Evolution of Cold War Security Institutions

Key Post Cold War NATO Decisions

Western Europe and NATO             Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO)
     Dunkirk Defense Treaty--UK & France 
     Brussels Treaty--UK, France, Benelux 
     NATO created with 12 members1 
     Greece & Turkey join NATO 
     Western European Union (WEU) created, incl. Belgium, 
     France, FRG, Luxembourg, Italy, Netherlands, UK 
     Federal Republic of Germany joins NATO      WTO created with 8 members2 
                                                 Albania withdraws from WTO 

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) Established 
                        (35 original states, West and East) 
     Spain joins NATO 

     German unification, expanding NATO          GDR withdraws from WTO 
     and WEU area 
     Portugal and Spain join WEU 

                   Evolution of Post-Cold War Security Institutions 
     NATO creates North Atlantic Cooperation    WTO dissolves 
     Council (NACC), inviting Central & East 
     European and New Independent States 
     of the former USSR to join. 
     Greece joins WEU subject to ratification; Iceland, Norway, and Turkey
     become associate members of WEU; Denmark and Ireland become
     observers in WEU. 
     WEU creates Forum of Consultation, inviting most Cent.& E. European
     NATO announces Partnership for Peace program, inviting NACC and other CSCE states to
     participate. WEU offers associate partnership to nearly all Cent.& E. European states, including
     Baltic states but excluding Albania and other states of former Soviet Union. 

1. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, United States. 2. Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Dem. Rep., Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR.