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U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century
Hart-Rudman Commission

The U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century was initiated out of a conviction that the entire range of U.S. national security policies and processes required examination in light of new circumstances that lie ahead.


Phase I (July 1998 - August 1999)

The Phase I Report is dedicated to understanding how the world will likely evolve over the next 25 years.  It describes global trends in scientific, technological, economic, socio-political and military security domains and the interplay of these developments on U.S. national security.

Phase II (August 2000- April 2000)

The Phase II Report devised a U.S. national security strategy to deal with the world in 2025. The purpose of the Phase II Report is to define an American strategy based on U.S. interests and key objectives. It develops a strategy for America to reap the benefits of a more integrated world to expand freedom, security, and prosperity and to dampen the forces of instability.

Phase III (April 2000 - February 2001)

The Phase III Report recommends significant and comprehensive institutional and procedural changes throughout the Executive and Legislative Branches in order to meet the challenges of 2025.

Hart-Rudman Commission Release Phase III Addendum

  • Structure and Processes Addendum

    The United States Commission on National Security/21st Century, also know as the Hart-Rudman Commission, was chartered to review in a comprehensive way U.S. national security requirements for the next century. It began in Phase I by describing the future security environment this nation should anticipate, and in Phase II it delineated a strategy to address that future—to cope with the challenges and seize the opportunities that will constantly confront this great nation. Phase III was focused on changes to the national security apparatus, its structures and process, with an aim toward redesigning it as necessary to succeed in the security environment that lies ahead.

    The Commission anticipated that it could not make credible recommendations to improve the national security apparatus without first understanding how that apparatus functioned. This document, Road Map for National Security: Addendum on Structure and Process Analyses, provides a thorough description of this country's national security organizations and processes as they existed in mid-2000.

    Before institutional redesigns could occur, or before road maps could be constructed to get the national security apparatus headed in the appropriate direction, the Commission needed to understand how the government was structured and how it went about the business of national security. The seven volumes contained in the Addendum analyze key organizations and processes throughout the Federal government, to include the interagency and inter-branch levels. This Addendum provided a "baseline" of the national security apparatus, and was completed in draft form by the summer of 2000 as the Commission's main Phase III effort began in earnest. It thus laid much of the groundwork for Phase III. The first volume was updated and reedited in February and March 2001. The other volumes remain as originally written.To our knowledge no product has been previously produced that describes the national security structures and processes of the U.S. government in such detail. It should be useful to researchers and professionals seeking a detailed analysis of the national security system.

  • Defense Reform Addendum

    The National Security Study Group (NSSG) prepared this Addendum at the original direction of the Commission. Because the Department of Defense (DOD) plays a crucial role in national security, the Commission and Study Group considered it important to expand on a number of defense reform recommendations in the Phase III report, Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. Of concern were those DOD structural, process, and military capability reforms in Section III, D, of the main report. The Commission believed that additional explanation and analysis would prove useful to those charged with reforming the Department. However, we deliberately excluded other defense reform topics and recommendations. The Phase III report contains sufficient details about DOD support to Homeland Security (Section I) and on military personnel reforms (Section IV). In addition, the Commission has developed detailed implementation plans for those sections of the report (See below).

    Moreover, this Addendum informs a different audience, and contains a greater level of detail than the main report. Many senior executives would probably not concern themselves with such a "nuts and bolts" discussion, but the complexity of defense reform demands further elaboration. Thus, this Addendum should also assist interested parties in further understanding the Commission's recommendations.

    Stemming from the last distinction—the intended audience—this Addendum offers more in-depth guidance to accountable authorities. The level of detail varies by topic. Part of the Commission's chartered Phase III responsibility is to provide "an institutional roadmap" for implementation, "when appropriate." In that spirit, the NSSG created this Addendum.

  • Education Addendum

    The NSSG staff prepared this document at the direction of the Commission. Education, particularly science and mathematics education, is crucial to national security and to our nation's future. The Commission and Study Group considered it important to provide a cost estimate of the education reform recommendations in the Phase III report, Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change.

    A clear view of the current and near future state of the nation's educational system is critical. Although a significant amount of information is available on the public and private school systems, the material is dispersed throughout many sources. Worse, it is not always suitable for the "operational" analyses required to target and solve the many problems faced by the nation's educational system. For this reason many indirect estimates and assumptions were necessary in the preparation of this Addendum. This report makes a strong effort to be very explicit and transparent in all its assumptions. The estimates are intended to be approximate.

    Statistics indicate that significant hurdles will have to be overcome to address future education requirements. Key among these is the tremendous increase in teacher retirements that are projected by 2010. The second major problem faced by the education system is the insufficient number of students opting to enter science and technology fields, particularly in the pursuit of graduate education. A shortage of personnel with technical skills already exists today in government, in the military, and in industries critical to national security. In the absence of public policy remedies, this shortage is likely to grow worse.

    The preparation of this report revealed several worrisome problems and deficiencies concerning U.S. Department of Education statistics.

  • Implementation Plans

    The Charter of the United States Commission on National Security/21st Century (USCNS/21) also calls for the submission of an implementation "roadmap" to complete improvements in the National Security apparatus. Accordingly, a companion document, Road Map for National Security: Addendum on Implementation, provides those plans with respect to implementing the Commission's recommendations on Homeland Security, the National Security Council, the Department of State, and Personnel Reform.

    These plans demonstrate actions the Executive Branch and the Congress can take to implement the Commission's recommendations. They identify where responsibilities lie, suggest timelines and sequencing for implementation, and discuss the coordination and consultation that must occur between the Executive and Legislative Branches to bring the Commission's recommendation into being. In addition, the plans address the impact of the recommendations on affected agencies' personnel levels, where applicable, and identify issues that, unless addressed, are likely to impede implementation.

    The implementation plans within the companion Addendum identify whether legislation, Executive Orders, or internal departmental actions are required to bring USCNS/21 recommendations into being. Where legislation or Executive Orders are required, the plans identify their key elements and provide draft language.

    The Commission calls for bold and significant change in many areas, and it realizes that implementing change is difficult and can take time. It is impossible to specify in full detail in advance exactly how to bring about positive change in large organizations that deal with complex issues. Nevertheless, a start must be made, and this Addendum is instrumental to that purpose.