Evolution of Cold War Security Institutions
Key Post Cold War NATO Decisions
Western Europe and NATO Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO)
Dunkirk Defense Treaty--UK & France
Brussels Treaty--UK, France, Benelux
NATO created with 12 members1
Greece & Turkey join NATO
Western European Union (WEU) created, incl. Belgium,
France, FRG, Luxembourg, Italy, Netherlands, UK
Federal Republic of Germany joins NATO WTO created with 8 members2
Albania withdraws from WTO
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) Established
(35 original states, West and East)
Spain joins NATO
German unification, expanding NATO GDR withdraws from WTO
and WEU area
Portugal and Spain join WEU
Evolution of Post-Cold War Security Institutions
NATO creates North Atlantic Cooperation WTO dissolves
Council (NACC), inviting Central & East
European and New Independent States
of the former USSR to join.
Greece joins WEU subject to ratification; Iceland, Norway, and Turkey
become associate members of WEU; Denmark and Ireland become
observers in WEU.
WEU creates Forum of Consultation, inviting most Cent.& E. European
NATO announces Partnership for Peace program, inviting NACC and other CSCE states to
participate. WEU offers associate partnership to nearly all Cent.& E. European states, including
Baltic states but excluding Albania and other states of former Soviet Union.
1. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, United Kingdom, United States.
2. Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Dem. Rep., Hungary, Poland, Romania, USSR.