developed by the
U.S. National Response Team (NRT)

Developing a Hazardous Materials Exercise Program: A Handbook for State and Local Officials

Click HERE for cover and front matter.

       To date, the NRT has published the following four documents:

   NRT-1  - Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide (March 1987)

   NRT-1A - Criteria for Review of Hazardous Materials Emergency Plans
            (May 1988)

   NRT-2  - Developing a Hazardous Materials Exercise Program - A
            Handbook for State and Local Officials (September 1990)

         -  Directory of Federal Information Resources for Emergency
            Planning and Response (August 1989)
                          National Response Team
                     of the National Oil and Hazardous
                        Substances Contingency Plan
           G-WER /12, 2100 2nd Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20593

   The National Response Team (NRT) -- composed of 14 Federal agencies
   having major responsibilities in environmental, transportation,
   emergency management, worker safety, and public health areas -- is
   the national body responsible for coordinating Federal planning,
   preparedness, and response actions related to oil discharges and
   hazardous substance releases.

   The NRT member agencies are: Environmental Protection Agency
(Chair), Department of Transportation/U.S. Coast Guard (Vice-chair),
and Department of Transportation/Research and Special Programs
Administration, Department of Commerce, Department of the Interior,
NRT   Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of
State, Department of Justice, Department of Health and Human Services,
Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency,
Department of Energy, Department of Labor, and Nuclear Regulatory

   Under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986,       
the NRT is responsible for publishing guidance documents for the
preparation and implementation of hazardous substance emergency plans.
In 1987, the National Response Team published "NRT-1:  Hazardous
Materials Planning Guide." That guidance recommends, among other
things, the testing of emergency plans through regularly scheduled
exercises. "NRT-2: Developing a Hazardous Materials Exercise Program-
A Handbook for State and Local Officials" has been produced to provide
guidance for the initial development of (or refinement of an existing)
exercise program. Further, it identifies Federal level resources
available to States and locals to assist in their implementation of
comprehensive exercise programs to assess their hazardous materials
Plans and annexes.  This document is not intended to serve as a basis
for formal approval or disapproval of exercise programs; however, its
use is encouraged.

   The Federal agencies of the National Response Team and thirteen
Regional Response Teams are committed to provide ongoing planning,
training, and exercise support to enhance preparedness capabilities at
local, State, regional and national levels for hazardous materials

   Jim Makris                      CAPT W.F. Holt
   Chair                           Vice-chair
   National Response Team          National Response Team

          Report Oil and Chemical Spills Toll Free (800)424-8802


                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

   I.  INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
         Legislative Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
         Relationship to Multi-Hazard Preparedness . . . . . . . . . . . 2
         Relationship Between Emergency Preparedness and Exercises . . . 2

  II.  BENEFITTING FROM EXERCISES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

         Exercise Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
         Exercise Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
         Tabletop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
         Functional. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
         Full-Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

  IV.  AN OVERVIEW OF EXERCISE ACTIVITIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

       PREPARATION ACTIVITIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
         Establish An Exercise Design Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
         Exercise Scale Decisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
         Selection of Exercise Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
         Exercise Scenario Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
         Exercise Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
         Training and Exercising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
         Final Preparations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

       EXERCISE CONDUCT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

       POST-EXERCISE ACTIVITIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
         Evaluation Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
         Exercise Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
         Follow-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

   V.  LEARNING FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF OTHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
         Initial Notification of Response Agencies . . . . . . . . . . .24
         Direction and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
         Communications - Responder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
         Warning Systems and Emergency Public Notification . . . . . . .25
         Public Information/Community Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . .26
         Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
         Health and Medical Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
         Response Personnel Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
         Personal Protection of Citizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
         Fire and Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
         Law Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
         Ongoing Incident Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
         Human Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
         Public Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
         Hazardous Materials Identification and Analysis . . . . . . . .31


                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd.)

  VI.  TAPPING ADDITIONAL RESOURCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

       FEDERAL AGENCY RESOURCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
         National Response System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
         Federal Emergency Management Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
         Environmental Protection Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
         U.S. Coast Guard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
         Department of Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
         Department of Health and Human Services . . . . . . . . . . . .45
         Department of Commerce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
         Department of Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

       PRIVATE SECTOR RESOURCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

       ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

       BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

       APPENDIX A:
         Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation Methodology (HM-EEM)
         and Manual Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

       APPENDIX B:
         FEMA Form 95-16: Exercise Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

       APPENDIX C:
         Sample Tabletop Scenario and Sequence of Events . . . . . . . C-1

       APPENDIX D:
         Sample Full-Scale Scenario and Sequence of Events . . . . . . 0-1

       APPENDIX E:
         Sample List of Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1

       APPENDIX F:
         Sample Exercise Planning Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1

       APPENDIX G:
         Sample Exercise Equipment List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

                              LIST OF TABLES

    1  Exercise Types Employed by EPA, FEMA, and USCG. . . . . . . . . . 9

    2  Exercise Characteristics for a Hypothetical Community . . . . . .11

    3  Federal Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34



   A comprehensive exercise program is one of the best means for
assessing emergency plans and procedures, for determining the
readiness of emergency responders, for resolving questions of
coordination and clarifying roles and responsibilities, and for
promoting awareness of potential hazards.

   This handbook was prepared as guidance by the National Response
Team to provide State and local governments with practical advice for
developing a comprehensive hazardous materials exercise program.  It
is not intended to become the basis for a Federal requirement to
establish a hazmat exercise program.  The purposes of this handbook
are many:

   -  To emphasize the value of exercises in testing and improving
      emergency plans and training emergency response personnel.

   -  To provide pointers for selecting the appropriate exercise type
      and exercise objectives based on community risk, capability,
      available resources, and level of support from elected

   -  To apply lessons learned from other exercises and actual

   -  To describe Federal and private sector support and assistance
      available for conducting hazardous materials exercises.

Legislative Background

   Public Law 99-499, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
(SARA), contains some significant new requirements for Federal and
State governments and industry related to hazardous materials
emergency preparedness and community right-to-know.  This law amends
the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
Act of 1980 (CERCLA).

   Title III of SARA, known as the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act, requires the Governor of each State to establish a
State Emergency Response Commission (SERC).  Each SERC, in turn, is
required to designate Emergency Planning Districts within the State to
facilitate preparation and implementation of emergency plans.  Each
State Commission is also required (by August 17, 1987) to appoint
members of a Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC for each
Emergency Planning District.  At present, there are more than 3,800
LEPCs across the country.

   LEPCs were mandated to prepare emergency plans by October 17, 1988. 
SARA Title III requires that these plans must include, among other
things, "methods and schedules for exercising the &an" (emphasis
added).  Other LEPC administrative duties related to planning include
holding public meetings to discuss emergency plans, taking into
account and responding to public comments, and distributing emergency
plans.  Committees are also responsible for reviewing plans once each
year or more frequently as dictated by changed circumstances in the
community or at a facility.  Finally, Committees are to evaluate the
need for resources necessary to develop, implement, and exercise,
emergency plans.  These requirements are described briefly to set the
stage for discussing practical advice for the development of a
comprehensive hazardous materials exercise program.


Relationship to Multi-Hazard Preparedness

   Prior to the passage of SARA Title III, many State and local
governments were involved in hazardous materials emergency management
programs.  In fact, many of the 56 States and territories had included
hazardous materials annexes in their emergency operations plans (EOP).

   Commonly, State and local emergency operations plans may be divided
into three distinct elements: the basic plan, functional annexes, and
hazard specific appendixes.  Plans developed under Title III have
often become the hazardous materials appendix to existing EOPs.  The
basic plan and functional annexes collectively address the common
elements of an emergency response.  Hazard specific appendixes contain
technical information and details to address the unique risk and
characteristics of a particular hazard.  This basic approach to
planning the integrated emergency management system (IEMS) is intended
to facilitate a community planning for each hazard that threatens the
particular jurisdiction.

   A comprehensive integrated emergency management system is the most
effective means for protecting the community from a variety of natural
and technological hazards.  Through its Comprehensive Cooperative
Agreements (CCA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
provides each State a vehicle for applying for and receiving technical
and financial assistance to plan and prepare for multiple hazards. 
One element of the CCA program focuses on exercises to validate
emergency preparedness and response capabilities.  FEMA does recognize
exercises conducted outside the CCA program, such as those exercises
encouraged by SARA Title III.  For more information on the CCA
Program, see Chapter VI, Tapping Additional Resources.

Relationship Between Emergency Preparedness and Exercises

   Emergency preparedness is a continuous process with three integral
functions: planning, training, and exercising.  Each function is
dependent upon the other two functions and should not be viewed in
isolation.  Although the process generally begins with planning, moves
to training, to exercising, and back to planning, there is
considerable interaction among these functions.  The diagram below
summarizes where exercises fit into the preparedness process:


                      EXERCISING      -    TRAINING


   Preparedness activities should not concentrate solely on
development of an emergency plan, but should focus upon all functions
of the continuous process that result in a response organization being
well prepared to meet the needs that arise during a hazardous
materials incident.  Once a plan has been developed and personnel have
been trained to implement the plan, the response organization is then
ready to determine if its plan is workable and adequate to meet
anticipated needs and if personnel are properly trained.



   After completing an exercise, emergency managers should assess the
results of the exercise to identify plan and resource strengths and
weaknesses and to assess the adequacy of training programs and the
need for additional training.  This assessment may form the basis for
changes to the plan and to the organizations training program,
thereby, resulting in a higher level of preparedness for the
community.  The LEPC, working with the SERC, should facilitate the
development of an exercise program as part of the overall preparedness
   because: 1) the hazardous materials emergency planning and response
   organizations are members of the LEPC;
2) Tide HI reporting information, useful in the exercise development
process, is managed by the LEPC; and 3) the development and review of
Tide Ell plans are coordinated by the LEPC.




   The question is often asked, "Why conduct exercises?" Exercises
serve several important functions for emergency response


   -  Provide a means to assess the readiness of State and local
      emergency plans and response capabilities.

   -  Test the knowledge and skills of plan implementers.

   -  Serve as a training tool for emergency response personnel.

   -  Provide an opportunity to practice skills and improve individual
      performance under varying degrees of stress.

   -  Require participants to network with each other and coordinate
      decisions on resources.

   -  Provide a means to educate and involve the public, media, and
      key community organizations in emergency planning.

Some benefits of exercises include:

   -  Readiness for response is increased in the event of an actual

   -  Procedural and policy gaps are identified.

   -  Conflicts are revealed.

   -  Roles and responsibilities are confirmed.

   -  Resource needs are identified.

   -  Effectiveness of training is evaluated and additional training
      needs are identified.

   -  Modifications and improvements to emergency plans, procedures,
      and action checklists are identified based upon the lessons
      learned from the exercise.

   -  Hazardous materials responders practice working together as a

   -  Public support is likely to increase for the overall emergency
      management program.

   Teamwork among emergency managers and first responders can be
created through emergency exercises.  Such teamwork seldom results
simply from a group working together and drawing up plans under normal
conditions.  Paper plans are not enough and are no substitute for an
exercise, because normal everyday activities differ from crisis

   Exercises provide a sense of urgency, and the exercise scenario
requires response organizations to develop alternatives and make
decisions under the pressure of time without the possibility of
serious consequences.  Exercises also lead to an understanding of how
to deal with a threat during a crisis - which is not an intuitive
skill, but one which must be practiced.  Evidence shows that exercises
have had a substantial impact on improving performance during an
actual emergency.

   As part of exercise planning, however, liability issues need to be
considered.  Before undertaking a hazardous materials exercise,
emergency management personnel and those serving as a member of an
LEPC should check with the SERC and appropriate city and county
attorneys about respective State and local laws and liability




   A comprehensive hazardous materials exercise program is a goal
generally achieved by a response organization over a period of time. 
Many response organizations will prefer to start out on a small scale
and move toward more sophisticated exercises. this handbook has been
developed to help response organizations select the right type of
exercise to meet specific objectives.

   A response organization needs to consider several factors in
deciding the scope of a hazardous materials exercise.  These factors

   -  Stage of development of emergency response plan and procedures.

   -  Nature and extent of risk posed by various hazardous materials
      located in or passing through the community.

   -  Existing emergency response capabilities of community.

   -  Cost of the exercise and level of funding available.

   -  Degree of support from key elected and appointed officials.

   -  Availability of resources from all sources (Federal, State,
      local, and private sector).

   -  Extent to which the response organization can test its response
      plan while minimizing the impact on its ability to deliver
      routine services.

   -  Other exercise requirements mandated by Federal and State

   A  comprehensive exercise program must fit the needs and resources
of the community.  Some type of exercise program should be feasible at
all levels of government and in all sizes of towns and cities.  Every
community can conduct a hazardous materials exercise with the
resources available to it.

Exercise Participants

   The development of any comprehensive exercise program requires
sufficient preparation.  An effective tool for such preparation is the
orientation seminar, which can be used to set up a framework for a
comprehensive exercise program, lay a foundation for an individual
exercise, or both.  These introductory and/or refresher (review)
seminars may cover emergency plans and/or procedures, exercise
scenarios, and/or objectives.

   Orientation seminars are instructional, and are typically presented
using lectures, panel discussions, media presentations, and verbal
"walk-throughs." The seminars can involve all levels of personnel
expected to participate in exercises, particularly emergency
responders.  The seminars are also frequently used to review lessons
learned from actual incidents or 'case histories.'

   A key aspect of orientation seminars is defining the roles of
people,involved in exercises.  Frequently used terms that identify
these,roles include: players, controllers, evaluators, and observers. 
Generally, these terms are defined as follows:



   PLAYERS - are exercise participants who have assignments in an
   emergency response organization or team that is committed to
   execute or support specific Federal, State or local efforts.  These
   assignments can include saving lives, protecting property and
   public health, obtaining and managing resources, and coordinating
   with other local, State, and Federal players upon the occurrence of
   an oil or hazardous material spill or release.  Players will make
   decisions and respond to scenario events in as realistic a manner
   as possible.  All players should be familiar with the emergency
   response structure, functions, and procedures that they will be
   expected to perform.

   CONTROLLERS - are those persons whose role is to ensure that the
   exercise objectives are sufficiently exercised to permit
   evaluation, that the level of activity keeps players occupied and
   challenged, and that the pace of the exercise proceeds according to
   the scenario.  Controllers answer players' questions and resolve
   exercise issues as they arise, and monitor the safety of the

   EVALUATORS - are those persons assigned to each major "playing'
   element to observe the exercise and gather data.  Their primary
   role is to observe actions taken by players and to record their
   observations.  The evaluators' efforts provide the major portion of
   the documentation necessary to critique the exercise and produce an
   exercise report.  The evaluators may also assist the controllers in
   keeping the exercise on track, but will not interfere with the
   players in the performance of their duties.

   OBSERVERS - are typically part of an audience who are spectators

   Each person involved in an exercise plays an important role.  A
list of potential exercise participants to be considered when planning
and exercise can be found in Appendix E. The "players' respond to the
events of the scenario or simulated emergency.  "Controllers' help
guide the scenario by interjecting control messages to ensure that
exercise play conforms to the scenario.  In a hazardous materials
exercise, 'observers" might be emergency management/response personnel
from the involved community or neighboring communities who are
planning their own exercise and may benefit from observing from the

   The "evaluators" serve as recorders of events.  They gather facts,
times, events, and details relevant to the exercise.  Evaluators
assess the actions of the players during the exercise.  Evaluators
should be trained on evaluation techniques in advance of an exercise.

   Evaluators can be emergency management/response personnel from the
involved response organization, from neighboring communities,
representatives from State and Federal agencies, or other observers. 
Often times, observers can provide an objective and unbiased view of
the exercise.

   After the exercise, this objective and factual information
collected by the evaluators, and from the controllers and players,
becomes the foundation from which an assessment can be made of
organizational performance and conclusions can be drawn concerning the
strengths and weaknesses of the response



organization.  From these conclusions, the results of the exercise are
reported, problems or opportunities for improvement are identified,
emergency plans and procedures are reviewed and revised, training
programs are modified and enhanced, and follow-up exercises are

Exercise Types

   In recent years, emergency managers have utilized a variety of
exercise types to assess the adequacy of emergency plans.  A number of
these exercises have been conducted with the support of Federal
agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the United States Coast
Guard (USCG), as well as with the support of private industry. 
Additional detailed information on exercise support is provided in
Chapter VI, Tapping Additional Resources.

   Several different terms have been used to describe exercise types. 
FEMA uses the exercise categories of tabletop, functional, and full-
scale.  EPA identifies two types of exercises; tabletop and field. 
USCG uses a functional type exercise called OSC/RRT and a field type
exercise known as OSC/Local.  Private sector organizations may also
classify their exercise types differently from the public sector

   Table 1 lists the types of exercises employed by EPA, FEMA, and
USCG.  The groupings of entries in Table 1 indicate that exercises
with substantially similar characteristics are given different names
by different organizations.

                          TABLE 1 EXERCISE TYPES

Exercise Types Sponsoring Organizations
... Functional.X.
... OSC/RRT..X
... Full-FieldX..
... OSC/LocalX..
... Full-Scale.X.


   In this document, for the purposes of simplicity, increased
precision, and internal consistency, three major types of exercises
are described in detail below and summarized in Table 2 -- tabletop,
functional, and fullscale.  Table 2 presents a spectrum of exercise
types and characteristics using a hypothetical community.  The table
is designed to help in the consideration of options during the process
of selecting a type and size of exercise.  It is aimed particularly at
communities that are beginning to develop an exercise program.

   Regardless of the type and size of an exercise, hazardous materials
exercises have the potential to involve many agencies.  At a minimum,
hazardous materials exercises should stress the interactions of
emergency response organizations and if possible. conclude with a
written report of exercise activities and recommendations for



Table 2
Exercise Characteristics for a Hypothetical Community
(Verbal Walk-Through)
(Limited Function-Specific Activities)
(Extensive Field and Functional Activities)
  • Elected/appointed officials
  • Key emergency management staff
  • Numerous local agencies, may include some State and Federal agencies
  • Same as Tabletop, plus functional-specific policy and coordination
  • Numerous local agencies, may include some State and Federal agencies
  • Maximum participation of all relevant agencies and personnel
  • Discuss actions to be taken during simulated emergency situation
  • Lateral coordination activities
  • Exercise specific functions, e.g., direction and control, alert and notification
  • Coordination laterally and externally
  • Exercise most elements of the plan
  • Conference room
  • EOC
  • EOC
  • Scene of functional activities in field (e.g., alert and notification)
  • Scene of a fixed facility or a transportation incident
  • State and local EOCs
  • Incident command post
  • Mass care centers, medical facilities, traffic and access control points, equipment staging areas, etc.
  • Practice problem solving
  • Test the functional planning and response capabilities of personnel and systems
  • Test major portion of hte plan with high degree of realism and extensive involvement
  • Typically 1-2 b
  • Typically 4-17 b
  • Typically 10-50 b
  • Oral Critique
  • Participant Debriefing
  • Exercise Report
  • Oral Critique
  • Participant Debriefing
  • Exercise Report
  • Oral Critique
  • Participant Debriefing
  • Formal Written Report
  • The major differences among the three exercise types is the variation in complexity and size.
  • These ranges of numbers of evaluators are only examples. For actual exercises, the number of evaluators varies based upon availability, community resources, and the size and type of exercise.
  • A FEMA Form 95-16 may be completed following an exercise. See Appendix B for a copy of the form.




   A tabletop exercise is an activity in which elected or appointed
officials and key staff with emergency management responsibilities are
gathered together informally, usually in a conference room, to discuss
actions to be taken during an emergency based upon the emergency plan
and their standard operating procedures (SOPs).  The primary
characteristic is a verbal 'walk through" of a response to an
emergency situation.  The tabletop exercise is designed to elicit
constructive discussion by the participants, without time constraints,
as they examine and resolve problems based on the emergency plan.

   The purpose of a tabletop exercise is to have participants practice
problem-solving and resolve questions of coordination and assignment
of responsibilities in a non-threatening format, under minimum stress. 
Tabletop exercises can be used in preparation for a functional or
full-scale exercise.

   Tabletop exercises typically involve a limited demonstration of
operational response and/or internal coordination activities.  In many
cases, responders from only a few local agencies are involved.  Post-
exercise evaluation activities are usually limited to an oral critique
session during which recommendations for improvement are discussed
with and among participants.  A brief written report summarizing
exercise activities and recommendations for improvement may also be
prepared.  The FEMA Form 95-16 may be completed.  The use of
evaluators who are not players in the exercise can help identify
opportunities for improvement.  The number of evaluators needed will
vary depending upon the size of the community, resources available,
and number of functions exercised.  One or two evaluators are
frequently used, but six or even more could be used for a large
exercise.  Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a tabletop
exercise in the context of the fun spectrum of exercise types for a
hypothetical community.


   A functional exercise is more extensive than a tabletop exercise in
that activities are conducted beyond a conference room atmosphere.  It
can take place in some type of Emergency Operating Center (EOC), with
concurrent field activity (e.g., at the scene of a simulated
transportation related incident).  Often times, this type of exercise
focuses on a single function or activity within a function (e.g.,
direction and control).  It can also involve deploying equipment in a
limited, function-specific, capacity.

   The purpose of a functional exercise is to test the planning and
response capabilities of personnel and systems relative to the tested
function.  For example, a direction and control functional exercise
would be designed to test and evaluate the centralized emergency
operations capability and timely response of one, two, or several
units of government under a stressful environment.  The exercise might
be centered in one or more EOCs or command posts and could either
simulate or involve the use of limited outside activity and resources. 
The level of resources mobilized should be adequate to demonstrate the
direction and control operations in response to the simulated

   Another example might be a transportation exercise designed to test
the capability of local response officials to establish a command post
at the scene and coordinate the on-site response activities with
emergency response personnel, the transportation carrier (e.g.,
railroad, trucking company, airline), and the shipper(s).

   The scope of activity in a functional exercise will include more
policy and coordination personnel than are usually involved in
tabletop exercises.  The level of response agency coordination should
increase as more agencies from State and local governments
participate.  Federal participation may also be involved, and include
exercise design, coordination, and evaluation support.  The number of
evaluators needed is usually more than for a tabletop exercise, and
four to 12 evaluators is a fairly typical range.  These numbers are
only examples, however, and the number of evaluators will vary from
exercise to exercise, depending on locale, size of the community,
resources available, and number of functions exercised.  Post-exercise
activities often include an oral



critique, and frequently result in a written report of the exercise
activity and recommendations for follow-up activity being submitted to
local officials.  Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a
functional exercise in the context of the full spectrum of exercise
types for a hypothetical community.


   A full-scale exercise is used to evaluate response organizations'
operational capabilities in an interactive manner over several hours.

   The purpose of a full-scale exercise is to test a major portion of
the functions in an emergency plan.  A full-scale exercise
incorporates a high degree of realism, extensive involvement of
resources and personnel, and an increased level of stress.

   This type of exercise includes mobilization of personnel and
resources to many sites (e.g., State and local EOCs, incident command
posts, mass care centers, medical facilities equipment staging areas)
and the actual movement of emergency personnel equipment, and
resources required to demonstrate a coordinated response capability.

   As with the functional exercise, types of activity will include
operations, coordination, and policy-level personnel but with broader
participation.  State and Federal participation may include exercise
design, coordination, and evaluation support.  The number of
evaluators is usually more than for either a tabletop or functional
exercise, and 10 to 50 evaluators is a fairly typical range.  These
numbers are only examples, however, and the number of evaluators will
vary from exercise to exercise, depending on locale, size of the
community, resources available, and number of functions exercised. 
Post-exercise activities could include an oral critique, a participant
debriefing, and generally conclude with a formal written report. 
Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a full-scale exercise in the
context of the full spectrum of exercise types for a hypothetical





   Once a response organization has an emergency plan in place,
certain advance planning activities need to be completed before an
exercise is conducted.  These activities include: Establishing An
Exercise Design Team, Exercise Scale Decisions, Selection of Exercise
Objectives, Exercise Scenario Development, Exercise Evaluation, and
Training and Exercising.  After these advance planning activities have
been completed, there are other final preparations which must be
completed immediately before the exercise.

Establish An Exercise Design Team

   A key element in the successful development of an exercise is to
establish an exercise design team.  The responsibility of the 'team'
is to select the functions and the objectives of the exercise.

   A multi-disciplinary approach to team composition provides an
excellent opportunity to understand the needs of others.  Team members
should be knowledgeable in the disciplines or functions being
exercised.  It is also beneficial if these,persons have experience in
emergency management and response, are creative, and possess "team
building skills.'

   The team should include representatives from various local agencies
such as fire, police, emergency medical services, emergency
management, public works, utilities, schools, hospitals, the weather
service, the media (it is advantageous for the public to know you are
addressing community needs), and nearby organizations participating
through mutual aid agreements.  The team should also include industry
representatives from the hazardous materials facility, or, for
transportation-related scenarios, representatives from the shipper or
carrier.  Because they will generally be made aware first of unusual
and potentially dangerous events, they play a crucial role in the
design of a realistic exercise.  The representation of a Local
Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) is a good base for an exercise
design team.

   Once the team is established, the next step is to appoint or elect
one member to be the team director.  Exercise development is a complex
task, therefore this person should be someone who can motivate people
to continue working when things get difficult.

   The team is responsible for coordinating exercise 'play" activities
(e.g., the type of exercise, response organization/s involved, etc.)
between the multiple levels (i.e., State, county, and local) of
emergency response organizations.  This will help avoid fragmented or
redundant decision making play and confusion which is particularly
important if an exercise is conducted on the borderline of States,
counties, or cities.  The team is also responsible for writing the
scenario.  In order for the exercise to be successful, the players
should not be included in writing the scenario, and the scenario
should be kept confidential.  Team members would also make ideal
controllers or evaluators of an exercise.  An exercise team should
consider the types of participants to be involved in their exercise. 
A sample list of participants is included in Appendix E, and a list of
potential exercise equipment needs is included in Appendix G.

   There are two additional ingredients necessary for a successful
exercise program.  The first is to ensure that sound safety practices
and principles are designed into the exercise to prevent injuries to
players and the public (e.g., how will the public and bystanders be
handled the day of the exercise).  The second is to ensure that key
elected and appointed officials support the exercise, particularly for
multi-community exercises.  The team and local officials can promote
good-will and encourage mutual aid support by inviting neighboring
officials to observe the exercise.



Exercise Scale Decisions

   The team should select the right type of exercise based upon its
experience, needs, and resources.  A good strategy may be to start
with a less ambitious exercise (tabletop or functional) and to build
up to a full-scale exercise.  This approach builds on exercise
successes, boosts confidence, and gains management support.  This
.gradual' approach avoids the frustration of holding a full-scale
exercise as an initial effort and having everything go wrong.

   As with the exercise design team, get as many organizations as
possible involved in the exercise.  Encourage industry representatives
to be involved from the beginning.  When all parties are interested,
the chances of getting industry commitment for a full-scale exercise
are much greater.  Consider combining efforts with another response
organization or hold a county-wide exercise to test the ability of a
response organization to request, receive, and utilize resources from
other jurisdictions.

   In addition to joining efforts with neighboring response
organization(s) or counties, solicit exercise support from mutual aid
groups.  Use this group to share resources and identify people with
training and exercise experience -- include them on the exercise
design review team.  Increase the complexity of the exercise
commensurate with the number of participants.

Selection of Exercise Objectives

   Regardless of the type of exercise (i.e., tabletop, functional,
full-scale), objectives give an exercise focus.  To assist in
establishing exercise objectives, the team should conduct a needs
assessment to identify areas that have not been previously tested or
need improvement based upon previous exercises.  Once the needs
assessment is completed, the exercise objectives for each major
participating response organization can be defined.

   For example, FEMA has developed the Hazardous Materials Exercise
Evaluation Methodology (HM-EEM) and Manual which consists of 15 major
hazardous materials exercise objectives that are linked to specific
emergency functions drawn from guidance contained in NRT-1.  Each
objective is specific, realistic, results-oriented, and measurable. 
Appendix A lists the 15 Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation
Methodology Objectives.  These objectives may be utilized in the
design, conduct, and evaluation of a hazardous materials exercise.

   In addition to Appendix A, Chapter V, Learning From the Experiences
of Others, provides a summary of lessons learned from a large number
of exercises conducted throughout the country in recent years.  These
lessons can be particularly useful in selecting additional exercise
objectives, developing scenarios, and evaluating exercises.

Exercise Scenario Development

   After selecting the exercise objectives, the next step is to
develop an exercise scenario.  An exercise scenario is a sequential,
narrative account of a hypothetical accident.  The scenario provides
the catalyst for the exercise and is intended to introduce situations
which will inspire responses, and thus allow testing of the exercise
objectives.  Most scenarios are initiated with an accident resulting
in a release of, or the potential for a release of, a hazardous
material.  Sample scenarios and sequences of events for a tabletop and
full-scale exercise are included in Appendix C and Appendix D.

   For example, one scenario might entail an incident at a chemical
manufacturing facility which results in the release of chlorine.  The
scenario would include a description of where, what, and when it
occurred, the area



affected, weather conditions, etc.  The scenario would also include
clearly defined, preplanned times of the various stages of the
accident; that is, what scenario events should occur to get agencies
to carry out response actions.

   These scenario events are often communicated via a control message. 
The control message describes the problems which prompt an agency to
take action.  One example of a preplanned control message may be that
the chlorine valve can not be shut-off.  The response action would be
to utilize a "C Kit" and trained response personnel to stop the
release until further repairs can be made to the valve.  Another
example of a preplanned control message may be that a train is
scheduled to pick up some railcars at the chemical plant.  The
response action would be to notify the railroad and advise them not to
come into the plant because of the accident.

   The team might consider varying the exercise by using a
transportation incident in lieu of a fixed facility incident.  This
type of incident involves many different facets of first response,
such as identifying the chemicals involved from placards and/or
shipping papers (manifests) and contacting the shipper and carrier for
more information and support.

   A realistic exercise scenario provides the best opportunity for a
response organization to evaluate its emergency plan, training, and
overall preparedness to operate under emergency conditions.  There are
several ways to incorporate realism into an exercise scenario.

   One way to develop a realistic scenario is to evaluate real
incidents and consider incorporating this real-world information into
an exercise scenario.  A great deal can be learned by reviewing case
histories of incidents and accidents that have occurred across the
country.  For case history information, consider contacting the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Association of American
Railroads (AAR), and/or the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). 
For further information, see Chapter VI, Tapping Additional Resources.

   Another way to provide a realistic exercise scenario is to develop
and use props and other simulation materials to the extent possible. 
Because of the lack of genuine physical cues (e.g., visible vapors or
leaking liquids), it can be difficult to exercise field teams.  Dry
ice or smoke bombs are commonly used to simulate a hazardous material. 
Above all, think safety first when simulating hazardous materials.

   Determine before the exercise whether field kits for environmental
monitoring will be fully stocked for demonstration purposes or if only
some of the more fragile equipment or expensive supplies will be

   Use realistic weather conditions in the scenario, but not
necessarily the actual weather on the day of the exercise.  Simulated
weather is usually best for driving the desired protective actions --
you can plan what areas will need to be 'sheltered in-place' or
'evacuated' in the exercise.  Real weather is usually best only for
testing weather instruments and communications with weather agencies.

   Develop exercise scenarios that include moulaged victims that must
be rescued and given medical attention.  This type of scenario
requires responders to instruct rescue vehicles (ambulance,
helicopters) via radio, as to the nature and extent of the victim's
injuries and whether it is necessary to change the route or landing
site to avoid a hazardous chemical plume.

   Design the exercise scenario so that requirements for protective
actions are not predictable.  One problem observed in some exercises
is that scenarios virtually always progress to an evacuation of some
area.  When players are able to anticipate such a result, the exercise
effectively limits the need to utilize the protective action decision
making process.  In hazardous materials incidents, especially where
evacuation is sometimes the WRONG decision, the exercise scenario
should not be predisposed to require or prompt an evacuation decision,
but should leave open the option of sheltering in-place.  Determine
which protective actions will be demonstrated



and which will be simulated.  Consider demonstrating parts of these
actions during the exercise, perhaps by staffing some traffic control
points or running some of the evacuation bus routes.

   Design the scenario so that law enforcement personnel demonstrate
the decision making process for traffic management strategies.  The
actual exercising of traffic control points is seldom required because
it is a normal part of a police officer's job, but a representative
number of traffic control points should be demonstrated to evaluate
implementation times, communications capabilities, response personnel
safety measures, and whether police officers are knowledgeable about
their traffic (routing) and access control responsibilities (e.g., who
may be admitted to an evacuated area).

   Consider building in a communications failure into the exercise
scenario so that the backup system is tested, not merely simulated or
explained during the exercise.

Exercise Evaluation

   The extent and depth of the evaluation is based on the
participating response organization's needs and resources, plus any
State and Federal technical assistance available.  Controllers'
evaluations and observations may suffice for many exercises, while
additional assessment by trained evaluators may be needed for others.

   One method of evaluation is to use related criteria or standards of
performance.  These standards of performance, agreed to before the
exercise, are based upon observable response measures which must be
performed to meet each objective.  It is more useful for a response
organization to receive an objective-based evaluation to know that a
particular task was or was not performed and that it was or was not
consistent with the plan, rather than a subjective judgment based
solely upon an evaluator's opinion of "how well" an overall function
was accomplished.  Opinions are important, but they should be based
upon specific observations and facts.

   Another way of evaluating an exercise is to use evaluation
techniques, such as FEMA's Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation
Methodology Evaluation (HM-EEM) and Manual, described above.  It can
be beneficial to use the HM-EEM Manual in advance of the exercise to
define the scope of each objective.  In some cases, evaluators may
require training on the exercise evaluation technique in advance of
the exercise.

   When possible, ensure that evaluators are trained, technically
qualified to observe hazardous materials response activities, and
experienced at evaluation of emergency response activities.  Using
qualified evaluators in technical areas (e.g., chemical
characteristics, impacts) and/or evaluators experienced in evaluation
can result in an objective and useful evaluation.  If trained
evaluators are not available locally, the response organization can
gain its own evaluation experience by participating in a neighboring
response organization's exercise, or by requesting help from State
and/or Federal agencies.  These agencies may be able to provide
assistance in locating trained evaluators, providing evaluators, or
training local evaluators.

Training and Exercising

   Some extra training, shortly before the exercise, enhances a
response organization's performance and is particularly useful for
communities inexperienced in exercising.  As a general rule-of-thumb,
however, training should be conducted throughout the year, not just as
a concentrated effort before the exercise.

   Pre-exercise training might include communications training for all
players involved in response activities so they can become familiar
with equipment and proper protocol for exercises.  This will help to
eliminate a major problem experienced in many exercises.



   The team should make arrangements to use a specifically identified
radio channel on the day of the exercise.  Begin and end each
communication with "This is an exercise," because many people
monitoring emergency radio channels may mistake the messages for a
real incident.  Everyone must know it is an exercise.  Develop a fail
safe mechanism or code (i.e., Code "red") to indicate when to
immediately end an exercise for safety reasons or for a real
emergency.  Real emergencies take precedence over an exercise.

Final Preparations

   Once a community has an emergency plan in place and the advance
exercise planning activities are completed, the next steps are to fine
tune the scenario, stage and set-up the site and equipment, and to
finalize logistical and coordination aspects of the exercise.

   For example, shortly before the exercise, the team should conduct
an orientation seminar (often called a pre-exercise meeting) to inform
players of last-minute changes, and to review roles, responsibilities,
and objectives.  Players are instructed on the extent of exercise
"play" expected from them during the exercise -- what can and cannot
be simulated.  Often, in exercises, responders say "In an actual
emergency I would have done this, but this is only an exercise." Make
the exercise a worthwhile training experience by ensuring that all
involved understand their roles.

   The orientation seminar or pre-exercise meeting is a convenient
time to distribute badges to all exercise personnel.  These badges can
be used to identify players, controllers, evaluators, and observers. 
The use of badges minimizes confusion about who may insert control
messages, and identifies personnel to one another, maintaining the
integrity of the exercise/evaluation process.  Badges will work in
only limited situations, however-primarily tabletop exercises.  In
functional and full-scale exercises, something readily visible and
distinctive should be used (colored hats, t-shirts, etc.)

   It is important to note that the amount of last minute activities
will increase proportionately with the scope of the exercise.  Thus,
final preparations for a tabletop exercise will require less effort
than those required for a full-scale exercise.  Consequently,
appropriate time and resources should be allowed to complete the
critical last-minute, activities.


   Advance planning sets the stage for the smooth conduct of an
exercise.  A sample exercise planning checklist is located in Appendix
F. It may be useful for the team director to refer to this before the
exercise is initiated.  The team director must assume responsibility
for the conduct of the exercise to ensure that the exercise stays on
track and thus, the agreed upon objectives are tested.  The team
director's job is to:

   -  Present the players with the exercise-initiating narrative.

   -  Announce the first event of the scenario.

   -  Stimulate player responses, without intervening in a way that
      assumes control of the play, unless it appears likely that the
      players will not initiate a response action critical to the
      objective(s) of the exercise.

   -  Manage the flow and pace of the exercise by introducing the
      remaining events in sequence through the use of control



   -  Keep the exercise on schedule and terminate play at the
      specified end-time.

   In general, it is best to let the exercise play develop naturally,
with the players responding to the scenario events as they deem
appropriate.  Some response actions are so critical to the completion
of the exercise objectives, however, that the exercise director and/or
controllers may have to intervene in exercise play by interjecting
additional response-stimulating messages in order to ensure that such
responses occur.  If intervention is necessary, it should be noted and
discussed during the exercise evaluation.


   There are numerous activities which should be conducted after an
exercise.  These activities include: the Evaluation Process, Exercise
Feedback, and Follow-up.

Evaluation Process

   Exercise evaluation is the systematic examination of the
effectiveness of the emergency preparedness program.  It provides
decision makers with justification for improving the emergency plan or
providing additional training.

   Evaluation activities are ongoing throughout the exercise as
evaluators record data and observations and make tentative judgments. 
One important post-exercise activity is a post-exercise debriefing in
which facts and findings are presented, compared, and discussed by and
among evaluators, players, and controllers, and conclusions are
provided to exercise players.  Tentative conclusions are generally
provided shortly after the exercise and final conclusions are often
provided later in a formal written report.

   The exercise evaluation should address each exercise objective:

   -  Was the objective met?

   -  If yes, what were the results?

   -  If no, what changes are necessary to achieve the objective?

   The most successful exercise is not one where all went well and
participants walked away thinking "aren't we great?" Rather, the
successful exercise is one that forces an honest look at capabilities
and leads to improvement.

   Exercise evaluation answers such important questions as:

   -  Are additional resources necessary?

   -  Are parts of the plan in need of revision?

   -  Is additional training required?

   -  Are staffing levels adequate?

   -  Is the communication system vulnerable to overload?



   -  Can first response units communicate with one another?

Exercise Feedback

   In addition to exercise evaluation, other post-exercise activities
may include having exercise players complete an evaluation
questionnaire.  This will produce information about the exercise,
particularly the effectiveness of the plans and emergency response to
the exercise scenario.  Other post-exercise activities may include:

   -  Arranging for feedback mechanisms (e.g., participant
      debriefings, oral critiques, or a brief or comprehensive
      exercise evaluation report) to provide participants with an
      indication of opportunities for improvement in their plans and

   -  Scheduling a follow-up exercise to test corrected deficiencies
      from previous exercises and to validate response under more
      complex situations and increased agency involvement.

   -  Arranging for newspaper accounts of the exercise to enlighten
      the public about the risk from hazardous materials and local
      efforts to respond to any incidents.

   -  Making concrete recommendations for resolving problems and
      improving procedures (additional practice, training, staffing,
      equipment).  Re-plan, re-train, and re-exercise where objectives
      were not fully met.


   Of particular importance is"following-up" on the exercise
evaluation recommendations.  Recommendations without follow-up would
limit the response organizations from receiving the full benefit of
the exercise.  The follow-up is one of the most neglected areas of
exercise development.  Experts suggest the following techniques to
ensure that follow-up occurs:

   1. Use the exercise to establish goals for a long term preparedness
      program that includes exercises.

   2. Assign tasks, a schedule, and the responsibility for recommended

   3. Monitor the progress of implementing recommended improvements.

   4. Test improvements during the next exercise.

   Reconvene the original exercise design team following an exercise
to determine what follow-up activity is necessary.




   Over the past decades literally thousands of emergency exercises of
varying scope have been conducted and evaluated by various communities
and levels of government in order to test emergency plans.  As a
result of those exercises, such as those conducted under FEMA's
Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program (REP), RRT/OSC exercises,
actual hazardous materials incidents, and hazardous materials
exercises and drills, many valuable lessons have been learned.  This
section utilizes many of the lessons learned from various exercises
and provides a set of helpful hints for conducting effective hazardous
materials exercises.  Clearly, these lessons can transfer to hazardous
materials exercises as well as plan development and review.  For
example, these lessons can be particularly useful in selecting
exercise objectives, establishing requirements for demonstrating
objectives, developing exercise scenarios, and evaluating exercises.

   The helpful hints based upon these lessons learned are categorized
according to their relation to the following specific response
functions identified in NRT-1, Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning
Guide, March 1987 (pages 37-38):

   Initial Notification of Response Agencies

   -  Direction and Control

   -  Communications - Responder

   -  Warning Systems and Emergency Public Notification

   -  Public Information/Community Relations

   -  Resource Management

   -  Health and Medical Services

   -  Response Personnel Safety

   -  Personal Protection of Citizens

   -  Fire and Rescue

   -  Law Enforcement

   -  Ongoing Incident Assessment

   -  Human Services

   -  Public Works

   -  Others - Hazardous Materials Identification and Analysis

   Some of the activities suggested in the following helpful hints for
   exercises may require new plans or procedures to be developed, if
   they are not already in place, prior to the exercise.  If so, all
   participates in the emergency response system should be fully
   briefed and instructed on new plans and procedures prior to the
   exercise.  In addition, some of these suggestions are more likely
   to be used for a full-scale exercise than a tabletop or functional




   -  Verify the ability to detect and declare an emergency at the
      facility site or location of a transportation accident.  This
      should be demonstrated by the hazardous materials facility
      management, transportation vehicle operator, and/or first
      arriving local responder(s) (e.g., police, fire).

   -  Contact the National Response Center (NRC) and the local
      emergency response organization (e.g., police or fire department
      dispatcher) in a timely manner once an emergency has been
      detected or declared.  This contact can be made by the hazardous
      materials facility management, transportation vehicle operator,
      and/or local responder.  Emergencies involving releases of
      reportable quantities of hazardous materials must, under federal
      law, be reported by the responsible party to the NRC.

   -  Notify each agency involved in the response effort.  By making
      actual calls, a community can demonstrate that all required
      notifications can be made in a reasonable period of time. 
      Simulating this may not give a true picture of the time needed
      to complete the initial notification.  Give special attention to
      verifying the accuracy of listed phone numbers and to testing
      alternate numbers of contact points, even if the primary number
      is answered.

   -  Use pagers for notifying key, mobile personnel who are difficult
      to reach by phone.

   -  Use checklists to ensure that all necessary personnel are


   -  Establish a clear understanding of areas of responsibility for
      initial emergency response between the hazardous materials
      facility or transportation management and off-site officials. 
      The facility, because of possibly greater resources and
      technical knowledge, may need to take some responsibility for
      offsite actions at the beginning of exercises and real events
      (e.g., field team monitoring of a toxic cloud).

   -  Implement the Incident Command System (ICS), which is now
      required under an Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      (OSHA) final rule (29 Code of Federal Regulations
      1910.123[a][3]. An ICS is a combination of personnel, policies,
      procedures, and equipment working together within a common
      organizational structure with responsibility for management of
      assigned resources to effectively accomplish stated objectives
      at the scene of an accident.  An ICS can be used to effectively
      manage minor incidents such as an automobile accident as well as
      major disasters.  Experience has shown that an agency which uses
      ICS for day-to-day operations will be better prepared to handle
      major situations.  For more information, contact the
      Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Division of
      Consumer Affairs, Room N-3647, 200 Constitution Avenue N.W.,
      Washington, D.C. 20210, 202/523-8151.

   -  Ensure that the official designated in the local plan to take
      charge of an emergency response effort actually assumes control
      during the exercise.  Don't short change the exercise by passing
      this responsibility off to a staff member.  If the official must
      leave, only a specified alternate should perform the official's
      assigned tasks.

   -  Strive to get all agencies and organizations to participate. 
      Exercise coordinators should put forth considerable effort to
      ensure that all critical agencies and organizations participate
      in exercise play.  Nothing is more frustrating for local
      emergency response personnel than to have key representatives
      missing during an exercise.



   -  Incorporate 24-hour staffing and an actual shift change for key
      positions as part of an exercise.  The area of direction and
      control is often the weakest with respect to 24-hour staffing. 
      The primary (first shift) emergency response coordinator is
      usually quite competent, but the backup is less often capable of
      functioning without direct supervision or assistance.

   -  Do not activate the command posts or emergency operating center
      (EOC) ahead of the exercise.  This pre-positioning can pose an
      obstacle in observing whether the EOC can be activated in a
      timely manner.  An exception to this, of course, is when the
      community has a full-time, dedicated EOC available.  Make sure
      all EOC staff have been trained in EOC operations.


   -  Utilize both primary and backup communications links during the
      exercise.  Common communication problems observed during
      exercises include the number of different radio frequencies and
      the lack of a common channel for coordination of response

   -  Secure a commitment from the lead communications person at each
      facility to save copies of all communications-related
      documentation including message and radio logs.  If such
      facilities do not currently use logs, adding them and procedures
      for their use should be considered.  Such logs can be especially
      valuable in a later determination of where things went wrong
      during an exercise.  Radio logs maintained by local agencies may
      contain sensitive information about actual agency business and
      may not be available for release.  To overcome this potential
      problem, communications personnel need to keep a separate
      exercise communications log.


   -  Schedule exercises to coincide with the routine test of public
      alerting systems.  Such scheduling will minimize undue public
      concern (e.g., siren testing).  If this is not possible,
      emergency response personnel should proceed with their normal
      procedure up to the point where the public alert system would
      actually be sounded.  Evaluators will want to pay particular
      attention to the actual amount of time required to complete the
      activation process to determine if normal staffing can manage
      the activation process in addition to their day-to-day duties.

   -  Draft emergency broadcast system (EBS) messages as if they were
      to be read on the system.  To determine whether the message is
      readable, ask participating radio stations to read all EBS
      messages associated with the exercise into a tape recorder in
      real-time according to the scenario.  The tape can then be
      reviewed to verify validity of the message content that would
      actually have reached the public in the event of a real

   -  Perform route alerting if it is intended to be the emergency
      warning system.  To realistically assess the amount of time
      route alerting would take, read messages while driving slowly,
      knock on doors, and deliver the emergency instruction message. 
      Responders should make a special point of identifying persons
      with special needs and simulate alerting them.  Again, carefully
      review message content and clarity.  If the area is largely non-
      English speaking, the message should be in both English and the
      dominant language of the area.

   -  Use existing emergency warning systems during hazardous
      materials exercises.  If the area has an existing coastal storm
      warning or some other system, use that system, if possible, for
      hazardous materials incidents.



   -  Ensure that all announcements about on-site (e.g., at a chemical
      facility) protective measures include the information necessary
      for employees to implement them.  This includes information on
      sheltering in-place as well as evacuation.  Include information
      about wind direction, specific routes to follow to avoid the
      toxic cloud (plume), and specific assembly area.

   -  Use aspects of the warning system which are not routinely
      checked.  Exercises should focus on aspects of the system unique
      to the emergency in the scenario (e.g., finding and using the
      right prescripted or pre-recorded messages, or writing and
      transmitting customized messages).


   -  Treat media relations as realistically as possible during an
      exercise to adequately prepare for a real emergency.  For
      example, actually set up a Joint Information Center (JIC)- a
      central location where actual media briefings and press
      conferences are held.  A JIC helps eliminate the potential for
      conflicting news reports and helps control rumors.  Provisions
      should be made to monitor TV and radio broadcasts to quickly
      correct erroneous information.  Invite actual media
      representatives and other players primed to ask realistic, tough

   -  Coordinate public information releases.  This is particularly
      important given the large number of agencies involved and the
      relatively short time available for release.  During an
      exercise, make sure all forms and releases are marked 'This is
      an exercise.'

   -  If the emergency plan calls for the use of a "citizen's
      information hotline," include the emergency telephone number in
      every news release, mention it at every news briefing, and
      display it prominently in the media room for television.  This
      is one way to avoid rumors.

   -  Practice answering the "citizen's information hotline" with
      correct responses to inquiries.  Calls from the media, insofar
      as possible, should be handled by the Public Information Officer
      (PIO) to ensure accurate information.

   -  Assign a full-time PIO to supervise the operators.  This PIO
      supervisor should attend each news briefing to ensure up-to-date
      information is provided from the "hotline."

   -  Consider video-recording news conferences.  This will be useful
      backup for post-exercise reference.

   -  Ensure that news releases and conferences are timely and
      accurately reflect information in the scenario as well as
      exercise events (protective action decisions, etc.).

   -  Ensure that news releases are clearly written.  Do not expect
      the media to interpret highly technical information and then
      pass this information on to the public with a minimum of

   -  Explain and define terms and acronyms unique to emergency
      planning and response as well as terms related to different
      modes of transportation (e.g., piggyback, tankcar, boxcar,
      tanktruck etc.) and manufacturers or distributors of chemical
      products.  Be careful to fully explain this terminology when it
      is used during briefings.

   -  Explain characteristics and hazards associated with the present
      emergency and the released materials.  Use simple language
      easily understandable by the public.

   -  Make full use of the visual aids provided in the briefing area
      during the entire emergency exercise.  This will enhance the
      briefing and result in a clear presentation.



   -  Provide to the media as soon as possible, accurate information
      about any injuries sustained by personnel at the incident and
      detailed accounts of the emergency response activities, reducing
      the likelihood of misunderstandings and inaccurate reporting.

   -  Use an effective leader to coordinate and integrate the
      information received by the spokespersons from each agency to
      ensure that accurate and comprehensive information is being

   -  Ensure that all sources of public information given out during
      the exercise are consistent with information previously
      distributed (e.g., information distributed via telephone books,
      hotel information cards, brochures, local media).


   -  Confirm that all of the needed resources are actually available. 
      It is often impractical and too costly in an exercise to
      mobilize all the actual resources that would be needed in a real
      emergency.  So, when resources are needed, place actual calls to
      the providers of those resources; request the simulated
      provision and the actual numbers needed.  Actually placing these
      calls provides emergency planners with an opportunity to verify
      that resource inventories are accurate and up to date.

   -  Keep logs of all requests, by both the requesters and providers,
      to verify that all needs are met, and that each provider
      actually has available the numbers of resources requested from
      him.  This may involve MOUs with adjacent communities, counties,
      industry, and/or regional response organizations with
      facilities, equipment, and personnel having useful expertise.


   -  Control the spread of contamination to ambulance and hospital
      staff when treating contaminated patients.  Although written
      procedures may be in place, actual demonstration of these
      procedures during an exercise will point out if further training
      is needed or if procedures should be revised.

   -  Place actual telephone calls to the providers of health and
      medical services, even if only a small sample will be
      demonstrated during the exercise.  These calls may be conducted
      out of sequence from the rest of the exercise, often in
      coordination with routine medical facility drills or exercises.

   -  Determine whether medical facilities know how to obtain and use
      necessary medical and other data for diagnosing and treating
      victims exposed to hazardous materials.  Many local hospitals
      will not be able to treat such exposed victims without
      consultation with medical experts from other parts of the State
      or country.

   -  Ensure that contaminated victims are appropriately
      decontaminated in the field or at the medical facility as

   -  Test procedures for providing hospitals with information on the
      number of victims, types of injuries and contamination involved,
      and estimated time of arrivals (ETAs) of emergency vehicles to
      allow adequate preparation by the hospitals.  This information
      can be relayed from the emergency vehicle to the hospital.

   -  Utilize Poison Control Centers as another source of health
      hazard, diagnostic, and treatment information and as a
      dissemination point for information to the general public. 
      Exercise design should test the ability of on-scene personnel to
      communicate with the Center and vice-versa.



   -  Consider testing use of color-coded triage tags (green - patient
      can wait; yellow -patient needs hospital attention, but, injury
      is not life threatening; red - patient needs immediate care,
      injury is life threatening; black - patient is beyond help or

   -  Protect medical personnel from exposure to high concentrations
      of hazardous materials because of vaporization from contaminated
      clothing of victims in enclosed spaces such as ambulances or
      treatment rooms.  For example, demonstrate providing personal
      protective equipment to medical personnel caring for victims in
      the ambulance.  Medical personnel need to be familiar with and
      able to work in various levels of protection as needed. 
      Consider the use of materials that are very odorous but safe to
      simulate actual hazardous materials.


   -  In compliance with applicable OSHA regulations, it is the
      responsibility of employers to ensure that sound safety
      principles and practices are followed during the exercise to
      prevent injuries to participants.  The Bibliography at the end
      of this report lists additional sources of safety information.

   -  Verify a working knowledge of the potential hazards of the
      hazardous material(s) involved in the simulated incident. 
      Emergency responders frequently receive training on the proper
      use of their protective clothing, but may fail to demonstrate a
      working knowledge of the potential hazards they face.

   -  Question emergency responders about the type of protective
      clothing worn, its applicability to the chemical released in the
      exercise scenario, and any short- or long-term risks associated
      with exposure to that particular chemical.

   -  Issue protective equipment to each responder who needs it. 
      Issuing the equipment will help verify that supplies are
      adequate and represent the time required to deploy responders
      into the "hot" zone.

   -  Simulate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to
      prevent the danger of evoking heat stress conditions in an
      exercise.  At a minimum, try on the suits for fit, to test
      proper donning procedures, and to detect any defects in

   -  Conduct personnel monitoring and decontamination activities as
      near as possible to the access control point and away from the
      incident site.  If the area is located at a considerable
      distance from showers, demonstrate the use of a mobile washdown
      facility (e.g., tanker truck or hazardous materials response van
      with portable showers and eyewash capabilities).

   -  Institute a warning system for emergency evacuation of
      responders in the hazard zone.  For example, SOPs might call for
      an emergency warning system (e.g., a 30-second blast from an air
      horn or electronic siren to signal operating teams to exit the
      hazard zone immediately) to be in place in case communication
      fails between command and the operating teams and a critical
      situation develops.  Apparatus should be positioned so that the
      signal can be heard throughout the hazard area.

   -  Check the progress of response actions during the exercise. 
      After implementing the best option, the response leader (e.g.,
      Incident Commander) must be sure what is expected to happen is
      actually happening (or simulated as happening in the exercise
      scenario or controller messages).  If not, he/she must review
      the real or simulated problem and select another option to lead
      to the desired objective.

   -  Monitor the use of field equipment and materials during the
      response.  Ensure that adequate replacements and backups are
      available for portable air packs, washdown water (e.g., for



      emergency showers and eyewash devices), electricity,
      neutralizers, sorbents, and expendable equipment.


   -  Ensure that sound safety principles and practices are followed
      during the exercise to prevent injuries to the public.  The
      Bibliography at the end of this report lists additional sources
      of safety information.

   -  Test the local emergency responder's ability to resolve problems
      that are likely to arise while protective actions are being
      implemented.  For example, have people call the EOC and request
      special transportation assistance.

   -  Consider the time of day, season of the year, transient
      populations, and traffic conditions when discussing potential
      protective actions.  Any decision made should be based upon
      incident assessment information rather than an ad hoc reason to

   -  Test the coordination between incident command personnel and
      school officials on any decisions to release students early or
      to evacuate the school.  School evacuation has, for many
      communities, been an action that has come under intense
      scrutiny.  As a result of this increased attention, officials
      may elect to evacuate the schools prior to a recommendation to
      do so.  In hazardous materials incidents, such action may expose
      students to a greater risk than a decision to shelter in-place.


   -  Develop procedures to ensure a timely arrival at and entry into
      a fixed facility or scene of a transportation related incident
      by appropriate local emergency responders such as fire, police,
      and emergency medical services personnel.

   -  Challenge response personnel by having them demonstrate
      functions that are unique to hazardous materials incidents. 
      Rather than engaging in routine functions, consider
      demonstrating: recognizing and identifying hazardous materials
      from shipping papers, identification numbers, labels, placards,
      and the shape and type of transport package (e.g., tankcar,
      cylinder, drum); victim decontamination; assessing injuries
      caused by a hazardous material and giving emergency medical
      treatment; using chemical sensing and neutralization equipment
      and materials.

   -  Require emergency responders to demonstrate proper procedures
      for decontamination of victims exposed to hazardous materials.

   -  Verify that emergency responders are able to communicate with
      other responders while wearing protective equipment; using a
      portable radio, headset, or cellular telephone.

   -  Test procedures and arrangements for necessary air supplies to
      ensure that air supplies can be augmented or recovered quickly
      during a lengthy incident.


   -  Verify how protective equipment and supplies are provided to law
      enforcement personnel, as well as their effective use of these
      materials.  Although state police are in charge of hazardous
      materials emergency responses in some states, local law
      enforcement personnel are often overlooked as emergency
      responders and need resources and training to enhance their
      response capabilities.



   -  Inform law enforcement personnel about the current incident
      status and recommended protective action.  They have frequent
      contact with the public during hazardous materials incidents and
      are often asked for current information about the situation,
      protective action recommendations, and where the public might
      turn for more information (EBS stations, "hotline" numbers,


   -  Ensure adequate quantities of expendable field supplies such as
      portable air supplies, air or water sample containers, chemical
      monitoring equipment, etc.  This precludes premature termination
      of monitoring or reduction in field capability.

   -  Provide for varying assignments of responsibility for incident
      assessment.  For example, early in the exercise, a fixed
      facility simulating a hazardous materials emergency may
      demonstrate both on-site and off-site tracking of toxic cloud
      size, contents, and movement.  Later, off-site activities will
      be taken over by local or State emergency responders.  In a
      transportation exercise, the carrier may demonstrate initial
      assessment of the damage to a dented tank truck or railroad
      tankcar, and then call in experts for example, an inspector from
      the Bureau of Explosives of the Association of American

   -  Confirm that field equipment (such as air sampling devices) is
      currently calibrated and certified as accurate.  Establish
      procedures to assure this is done on a routine, periodic basis,
      and not just for the exercise.

   -  Confirm that designated team leaders are responsible for
      directing field team operations.  Each team member should have
      clearly defined duties.

   -  Brief teams, prior to deployment, on the nature of the incident,
      the chemical(s) released, and meteorological information. 
      Remind team members of team and individual duties as well as all
      safety procedures.

   -  Test procedures calling for instruments and communications to be
      checked prior to deployment.  This precludes having to return to
      the site to replace the equipment once the team has deployed to
      the incident.


   -  Make allowances for previous work commitments that may prevent
      full participation of volunteers in a exercise.  All key
      positions must be filled by primary or alternate staff.

   -  Challenge agencies responsible for mass care by having them
      demonstrate their capability to provide health for citizens with
      special needs (e.g., people in wheelchairs).




   -  Include public works personnel in an exercise.  Generally, they
      are called upon to furnish equipment, materials, and personnel
      (e.g., for diking of spilled chemicals) to aid in mitigating a
      hazardous materials incident.  While they are quite experienced
      in routine duties, they may lack the special training needed
      during hazardous materials incidents (e.g., protective
      equipment, hazard awareness).  Many of the suggestions found
      response functions also apply, especially since Public Works is
      often not thought of as an "emergency response" agency.


   -  Identify and determine the characteristics and risks of the
      hazardous materials(s) involved in the exercise.  Once the
      hazardous material and its form (e.g., liquid, gas, or solid) is
      identified using a material safety data sheets (MSDS), shipping
      papers, waybills, identification numbers, labels, placards, and
      the shape and type of shipping package (e.g., tankcar, cylinder,
      drum), its risks should be studied and analyzed using emergency
      response guidebooks and other technical references.  This skill
      is particularly important for transportation accidents, which
      are more unpredictable than incidents at fixed facilities which
      use the same hazardous materials.  The U.S. Department of
      Transportation's "Emergency Response Guidebook' (1990) and the
      Association of American Railroads', "Emergency Handling of
      Hazardous Materials in Surface Transportation" (1989) and
      "Emergency Action Guides' (1984, with supplements up to and
      including 1990) are useful guidebooks for aiding first
      responders in identifying the hazardous material, analyzing its
      hazards, and establishing an effective course of action.

   -  Contact manufacturers of the hazardous material(s) involved and
      appropriate industry organizations and services for information
      and help in hazard identification and analysis.  Contacting the
      manufacturer of the hazardous materials can provide the most
      useful information.  Industry services such as the Chemical
      Manufacturers Association's Chemical Transportation Emergency
      Center (CHEMTREC) can also provide initial response and medical
      information and assistance in contacting the manufacturer,
      transporters, and shippers.  The number for CHEMTREC is 1-800-

   -  Demonstrate the use of CAMEO II or other computer tools to
      assess the situation and their use in managing the response.




   In preparing for a hazardous materials exercise, a response
organization utilizes its own resources and may also look for
resources that may be available through mutual aid agreements. 
Additionally, the response organization might consider tapping
resources from the State government, Federal government, and the
private sector.

   State and Federal agencies have been conducting emergency exercises
over the years as a prudent course of action for ensuring emergency
preparedness to deal with catastrophic situations.  Private sector
companies are increasingly holding exercises at facility sites to test
their response procedures and safety systems.  As a result, a good
deal of 'outside" expertise may be available for supporting a local
exercise.  At the State level, the SERC would be an obvious point of
contact.  Other State agencies that may be of assistance include the
State emergency management office, environmental health agency, and
transportation agency.

   A response organization can also access a variety of Federal
resources and technical assistance to support its exercise.  Resources
include pre-scripted scenarios, a computer exercise generator that
allows a scenario to be tailored to local circumstances, training
courses that incorporate exercises, and written guidance on conducting
exercises.  Also available are specialists who can assist in exercise
design and evaluation, videotapes, incident data that can be used to
develop an exercise, and computer software for modeling chemical
spills, plume movement, effectiveness of in-place sheltering, and
movement of evacuation traffic.  These models can be used for
planning, developing exercise scenarios, helping to make protective
action decisions, and measuring the effectiveness of protective
actions.  A number of Federal agencies in sponsoring their own
exercises, actively encourage State and local participation.

   Table 3 provides a summary of the resources available from Federal
agencies.  Following Table 3 is more detailed information on available
Federal agency resources.  Depending upon the type of resource
required, local officials may contact a Federal agency directly or
contact the Regional Response Team (RRT) which is composed of Federal
agencies and State RRT representatives.  The State RRT representative
is the most direct conduit for obtaining RRT support.  It is strongly
recommended that a response organization seeking substantial Federal
assistance and support coordinate any requests through the State. 
Many States have resources that could be used to complement or
supplement Federal resources.  Start by contacting the SERC, State
agencies, and Federal Regional Offices.



                        TABLE 3: FEDERAL RESOURCES


                                             DOT     DHHS       DOC
               FEMA      EPA      USCG      RSPA     ATSDR     NOAA    DOD


Scenarios       HR

Computer Exercise
Generator       HR

Computer Resource
Tools'          HR       HR        HR                 HR         R

Modeling        HR                                     H         R

Exercise Training
Courses         HR       HR

Written Guidance
                HR       HR

Exercise Specialists/
Evaluators      HR        R         R                  H

Videotapes      HR       HR

Incident Data    H                            H

Exercise Sponsorship
                HR        R         R                                   H

HMIXb          HR       HR        HR         H

   H = Headquarters      R = Regional Offices or Districts

   a See list of acronyms on page 51.
   b See discussions of appropriate Federal agency's resources listed
      below (i.e., CAMEO, IEMIS, CADET).


National Response System

   The National Response System was created under the authority of the
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
of 1980 (CERCLA) which required the development of the National Oil
and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (commonly known as
the National Contingency Plan or NCP).  The purpose of the plan is to
provide the Federal organizational structure and procedures for
preparing for and responding to discharges of oil and releases of
hazardous substances.  The plan establishes three organizational
levels: the National Response Team (NRT), Regional Response Teams
(RRTs), and OnScene Coordinators (OSCs).



   NRT - A national planning, policy, and coordinating body consisting
   of 14 Federal agencies with interests and expertise in emergency
   response to oil discharges and hazardous substance releases.

   RRTs - Regional planning, policy, and coordinating bodies located
   in the ten Federal regions, the Caribbean, Pacific Oceania, and
   Alaska. RRT membership parallels NRT membership with the addition
   of a representative from each State in the region. Neither the NRT
   nor the RRTs respond directly to incidents although they provide
   technical advice to an OSC and have access to resources (e.g.,
   equipment) during an incident. Three Joint Response Teams have also
   been established to promote international planning and coordination
   along our borders with Canada, Mexico, and the USSR.

   OSC - A Federal official predesignated by the Environmental
   Protection Agency for inland areas and the U.S. Coast Guard for
   coastal areas. The OSC coordinates all Federal containment,
   removal, and disposal efforts and resources during an incident.
   Other Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and 
   Department of Energy, also have designated OSCs for dealing with
   any releases from their facilities.

   Through the National Response Team and Regional Response Teams
(RRT), Federal agencies are working to combine their exercise
resources, to share information, to broaden exercises to include
hazardous materials scenarios, and to expand exercise involvement to
include all interdisciplinary elements.  Each RRT is co-chaired by the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Coast
Guard (USCG).  To contact the RRT Co-Chairs, utilize the FEMA-DOT
Hazardous Materials Information Exchange (HMIX) for an up-to-date list
of names, addresses, and telephone numbers.

   The NRT, RRTs, and OSCs, together with the National Response Center
(NRC), form the National Response System, which is responsible for the
overall coordination of Federal activities related to oil discharges
and hazardous materials releases.  The National Response Center, a
central point for receiving incident notifications and collecting
incident information, provides technical data to support OSCs in
response during an incident.

   The National Contingency Plan also establishes requirements for
Federal regional and OSC contingency plans.  A regional contingency
plan must be developed by each RRT as a means for coordinating timely,
effective responses by Federal agencies and other organizations to oil
discharges and hazardous substance releases.  An OSC contingency plan
may be developed for responses in each OSC's area of responsibility. 
OSC contingency plans should be compatible with all appropriate
response plans of State, local, and other non-Federal entities.

      -  National Response Center

         Toll-free telephone number for reporting oil and hazardous
         substance releases:





   The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides a number of
resources to assist State and local officials in designing,
conducting, and evaluating emergency exercises.

Regional Offices

   FEMA Regional Office Hazardous Materials Program Staff members are
available, as time permits, to assist State and local governments in
all aspects of planning, conducting, and evaluating exercises. 
Moreover, an Exercise Specialist in each FEMA Regional Office serves
as a focal point for scenario development, pre-exercise training, and
post-exercise evaluation.

   FEMA also supports a State Training Officer and an Exercise
Training Officer (ETO) in almost all State Emergency Management
Offices.  The ETOs are available to aid local communities by
furnishing materials, planning exercises, conducting pre-exercise
training, evaluating exercises and preparing after-action reports. 
Exercise Training Officers meet once a year at FEMA's National
Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, MD, to discuss exercise
issues.  The Exercise Training Officers are usually responsible for
coordinating the State and Local Exercise Annex (SLE) required under

Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements (CCA)

   FEMA's CCA provides State governments with a single vehicle for
applying for and receiving financial and technical assistance
available under FEMA's grant programs.  Under the CCA, participating
State and local jurisdictions receiving FEMA funding are required
under the SLE Annex to develop/update a 4-year exercise maw plan for
validating emergency preparedness and response capabilities.  As part
of this plan, one full-scale exercise must be conducted during the 4-
year period and at least a functional exercise is to be undertaken in
each of the remaining 3 years. (FEMA may even give credit for an
actual major emergency and/or disaster in lieu of a functional or
full-scale exercise.)

   Exercises must be rotated each year among three primary scenarios -
National Security (NS), Natural Hazard (NH), and Technological Hazard
(TH).  Hazardous materials exercises may be accredited as meeting the
Technological Hazard exercise required by the SLE Annex in the CCA. 
States are responsible for seeing that roughly 1/3 of the local
communities use one of the three primary scenario types each year. 
The aim is to allow a community to exercise all emergency functions
(e.g., direction and control, fire and rescue) related to its major
hazards over a reasonable period of time.

   As a result of this 4-year exercise requirement, States are
required to submit annually an exercise schedule for each local
community indicating the proposed major scenario event, the exercise
type, and the quarter for each exercise during the year.  After an
exercise has been completed, FEMA Form 95-16, Exercise Data is used
for documenting the purpose of the exercise, hazard scenario, agencies
represented, functions tested, problems encountered, etc.  A computer-
generated program is available to States to input FEMA Form 95-16 and
generate various reports. (A copy of the form appears in Appendix B.)
In FY 1989, over 1,300 local exercises included hazardous materials as
the primary incident or as a secondary impact according to the data

   If a hazardous materials exercise is not included in the 4-year
plan for a given year as the major scenario event, and there is a
desire to conduct a hazardous materials exercise, consideration should
be given to incorporating a hazardous materials consequence as a
secondary impact in an already scheduled exercise (e.g., flood,
earthquake, national security).  A community opting to do this could
thus meet the requirements of FEMA's CCA and at the same time satisfy
any expectations for exercising plans developed under SARA Title



Training Resources

   FEMA also offers a 4-1/2 day Exercise Design Train-the-Trainer
course to qualify instructors to conduct the course in the field. 
Trainers are given an orientation on educational philosophy; exercise
design and methodology; and effective use of the instructor guide,
student manual, and other resource materials.  The 3-day field version
of the course provides knowledge and develops skills that will enable
the students to train a staff and to conduct an exercise that will
test a community's plan and operational response capability.  Through
the Exercise Design Train-the-Trainer course and other courses, FEMA
delivers some 12-14 classroom exercises each year.

   FEMA also offers a training course, "Radiological Emergency
Preparedness Exercise Evaluation," for evaluating commercial nuclear
power plant offsite exercises.  Since many aspects of REP planning and
exercises are applicable to hazardous materials, attendance at this
course has some practical utility for hazardous materials planners. 
Additionally, FEMA holds periodic earthquake and national security
exercises which involve State/local participation and may include
hazardous materials as a secondary scenario.

   The Emergency Education Network (EENET) is FEMA's one-way video,
two-way audio, satellite-distributed system that beams five programs
on emergency management subjects, such as exercising, across the
country.  EENET provides live, interactive training and education to
approximately 68,000 emergency managers and a secondary audience of
over 100,000 people.

Computer Resources

   FEMA and the Department of Transportation jointly manage the
Hazardous Materials Information Exchange (HMIX) which provides up-to-
date information on Federal hazardous materials training courses
(including courses dealing with exercises), regional public and
private sector hazardous materials activities, upcoming events and
meetings, recent legislation and regulations, and organizational
resources.  Information can be accessed through a personal computer
having communications capability or a terminal and modem by dialing
(708) 972-3275.  An information systems technician is available to
provide assistance Monday through Friday, 8:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.,
Central Time on the toll free line, 1-800-PLANFOR (752-6367); Illinois
residents may dial 1-800-367-9592.  A toll free line also provides
access to HMIX 24-Hours a day, 7 days a week at 1-800-874-2884.

   FEMA's National Emergency Training Center has a library of fully
tested exercise scenarios for a broad range of disasters including
hazardous materials.  These scenarios may be modified to meet the
special needs of a community.  A computerized exercise training design
package known as CADET, Computer Aided Design for Exercise Training,
is also available through FEMA Regional Offices.  The computer
software, consisting of 16 floppy discs, is designed to run on IBM-
compatible personal computers.  The user selects exercise objectives
and then customizes the program by providing specific names for
rosters, places, etc.  The computer generates the complete scenario
including events, printed messages, and evaluation forms.

   ARCHIE, the Automated Resource for Chemical Hazard Incident
Evaluation, is a computerized consequence analysis tool for the
DOT/EPA/FEMA developed Handbook of Chemical Hazard Analysis
Procedures.  The ARCHIE can be used to generate realistic hazard
scenarios based upon hazard data inputted by the user.  This tool and
companion handbook is available from the three producing agencies.

   FEMA has developed the Integrated Emergency Management Information
System (lEMIS), a general-purpose, computer-assisted system which can
be directly applied to hazardous materials incidents including support
of exercises and real-time responses.  Chemical spills, plume
movement, in-place sheltering, and traffic movement can be simulated
under varying weather conditions.  The resulting technical information
can be used for planning, developing exercise scenarios, helping to
make protective action decisions, and measuring the effectiveness of
protective actions.



   FEMA's Capability and Hazard Identification Program (CHIP) is a
nationwide data base that includes over 3,800 State and local
jurisdictions.  Data are available on local hazards, local capability
to deal with those hazards, and plans for addressing capability
shortfalls.  The CHIP data can be used to identify areas of weakness
that might be tested in an exercise and/or be used for determining
exercise objectives.

Exercise Programs

   As an element of its Hazardous Materials Program, FEMA has
developed the Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation Methodology (HM-
EEM) and Manual as a part of its technical assistance to State and
local governments.  The document, developed in response to the need
for a standardized and objective-based exercise evaluation tool, is
intended for use by State and local governments in evaluating
hazardous materials exercises conducted to validate emergency plans
and identify opportunities to improve preparedness.  The HM-EEM is a
series of modules prepared to evaluate 15 major exercise objectives
(see Appendix A) covered by response plans prepared using the guidance
contained in NRT-1 and CPG 1-8.  The HM-EEM may be subdivided into
modules using a matrix that links the objectives to specific emergency
functions or locations.  A companion HMEEM Manual defines the exercise
objectives and provides additional detailed information on each
objective to aid in hazardous materials exercise evaluation. 
Additionally, a blank timeline is contained within the document to
facilitate in the reconstruction of significant exercise events.

   Under its Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program, FEMA
provides technical assistance to State and local governments for
offsITe radiological emergency planning and exercising around
commercial nuclear power plants.  Currently, 71 nuclear power plant
sites are operational in the U.S. involving some 441 local communities
in offsite preparedness within the 10 mile emergency planning zone. 
States and local governments are required to participate in a joint
exercise with a commercial nuclear power plant once every two years. 
Federal evaluation of these exercises identifies strengths and
inadequacies which the States and local governments are asked to
correct.  This process of periodic exercises and corrective actions is
a key to the high level of emergency preparedness around commercial
nuclear power plants which has led many officials to conclude that
communities near a nuclear power plant are among the best prepared to
cope with any type of emergency.



 For information on these or other resources FEMA has to offer,
contact your FEMA Regional Office.

   -  Federal Emergency Management Agency
      Hazardous Materials Branch
      State and Local Programs and Support Directorate
      500 C Street, S.W.
      Washington, D.C. 20472

   -  Federal Emergency Management Agency
      National Emergency Training Center
      16825 South Seton Avenue
      Emmitsburg, MD 21727

      Electronic Bulletin Board:   708/972-3275 or FTS/972-3275
      Toll-Free Access Number:     1-800-874-2884

      Toll-free Assistance Number:    1-800-PLANFOR(1-800-752-6367)
      (In Illinois:   1-800-367-9592)



     REGION I                        REGION VI
     FEMA                            FEMA
     Room 462                        Federal Regional Center
     J.W. McCormack Post Office      800 North Loop 288
     & Courthouse Building           Denton, TX 76201-3608
     Boston, MA 02109-4595           817/898-9137
     617/223-4412                    FTS/749-9137
                                     REGION VII
     REGION II                       FEMA
     FEMA                            Room 200
     Room 1351                       911 Walnut St.
     26 Federal Plaza                Kansas City, MO 64106
     New York, NY    10278,          816/283-7011
     212/238-8225                    FTS/759-7011
                                     REGION VIII
     REGION III                      FEMA
     FEMA                            Denver Federal Center
     Second Floor,                   Building 710, Box 25267
     Liberty Square Building         Denver, CO 80225-0267
     105 South Seventh St.           303/235-4923
     Philadelphia, PA 19106          FTS/322-4923
     FTS/489-5528                    REGION IX
     REGION IV                       Building 105
     FEMA                            Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129
     Suite 700                       415/923-7187
     1371 Peachtree St. N.E.         FTS/469-7187
     Atlanta, GA 30309
     404/853-4454                    REGION X
     FTS/230-4454                    FEMA
                                     Federal Regional Center
     REGION V                        130 228th St., S.W.
     FEMA                            Bothell, WA 98021-9796
     Fourth Floor                    206/487-4696
     175 West Jackson Blvd.          FTS/390-4696
     Chicago, IL 60604-2698




   The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers a range of
resources and assistance for hazardous materials exercises.  EPA
Regional Offices play an integral part in working with State and local
officials to ensure effective exercises are conducted.  If a State or
local community intends to exercise a SARA Title III plan, the
Regional Office Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention (CEPP)
Coordinators are available to provide assistance and advice.  Two
sources of direct technical assistance in conducting exercises include
the Environmental Response Team (ERT) and contractor support,
particularly from the EPA Technical Assistance Teams (TATs).

   EPA's Environmental Response Team (ERT), located in Cincinnati, OH
and Edison, NJ, is a group of highly trained scientists and engineers
having expertise in multimedia sampling and analysis, hazard
evaluation, environmental assessment, and clean-up techniques.  The
ERT offers assistance in conducting full-field exercises, coordinating
the effort with EPA Regional Offices.  The ERT works with a community
to design a scenario relevant to the local situation and serves as a
facilitator in carrying out the exercise.  A debriefing is held on the
day following an exercise which allows participants to evaluate their
roles and to identify areas and gaps in planning activities and
response capabilities which need to be addressed.  The ERT, which is
available to provide overall technical support to On-Scene
Coordinators (OSCs) in actual incidents, conducts approximately ten
fullfield exercises a year.

   EPA offers a number of training courses in safety and technical
operations related to hazardous materials responses.  Known as the
"165 Series,' these courses cover topics such as response safety
decision making, air surveillance for hazardous materials, sampling,
hazard evaluation and environmental risk assessment, and incident
mitigation and treatment methods.  Three courses in the 165 series
include response exercises as part of the course content: Personnel
Protection and Safety (165.2), Hazardous Materials Incident Response
Operations (165.5), and Hazardous Materials Response for First
Responders (165.15). These exercises provide students the opportunity
to apply and test the lessons learned during the course in a 'hands-
on" mode, such as using monitoring and sampling equipment to assess
impacts of incidents and determining level of protective clothing
needed to respond safely.

   EPA maintains a tape library which includes "The Day Before," a
tape developed by EPA Region VII on steps to consider in developing an
exercise, and videos of previous ERT exercises.

   On a bilateral level, EPA is leading efforts of the Joint Response
Team in working with Mexico and Canada to include exercises as part of
joint preparedness activities.  Mexican officials participate in
exercises along the U.S.-Mexican border.  As a product of these
cooperative efforts, a modified table-top exercise has been recently
developed by Mexico and EPA Region IX.  This type of exercise, which
is called "written notification exercise," is especially pertinent in
those communities just beginning an involvement in hazmat planning and
response and to those with limited resources for exercising.  The
exercise is conducted in a low-profile, structured, but non-
confrontational manner.

   The Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO)
system, jointly developed by EPA and National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), is being used in all types of exercises to
provide information on chemical properties, wind directions, other
meteorological information, plume movement, populations centers at
risk, and other significant information required in an actual event.
(See Department of Commerce/NOAA section of this chapter for a
detailed description of the CAMEO program.)

   EPA fully supports interagency exercises and believes that better
use can be made of the limited resources available to all parties
which recognize the value of exercises as part of their preparedness
efforts.  Appendix C and Appendix D include "hands-on' information on
scenarios and sequences of events which may be useful in planning and
conducting table-top and full-scale exercises.  Appendix E contains a
sample list of



exercise participants.  Appendix F contains a sample exercise planning
checklist, and Appendix G includes a list of potential exercise
equipment needs.

   -  Environmental Protection Agency
      Chemical Emergency Preparedness and prevention Office
      Office of solid Waste and Emergency Response
      401 M Street, S.W.
      Washington, D.C. 20460


   -  Environmental Protection Agency
      Emergency Response Team
      26 West St. Clair Street
      Cincinnati, OH 45268


   -  Environmental Protection Agency
      Emergency Response Team
      Woodbridge Ave.
      Edison, NJ 08837


   -  Environmental Protection Agency
      Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
      Information Hotline

      1-202-479-2449 in Washington, D.C.



                          AGENCY REGIONAL OFFICES

     REGION I                        REGION VI
     EPA                             EPA
     New England Regional            Allied Bank Tower
     Laboratory                      1445 Ross Ave
     60 Westview St.                 Dallas, TX 75202-2733
     Lexington, MA 02173             214/655-2270
     617/860-4300                    FTS/255-2270 or 2277
     FTS/860-4300, ext. 221
                                     REGION VII
     REGION II                       EPA
     EPA                             726 Minnesota Avenue
     Woodbridge Ave.                 Kansas City, KS 66101
     Edison, NJ 08837                913/236-2806
     201/321-6656                    FTS/757-2806
                                     REGION VIII
     REGION III                      EPA
     EPA                             One Denver Place
     841 Chestnut St.                Suite 1300 999-18th St.
     Philadelphia, PA 19107          Denver, CO 80202-2413
     215/597-0922                    303/293-1723
     FTS/597-0922                    FTS/564-1723

     REGION IV                       REGION IX
     EPA                             EPA, H-12
     345 Courtland St., N.E.         75 Hawthorne Street.
     Atlanta, GA 30365               San Francisco, CA 94105
     FTS/257-3931                    415/744-2100
     EPA                             REGION X
     230 S. Dearborn St.             EPA
     Chicago, IL 60604               1200 6th Avenue
     312/886-1964                    Seattle, WA 98101
     FTS/886-1964                    206/442-1263




   The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) sponsors, with RRT support, six On-
Scene Coordinator/Regional Response Team (OSC/RRT) exercise simulation
training sessions across the country on an annual basis.  Five of
these exercises involve coastal areas; the sixth focuses on an inland

   OCS/RRT exercises are comprehensive and realistic simulations of
hazardous materials or oil incidents used to evaluate plans, policies,
procedures, and personnel.  The focus of the exercise is on the
OSC/RRT relationship and the management of a major incident.  Over 150
Federal, State, local, and industry officials generally participate in
a typical exercise.  Participation in the exercise provides the
opportunity for Federal predesignated OSCs and RRT members to assemble
in a central location with the local response community.  Industry
response representatives and clean-up contractors are also involved. 
All actions are simulated; no equipment or personnel are dispatched.

   The goal of the exercise is to allow all elements of the response
community to work together.  The scenario is designed to reflect
actual patterns in the host community.  The Coast Guard Marine Safety
School at Yorktown, VA designs the scenarios in coordination with a
selected team of local agency and industry representatives. 
Generally, each simulation involves a 6-week process from initial
planning through scenario development and exercise conclusion. 
Exercise length is two days -- eight hours of simulation activity
conducted in real time and three hours of open forum debriefing.  The
debriefing is a means to discuss any deficiencies and necessary
corrective actions as well as to reinforce positive results. 
Communities interested in participating in a simulation should contact
the RRT or the local predesignated Federal OSC.

      -  U.S. Coast Guard
         Marine Environmental Response Office (T-MER)
         Marine Safety School
         Reserve Training Center
         Yorktown, VA 23690


   The Department of Transportation/Research and Special Programs
Administration (DOT/RSPA) has a variety of program resources and
technical assistance which can support the development of
comprehensive hazardous materials exercises, with particular emphasis
on transportation issues.

   RSPA's primary source of hazardous materials transportation data,
the Hazardous Materials Information System (HMIS), can be used to
identify either individual incident reports or compilations of State
incident history.  The actual performance data derived from reports by
carriers whenever there is an unintentional release of hazardous
materials can be a useful source of scenario material.  Individual
incident information includes types of vehicles and materials
involved, deaths and injuries, if any, resulting from the incident,
losses and property damage, estimated cost of decontamination, and
nature of packaging failure.  New emphasis has been placed on
enhancing HMIS use; RSPA encourages requests for data.

    Information emanating from enforcement activity can be used both in
determining objectives for exercises and in setting up scenarios based
on identified patterns of chemicals being shipped on major



transportation routes.  DOT is encouraging State and local communities
to collect traffic flow information in order to allocate resources and
plan emergency response efforts.  As information about frequent
violations becomes available, planners will have an additional
resource for refining their hazard analysis.

   As part of the cooperative training initiatives under the auspices
of the National Response Team Training Committee, RSPA has established
a curriculum exchange effort to identify State-developed training
materials, case studies, and exercise scenarios which can be utilized
as resource materials.  These materials win be collected and indexed
for information sharing.

   As a result of increased communication among local, State, Federal
agencies, and industry efforts like the Community Awareness and
Emergency Response (CAER) program, considerable information is being
informally shared about exercise plans.  DOT is increasing efforts to
load this information on the FEMA-DOT Hazardous Materials Information
Exchange (HMIX).

   ARCHIE, the Automated Resource for Chemical Hazard Incident
Evaluation, is a computerized consequence analysis tool for the
DOT/EPA/FEMA developed Handbook of Chemical Hazard Analysis
Procedures.  The ARCHIE can be used to generate realistic hazard
scenarios based upon hazard data inputted by the user.  This tool and
companion handbook is available from the three producing agencies.

   New DOT guidelines can be used to assist State officials in
evaluating alternative routing approaches which can be tested in
exercises.  An additional planned resource is RSPA analyses of major
transportation incidents.  Site visits are planned to document what
lessons can be learned for planning and emergency response activities.

   Another well-established resource to emergency responders is the
DOT Emergency Response Guidebook.  It is a guide for initial action to
be taken when handling incidents involving hazardous materials.  It
covers over two thousand chemicals and includes potential hazards,
emergency actions, and initial isolation/evacuation distances for
selected hazardous materials.  The information on protective action
and isolation distances can be utilized for exercises.

      -  Department of Transportation
         Research and Special Programs Administration
         Federal, State, and Private Sector Initiatives Div.
         400 7th Street, S.W.
         Washington, DC 20590



   Under the provisions of CERCLA, the Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease Registry (ASTDR) in the Department of Health and Human
Services (DHHS) is responsible for providing support to State and
local governments in health matters relating to releases or potential
releases of hazardous materials.  ATSDR can furnish technical support
to Federal, State, and local agencies in planning hazardous materials
exercises, and in testing and evaluating the health components of
their emergency plans.  ATSDR has participated in developing, staging,
and evaluating both tabletop and full-scale exercises.  Depending on
the extent of the exercise, ATSDR



input will address contamination reduction and decontamination
activities related to response personnel, emergency medical services,
and hospital emergency rooms.  Exercises requiring decision making
related to overall public health are also encouraged.

      -  Department of Health and Human Resources
         U.S. Public Health Service
         Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
         600 Clifton Road (Mailstop E-28)
         Atlanta, GA 30333

         24-Hour Number:  404/639-0615


   The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the
Department of Commerce (DOC) currently makes available operational
models for spill responses (spill trajectory and air dispersion) which
can be used in exercises.  For example, the Computer-Aided Management
of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) system, developed by NOAA in
cooperation with the fire department of Seattle, WA, is receiving
increasing use by local emergency management organizations.  The CAMEO
system is a program jointly managed by NOAA and EPA.  CAMEO is
distributed by the Environmental Health Center of the National Safety
Council in Washington, D.C.

   CAMEO is designed to help emergency planners and first responders
both plan for, and safely handle, chemical accidents.  CAMEO contains
response information and recommendations for 2,629 commonly
transported chemicals; an air dispersion model to assist in evaluating
release scenarios and evaluation options; and several easily adaptable
databases, and a computational program that addresses the emergency
planning provisions of Title III, the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act of 1986.  CAMEO can be used for tabletop exercises
and simulations and for hazards analysis training.

   CAMEO can include such diverse information as facility floor plans
with chemical storage locations; contacts lists; locations of schools,
hospitals, and other population concentrations; response resources;
and maps of the planning area, overlaid with plumes calculated by the
air model.

   CAMEO operates in Macintosh and MS-DOS (IBM-compatible) computers;
both computers programs are functionally equivalent.


      -  Department of Commerce
         National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
         Hazardous Materials Response Branch
         7600 Sand Point Way, N.E.
         Seattle, WA  98115



   Each military service in the Department of Defense (DOD) has well-
established programs for routine testing of emergency response plans.

   The U.S. Army Material Command Surety Field Activity, for example,
is responsible for providing technical supervision of the Army
Material Command's chemical surety, nuclear, and nuclear reactor
facility accident/incident response and assistance activities,
including exercising of the Army Service Response Force.  Army
installations/organizations that have the mission of storing,
handling, or using military hazardous materials are required to
develop contingency or operation response and assistance plans. 
Additionally, they are required to conduct quarterly exercises.  One
of these exercises should involve testing existing State, local, or
other supporting agency plans on an annual basis.

   Every two years, the Army through the Army Material Command
conducts an Army-wide exercise to test and improve the Army's
capability to respond to an incident involving chemical surety
materials.  The first of these exercises included FEMA and EPA as
participants.  As a result of this exercise, it was recommended that
offsite response considerations be extended to include greater
participation from State and local government representatives and to
focus greater attention on the needs of evacuated civilians.  The
exercise also emphasized the need for clarification of OSC designation
during an incident at a defense facility.

      -  Department of the Army
         U.S. Army Material Command
         Surety Field Activity
         Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000



   In addition to State and Federal agency support, the private sector
can provide numerous resources (e.g., technical assistance, planning
capabilities, equipment).  Industry resources, when combined with
local, State, and perhaps Federal resources and assistance, can
improve overall emergency preparedness, promote public safety, and
provide for a multi-disciplinary approach to a comprehensive exercise



   The Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) program
initiated by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) is one
example of available private industry resources.  This program
encourages chemical plant managers to take the initiative in
cooperating with local communities to develop integrated emergency
plans for responding to hazardous materials incidents.

   Another example is the TRANSCAER program which is jointly sponsored
by CMA and numerous trade associations such as the Association of
American Railroads (AAR), National Association of Chemical
Distributors (NACD), National Tank Truck Carriers (NTTC), American
Petroleum Institute (API), and the American Waterways Operators (AWO),
to name a few, While CAER is focused in communities where chemical
facilities operate, its sister program, TRANSCAER, has begun in towns
where hazardous materials are transported - via air, rail, highway,
water, and/or pipeline.  It is a three-way communications effort among
industry, transporters, and the public to increase community awareness
and improve emergency preparedness - especially in communities where
hazardous materials are transported.

   On another front, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of
Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has issued standards for Plant,
Technology, and Safety Management that hospitals and other healthcare
organizations must meet in order to receive and maintain
accreditation.  These standards require healthcare organizations to
develop an emergency preparedness program designed to manage the
consequences of natural disasters or other emergency situations that
might disrupt an organization's ability to provide health care and

   The JCAHO standards require healthcare organizations to demonstrate
semiannually how they would implement their emergency preparedness
program -- either in response to an actual incident or through a
planned drill.  Communities may want to consider coordinating their
hazardous materials exercises with local hospital drills.

   With the increased awareness of chemicals in the environment
supported by recent legislation, numerous quality training programs
and computer software applications for data storage and emergency
response modeling are readily available.  While all these resources
will not be discussed in detail in this handbook, be aware that
additional resources are available which may enhance a comprehensive
exercise program.




      -  Association of American Railroads
         Bureau of Explosives
         50 F St. N.W.
         Washington, D.C.  20001

      -  Chemical Manufacturers Association
         2501 M St. N.W.
         Washington, D.C.  20037

      -  Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
         875 North Michigan Avenue
         Chicago, Il 60611

   To contact Federal Agency and Private Sector sources of exercise
assistance, utilize the FEMA-DOT Hazardous Materials Information
Exchange (HMIX) at (708) 972-3275 or 1-800-874-2884.  The HMIX
computer bulletin board contains an up-to-date list of names,
addresses, and telephone numbers as well as other resources to tap
prior to an exercise.  The HMIX is one of the best ways to stay
abreast of available exercise resources.





  AAR         Association of American Railroads
  API         American Petroleum Institute
  ARCHIE      Automated Resource for Chemical Hazard Incident
  ATSDR       Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
  AWO         American Waterway Operators

  CADET       Computer Aided Design for Exercise Training
  CAER        Community Awareness and Emergency Response
  CAMEO       Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations
  CCA         Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement
  CEPP        Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention
  CERCLA      Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
              Liability Act of 1980
  CHEMTREC    Chemical Transportation Emergency Center
  CHIP        Capability and Hazard Identification Program
  CMA         Chemical Manufacturers Association
  CPG 1-8     Civil Preparedness Guide 1-8, 'Guide for Development of
              State and Local Emergency Operations Plans," Federal
              Emergency Management Agency, October 1985

  DOC         Department of Commerce
  DOD         Department of Defense
  DHHS        Department of Health and Human Services
  DOT         Department of Transportation

  EBS         Emergency Broadcast System
  EMS         Emergency Medical Service
  EOC         Emergency Operating Center
  EOP         Emergency Operations Plan
  EOS         Emergency Operations Simulation
  EPA         Environmental Protection Agency
  ERT         Environmental Response Team
  ETA         Estimated Time of Arrival
  ETO         Exercise Training Officer

  FE          Functional Exercise
  FEMA        Federal Emergency Management Agency
  FSE         Full-Scale Exercise

  HAZMAT      Hazardous Materials
  HM-EEM      Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation Methodology
  HMIS        Hazardous Materials Information System
  HMIX        Hazardous Materials Information Exchange

  ICS         Incident Command System
  IEMIS       Integrated Emergency Management Information System
  IEMS        Integrated Emergency Management System

  JCAHO       Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare
  JIC         Joint Information Center



                     ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS (Cont'd.)

  LEPC        Local Emergency Planning Committee

  MSDS        Material Safety Data Sheet

  NACD        National Association of Chemical Distributors
  NCP         National Contingency Plan
  NH          Natural Hazard
  NOAA        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  NRC         National Response Center
  NRT         National Response Team
  NRT-1       "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide," March
              1987, National Response Team
  NRT-1A      "Criteria for Review of Hazardous Materials Emergency
              Plans," May 1988, National Response Team
  NS          National Security
  NTTC        National Tank Truck Carriers

  OSC         On-Scene Coordinator
  OSHA        Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  PIO         Public Information Officer
  PPE         Personal Protective Equipment

  REP         Radiological Emergency Preparedness
  RRT         Regional Response Team
  RSPA        Research and Special Programs Administration (DOT)

  SARA        Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
  SERC        State Emergency Response Commission
  SLE         State and Local Exercise Annex
  SOP         Standard Operating Procedure
  STCC        Standard Transportation Commodity Classification

  TAT         Technical Assistance Team
  TH          Technological Hazard
  TT          Tabletop Exercise
  TRANSCAER   Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency
  USCG        U.S. Coast Guard




Argonne National Laboratory.  Exercise Summary Report.  "Joint
Response '87: Evaluation of the April 25, 1987, Hazardous Materials
Exercise at the Feed Materials Processing Center, Fernald, Ohio," June

Association of American Railroads/Chemical Manufacturers Association. 
"Moving HAZMAT Safely: A Partnership That Works," July 1988.

Baumgardner, Eileen and Simons, Edward; "Incorporating Multiple Hazard
Impacts Into an Exercise," Presented at the Hazardous Materials Spill
Conference, May 1988.

Bledsoe, Clark; "Multidisciplinary Considerations in Exercise Design,"
Presented at the Hazardous Materials Spills Conference, May 1988.

Chemical Manufacturers Association.  "Community Emergency Response
Exercise Program," 1986.

Federal Emergency Management Agency.  Video Teleconference, "Liability
and Risk Management: Emergency Management Issues," March 1987.

Federal Emergency Management Agency.  Civil Preparedness Guide 1-3,
"CCA General Program Guidelines;  Chapter 13, State and Local Exercise
Requirements," June 1987. (Supersedes CPC 84-2, "A Conceptual
Approach to State and Local Exercises," April 17, 1984.)

Federal Emergency Agency, "Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation
Methodology and Manual," Interim Use, October 1989.

Federal Emergency Management Agency.  "The Federal Radiological
Emergency Response Plan Field Exercise - FFE-2 Evaluation Report,
Volume 1. Exercise Planning," April 6, 1988 (2nd Draft)

Federal Emergency Management Agency, et al.  Video Tele-conference,
"Emergency Exercises - Getting Involved in Community Preparedness,"
December 1986.

National Response Team.  NRT-1, "Hazardous Materials Emergency
Planning Guide," March 1987.

U. S. Department of Labor.  "Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) Form 174: Material Safety Data Sheet - OMB No.
1218-0072, September 1985.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Preparedness and Prevention
Technical Assistance Bulletin #1, "Simulation Exercises in Chemical
Emergency Preparedness Programs."

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Preparedness and Prevention
Technical Assistance Bulletin #2, "A Guide to Planning a Table-Top

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Preparedness and Prevention
Technical Assistance Bulletin #3, "A Guide to Planning and Conducting
Field Simulation Exercises."

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region VII Office.  "The Day
Before. .   1987.



                              APPENDICES A-G


                                APPENDIX A

                      EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (HM-EEM)
                           AND MANUAL OBJECTIVES

                 Demonstrate the ability to understand, use, and
                 monitor emergency condition levels through the
                 appropriate implementation of emergency functions and
                 activities corresponding to emergency condition
                 levels.  The three standard levels are potential
                 emergency condition, limited emergency condition, and
                 full emergency condition.

                 Demonstrate the ability to fully alert, mobilize, and
                 activate personnel for emergency response and
                 maintain operations over a 24 -hour period.

                 Demonstrate the ability to direct, coordinate, and
                 control emergency activities.

                 Demonstrate the ability to identify the need for and
                 request emergency assistance from Federal and other
                 support agencies.

                 Demonstrate the ability to effectively communicate
                 with all appropriate emergency response locations,
                 organizations, and personnel.

                 Demonstrate the adequacy of facilities, equipment,
                 displays, and other materials to support emergency

                 Demonstrate the ability to alert the public of a
                 hazardous materials emergency and begin dissemination
                 of instructional messages in a timely manner.

                 Demonstrate the capability of coordinating and
                 disseminating accurate information regarding a
                 hazardous materials incident to the media and the
                 public in a timely a manner.

                 Demonstrate the ability to make and implement
                 appropriate protective action decisions based upon
                 projected risk to the public.

                 Demonstrate the ability to monitor and control
                 emergency worker contamination, and the adequacy of
                 procedures for waste disposal and equipment and
                 vehicle decontamination.



                                APPENDIX A

                      EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (HM-EEM)
                      AND MANUAL OBJECTIVES (Cont'd.)

                 Demonstrate the organizational ability and resources
                 necessary to control evacuation traffic flow and to
                 control access to evacuated and sheltered areas.

                 Demonstrate the ability to monitor and control
                 hazardous materials contamination of the public
                 through an appropriate registration, contamination
                 screening, and decontamination process.

                 Demonstrate the adequacy of procedures, facilities,
                 equipment, and personnel for the congregate care of
                 evacuees.  If appropriate, demonstrate the adequacy
                 of procedures for the registration, contamination
                 screening, and decontamination of evacuees.

                 Demonstrate the adequacy of personnel, procedures,
                 equipment, and vehicles for transporting contaminated
                 and/or injured individuals, and the adequacy of
                 medical personnel and facilities to support the

                 Demonstrate the ability to determine and implement
                 appropriate measures for controlled reentry and

   Source:         Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

   Special Note:   For copies of the HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EXERCISE
                   EVALUATION METHODOLOGY (HM-EEM) and MANUAL, contact
                   your FEMA Regional Office.



                                APPENDIX B

                              FEMA FORM 95-16
                               EXERCISE DATA

Click HERE for graphic.


                                APPENDIX B
                              FEMA FORM 95-16
                          EXERCISE DATA (Cont'd.)




                                APPENDIX C

   XYZ Chemicals, Inc., produces a small line of acids for sale in the
manufacturing and trade markets.  XYZ stores and handles a variety of
chemicals on-site for use in its own processes; in addition, XYZ
products are often stored on plant grounds pending shipment to

   XYZ's Lake City plant is located in a neighborhood characterized by
a mix of industrial and residential land uses.  Local industrial
facilities include two large steel plants, an oil refinery and
numerous specialty chemical plants.  The XYZ facility itself is
bounded on the north by a spur of the Union Railroad; on the south by
the Grand River; on the west by Elm Street and a rail line; and on the
east by First Street.  Beyond the river on the south is an interstate
highway that is heavily traveled.  Within two miles north of the plant
are seven schools and a hospital.  Just north of the plant, across the
Union tracks, is a residential neighborhood; additional residential
zones of Lake City and Middletown lie one and one-half miles to the
south and southwest, and three miles to the southeast.

   Returning from their 12 P.M. break, two XYZ workers resume the task
of transferring anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) from a pressurized
rail car to a 15,000 gallon outdoor storage tank.  They had allowed
the transferring pump to operate unattended and found upon returning
that the failure of an automatic shutoff valve resulted in a spill of
approximately 1,000 gallons.  The liquid AHF has begun to pool, giving
rise to vapor.  Inhaling these vapors, both workers suffer severe
respiratory injury.  Although one worker collapses immediately, the
other succeeds in activating the plant safety alarm, thereby alerting
the shift supervisor that an emergency has occurred at the transfer

   The supervisor drives to investigate the accident.  Smelling the
strong presence of HF vapors in the air, the supervisor stops his
vehicle 200 feet from the accident site and radios the plant gate to
notify the Lake City emergency response authorities by calling 911. 
In the presence of suiting up with protective equipment, the
supervisor himself collapses.


                  **EVENT 1: Plant Supervisor Calls 911**


   From: Plant employee
   To:   911

      "This is a drill.  There has been a chemical spill at the XYZ
      plant on Elm Street."

   Note: No information is provided on identity of chemicals involved.



                           APPENDIX C (Cont'd.)

             **EVENT 1: Plant Supervisor Calls 911 (Cont'd.)**

Expected Actions:

   -  911 makes necessary notifications, including 1
      - Police Department
      - Fire Department
      - Emergency Medical Services

   -  Other notifications made, including:
      - State Department of Environmental Management - State Police
      - Plainville Fire Department (to activate mutual aid)
      - Middletown Hazmat Squad
      - National Response Center

   **EVENT 2:  Flow of Chemical Continuing At A Rapid Rate.  Plant
               Personnel Evacuate.  Six Workers Suffering Eye And
               Respiratory Irritation.  Condition Of Shift Supervisor
               And Two Workers Unknown.  Also Unknown Whether All
               Other Personnel Are Safely Out of Plant.**

Expected Actions:

   -  First Responders (whether Fire, Police, or Emergency Medical
      Services (EMS)) - Situation assessment:
      -  Confer with plant personnel to determine identity of
      -  Count the number of evacuated personnel


From: Plant employee
To:   First responders

      "The chemical leaking from tank is Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid
      (AHF); judging from the rate of vapor formation, it is a rapid
1 Underlining identifies most important response activities.



                           APPENDIX C (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 2:  Flow of Chemical Continuing At A Rapid Rate.  Plant
               Personnel Evacuate.  Six Workers Suffering Eye And
               Respiratory Irritation.  Condition Of Shift Supervisor
               And Two Workers Unknown.  Also Unknown Whether All
               Other Personnel Are Safely Out of Plant.**

   From: Plant employee
   To:   First responders

      "Plant personnel have evacuated.  Six evacuated workers have
      suffered injury.  Shift supervisor and two employees are known
      missing.  Not known whether all other workers have been safely

      -  Police Department (when they arrive):
         -  Close off access to plant

      -  EMS (when they arrive):
         -  Establish treatment zone in a safe area
         -  Begin examining/treating injured workers
         -  Radio for backup units
         - Notify City Hospital to expect injured

      - Fire Department (when they arrive):
         -  Establish command post in a safe area
         -  Delineate "restricted areas', staging area,
            decontamination zone
         -  Determine personnel and equipment needs
         -  Call for additional resources, as needed
         -  Squad 1 personnel (and possibly Middletown Hazmat team)
            suit up in protective clothing to investigate leak and
         -  Squad 1 approaches accident site from upwind position
         -  Spokesman issues initial press statement

      **EVENT 3:   Wind Observed Blowing Out Of South/Southwest at 5


From: Exercise Director
To:   Fire Department Incident Commander

             "Winds blowing out of south/southwest at 5 MPH."



                           APPENDIX C (Cont'd.)

      **EVENT 3:   Wind Observed Blowing Out Of South/Southwest at 5

Expected Actions:

   -  Begin consideration of evacuation option

   -  Evacuation notices begin:
      -  School bus company (to dispatch 3 buses)
      -  Red Cross, Salvation Army
      -  Lake City Civil Defense

   **EVENT 4:  Three Additional Injured Plant Workers Discovered In
               Plant Powerhouse**


   From: Exercise Director
   To:   Fire Department Incident Commander

    "Three more injured workers have called in from plant powerhouse."

Expected Actions:

   -  Fire Department/Middletown Hazmat personnel (with protective
      gear) dispatched to powerhouse to evacuate additional injured

   -  Shift supervisor, two other initial injured employees evacuated
      by Squad 1 personnel to decontamination zone

   -  Initial injured are decontaminated (as necessary)

   -  Initial injured are taken to EMS treatment zone

   -  EMS begins triage/hospital evacuation procedures on initial



                           APPENDIX C (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 5:  As A Result Of Valve Closure, The Flow Of AHF Has
               Stopped; Vapor Formation Stops**



Expected Actions:

   -  Fire Department crew notifies Fire Department Incident Commander
      that leak has been stopped

   -  Fire Department begins vapor suppression, pool containment

   -  Fire Department personnel evacuate additional injured from
      powerhouse to decontamination zone

   -  Squad 1 members, additional injured decontaminated (as

   -  Additional injured taken to EMS treatment area

   -  EMS begins triage/hospital evacuation procedures

   **EVENT 6:  Response Completed; Incident Over**


From: Exercise Director
To:   Fire Department Incident Commander

                          "The incident is over."



                           APPENDIX C (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 6:  Response Completed; Incident Over (Cont'd)**

Expected Actions:

   -  All response personnel notified

   -  Triage/hospital evacuation completed

   -  Access to plant reopened

   -  Clean-up contractor(s) notified

   -  Press is briefed by press spokesman, plant spokesman



                                APPENDIX D


   The PQX Chemical Co. plant, located on Lee Highway, manufactures a
variety of corrosive, toxic, and flammable chemicals.  Many of these
chemicals are stored at the plant pending shipment to customers.  The
plant occupies 50 acres of land and is situated in an area composed of
commercial, industrial, and residential buildings.  The plant property
is bounded on the north by Lee Highway, on the east by a rail line, on
the south by Interstate 20 and on the west by the Black River.  Beyond
the river to the west in the Black River Estates housing development. 
South of Interstate 20 is the Clover Hill housing development.  On the
north side of Lee Highway lies a mixture of commercial and industrial
buildings.  East of the railroad line, there are a variety of
industrial facilities.  A railroad siding extends into the plant
property to the outside storage area.

   One clear Saturday morning, a day when the plant is not operating,
a repair crew is working on replacing a section of pipe that is
connected to the top of an empty tank.  After disconnection, a crane
is used to lower the pipe onto a flat bed truck.  As the crane boom is
swung over a nearby tank of liquid sulfur trioxide (SO3), the cable
snaps, thus , dropping the pipe.  The falling pipe shears off the SO3
tank's feedline between the tank wall and the first block valve.  The
four-inch diameter feedline leading from the tank to the process plant
begins leaking immediately.  An excess flow valve between the leak and
the tank limits the rate of flow to 30 gallons per minute.

   Spilled liquid from the SO3 tank collects within the containment
dike surrounding the tanks.  Upon contact with the moisture in the
air, the spilled SO3 vaporizes into a white mist resembling steam. 
The wind, coming from the northwest at 5 mph, blows the vapors
directly onto the nearby repair crew that had removed the old piping. 
Three of the four repairmen are affected by the vapors, with two of
them lying unconscious on top of the tank they had been working on. 
The lone conscious repairman drags the remaining workers from the
hazardous area and then runs into the main plant to report the
accident.  Experiencing burning eyes and difficult breathing, he
decides to remain indoors awaiting the arrival of the fire department.

                         SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

   **EVENT #1: The Northeasterly Wind Blows The Vapor Cloud Coming Off
               The Spilled Sulfur Trioxide Towards The Southwest
               Across Plant Property.  Arriving Fire/Rescue Personnel
               Find An Unconscious Person Just Beyond The Diked Area**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will set off a white smoke grenade or other smoke/cloud
generation device to simulate the SO3 vapor cloud.  Large portable
fans may have to be employed to direct the vapors in the desired
direction dictated by the exercise.  An exercise 'victim" should be
lying outside of the diked area by away from the white smoke/cloud. 
Water from a hoseline attached to the feedline of the SO3 tank will
be flowing at a rate of 30 gpm into the diked area to simulate the
leaking SO3.

Written/Verbal Messages:




                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)

                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT #1: The Northeasterly Wind Blows The Vapor Cloud Coming Off
               The Spilled Sulfur Trioxide Towards The Southwest
               Across Plant Property.  Arriving Fire/Rescue Personnel
               Find An Unconscious Person Just Beyond The Diked Area

Expected Actions:

   -  First arriving fire/rescue units report the on-scene situation
      to the emergency communications center and request additional
      fire/rescue and police units (if necessary).

   -  Rescue unconscious person near diked area and provide emergency
      medical treatment following rescue.

   -  Incident commander takes command and establishes:
      - Command post (in safe location)
      - Communications among response agencies at scene
      - Staging area for in-coming apparatus
      - Mechanism for on-going incident assessment

   -  Ensure that emergency personnel wear appropriate protective

   -  Secure area around the incident scene.

   -  Attempt to locate a plant official who can identify the leaking
      material and provide technical expertise concerning the tank,
      feedline, control valves, dike, etc.

   **EVENT #2: The Injured Repairman That Reported The Accident
               Advises Fire/Rescue Personnel Of The Two Unconscious
               Workers On Top Of The Tank Next To The Leaking Tank. 
               The Repairman Tells How The Accident Occurred And Warns
               Of The Hazards Of The Vapors Emanating From The Spilled

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to generate a white cloud to simulate the
vaporizing SO3.  The simulated leak will also be continued.  The
repairman "victim" will be acting as if he is having trouble breathing
and a burning sensation in his eyes.

Verbal Message:

To:   Fire/Rescue Personnel
From: Injured Repairman

"Joe and Charlie are still up on the tank.  I think they've passed
out.  Do you see them?  They were still up there when the pipe fell
from the cable and hit the other tank.  I don't know what that leaking
stuff is, but watch out, it's nasty."



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT #2: The Injured Repairman That Reported The Accident
               Advises Fire/Rescue Personnel Of The Two Unconscious
               Workers On Top Of The Tank Next To The Leaking Tank. 
               The Repairman Tells How The Accident Occurred And Warns
               Of The Hazards Of The Vapors Emanating From The Spilled
               Liquid (Cont'd)**

Expected Actions:
   -  Plan strategy for the rescue of the two unconscious workers on
      top of the tank.

   -  Provide emergency medical treatment for the repairman
      experiencing difficult breathing and burning eyes.

   -  Contact CHEMTREC and/or other technical assistance organizations
      for assistance in identifying the leaking chemical.

   -  Activate the off-site emergency operations center (EOC) and
      notify key officials and agencies of the local government.

   -  Continue efforts to locate a plant official.

   -  Continue efforts to identify the leaking material.

   -  Identify strategies and options for controlling the leak.

   -  Arrange for specified equipment to be brought to the scene:
      -  Encapsulated suits
      -  Self-contained breathing apparatus
      -  Environmental monitors
      -  Patching/plugging materials
      -  Foam
      -  Diking materials
      -  Emergency medical supplies

   -  Notify the following:
      -  Community Emergency Coordinator
      -  National Response Center
      -  State Environmental Protection Agency



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 3:  The Vapor Cloud Is Approaching Interstate 20**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to generate the white cloud but not in
amounts great enough to transport the cloud to the interstate, thus
avoiding obstructing the view of passing motorists not involved in the
exercise.  The purpose of the cloud is for realism at the actual
storage tank area.

Verbal Message:       (via two-way radio)

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Emergency Communications Center

"Motorists on Interstate 20 are reporting "white smoke" just north of
the interstate.  Could that be coming from your location?"

Expected Actions:

   -  Initiate monitoring of vapor cloud and spill.

   -  Confirm vapor cloud movement.

   -  Close Interstate 20 downwind of the vapor cloud.

   -  Consider protective actions for residents south of Interstate

   -  Request mutual aid (if necessary):
      - Fire/rescue
      - Hazardous materials team
      - Emergency medical services
      - Law enforcement

   -  For arriving mutual aid units:
      - Brief them about incident
      - Assign tasks to them
      - Ensure they wear appropriate protective gear
      - Establish inter-organizational communications

   -  Establish communications between the on-scene command post and
      the EOC, and coordinate all response actions.



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 3:  The Vapor Cloud Is Approaching Interstate 20**

   -  Expand efforts to secure the area around the incident scene:
      - Roadblocks
      - Rerouting of traffic
      - Spectator control

   -  Establish a media center and appoint a public information

   **EVENT 4:  Fire/Rescue Personnel Have Located The Two Unconscious
               Workmen On Top Of The Tank Next To The Leaking Tank**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to generate the white cloud and allow the 30
gpm flow of water into the diked area to continue.  The two 'victims"
on top of the tank should lie still to simulate unconsciousness.

Written/Verbal Message:


Expected Actions:

   -  Rescue the two unconscious workers if it is decided that
      adequate protective gear is available at the scene for rescuers.

   -  Provide emergency medical treatment for the two unconscious
      workers following their rescue.

   -  Establish an on-scene triage area for injured workers and
      emergency response personnel.

   **EVENT 5:  The Vapor Cloud Has Moved As Far As Interstate 20 And
               Is Fast Approaching The Clover Hill Housing
               Development.  A Plant Official Arrives On The Scene And
               Advises The Incident Commander That The Leaking Product
               Is Liquid And That The 70-Ton Capacity Tank Was
               Approximately 80 Percent Full Prior To The Accident.**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to generate the white cloud in the area near
the tanks and continue the flow of water into the diked area.



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 5:  The Vapor Cloud Has Moved As Far As Interstate 20 And
               Is Fast Approaching The Clover Hill Housing
               Development.  A Plant Official Arrives On The Scene And
               Advises The Incident Commander That The Leaking Product
               Is Liquid And That The 70-Ton Capacity Tank Was
               Approximately 80 Percent Full Prior To The Accident.

Verbal Messages:

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Emergency Communications Center

"Motorists are now reporting a white mist coming across the interstate
from the northwest.  They advise that it's irritating to their eyes
and throats."

To:   On-Scene Police Department Commander
From: Patrol Unit

"The vapors from your location have reached Interstate 20 and are
heading towards Clover Hill.  Please advise.

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: PQX Chemical Company Official

"The leaking product is SO3 As of close of business yesterday, it
contained approximately 55 tons of SO3."

Expected Actions:

   -  Evacuate Clover Hill and other nearby residences.

   -  Open emergency shelters for evacuees.

   -  Disseminate information to all emergency response personnel and
      agencies involved in the incident that the leaking material has
      been identified as liquid SO3,

   -  Contact CHEMTREC and/or other technical assistance organizations
      - Chemical specific information
      - Associated health hazards
      - Recommended control/cleanup actions

   -  Ensure that protective gear is compatible with SO3 is worn by
      all emergency personnel operating in the vicinity of the leaking
      tank and vapor cloud.

   -  Continue monitoring the vapor cloud for movement and

   -  Identify strategies and options for reducing the quantity of
      vapors emanating from the spilled SO3.

   -  Continue efforts to identify strategies and options for
      controlling the leak.



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT 5:  The Vapor Cloud Has Moved As Far As Interstate 20 And
               Is Fast Approaching The Clover Hill Housing
               Development.  A Plant Official Arrives On The Scene And
               Advises The Incident Commander That The Leaking Product
               Is Liquid And That The 70-Ton Capacity Tank Was
               Approximately 80 Percent Full Prior To The Accident.

   -  Coordinate response efforts between the on-scene incident
      commander, plant officials, and the EOC.

   -  Provide public information concerning:
      - Hazards
      - Evacuation
      - Safety/precautions
      - Details of remedial actions

   **EVENT #6: Despite Vaporization, The Diked Area Is Filling Up
               Rapidly With Spilled Liquid.**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to allow the water to flow from the hoseline
into the diked area at a rate of 30 gallons per minute.  The white
cloud will also continue to be generated to simulate vaporization of

Written Message: (via messenger)

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Simulator

"The diked area contains a considerable amount of SO3 and continues
to fill at a rapid rate."

Expected Actions:

   -  Arrange for the off-loading of the SO3 from the damaged tank to
      other large capacity tanks that are compatible with SO3.

   -  Identify strategies and options for removing the SO3 contained
      within the dikes.



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT #7: Winds Begin To Shift From The Northeast to The
               Southeast. The National Weather Service's Forecast
               Calls For Temperatures And Humidity To Increase As
               Winds Shift.**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will employ the use of large fans (if necessary) to
simulate a wind shift so that the white cloud win blow towards the
west instead of the southwest.  The simulated SO3 spill will be
continued at 30 gpm.

Written Messages: (via messenger)

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: National Weather Service

"We advised that winds will be shifting over the next 10-12 hours to
the southeast at 3 mph.  Temperatures will rise 5-7 degrees, and
humidity will increase as well.'

Verbal Messages: (via two-way radio)

To:   On-Scene Police Department Commander
From: Patrol Unit

"I'm at the roadblock along westbound Interstate 20.  It looks as
though the vapor cloud is heading more towards the west now, in the
direction of Black River Estates."

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Emergency Communications Center

"Citizens are reporting irritating vapors in the Black River Estates
area.  We've received several calls on this."

Expected Actions:

   -  Disseminate information to all emergency response personnel and
      agencies involved in the incident concerning the wind shift and
      weather forecast.

   -  Evacuate the Black River Estates housing development.

   -  Open additional emergency shelters for evacuees.

   -  Expand efforts to secure the area to the west of the plant:
      - Set up roadblocks
      - Reroute traffic
      - Control spectators



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)

                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT #8: An Unconscious Person Has Been Spotted In A Canoe
               Floating Down The Black River Just West Of The Plant. 
               In Addition, Numerous Residents West Of The Plant Have
               Been Injured.**


Simulators will continue their efforts to direct a white cloud towards
the west.  They will also continue to allow water to flow at 30 gpm
into the diked area.  One "victim" will lie in a slumped position in a
canoe in a calm spot on the river.  Several "victims" in the Black
River Estates will act as though they are experiencing difficult
breathing and burning eyes.

Verbal Messages: (via two-way radio)

To:   Emergency Medical Services Commander
From: Emergency Communications Center

We've received a report of an unconscious person in a canoe on the
Black River between the PQX plant and Interstate 20.  The caller saw
the canoe floating from the area affected by the vapor cloud"

To:   Emergency Medical Services Commander
From: Emergency Communications Center

"Police report finding numerous persons in the process of evacuating
Black River Estates who requested emergency medical treatment for
irritated eyes and noses."

Expected Actions:

   -  Provide emergency medical treatment for numerous injured

   -  Rescue the unconscious canoeist.

   -  Evacuate the commercial/industrial area northwest of the plant.

   -  Expand efforts to secure the area to the northwest of the plant:
      - Set up roadblocks
      - Reroute traffic
      - Control spectators

   -  Continue monitoring vapor cloud for movement and concentration.

   -  Apply acid-based foam (if available) to the surface of the
      contained SO3 to prevent the release of hazardous vapors.



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT #9: Two Railroad Tankcars Have Been Brought Onto The Siding
               Next To The SO3 Tank.  Off-Loading Operations Of The
               Tank Will Be Difficult Due To The Presence Of Spilled
               Liquid Around The Tank Within The Diked Area**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to allow water to flow into the diked area
and will continue to generate a white cloud and direct it towards the

Verbal Messages:

To:   Plant Official
From: Railroad Engineer

"How should I position the two empty tankcars for off-loading

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Senior Fire Department Officer

"We're going to have a difficult time gaining access to the unloading
outlet on the tank with all this liquid SO3 around the base of the
tank.  It would be unsafe to have anyone walk through the liquid, even
if they're wearing Level A protective gear.

Expected Actions:

   -  Identify strategies and options for gaining access to the
      unloading outlet on the SO3 tank without endangering the lives
      of the personnel assigned the task.

   -  Off-load the SO3 from the tank to the railroad tank cars.

   -  Continue monitoring the vapor cloud for movement and

   **EVENT #10:    The Product has Been Completely Off-Loaded From The
                   Tank To The Railcars, Thus Ending The Leak.  Vapors
                   However, Continue To Be Given Off From The Spilled
                   Liquid Within The Dikes.**

Simulation Message:

Simulators will continue to generate a white cloud and direct it
towards the west until actions are taken to prevent the vaporization
of product and/or pump the product to tanks.



                           APPENDIX D (Cont'd.)
                    SAMPLE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS (Cont'd.)

   **EVENT #10:    The Product has Been Completely Off-Loaded From The
                   Tank To The Railcars, Thus Ending The Leak.  Vapors
                   However, Continue To Be Given Off From The Spilled
                   Liquid Within The Dikes.**

Verbal Messages:

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Senior Fire Department Officer

"We just finished off-loading the SO3 to the tankcars.  The leak has

To:   On-Scene Incident Commander
From: Senior Fire Department Officer

"The contained liquid is still vaporizing."

Expected Actions:
   -  Disseminate information to all emergency responders and agencies
      involved in the incident that the leak has been stopped but that
      hazardous vapors continue to be generated from the spilled

   -  Continue monitoring the vapor cloud for movement and

   -  Apply acid-based foam (if available) to the surface of the
      contained SO3 to prevent the release of hazardous vapors (if
      not already done).

   -  Pump liquid SO3 from the containment dikes into rail tank cars
      or other compatible tanks.

   -  Consider post-incident operations, following the complete
      elimination of hazards, including:
      - Cleanup
      - Decontamination of personnel, equipment, apparatus, and
      - Removal and disposal of hazardous wastes
      - Re-entry of evacuees to residential areas
      - Opening of roads and the evacuated commercial/industrial area
      - Continued air monitoring




                                APPENDIX E


Fire, Departments:                Local Emergency Response Contractors:
   Local                             Mitigation
   Industrial                        Removal
                                     Heavy equipment
   Ambulance                      Federal Agencies:
   Rescue squads                     U.S. Coast Guard
   Toxicologists                     National Oceanic and Atmospheric
   Doctors                            Administration
   Poison control center             Department of Transportation
   Hospital                          Army Corps of Engineers
   Red Cross                         National Guard
                                     Environmental Protection Agency
Police Departments:                  U.S. Geologic Survey
   Local                             Fish and Wildlife Service
   County                            FEMA
   Highway Patrol                 Local Hazardous Materials Carriers:
   Sheriff                           Truck
   Industrial security               Rail
Civil Defense/Disaster Services:
   Local                          Chemical Experts:
   State                             Industry
   Federal Emergency Management      University
    Agency (FEMA)                    CHEMTREC
Health Departments:                  National Weather Service
   Local                             Television
   State                             Airport
   Federal Centers for
    Disease Control (CDC)         Communications:
Public Works/Utilities:              Television
   Sewage treatment

Environmental Scientists:
   Private Universities




                                APPENDIX F

                        FIELD EXERCISE SIMULATIONS

Key Threshold Actions:

   - Has the site of the simulated incident been identified?

   -  Is there a local contingency plan or standard operating
      procedures in effect?

   -  Have planning issues or response needs been identified?  If so,
      what are they?

   -  What type of simulation do you want to undertake?

   -  Who will participate in the exercise?

   -  How will the exercise be documented?

   -  Has the scenario description been developed?

   -  Have the sequence of events and control materials been

   -  What equipment is required for the exercise? (See "The Day
      Before" for exercise planning guide, EPA Region VII.)



                                APPENDIX G


Props:                               Personal Protective Equipment:
   Drums                                Respirators
   Tanks                                   Pressure demand SCBA
   Boxes                                   Air-purifying respirators
   Vehicles                             Chemical protective clothing
   Moulage                                 Splash suits
   Water                                   Fully-encapsulating suits
   Simulated hazardous materials           Gloves
   Smoke                                   Boots
   Pyrotechnic supplies                    Disposables
   Other                                   Hardhats
                                           Eye protection
Firefighting/Suppression:                  Face shields
   Trucks/apparatus                     Duct tape
   Tools/equipment                      Other
   Foam and equipment
   Fire extinguishers                Monitoring Instruments:
   Other                                Combustible gas indicators
                                        Oxygen meters
Rescue and First Aid:                   Detector tubes
   Vehicles                             Organic survey meters
   Stretchers                           Radiation survey meters
   First aid/trauma kits                Passive dosimeters
   Oxygen                               Specific survey instruments
   Other                                Litmus paper, pH paper
Containment Devices:
   Booms                             Sampling Equipment:
   Patches, plugs                       Sampling devices
   Sand bags                            Containers
   Pneumatic bags                       Labels
   Plastic sheets/tarps                 Packaging
   Neutralizers                         Other
   Shovels                           Communications Equipment:
   Other                                Radios/"walkie-talkies"



                                APPENDIX G

                 FIELD SIMULATION EQUIPMENT LIST* (Cont'd)

Contamination Reduction Equipment:      Heavy Equipment:
   Buckets, tubs, containers               Backhoes
   Plastic                                 Dump trucks
   Brushes                                 Vacuum trucks
   Water                                   Offload tankers
   Detergent                               Cranes
   Sprayers                                Bulldozers
   Other                                   Other

References:                             Miscellaneous:
   EPA Extremely Hazardous                 Meteorological equipment
    Chemicals Profiles                     Clipboards
   Department of Transportation            Binoculars
    Emergency Response Guidebook           Salvage drums
                                           Barriers for site control
Documentation Equipment:                   Tools
   Video cameras                           Other
   Still cameras
   Tape recorders
   Note pads

   *  This list is adapted from "The Day Before. . .", a simulation
      exercise planning guide developed by the EPA Region VII
      Technical Assistance Team (see Appendix F).



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