National Defense University Press Publications
To increase general knowledge and inform discussion, the Institute for National Strategic Studies, through its publication arm the NDU Press, publishes McNair Papers; proceedings of University- and Institute-sponsored symposia; books relating to U.S. national security, especially to issues of joint, combined, or coalition warfare, peacekeeping operations, and national strategy; and a variety of briefer works designed to circulate contemporary comment and offer alternatives to current policy. The Press occasionally publishes out-of-print defense classics, historical works, and other especially timely or distinguished writing on national security.
Opinions, conclusions, and recommendations expressed or implied within are solely those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Defense University, the Department of Defense, or any other U.S. Government agency. Cleared for public release: distribution unlimited.
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First printing, January 1995
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This book is respectfully dedicated to the memories of Master Sergeant Gary I. Gordon and Sergeant First Class Randall D. Shughart, United States Army, who were killed in action on October 3, 1993 in Mogadishu, Somalia. For "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty" while defending their embattled Task Force Ranger comrades, these soldiers were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor on May 23, 1994.
Greater love hath no man than this,
that a man lay down his life for his friends.
I. THE OPERATIONAL CONTEXT
The U.N. and Peace Operations
The Effects of the Operational Environment
Situations and Missions
II. OPERATIONAL LESSONS LEARNED
Mandates and Missions
Mission Analysis: Entry and Exit Strategies
Rules of Engagement
Personnel Selection and Training
Conduct of Operations
Command and Control
Communications and Interoperability
Appendix A: Selected Bibliography
Appendix B: Humanitarian Relief Organizations Active in Somalia
Appendix C: Missions and Tasks of the UNITAF Civil-Military Operations Center (CMOC)
About the Author