Out-of-Sector and Support for US Forces

    Problem-Formerly non-deployable NATO headquarters deployed without detailed resolution of combined C4I, logistics, and national support relationships. Parallel command lines fostered multiple and sometimes contradictory identities, authorities and responsibilities

    Force Protection and "Mission Creep"

     

    Information Operations

     

    Civil-Military Operations

     

    Issue # 8 Out-of-Sector C2 and Support for US Forces

    Issue # 8 Out-of-Sector C2 and Support for US Forces

    Conclusions

    Recommendations

    Doctrine for US national operational chain of command in multinational operations needs review

    Further high level discussion is warranted on the US chain of command relationships for multi-national operations

    -Joint Task Force of Service Component Led

     

    -If Service Component led, how are national support requirements met?

     

    Doctrine/policy to meet Title 10 responsibilities for US personnel operating outside of a US sector needs review

     

    Issue # 9a Force Protection

    Issue # 9a Force Protection

    Problem

    Analysis

    Second and third order effects of the stringent force protection measures that were instituted for Operation Joint Endeavor, both positive and negative were neither understood nor anticipated

    Force protection is an acknowledged US military mandate

     

    Force protection became stated mission in the OJE mission statement

     

    OJE has been a remarkably safe operation for US forces, largely attributed to predeployment training and force protection emphasis

     

    Additional force protection measures incur costs in dollars, productivity, and potential international credibility

     

    Issue # 9a Force Protection

    Issue # 9a Force Protection

    Analysis

    Analysis (cont.)

    US personnel in NATO commands did not operate under the same rules, presenting an image of inconsistency in US policy

    In some cases force protection/security measures reduced effectiveness of interaction with non-US elements both within and without the US sector

    US force protection measures were inconsistent with Allied view that compliance by the warring factions justified reduction in force protection measures

     

    Civil Agencies viewed force protection measures as contra-indicators to the implmentation of the civil aspects of DPA

     

    Issue # 9a Force Protection

    Issue # 9a Force Protection

    Conclusions

    Recommendations

    Force protection is and will always be valid consideration for military operations

    Analysis of force protection within policy and doctrine requires strategic review because it has the implications on the ability of the nation to project power, and on the international perceptions of our national will

    Establishment of force protection as a mission is inconsistent with US doctrine

    -force protection rose to a level inconsistent with other doctrinal elements of combat power, (eg., firepower, maneuver, leadership)

    Improved understanding of second and third order effects of force protection measures is necessary

    Centralization of force protection decisions can reinforce the perception of a zero defects mentality

     

    During the initial phaes of OJE, the strict force protection measures reduced the ability to interact with civil actors

     
       

    Issue # 9b Mission Creep

    Issue # 9b Mission Creep

    Problem

    Analysis

    Concern with mission creep has the potential to constrain US military elements from accomplishing civil aspects of the DPA

    Commanders at all levels are concerned with mission creep

     

    Mission creeep was not an issue during the first 90 days because emphasis was on the military enforcement portions of DPA

     

    Potential exists for significant mission creep due to lack of of a viable transition/exit strategy beyond a 364 day departure

     

    Mission evoloution is not necessarily mission creep

    Issue # 9b Mission Creep

    Issue # 9b Mission Creep

    Conclusions

    Recommendations

    Mission creep was not a serious issue in the first 90 days

    Review Mission creep issue at the final BHAAR

    Potential for mission creep exists as other aspects of the Dayton accords are implemented

     

     

    Issue # 10 Information Operations

    Issue # 10 Information Operations

    Problem

    Analysis

    Information campaign was narroly focused on the enforcement aspects of the process. In terms of the civil aspects of the in-theater mission, it was not as timely, complete and sophisticated as required

    Information Campaign on peace enforcement was well directed to American public and former warring cations

     

    Information preparation of the operational area was delayed due to political constraints of the Dayton Process, the compressed planning time, and denial of probable mission execution

     

    Hesitancy to utilize earlier UNPROFOR and international humanitarian/political information experience

    Issue # 10 Information Operations

    Issue # 10 Information Operations

    Analysis

    Conclusions

    Process of transitioning from intimidation to conciliation message was slow, thus reducing ability to influence local public opinion

    From a US perspective, doctrine, training, and force structure for media operations were appropriate

    Information campaign needed to be cognizant and inclusive of civil dimension. Early and continuous cooperation was required

    US information campaign frequently was not sensitive to messages of other European and international actors

    Joint Information Bureau operations for US media were open and positive

    Timely articulation of the civil dimension of the IFOR mission would have facilitated the transition to civil support activities

    Issue # 10 Information Operations

    Issue # 10 Information Operations

    Recommendations

    Problem

    Continue efforts to include information operations as an essential component of operations

    Due to US focus on the Military-Peace Enforcement facet of DPA, Civil Military Operations did not receive sufficient emphasis during the planning and initial execution phase of Joint Endeavor

    Continue growth in coordinating information operations between civil and military elements

     

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Analysis

    Analysis Continued

    DPA mission included both peace enforcement and civil support aspects

    National policy did not emphasize the civil dimension

    Peace enforcement role was made primary

    Current doctrine for civil military cooperation has not been effectively integrated into routine operations and training

    US requirement to extract the force by 364 was a limiting factor on CMO

    -hesitancy (political) to commit military assets to assist in civil operations that could portend a longer presence

    -uncertainty of security situation

    -need for continued combat training

    Lack of parallel civil-military planning process, complicated the implementation and integration of CMO into the operational planning and execution

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Analysis

    Conclusions

    CJCIMIC staff branch with operational responsibilities was established

    -CJCIMIC was a new entity, its role was neither understood nore established

    -Internationally recognized CMOC was not established

    -Lack of clarity on CJCIMIC role resulted in assignment of CA personnel with incorrect skills

    Early interagency (civil, NGO, PVO, International Agency) planning and integration is key

    CINC and Interagency must be linked

    Already codified in doctrine and cited as lessons learned from Panama, Norther Iraq, Somalia and Rwanda

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    Current active CA force structure does not support CMO planning and operations at CINC and component command level

    Full partnership of national and international NGOs/PVOs, particularly in training, contributes to more effective operations

    CM Opns need to be integrated into Army/Joint Capstone doctrine

     

     

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Recommendations

    Recommendations

    Institutionalize the integration of civil requirements

    Senior leadership must recognize important of and enforce compliance with civil-military doctrine

    De-politicize civil-military operational planning through routine cooperation

    Establish NGO/PVO advisor to Commander (similar to Polad) down to JTF/Corps level

    Possible change in operational doctrine to include METT-TC (Civilians)

    Recognize the roles and responsibilities of umbrella civil organizations for NGOs/PVOs

    Issue # 11 Civil-Military Planning and Operations

    Closure

    Recommendations

    An outstanding, productive conference

    Review active CA structure at the CINC and service component levels

    Products

    Conference Report

    Conference Report Executive Summary

    Conference Report Briefing Presentation

    Parameters article

    Explore the need to operationally employ the CA theater command as a C2 entity

    Road show brief

    Explore civilianization of some CA functional specialties

    B-H AAR Conference

     

    BHAAR 2