Naval War College Library Notes
May 1997 (revised August 1997)
Vol. 25, no. 4
ETHICS AND THE ARMED FORCES
He has integrity if his interest in the good of the Service is at all times greater than his personal pride, and when he holds himself to the same line of duty when unobserved as he would follow if all of his superiors were present.
Brigadier General S.L.A. Marshall, The Armed Forces Officer, 1950
The concepts of honor and integrity are reflected in the statement of core values of the armed services and provide the underpinnings of the military way of life. The occasional perception of misconduct among military personnel challenges the notion that the military holds itself to high ethical standards. In an effort to respond to media criticism and with an eye toward implementing a continuing process of self-examination, military writers, theorists, and professionals discuss ways in which the military can ensure that personnel adhere to high standards of accountability. Those standards are exemplified in behavior in everyday life as well as under the stress of combat. They are reflected in the military mind-set --the ways in which personnel not only relate to one another, but, also, in the manner in which they contribute to the decision making process, exercise leadership roles, and interpret significant and timely world events. Concerns range from an examination of honor codes at the service academies to consideration of more cosmic matters such as nuclear deterrence, the use of biological and chemical warfare, the development of just war doctrine, and the ethics of intervention. The Gulf War and recent peacekeeping initiatives did much to stimulate debate and discussion on a host of issues relating to ethical dilemmas and the ethical climate of the armed forces.
All materials cited below are available in the Eccles Library.
BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS
Ainslie, Robert S. et al. Ethics in the US Air Force: 1988. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1990. 277pp. (UG 633 E84 1990)
Axinn, Sidney. A Moral Military. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989. 230pp. (U 22 A95 1989)
*Beecher, Robert J. Just War Theory and the Ethics of Intervention. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1996. 29pp. (IP COLL 505977)
Bennett, William J. The Education of Character. Colorado: United States Air Force Academy, 1995. 16pp. (BJ 1521 B46 1995)
Joseph A. Reich, Sr., Distinguished Lecture on War, Morality, and the Military Profession. *In-Process Collection
Bennion, Kelly P. Reconstituting U.S. Brigades and Battalions: the Human Touch. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. School of Advanced Military Studies, 1991. 47pp. (U 22 B46 1991)
Brennan, Joseph G. Foundations of Moral Obligation: the Stockdale Course. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1992. 269pp. (BJ 1012 B674 1992)
Brooks, James. Military, Religion and Moral Ethos: an Ethical Analysis. Ph.D. thesis. Denver: University of Denver (Colorado Seminary). Iliff School of Theology, 1994. 290pp. (BV 4070 I49 B766 1994)
But Was It Just?: Reflections on the Morality of the Persian Gulf War. Edited by David E. DeCosse. New York: Doubleday, 1992. 132pp. (DS 79.72 B88 1992)
*Byrnes, Kevin P. Professional Ethics: Leaders Business. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1990. 51pp. (IP COLL 8272)
Cady, Duane L. From Warism to Pacifism: a Moral Continuum. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1989. 159pp. (JX 1952 C26 1989)
*Caffall, William E. and Stafford, Russell G. Assessing the Morality of Using the Space Environment as a Platform for Weapons. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University. Air War College, 1989. 67pp. (IP COLL 5142)
Campbell, David. Politics Without Principle: Sovereignty, Ethics, and the Narratives of the Gulf War. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1993. 120pp. (DS 79.739 C36 1993)
Carson, Frank L. Teaching Military Ethics as a Science II. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University. U.S. Air War College, 1989. 121pp. (U 22 C377 1989)
Christopher, Paul. The Ethics of War and Peace: an Introduction to Legal and Moral Issues. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994. 244pp. (U 22 C528 1994)
"The Code of the Army Officer." Army Officers Guide. 47th ed. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1996. pp. 23-45. (Ref U 133 A6 O3 47th)
Dillon, Peter J. Ethical Decision Making on the Battlefield: an Analysis of Training for U.S. Army Special Forces. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1992. 112pp. (U 22 D555 1992a)
*Downey, James E. Professional Military Ethics: Another Oxymoron? Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1989. 33pp. (IP COLL 8455)
Encyclopedia of War and Ethics. Edited by Donald A. Wells. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. 539pp. (Ref B 105 W3 E53 1996)
Engulfed in War: Just War and the Persian Gulf. Edited by Brien Hallett. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii. Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, 1991. 119pp. (DS 79.72 E54 1991)
"Ethic," "ethics," "ethical." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2d ed. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1989, pp. 421-422. (Ref PE 1625 087 1989 vol. 5)
Ethics and American Power: Speeches by Caspar W. Weinberger and George P. Shultz. Washington: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1985. 66pp. (JX 1416 E83 1985)
Ethics and National Defense: the Timeless Issues. Edited by James C. Gaston and Janis B. Hietala. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1993. 251pp. (U 22 E83 1993)
Ethics for the Junior Officer: a Gift from the USNA Class of 1964 to the USNA Class of 1994. Edited by Karel Montor. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1994. 301pp. (U 22 E834 1994)
The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular Perspectives. Edited by Terry Nardin. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. 286pp. (BL 65 W2 E74 1996)
Faber, Gerald, et al. A Joint Ethical Code for Members of the United States Armed Forces. Washington: National Defense University. Industrial College of the Armed Forces, April 1997, v.p. (vertical file)
Fields, Rick. The Code of the Warrior in History, Myth, and Everyday Life. New York: Harper Perennial, 1991. 339pp. (U 22 F53 1991)
Fotion, Nicholas G. Military Ethics: Looking Toward the Future. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Hoover Institution Press, 1990. 122pp. (U 22 F64 1990)
Gabriel, Richard A. To Serve with Honor: a Treatise on Military Ethics and the Way of the Soldier. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982. 243pp. (U 22 G25 1982)
*Garner, Robert J. Ethical Guidelines for Military Covert Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1990. 38pp. (IP COLL 9201)
Greco, George T. Values: Lest We Forget. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1993. 126pp. (U 22 G74 1993a)
Hartle, Anthony E. Moral Issues in Military Decision Making. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989. 180pp. (U 22 H38 1989)
Hudleston, Francis J. "Maxims: Moral and Immoral." Chapter in Warriors in Undress. Freeport, NY:
Books for Libraries Press, 1969. pp. 163-173. (U 51 H8 1969)
Naval and military maxims from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Huntington, Samuel P. "The Military Mind: Conservative Realism of the Professional Military Ethic." Chapter in The Soldier and the State: the Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957. pp. 59-79. (UA 23 H9)
Johnson, James T. and Weigel, George. Just War and the Gulf War. Washington: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1991. 169pp. (DS 79.72 J64 1991)
Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics (8th: 1986: National Defense University) and Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics (7th: 1985: National Defense University).
Moral Obligation and the Military. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1988. 245pp. (U 22 M594 1988)
Just Deterrence: Morality and Deterrence into the Twenty-First Century. Edited by Oliver Ramsbotham and Malcolm McCall. Washington: Brasseys, 1990. 146pp. (U 22 J87 1990)
*Klimow, Matthew S. Surrender--a Soldiers Legal, Ethical, and Moral Obligations; with Philippine Case Study. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1989. 186pp. (IP COLL 5725)
Kroger, Daniel P. Revolutionary Warfare and the Just War Tradition: a Critical Review of the Literature since 1945 Including Consideration of the Law of War. Ph.D. thesis. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 1992. 416pp. (U 22 K76 1992a)
Lackey, Douglas P. The Ethics of War and Peace. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. 147pp. (U 22 L32 1989)
*Laurence, Janice H. A Comparison of Moral Character Predictors of Military Performance. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research Organization, 1986. 34pp. (IP COLL 5655)
Legitimacy and Commitment in the Military. Edited by Thomas C. Wyatt and Reuven Gal. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990. 217pp. (U 21.5 L44 1990)
Maihafer, Harry J. Brave Decisions: Moral Courage from the Revolutionary War to Desert Storm. Washington: Brasseys, 1995. 263pp. (U 22.3 M31 1995)
*Malson, Bruce A. Tarnished Armor: Erosion of Military Ethics. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1988. 83pp. (IP COLL 10641)
Mattoon, Ernest R. Morality and Military Necessity. Ph.D. thesis. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1995. 2 v. (U 22 M17 1995)
Military Ethics and Professionalism: a Collection of Essays. Edited by James Brown and Michael J. Collins. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1981. 98pp. (U 22 M56)
Military Ethics: Reflections on Principles--the Profession of Arms, Military Leadership, Ethical Practices, War and Morality, Educating the Citizen-Soldier. Edited by Malham M. Wakin. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1987. 250pp. (U 22 M4853 1987) Includes essays by Adm. James B. Stockdale.
Military History Symposium (Canada) (6th: 1979: Royal Military College). Limits of Loyalty. Edited by Edgar Denton. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1980. 128pp. (U 22 M54)
Miller, Richard B. Interpretations of Conflict: Ethics, Pacifism, and the Just-War Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. 294pp. (B 105 W3 M55 1991)
Norman, Richard. Ethics, Killing and War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 256pp. (U 22 N67 1995)
Parameters of Military Ethics. Edited by Lloyd J. Matthews and Dale E. Brown. Washington: Pergamon- Brasseys, 1989. 178pp. (U 22 P36 1989)
*Professional Ethics Conference (1988: Newport, Rhode Island). Ethics and the Use of Force. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1988. v.p. (IP COLL 7227)
*Professional Ethics Conference (1989: Newport, Rhode Island). Ethics and Military Leadership. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1989. v.p. (IP COLL 4857)
Professional Ethics Conference (1990: Newport, Rhode Island). Military Professionals in an Age of Change: Rules and the Way We Relate to Them. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1990. v.p. (U 22 P76 1990)
Professional Ethics Conference (1991: Newport, Rhode Island). Ethics and Adversity. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1991. 86pp. (U 22 P761 1991)
Rose, Michael T. A Prayer for Relief: the Constitutional Infirmities of the Military Academies Conduct, Honor and Ethics Systems. New York: New York University School of Law, 1973. 194pp. (KF 7273.5 R67)
Sarkesian, Sam C. "Moral and Ethical Foundations of Military Professionalism." Chapter in Beyond the Battlefield: the New Military Professionalism. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981. pp. 199-218. (UA 23 S27 1981)
Schwander, Jeffery L. A Functional Army Officer Code of Ethics. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1988. 35pp. (U 22 S389 1988a)
Sichol, Marcia. The Making of a Nuclear Peace: the Task of Todays Just War Theorists. Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1990. 219pp. (U 263 S53 1990)
Simmons, Joe. Winning Wars: the Spiritual Dimension in Military Art. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986. 96pp. (U 22 S55 1986)
Sterba, James P. The Ethics of War and Nuclear Deterrence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1985. 182pp. (U 21.2 E86 1985)
Stratton, Richard A. et al. The Code of Conduct. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1987. 36pp. (U 22 C56 1987) Panel discussion, Naval Air Station Pensacola.
Stromberg, Peter L. et al. The Teaching of Ethics in the Military. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Hastings Center. Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences, 1982. 85pp. (U 22 S815 1982)
Toner, James H. The American Military Ethic: a Meditation. New York: Praeger, 1992. 266pp. (UA 23 T65 1992)
. True Faith and Allegiance: the Burden of Military Ethics. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995. 202pp. (U 22 T65 1995)
U.S. American Forces Information Service. The Armed Forces Officer. Washington: Department of Defense, 1988. 91pp. (U 133 A7 1988)
** . Code of the U.S. Fighting Force. Washington: Department of Defense, 1988. 14pp. (D 2.14: GEN-11B)
**U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Acquisition Policy Panel. Integrity of Department of Defense Acquisition System and Its Impact on U.S. National Security. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1989. 708pp. (Y 4 Ar5/2a: 987-88/89)
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Manpower and Personnel. Honor Codes at the Service Academies. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1976. 2 v. (KF 26 A7548 1976b)
U.S. Defense Review Committee for the Code of Conduct. Report of Defense Review Committee for the Code of Conduct, 1976. Washington: 1976. 2 v. (JX 5141 U62)
U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Ethics Regulation (JER). Washington: Secretary of Defense, 1993. 1 v. (U 22 J55 1993) DoD directive no. 5500.7-R.
U.S. Department of Defense. Standards of Conduct. Washington: Secretary of Defense, 1993. v.p. (Ref Binder) DoD directive no. 5500.7.
**U.S. General Accounting Office. DoD Service Academies: Comparison of Honor and Conduct Adjudicatory Processes. Washington: 1995. 99pp. (GA 1.13: NSIAD- 95-49)
U.S. Laws, Statutes, etc. "Uniform Code of Military Justice." U.S. Code, Title 10--Armed Forces. 1994 ed. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. Chapter 47: pp. 556-633. (Ref JK 417 U5 1994 v. 3) Includes Executive Order no. 10631, "Code of Conduct for Members of the Armed Forces," pp. 560-561.
**U.S. Military Academy. The Honor Code and Honor System. West Point, NY: 1993. 36pp. (Microfiche D 109.15: 632-1/993)
Vaux, Kenneth L. Ethics and the Gulf War: Religion, Rhetoric, and Righteousness. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992. 187pp. (DS 79.72 V37 1992)
War and Morality Symposium (1980: United States Military Academy) The Proceedings of the War and Morality Symposium. Edited by Roger A. Rains and Michael J. McRee. West Point, NY: United States Military Academy, 1980. 52pp. (U 22 W359 1980)Essays on the morality of nuclear warfare and military intervention and on individual responsibility in war.
War, Morality, and the Military Profession. Edited by Malham M. Wakin. 2d ed. rev. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986. 521pp. (U 22 W36 1986)
Weaver, Robert B. The Contemporary American Military Mind: the Role of Values in Military Behavior. Ph.D. thesis. Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1975. 159pp. (U 21.5 W4)
Wickens, Karen A. Military Ethics for Christians, Knights, and Soldiers. 1994. 242pp. (U 22 W53 1994)
PERIODICAL AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
Adinolfi, John F. "Immorality of Silence." Marine Corps Gazette, April 1991, pp. 76-78.
Alstott, James D. "New Ethics Standards Simplify the Rules: Fourteen Principles." Program Manager, March/April 1993, pp. 32-36.
Anderson, Jon R. "Blow the Whistle, Lose your Job." Army Times, 7 March 1994, pp. 12,14,16. (microfilm)
Apple, R.W., Jr. "Clintons Pentagon Blues Seem To Be Back Again." The New York Times, 6 June 1997, p. A28:5-6.
Argetsinger, Amy. "Naval Academy Charts New Moral Course: Annapolis Puts More Emphasis on Ethics To Counteract Scandals." The Washington Post, 14 April 1996, pp. B1:3-5, B2:1-3. (microfilm)
. "Naval Academy Reverses Itself on Professor: Author of Critical Article Will Return to Teaching." The Washington Post, 6 April 1996, pp. B1:5, B3:1-3. (microfilm)
Atkeson, Edward B. "When Duty Demands: Resigning in Protest." Army, December 1992, pp. 23-26. (microfilm)
Atwood, Donald J. "Living up to the Public Trust." Defense, July/August 1990, pp. 9-13.
Barry, James F. "Academy System is Ethically Corrupt. " Navy Times, 15 April 1996, pp. 34-35. (microfilm)
."Adrift in Annapolis: To Understand Why the Navys Moral Compass Is Broken, Start at the Naval Academy." The Washington Post, 31 March 1996, pp. C1: 2-3, C4:1-5. (microfilm)
Bird, Julie. Lets Talk: "Benken Thinks Mentoring Will Strengthen the Enlisted Force." Air Force Times, 17 February 1997, pp. 12-14.
Bonadonna, Reed R. "Above and Beyond: Marines and Virtue Ethics." Marine Corps Gazette, January 1994, pp. 18-20.
Brack, Dennis. "Do Photos Lie?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, August 1996, pp. 47-49.
Brennan, Joseph G. "Ambition and Careerism." Naval War College Review, Winter 1991, pp. 76-82.
. "Ethics Instruction in the Military: Teach Them Plato or Hammer It Into Their Heads." Naval War College Review, Autumn 1989, pp. 55-65.
Buckingham, Clay T. "Ethics and the Senior Officer: Institutional Tensions." Parameters, Summer 1995, pp. 98-110.
Buckingham, John C. "A U.S. Code of Military Ethics." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, December 1989, pp. 40-44.
Cancian, Mark F. "Are You Telling the Truth?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, December 1994, pp. 37-41.
Coleman, Matt A. "Why Honor?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, August 1994, pp. 46-49.
Colson, Charles W. "A Question of Ethics: Based on Remarks to the Air Force Cadet Wing at the USAF Academy, 17 November 1993." Airpower Journal, Summer 1996, pp. 4-12.
Dalton, John H. "The Character of Readiness: the Ethics of Moral Behavior." Vital Speeches of the Day, 1 March 1994, p. 296-298. (microfilm) Speech Presented at the Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics, 27 January 1994, at National Defense University, Washington, DC.
Dionne, E.J. "Ethical Questions Arise from Gulf Strategy." The Washington Post, 23 September 1990, pp. A1:2-4, A31:1-5. (microfilm)
Douglass, John J. "The Nineteenth Annual Kenneth J. Hodson Lecture: Military Lawyer Ethics." Military Law Review, Summer 1990, pp. 11- 29.
"Ethical Decision Problem." Marine Corps Gazette, issues beginning January 1997. Includes discussion of approaches to problem solving .
"Ethics." Marine Corps Gazette, June 1996, pp. 41-44. Two articles, by Joseph L. Falvey and Brian R. Lynch, discuss core values and a proposed code of leadership and ethics. See response in Clarke, Scott W. "The Core Values Issue." Marine Corps Gazette, September 1996, p. 58. See also Lance, David R. and Fitzell, Brian J. "The Marine Corps Values Program." Marine Corps Gazette, December 1996, pp. 31-32.
Evans, David. "The Navys Blues." The New York Times, 8 June 1996, p. 19:2-5. (microfilm)
Fisher, David. "The Ethics of Intervention." Survival, Spring 1994, pp. 51-59.
"Focus on Ethics." Marine Corps Gazette, January 1994, pp. 12-20.Three articles discuss whether a formal code of ethics is necessary for the U.S. Marine Corps.
Fogleman, Ronald R. "Core Values Revisited." Air Force Times, 17 March 1997, p. 37.
. "Integrity: the Standards for Military Professionals Are Higher Than Those for Society at Large." Air Force Magazine, February 1996, pp. 90-91. (microfilm) Excerpts from remarks to cadets at the U.S. Air Force Academy on Nov. 8, 1995.
Frewing, Scott H. "Are We Committed?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, December 1993, pp. 57-59.
Gendrolis, Paul S. and Barry, Charles. "Security Assistance: Ethics, Standards of Conduct, and Legal Status." DISAM Journal, Summer 1993, pp. 113-117.
Gillert, Douglas J. "Why All This Fuss about Integrity?" Airman, March 1991, pp. 24-27.
Gillespie, Thomas C. " For the Good of the Service... " Marine Corps Gazette, June 1992, pp. 69-71.
Groll-Yaari, Yedidiah. "Toward a Normative Code for the Military." Armed Forces & Society, Spring 1994, pp. 457-471.
Hall, Brian F. and Wagie, David A. "US Air Force Academys Cutting-Edge Character Development Program." Airpower Journal, Summer 1996, pp. 35-39.
Halloran, Richard. "A Military Course Not Taught by the Numbers: Moral Values." The New York Times, 26 August 1987, p. A12:1-5. (microfilm)
. "Officers and Gentlemen and Situational Lying." The New York Times, 6 August 1987, p. A24:1-4. (microfilm)
. "Officers Ask Themselves Troubling Questions." The New York Times, 19 January 1988, p. A24:3-6. (microfilm)
Hartle, Anthony E. "Do Good People Make Better Warriors?" Army, August 1992, pp. 20-23. (microfilm)
. "The Ethical Odyssey of Oliver North." Parameters, Summer 1993, pp. 28-33.
. "A Military Ethic in an Age of Terror." Parameters, Summer 1995, pp. 120-127.
Hasenauer, Heike. "Do the Right Thing." Soldiers, August 1995, pp. 28-29.
Hoffmann, Stanley. "The Politics and Ethics of Military Intervention." Survival, Winter 1995/1996, pp. 29-51.
"Honor." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, April 1994, pp. 40-45. Articles by VADM William P. Lawrence, GEN George Lee Butler, VADM Howard B. Thorsen, and Josiah Bunting.
Janofsky, Michael. "Academy Head Defends Ethics of Midshipmen." The New York Times, 18 April 1996, p. B8:1-3. (microfilm)
. "Are Annapolis Problems Systemic?: Some, Including Many Ex-Middies, Are Beginning To Think So." The New York Times, 21 April 1996, p. 20:4-6. (microfilm)
Jayne, H. Martin. "Impact of Law and Leadership on the Ethical Behavior of Air Force Officers." Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 4, 1993, pp. 1-12. (K 10 O875 1993)
Jones, Kenneth. "Professions and the Obligation for Ethics Self-Study." Logistics Spectrum, Winter 1994, pp. 69-70.
Jones, Matthew. "Why Arent We Buying Core Values?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, June 1997, pp. 51-52.
Kemp, David S. "There Is No Gray Area." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, June 1997, pp. 53-54.
Kenna, Kathleen L. "Putting Ethics to Work." Army Logistician, July/August 1990, pp. 34-36.
Kitfield, James. "Crisis of Conscience." Government Executive, October 1995, pp. 14-18, 20, 22, 24. (microfilm)
Klimow, Matthew S. "Lying to the Troops: American Leaders and the Defense of Bataan." Parameters, December 1990, pp. 48-60.
Krulak, Charles C. "Transformation and Cohesion." Marine Corps Gazette, November 1996, pp. 21-23.
Kwatnoski, Richard. "Ethics in International Defense Acquisition Programs." Program Manager, July/August 1994, pp. 28-31, 42.
Lawson, Chris. "Marines Instill Corps Values." Air Force Times, 24 February 1997, pp. 14-15.
Leff, Lisa. "Panel Wants Military to Study Ethics: Senators Seek to Counter Its Only Wrong if You Get Caught Attitude." The Washington Post, 24 July 1990, p. A21:1-3. (microfilm)
Lewallen, Robert D. "Sex, Power, & Ethics: the Challenge to the Military Professional." Airpower Journal, Fall 1991, pp. 57-66.
Liddell, Daniel E. "Instilling Marine Values." Marine Corps Gazette, September 1996, pp. 54-57.
Locke, Charles E. "Leadership Ethics: a Time for Reckoning?" Marine Corps Gazette, November 1990, pp. 61-62.
Lynch, Jarvis D. "Fish Rot from the Head." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, February 1995, p. 73.
Maginnis, Robert L. "A Chasm of Values." Military Review, February 1993, pp. 2-11.
Mahbubani, Kishore. "Pol Pot: The Paradox of Moral Correctness." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, January/March 1993, pp. 51-60.
Mahew, Thomas P. "We Owe Them Honor." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, June 1996, pp. 70-72.
Manegold, Catherine S. "Soul Searching by Class of 94 at Annapolis." The New York Times, 3 April 1994, pp. 1:1, 14:1-2. (microfilm)
Manzo, Louis A. "Morality in War Fighting and Strategic Bombing in World War II." Air Power History, Fall 1992, pp. 35-50. (microfilm)
Marlin, John. "Cynicism and Careerism: Threats to Army Ethics." Army, May 1997, pp. 7-10.
Martz, Douglas A. "Professional Military Ethics." Marine Corps Gazette, August 1990, pp. 57-58.
Maslowski, Peter. "Army Values and American Values." Military Review, April 1990, pp. 10-23.
Matthews, Lloyd J. "The Need for an Officers Code of Professional Ethics." Army, March 1994, pp. 20-29. (microfilm)
. "The Officer As Gentleman: a Waning Ideal." Army, March 1997, pp. 27-31.
. "Resignation in Protest." Army, January 1990, pp. 12-15, 18-21. (microfilm)
Matthews, William. "Soul Searching: Fogleman Presses the Air Force To Check Its Moral Compass." Air Force Times, 24 February 1997, pp. 12-14, 16.
McGrane, Stephen J. "A Marine Corps Code of Ethics." Marine Corps Gazette, August 1992, pp. 54-55.
Meilinger, Phillip S. "Winged Defense: Airwar, the Law, and Morality." Armed Forces & Society, Fall 1993, pp. 103-123.
Mitchell, Alison. "President Stays on Sidelines in Debate over Nominee To Head the Joint Chiefs." The New York Times, 6 June 1997, p. A28:1-5.
Moskos, Charles. "Smart Rules for Soldiers and Sex: Why the Military Cares about Adultery, but Doesnt Punish Everyone." The Washington Post, 8 June 1997, pp. C1:5, C6:1-5.
Myers, Charles R. "The Core Values: Framing and Resolving Ethical Issues for the Air Force." Airpower Journal, Spring 1997, pp. 38-52.
. "Officership and a Code of Ethics." Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 5, 1994/1995, pp. 9-22. (K 10 O875 1994/95)
Naylor, Sean D. "The Core of the Matter: Army Defines Ethics in Seven Central Values." Army Times, 16 December 1996, p. 3. (microfilm)
Newport, Frank and Saad, Lydia. "Confidence in Institutions: U.S. Military Unmatched in Public Image." The Gallup Poll Monthly, April 1994, pp. 5-6.
Norchi, Charles H. "Ethics and Choice in a World Transformed." Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 2, 1991, pp. 13-20. (K10 O875 1991)
ONeill, William G. "Moral Obligation Versus Beeper Ethics." Joint Force Quarterly, Spring 1996, pp. 130-133.
Ormerod, Gerald J. "Loyalty Is the Highest Honor." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, June 1997, pp. 55-56.
Perry, William J. "The Ethical Use of Military Force." Defense Issues, vol. 10, no. 49, 1995, pp. 1-4.
Peters, Ralph. "A Revolution in Military Ethics?" Parameters, Summer 1996, pp. 102-108.
Philbin, Edward J. "JERking the Guard Around." National Guard, March 1997, pp. 7,24,25.
Phillips, Robert J. "Lemming Effect." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1994, pp. 40-42.
Rather, Dan. "Honest Brokers of Information." Naval War College Review, Autumn 1995, pp. 34-42.
Reed, William A. "In Search of Moral Leadership." Marine Corps Gazette, January 1990, pp. 27-28.
Rostow, Nicholas. "Ethical Responsibilities: the Law of War, War Crimes, and Operational Law." Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 5, 1994/1995, pp. 1-8. (K 10 O875 1994/95)
Sampson, Donald W. "Ethics and the Moral Element of War." Marine Corps Gazette, September 1992, pp. 47-48.
Schmitt, Eric. "Exoneration Shows New Military Ethos." The New York Times, 17 December 1996, p. B9:1-3. (microfilm)
Schmitt, Mike. "Six Cardinal Rules of Accountability in the Era of Core Values." TIG Brief, January/February 1996, pp. 8-11.
Schwartz, Amy E. "The Shaky State of Honor at Annapolis." The Washington Post, 13 February 1994, p. C7:2-5. (microfilm)
Sciolino, Elaine. "The Armys Problems with Sex and Power." The New York Times, 4 May 1997, section 4, p. 4:1-5. (microfilm)
Shenon, Philip. "Cohen Criticized for His Support of a Top General: Double Standard Cited."
The New York Times, 6 June 1997, pp. 1:6, A28:1-4.. "Military Rules on Morality Are Defended." The New York Times, 4 June 1997, p. A14:1-3.
Shephard, John E. "Thomas Becket, Ollie North and You: the Importance of an Ethical Command Climate." Military Review, May 1991, pp. 20-33.
Simi, Robert F., Jr. "Fourteen Traits, Eleven Principles, but Only One Belief." Marine Corps Gazette, February 1996, pp. 50-52.
Smith, Mason E. "Toward a Professional Military Ethic." Military Review, May 1990, pp. 74-82.
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WORLD WIDE WEB DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ETHICS AND STANDARDS OF CONDUCT INFORMATION SITE
Includes current Ethics issues, Joint Ethics Regulation 5500.7-R, information about the DoD Standards of Conduct Office, ethics training materials, laws, and references, and links to other DoD related sites.
Compiled by: Alice K. Juda