Blue Horizon: United States-Japan-PRC Tripartite Relations
1. This paper is drawn from David Shambaugh, China and Europe, 1949-1995: From Derivative to Independent Relationships (London: School or Oriental & African Studies Contemporary China Institute Research Notes & Studies, 1996).
2. Communication From the Commission: A Long Term Policy for China-Europe Relations (Brussels: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1995), 1b.
4. The absence of military and security issues in the initiative is due to the fact that the EU does not yet have a common security policy, and defense cooperation takes place in a purely bilateral context and via NATO. This is not to imply that China as a military and security actor is unimportant to the EU, but rather that technically it cannot include security matters in its external relations in the absence of EU-mandated security role and identity.
5. For other assessments of the EU's China initiative see Roberto Menotti, European-Chinese Relations in the Post-Bipolar International System: The Political Dimension (Rome: Centro Studidi Politica Internazionale [CeSPI] Occasional Papers, September 1995); Percy Westerlund, "The Development of EU-China Relations," China Review (Autumn/Winter 1995), 39-41; Jean-Pierre Cabestan, "Sino-West European Relations: Distant Neighbors or Distant Rivals?", ibid., 42-44. For a broader review of Sino-European relations, see Huan Guocang, "The Atlantic Perspective: China Policy for the Next Decade," in United States and China Relations at a Crossroads, eds. David M. Lampton and Alfred D. Wilhelm, Jr. (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995), 221-236.
6. One proposal being considered is the intended creation of a "European China 2000 Network," that would be based among six European universities and China research centers and bring together China specialists from across the continent for collaborative research and joint projects of both scholarly and policy importance.
7. For further discussion of the contrasts between European and American approaches towards Asia and China see Harry Harding and David Shambaugh, "This Revival of Europe-Asia Links Can Be Good for All Sides," International Herald Tribune, October 3, 1995, 8.
8. See David Shambaugh, "The United States and China: A New Cold War?" Current History (September 1995): 1-7.
9. See "EU Builds Ties to China," China Daily, 16 July 1995; Reginald Dale, "U.S. and Europe at Odds Over Asia," International Herald Tribune, July 18, 1995.
10. These historical interactions are detailed in my China and Europe, 1949-1995.
11. See, for example, David Shambaugh. "China After Deng: Policy Implications," conference report, The Ditchley Foundation, October 1995.
12. See the contributions in Harry Harding, ed. (Patterns of Cooperation in Modern China's Foreign Relations , forthcoming); and Thomas W. Robinson and David Shambaugh, eds., Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
13. Domestically in China this policy of trying to divide Europe from its allies in Moscow and Washington was portrayed as a means of undermining "big power hegemony."
14. William E. Griffith, "China and Europe: Weak and Far Away," in The China Factor, ed.Richard Solomon (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1981).
15. This solidarity existed with respect to China even if several Western European countries did violate the COCOM embargo with respect to the Soviet Union.
16. Hong Kong and Macao were, of course, continuing manifestations of extraterritoriality and colonial rule.
17. For further discussion of the European reaction to Tiananmen, see Mary Brown Bullock, "The Effects of Tiananmen on China's International Scientific and Educational Cooperation," in China's Economic Dilemmas in the 1990s: The Problems of Reforms, Modernization, and Interdependence, ed. U.S., Congress Joint Economic Committee, vol. 1 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1991).
18. Xiao Qu, "Hopes and Hurdles in Sino-EC Ties," China Daily, December 24, 1990.
19. Personal communication from a Sinologist in Czechoslovakia.
20. See Gao Di, "Problems Posed by the Soviet Situation," reprinted in The China Quarterly (June 1992): 482-91.
21. As cited in Huan Guocang, "The Atlantic Perspective," 225.
22. Even some weapons have been transferred (particularly by France and Italy), but these appear to have been contracted prior to 1989.
23. Patricia Wellons, "Sino-French Relations: Historical Alliance vs. Economic Reality," The Pacific Review 7, no. 3 (1994): 346.
24. "New Horizon for Sino-European Ties," Beijing Review, July 18-24, 1994, p. 4.
25. European Union, A Long Term Policy for China-Europe Relations, 26.
26. Data courtesy of the European Commission Directorate General for External Economic Relations. Ecu'$ conversions calculated at 1.3.
27. European Union, A Long Term Policy for China-Europe Relations, 9.
28. Sir Leo Brittain, "Building a Long-Term Relationship Between Europe and China," speech delivered at Albarella, Italy (May 1995).
29. "Sino-EC Meeting Boosts Cooperation," Beijing Review, March 14-20, 1994, 7.
30. Information on CEIBS courtesy of the European Commission, Brussels.
31. "European Investment Bank Signs Agreement with China," Xinhua News Agency, December 7, 1995, in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts FEW/0414 WG/2, December 13, 1995.